Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Escherichia coli K12: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Steatorrhea: A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
... there is also environmental regulation of AK-HSD gene expression. Light exposure has been demonstrated to increase expression ... Wedler FC & Ley BW (March 1993). "Kinetic and Regulatory Mechanisms for Escherichia coli Homoserine Dehydrogenase-I: ... Each subdomain contains an ACT domain that allows for complex regulation of several different protein functions. The AK-HSD ... Azevedo RA (2002). "Analysis of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway using mutant genes". Amino Acids. 22 (3): 217-230. doi: ...
... regulation of genetic expression or transcription termination. Translation of protein in prokaryotes is initiated by binding of ... and tRNAAsp from Escherichia coli. Universal presence of nucleoside O in the first position of the anticodons of these transfer ... Proteins downstream of the preQ1 riboswitch biosynthesize a nucleobase called queuine and a nucleoside queuosine are inhibited ... The PreQ1-I riboswitch is a cis-acting element identified in bacteria which regulates expression of genes involved in ...
"malF - Maltose transport system permease protein MalF - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - malF gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ... power of transcription factors resides in their ability to activate and/or repress wide repertoires of downstream target genes ... Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences in order to regulate the expression of a given gene. The ... Sigma factors are specialized bacterial proteins that bind to RNA polymerases and orchestrate transcription initiation. Sigma ...
It is an example of repressible negative regulation of gene expression. Within the operon's regulatory sequence, the operator ... The trp operon is present in many bacteria, but was first characterized in Escherichia coli. The operon is regulated so that ... allowing gene transcription, while in the trp operon, tryptophan binds to the repressor protein effectively blocking gene ... 394-402 Yanofsky, C (1981). "Attenuation in the control of expression of bacterial operons". Nature. 289: 751-758. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Toxicity of the bacteriophage λ cII gene product to Escherichia coli arises from inhibition of host cell DNA replication". ... Activation of promoter pRE enables expression of the repressor protein cI, which shuts off all lytic genes. pRE activation is ... Chung, S.; Echols, H. (1977). "Positive Regulation of Integrative Recombination by the cII and cIII Genes of Bacteriophage λ". ... Finally, if a bacterial cell is infected by multiple bacteriophages, the level of cII increases due to additional contributions ...
... transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 integrated within genetic sensory response units (Gensor Units)". Nucleic ... gene an amidase coding gene was found. In Bartonella species the αr45 upstream gene was always found to code for a protein ... The expression of Smr45C in S. meliloti 1021 was assessed under different biological conditions; i.e. bacterial growth in TY, ... radiobacter exhibited a great degree of conservation including the upstream and downstream genes which have been predicted to ...
... transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 integrated within genetic sensory response units (Gensor Units)". Nucleic ... and Mesorhizobium loti where no transmembrane coding gene was recognizable downstream of the sRNA gene. A special case is the ... Parallel studies assessed Smr9C expression in S. meliloti 1021 under different biological conditions; i.e. bacterial growth in ... Recent co-inmuno precipitation experiments corroborate that Smr9C, does bind the bacterial protein Hfq for efficient target ...
... transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 integrated within genetic sensory response units (Gensor Units)". Nucleic ... They exhibited a great degree of conservation in the up and downstream genes, which have been predicted to code for a LysR ... where the flanking genes corresponded to ABC transporter proteins, excisonase or transposase among others. The αr15CI2 loci in ... αr15 is a family of bacterial small non-coding RNAs with representatives in a broad group of α-proteobacteria from the order ...
Control of an operon is a type of gene regulation that enables organisms to regulate the expression of various genes depending ... The lac operon of the model bacterium Escherichia coli was the first operon to be discovered and provides a typical example of ... but sometimes more control over the gene expression is needed. To achieve this aspect, some bacterial genes are located near ... regulons contain a set of genes under regulation by a single regulatory protein, and stimulons contain a set of genes under ...
Serganov, A; Patel, DJ (Oct 2007). "Ribozymes, riboswitches and beyond: regulation of gene expression without proteins". Nature ... "Design of simple synthetic RNA thermometers for temperature-controlled gene expression in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids ... Narberhaus F (2010). "Translational control of bacterial heat shock and virulence genes by temperature-sensing mRNAs". RNA Biol ... The start codon, typically found 8 nucleotides downstream of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, signals the beginning of a protein- ...
Franklund CV, Kadner RJ (June 1997). "Multiple transcribed elements control expression of the Escherichia coli btuB gene". J. ... "A conserved RNA structure element involved in the regulation of bacterial riboflavin synthesis genes". Trends Genet. 15 (11): ... A riboswitch in Listeria monocytogenes regulates the expression of its downstream gene. However, riboswitch transcripts ... Riboswitch candidates are also consistently located in the 5' UTRs of protein-coding genes, and these genes are suggestive of ...
"Differential expression and regulation of the glucokinase gene in liver and islets of Langerhans". Proceedings of the National ... Lunin VV, Li Y, Schrag JD, Iannuzzi P, Cygler M, Matte A (October 2004). "Crystal structures of Escherichia coli ATP-dependent ... The ATP binding domain, for example, are shared with hexokinases, bacterial glucokinases, and other proteins, and the common ... Human glucokinase is coded for by the GCK gene on chromosome 7. This single autosomal gene has 10 exons. Genes for glucokinase ...
Given its role of protein regulation in E. coli, the Dam methylase gene is nonessential as a knockout of the gene still leaves ... "Common evolutionary origin of the phage T4 dam and host Escherichia coli dam DNA-adenine methyltransferase genes". Journal of ... Casadesús J, Low D (September 2006). "Epigenetic gene regulation in the bacterial world". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ... In E. coli downstream GATC sequences are methylated, promoting transcription. For example, pyelonephritis-associated pili (PAP ...
... and regulatory genes encoding proteins that affect gene expression. Current usage expands the phenotypic nomenclature to apply ... The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many ... Joung J, Ramm E, Pabo C (2000). "A bacterial two-hybrid selection system for studying protein-DNA and protein-protein ... The protein that is formed by the lacI gene is known as the lac repressor. The type of regulation that the lac operon undergoes ...
CobW-like proteins include P47K, a Pseudomonas chlororaphis protein needed for nitrile hydratase expression, and urease ... c-diamide in Escherichia coli implies a role for CbiD in C-1 methylation in the anaerobic pathway to cobalamin". J. Biol. Chem ... N-774 requirement for its downstream region for efficient expression". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 58 (10): 1859-65. doi: ... Kim W, Major TA, Whitman WB (December 2005). "Role of the precorrin 6-X reductase gene in cobamide biosynthesis in ...
Franklund CV, Kadner RJ (June 1997). "Multiple transcribed elements control expression of the Escherichia coli btuB gene". J. ... by promoting transcription termination this newly identified AdoCbl riboswitch promotes the expression of downstream genes. ... and this results in modulation of gene expression or translation of mRNA to yield a protein. Cobalamin in the form of ... Vitreschak AG, Rodionov DA, Mironov AA, Gelfand MS (2003). "Regulation of the vitamin B12 metabolism and transport in bacteria ...
... elements in gene promoters. Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction by ... in vitro translation and Escherichia coli cloning studies". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77 (12): 7152-6. Bibcode:1980PNAS... ... protein, and vaccinia virus employs using the gene product of its E3L gene, p25. The ability of interferon to induce protein ... IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. ...
... it responds to binding of the tetracycline transactivator protein tTA by increased expression of the gene or genes downstream ... found in Escherichia coli bacteria, with the activation domain of another protein, VP16, found in the Herpes Simplex Virus. The ... "Structural basis of gene regulation by the tetracycline inducible Tet repressor-operator system" (PDF). Nature Structural & ... In the most commonly used plasmids, the tetracycline response element consists of 7 repeats of the 19bp bacterial TetO sequence ...
Willsky; Malamy; Bennett (1973). "Inorganic Phosphate Transport in Escherichia coli: Involvement of Two Genes Which Play a Role ... Some complexities of bacterial regulation and metabolism suggest that other, more subtle, purposes for the enzyme may also play ... has similar characteristics to that found in non-malignant body tissues and that the protein originates from the same gene in ... Thus, altered IAP expression has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as IBD. It also seems to regulate lipid ...
... transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 integrated within genetic sensory response units (Gensor Units)". Nucleic ... Figure 3: Phylogenetic distribution of known and predicted αr7 genes. Gene numbers are based on computational analysis using ... suggesting the induction of this sRNAs during bacterial infection and/or bacteroid differentiation. SmrC7 expression has also ... Rhizobium and Agrobacterium group members exhibited a great degree of conservation with the upstream and downstream genes ...
Asf1 (and its partner Rtt109) has also been implicated in inhibiting gene expression from replicated genes during S-phase. The ... Meselson M, Stahl FW (July 1958). "THE REPLICATION OF DNA IN ESCHERICHIA COLI". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 44 (7): 671-82. ... Regulation of telomerase activity is handled by telomere-binding proteins. Eukaryotic DNA replication is bidirectional; within ... Mrc1/Claspin is also required for the complete activation of ATR-ATRIP that phosphorylates Chk1, the major downstream ...
... elements in gene promoters. Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction ... in vitro translation and Escherichia coli cloning studies". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... protein, and vaccinia virus employs using the gene product of its E3L gene, p25. The ability of interferon to ... Downstream signalingEdit. By interacting with their specific receptors, IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of ...
"Adsorption of bacteriophage lambda on the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12: point mutations in gene J of lambda ... The phage genes expressed in this dormant state code for proteins that repress expression of other phage genes (such as the ... that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli). It was discovered by Esther Lederberg in 1950 when she noticed ... Dodd, J.B. Shearwin; Egan, J.B.; Egan, JB (2005). "Revisited gene regulation in phage lambda". Current Opinion in Genetics & ...
A study on Escherichia coli found that gene deletions spontaneously occur in plasmid regions containing Z-DNA-forming sequences ... thus prolonging expression of the anti-apoptotic genes. He suggests that a small molecule that interferes with the E3L binding ... Z-DNA sequences downstream of promoter regions have been shown to stimulate transcription. The greatest increase in activity is ... ADAR1 A-DNA B-DNA DNA DNA supercoil E3L Mechanical properties of DNA Proteopedia Z-DNA Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) Zuotin ...
... comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling". BMC Genomics. 9: 220. doi:10.1186/1471- ... Colgan, D. F.; Manley, J. L. (1997). "Mechanism and regulation of mRNA polyadenylation". Genes & Development. 11 (21): 2755-66 ... Comparison of Enzymes from Streptomyces and Escherichia coli and Effects of Nucleoside Diphosphates". Journal of Bacteriology. ... Two other proteins add specificity to the binding to an RNA: CstF and CFI. CstF binds to a GU-rich region further downstream of ...
Gene expression in prokaryotes is influenced by an RNA-based system similar in some respects to RNAi. Here, RNA-encoding genes ... Escherichia coli-carrying shRNA Familial adenomatous polyposis I, II Recruiting Marina Biotech Unknown ... In investigating the regulation of muscle protein production, they observed that neither mRNA nor antisense RNA injections had ... "Translational repression is sufficient for gene silencing by bacterial small noncoding RNAs in the absence of mRNA destruction" ...
Escherichia coli Proteins* * Fimbriae, Bacterial * Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial * Genes, Bacterial* * Genes, Regulator ... Promoter and expression analysis revealed that the genes downstream of agfD agfEFG most likely did not contribute to the ... a homologue of yaiC in Escherichia coli. Environmental factors regulating adrA correspond to the regulation of thin aggregative ... transmembrane protein with a C-terminal GGDEF domain of unknown function although it is present in over 50 bacterial proteins. ...
Host-Virus interactions in regulation of gene expression and viral contribution to bacterial pathogenesis. This laboratory uses ... Expression of the early genes of phage l is regulated by the viral encoded N protein. Together with a group of host proteins, ... Phage lambda and other members of the lambdoid family of phages and their Escherichia coli host serve as the model system for ... called Nus, N modifies RNA polymerase through an RNA signal, NUT, rendering the transcription complex resistant to downstream ...
The rpoH genes encoding homologs of Escherichia coli sigma 32 (heat shock sigma factor) were isolated and sequenced from five ... Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial* * Genes, Bacterial* * Gram-Negative Bacteria / genetics* * Heat-Shock Proteins / ... The rpoH genes encoding homologs of Escherichia coli sigma 32 (heat shock sigma factor) were isolated and sequenced from five ... Both the sequence complementary to part of 16S rRNA (the downstream box) and a predicted mRNA secondary structure similar to ...
Regulation of bacterial gene expression by riboswitches. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:487-517. [PubMed] ... Genes Dev. 1995;9:84-96. [PubMed]. 45. Schuck A, Diwa A, Belasco JG. RNase E autoregulates its synthesis in Escherichia coli by ... RNA decay to release an RNA-binding protein; and (c) endonucleolytic cleavage to stabilize downstream mRNA. Variations on these ... Regulation of bacterial gene expression at the post-transcriptional level has emerged as a major control mechanism, although ...
The genes involved in the formation of the AE lesions are contained within a pathogenicity island named the locus of enterocyte ... Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produces attaching and effacing lesions (AE) on epithelial cells. ... Escherichia coli Infections / microbiology* * Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial* * Genes, Bacterial* * Molecular Sequence ... consistent with our hypothesis that Ler activates the expression of LEE2 and LEE3 by binding to a region located downstream of ...
Methionine synthesis in Escherichia coli: effect of the MetR protein on metE and metH expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86 ... Regulation of the Salmonella typhimurium metA gene by the MetR protein and homocysteine. J. Bacteriol. 174:390-397. ... untranslated part of the mRNA at the S-box motif to modulate the expression of the downstream genes (31, 32). In the food ... The bacterial strains used in this study are listed in Table 1. E. coli TG1 was used for plasmid propagation. E. coli was grown ...
Transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes in eukaryotic cells requires a complex interplay of sequence-specific DNA- ... Project From birth to action: regulation of gene expression through transcription complex biogenesis ... and Escherichia coli as model organisms, my team will aim to reveal the global architecture and individual building components ... A novel technology for synergetic in situ investigation of protein complexes in the bacterial cytoplasm by optical imaging, ...
Transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes in eukaryotic cells requires a complex interplay of sequence-specific DNA- ... Project From birth to action: regulation of gene expression through transcription complex biogenesis ... and Escherichia coli as model organisms, my team will aim to reveal the global architecture and individual building components ... Summary Bacterial biofilm formation is a paramount developmental process in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species and in ...
... of mRNAs that regulate expression of downstream genes in response to changing concentrations of the second messenger c-di-GMP. ... Escherichia coli / genetics * Gene Expression Regulation* * Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial * Genes, Reporter* ... of mRNAs that regulate expression of downstream genes in response to changing concentrations of the second messenger c-di-GMP. ... dual-fluorescence reporter was further constructed by fusing the Bc3-5 RNA gene between the two fluorescence protein genes ...
Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that are the major components of intermediate filaments in epithelial cells however, their ... We also reveal the key role of K8 and K18 in HGF-induced signaling which occurs downstream the activation of cMet. Strikingly, ... modulation of actin dynamics at the bacterial entry sites and in the control of surface receptors mRNA stability and expression ... Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that are the major components of intermediate filaments in epithelial cells however, their ...
To investigate more general effects of 3 UTRs in Y. pestis, we selected 15 genes potentially possessing long 3 UTRs with ... To investigate more general effects of 3 UTRs in Y. pestis, we selected 15 genes potentially possessing long 3 UTRs with ... were cloned immediately into the downstream region of the gfp gene and the constructs were transformed into Escherichia coli ... The regulation of gene expression in a precise manner is critical for bacterial adaptation to changing environments. Recently, ...
2005) Regulation of bacterial gene expression by riboswitches. Annu Rev Microbiol 59:487-517. ... Escherichia coli, and Salmonella, Listeria, and Clostridium species.. For Listeria monocytogenes, the genes of the ethanolamine ... Our data suggests that EutV is likely to affect downstream gene expression by interacting with conserved transcription ... The latter most often occurs through protein-DNA or protein-protein interactions (15). However, ≈0.9% of identified eubacterial ...
pCaiF is present in E. coli K12 and regulates the expression of the genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon ... Environmental adaptation requires constant regulation of gene expression. Among transcriptional regulators, AgrA is part of an ... cell-free protein synthesis, synthetic biology, systems biology, Escherichia coli cell extract, biological circuits, ... Once phagocytosed, various bacterial proteins enable Listeria to escape the phagosome, survive within the cytosol, and infect ...
... by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) requires the protein products of 12 genes of the 14-gene bfp operon. Antisera ... Gene expression profiling of 15 unique conditions identified differential regulation of 128 of the 169 PE/PPE genes. Expression ... A surrogate expression system, based on fusions to the phoA bacterial reporter gene, was used to identify Mycobacterium ... coli K12. This locus, located downstream of the potB gene, was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs): bfpTVW- ...
Drosophila Zeste is a DNA binding protein important for chromatin-targeted regulation of gene expression. It is best studied in ... between Escherichia coli Hsp90 and DnaK and found that the two chaperones form a complex that is stabilized by client protein ... The bacterial protein Rho triggers transcription termination at the ends of many operons and when transcription and translation ... In addition to these genome wide activities, Rho implements regulation of specific genes by dictating whether RNA polymerase ...
... monocytogenes proteins PdeB-D.A: Restoration of motility in semi-solid (0.25%) agar of strain MG1655 ΔyhjH by L. monocytogenes ... Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism*. *Cyclic GMP/analogs & derivatives*/metabolism. *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/ ... Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism. *Female. *Mice. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases/metabolism ... Although MG1655 does not encode a T7 RNA polymerase gene, the pde genes were expressed from a fortuitous promoter at ...
EdgarR, DomrachevM, LashAE (2002) Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository. ... Escherichia coli DH5α used for cloning procedures was grown at 37°C in LB broth or on LB agar plates. Kanamycin (20 µg/ml) and ... Equal protein amounts were loaded per well. GroEL2 is used as a control of bacterial integrity in each sample. Signal intensity ... We hypothesize that these genes may be subjected to additional layers of regulation or may respond to yet unexplored ...
1-3 and references therein). In the case of the coupled expression of the RNA phage MS2 coat protein and lysis genes, the ... Translational coupling is where an event-altering translation of one gene also affects translation of the downstream gene ... Translation of infC Decreases L20-Mediated Repression of rpmI Expression.. Regulation of rpmI expression by L20 was studied ... Bacterial Strains, Plasmids, and General Techniques.. The E. coli K12 strains used in this work are: IBPC5311 [thi-1, argE3, Δ ...
The evolution of gene expression regulation has contributed to species differentiation. The 3 untranslated regions (3UTRs) of ... Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Nucleotídeos/ ... mRNAs encoding orthologous proteins from the genus Staphylococcus and found that mRNA conservation was lost mostly downstream ... our knowledge of their implications in the divergence of bacterial species is currently limited. In this study, we performed ...
Gene, no. 1 : 103-13.) and can lead to copy numbers of 1000 per cell for the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. For the ... Application or administration of this formulation leads to higher expression levels of formin-binding protein 1 -like protein ... Additionally it has been shown that the bacterial communities inhabiting the human gut can take up DNA and express these genes ... high cell densities and efficient downstream processing methods must be achieved. The SOI can be combined with a replicative ...
Protein expression is often indicative of gene function. We next determined CaMNR1 protein levels by protein gel- blot analysis ... The pepper CaMNR1 and its ortholog Arabidopsis AtSDR1 genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity ... involvement of CaMNR1 in a broad spectrum of defense responses through the regulation of downstream defenserelated genes. ... Expression patterns of AtSDR1, but not of AtSDR2, after infection with bacterial pathogens were similar to those of CaMNR1 ( ...
... is involved in the regulation of the vapA gene. To examine the mechanism underlying transcriptional regulation of vapA, we ... This study suggests that VirS is required for VapA expression and that regulation of P vapA -promoter activity may be achieved ... Complementary expression of VirS in the virS deletion mutant restored transcription at the P vapA promoter, even under non- ... inducing conditions (30°C and pH 8.0). In addition, VirS expression increased P vapA promoter activity in the absence of ...
... are common features of bacterial genomes. More recently, functional gene clustering has been reported in eukaryotes, from ... clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) ... Studies of the expression patterns of genes in E. coli operons ... Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli. Nature 433:531-537PubMedCrossRef ... Clustering may facilitate co-regulation of gene expression, although it is clearly not a prerequisite for this since expression ...
Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expression. J. Biol. Chem. 274: ... In addition to κB binding sites for Rel proteins, the transcriptional regulation of many Drosophila AMP genes depends on GATA ... postinfection with Escherichia coli, the double mutants for Dif and the Imd pathway component kenny die earlier than kenny ... DEAF-1 is required to induce Toll pathway target genes at or downstream of Dif/Dorsal. Mammalian TLRs are activated by ...
An extra layer of complexity in the regulation of gene expression in bacteria is now apparent through previously unanticipated ... Winkler WC, Breaker RR: Regulation of bacterial gene expression by riboswitches. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005, 59: 487-517. 10.1146 ... control transcription of the downstream gene. An example of this is in the Escherichia coli tryptophan biosynthesis operon [12 ... Valentin-Hansen P, Eriksen M, Udesen C: The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq: a key player in RNA transactions. Mol Microbiol. ...
BacteriaConserved SequenceRegulatorGenomesPromoterPathogenicPromotersBiosynthesisGeneticTranscription FactorsGeneticsSpeciesRegulatesPathogenicityAssaysRegulatory proteinsMutationsMechanismSignal TransductionInfectionsUpstreamStreptococcusTranslationalMicrobiologyTarget genesListeriaEukaryoticSRNAsHomologyInteractionsRegulatorsDegradationCharacterizationKinaseInducePhageInvolved in controlliStrainInitiationIntracellularEpithelial cellsSubtilisRegulate expressionTranscriptsVirulence gene expressionMammalianInteraction
- This laboratory uses bacteria to study basic questions relating to gene expression and applies this knowledge to the study of the expression of a bacterial virulence factor. (umich.edu)
- The major contributor to the virulence of these bacteria are the products of genes encoding Shiga toxin (Stx), a glucosidase that destroys ribosomal RNA of eukaryotic cells resulting in a loss of protein synthesis. (umich.edu)
- In this review, we discuss examples of regulated RNA decay in Gram-positive bacteria that are necessary for proper gene function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- SAM serves as the major biological methyl donor in methylation reactions, which are essential for the biosynthesis of phospholipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA ( 11 ), and the signaling molecule AI-2 is involved in interspecies communication and gene regulation in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria ( 7 , 21 , 46 ). (asm.org)
- Methionine availability is limiting for the growth of several lactic acid bacteria ( 4 ) and group B streptococci ( 39 ), and methionine biosynthetic genes are essential for the virulence of Brucella melitensis ( 28 ), Haemophilus parasuis ( 22 ), and Salmonella enterica ( 9 ). (asm.org)
- To adapt to changes in the environment, an intricate regulatory network that accurately modulates gene expression has evolved in bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
- Gene expression in bacteria is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level. (frontiersin.org)
- However, unlike transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression allows bacteria to adjust rapidly to the changing environment. (frontiersin.org)
- In phages and bacteria, genes corresponding to related functions are often grouped in large transcription units, known as operons. (pnas.org)
- This mechanism, known as "translation attenuation," governs the regulation of antibiotics-inducible genes in Gram-positive bacteria ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- An extra layer of complexity in the regulation of gene expression in bacteria is now apparent through previously unanticipated roles of noncoding and antisense RNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
- The enzyme can also be found in a bifunctional form consisting of an N-terminal aspartokinase domain and a C-terminal homoserine dehydrogenase domain, as found in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and in plants. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, we report the completion of sequencing and characterization of a pilABCD gene cluster similar to those found in other gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 36 ), Aeromonas hydrophila ( 41 ), and Vibrio cholerae ( 10 , 67 ). (asm.org)
- Host cells infected with a bacterium bearing a transcriptionally active gfp gene fusion were separated by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and lysed, and the bacteria recovered were then grown under ex vivo conditions. (sciencemag.org)
- To analyze bacterial clones that were isolated in the selection scheme, we compared the fluorescence intensity of individual bacteria grown in tissue culture media with the fluorescence intensity of the same bacteria clone after release from infected cells (Fig. 1 G). Intracellular-dependent induction of the gfp gene fusions isolated was further confirmed by fluorescence microscopy (Fig. 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Comparison with the aligned amino acid sequences of D-xylose isomerases of different bacteria suggests that L. pentosus D-xylose isomerase belongs to the same similarity group as B. subtilis and E. coli D-xylose isomerase and not to a second similarity group comprising D-xylose isomerases of Streptomyces violaceoniger, Ampullariella sp. (tudelft.nl)
- Thus, clp gene expression in Gram‐positive bacteria is autoregulated by a novel mechanism of controlled proteolysis, a circuit of down‐regulation by stabilization and protection of a transcription repressor, and induction by presenting the repressor to the protease. (embopress.org)
- Intergenic regions of bacteria contain small regulatory ribonucleic acid (sRNA) genes whose transcripts control expression of distal genes. (els.net)
- Bacteria face iron-limiting conditions in the mammalian host, where free iron is strictly limited and normally bound to sequestering proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin. (asm.org)
- However, knowledge of factors that regulate PR gene expression in different bacteria remains strongly limited. (diva-portal.org)
- Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling phenomenon used by bacteria for coordination of population-wide phenotypes, such as expression of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. (mdpi.com)
- Lately, disruption of bacterial communication has emerged as an anti-virulence strategy with enormous therapeutic potential given the increasing incidences of drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. (mdpi.com)
- The mechanisms underlying bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents reside in the ability of bacteria to quickly modify their genomes. (mdpi.com)
- This plasticity is a consequence not only of spontaneous mutations or genome rearrangements that can occur during the bacterial life cycle, but also of exogenous gene acquisition through genetic exchange between bacteria and gene capture in integrons. (mdpi.com)
- Specific examples of sRNAs that regulate metabolism in gram-negative bacteria are discussed, with a focus on those that regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets to control their translation and stability. (asmscience.org)
- 2011. Regulation by small RNAs in bacteria: expanding frontiers. (asmscience.org)
- The PreQ1-I riboswitch is a cis-acting element identified in bacteria which regulates expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of the nucleoside queuosine (Q) from GTP. (wikipedia.org)
- Later on, preQ1 riboswitch was identified as a conserved sequence on the 5' UTR of genes in many gram-positive bacteria and was proved to be associated with synthesis of preQ1. (wikipedia.org)
- The riboswitching action of preQ1 riboswitches in bacteria is regulated by binding of metabolite preQ1 to the aptamer region leading to structural changes in the messenger RNA (mRNA) that governs the downstream genetic regulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Research in Steve Busby's lab is concerned with understanding the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria, with particular attention to studying the regulation of transcription initiation in Escherichia coli . (birmingham.ac.uk)
- Steve Busby's work concerns the mechanisms by which the expression of different genes is regulated in bacteria. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- The work with RNA polymerase has focused on the roles of the alpha and sigma subunits, whilst the work on transcription activation has developed from studies of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (known as CRP or CAP), which have established a paradigm for understanding transcription activation in bacteria. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- Contemporary research has found that many species of streptococci and other Gram positive bacteria have evolved similar peptide pheromone quorum-sensing systems that probably help them adapt to and survive host-imposed fluctuations in their local environment and coincidently regulate the expression of virulence factors that promote their pathogenicity. (jci.org)
- The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. (wikibooks.org)
- In contrast, other bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are usually not toxic to C. elegans ( 13 ). (asm.org)
- Glyphosate inhibits many bacterial EPSP synthases, and thus is toxic to these bacteria. (google.com)
- Bacillus thuringiensis is a species of bacteria that produces a crystal protein, also referred to as delta-endotoxin. (google.com)
- Although the CRP of Y. pestis shows a very high homology to that of E. coli , and the consensus DNA sequence recognized by CRP is shared by the two bacteria, the Y. pestis CRP can recognize the promoters of ompC , F , and X directly rather than that of its own gene, which is different from the relevant regulatory circuit of E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
- Data presented here indicate a remarkable remodeling of the CRP-mediated regulation of porin genes and of its own one between these two bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present paper, a PLD cDNA clone was isolated from tobacco, expressed as a GST fusion in bacteria, and the recombinant protein was purified by glutathione affinity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Various plant pathogenic bacteria carrying a T3SS inject more than 40 different effector proteins (T3-effectors) into the plant cells via this apparatus. (ufl.edu)
- The candidate genes were selected on the basis of having promoter features similar to gene regulated by HrpX or by sequence similarity to known T3-effectors in other plant pathogenic bacteria. (ufl.edu)
- MetR (formerly Smu.1225), a regulator of the LysR family, controls key genes for methionine supply in Streptococcus mutans . (asm.org)
- Regulation involves specific sensing of ethanolamine by a sensor histidine kinase (EutW), resulting in autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphoryl transfer to a response regulator (EutV) containing a RNA-binding domain. (pnas.org)
- The LysR-type transcriptional regulator, VirR, is involved in the regulation of the vapA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
- To examine the mechanism underlying transcriptional regulation of vapA , we characterized an R. equi mutant in which another putative transcriptional regulator encoded on the virulence plasmid, VirS, was deleted. (biomedcentral.com)
- Its deduced protein, a transcriptional regulator of the LysR family, acts as a repressor in the basal level of AmpC biosynthesis and favors its biosynthesis upon induction by several β-lactams ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- Increasingly, experimental evidence suggests that virulence of V. vulnificus is multifactorial ( 60 ) and that the coordinate regulation and expression of several virulence factors are likely controlled by global regulatory systems such as the LuxS quorum-sensing system, the ToxR regulatory system, and the general stress regulator, rpoS- encoded sigma factor ( 15 , 20 , 27 , 31 ). (asm.org)
- Peekhaus N, Tolner B, Poolman B, Kr mer R. The glutamate uptake regulatory protein (Grp) of Zymomonas mobilis and its relation to the global regulator Lrp of Escherichia coli. (labome.org)
- Cul4 (CulD in Dictyostelium ) has been implicated in the ubiquitination of various chromatin components, including the transcription factor c-Jun, the cell cycle regulator E2F, and the DNA replication licensing factor CTD1 ( 46 ), and is involved in developmental regulation in plants, including light response ( 5 , 49 , 50 ). (asm.org)
- The PhnF protein belongs to the HutC subfamily of the large GntR transcriptional regulator family. (embl.de)
- The major iron regulator in E. coli is the ferric uptake regulator protein, Fur. (asm.org)
- Together, our results indicate that SarZ may be an important regulator governing the dissemination phase of S. aureus infections, as it promotes toxin expression while repressing factors required for biofilm formation. (asm.org)
- We propose that LIN is a regulator of the component(s) of the nodulation factor signal transduction pathway and that its function is required for correct temporal and spatial activity of the target protein(s). (plantphysiol.org)
- Identification of a fatty acyl responsive regulator (FarR) in Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
- The pyruvate dehydrogenase regulator protein (PdhR) of Escherichia coli acts as a transcriptional regulator in a pyruvate dependent manner to control central metabolic fluxes. (biomedcentral.com)
- While PdhR represses the transcription of its target genes, the pyruvate-bound state of the regulator is not able to bind DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the study, the human p32 protein as a novel regulator of FOXC1-mediated transcription activation. (arvojournals.org)
- The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a global bacterial regulator that controls many target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The osmosensor histidine protein kinase EnvZ can phosphorylate the response regulator OmpR, which constitutes a two-component signal transduction and regulatory system. (biomedcentral.com)
- The global regulator protein Crp binds to regions of promoters known to activate genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources, in this way activating the genes downstream of it. (igem.org)
- By inhibiting the transcriptional regulator ToxT, virstatin prevents expression of two critical V. cholerae virulence factors, cholera toxin and the toxin coregulated pilus. (sciencemag.org)
- In Xanthomonas, the genes for the T3SS are regulated by HrpX, which is an AraC-type transcriptional regulator. (ufl.edu)
- The genes encoding Stx are carried in the genomes of resident prophages of the lambda family. (umich.edu)
- Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are common features of bacterial genomes. (springer.com)
- Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are a well-known feature of prokaryotic genomes. (springer.com)
- The genomes of members of the cyanobacterial genus Acaryochloris vary greatly in gene content as a consequence of the idiosyncratic retention of both recent gene duplicates and plasmid-encoded genes acquired by horizontal transfer. (deepdyve.com)
- 1996), have an detection due to the transient nature of many gene dupli- extraordinarily large number of recent gene duplicates com- cates in microorganisms, which may be rapidly deleted pared with other bacterial genomes (Miller et al. (deepdyve.com)
- Both sequence and expression based approaches have been used to identify sRNAs in the bacterial genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- His biggest contributions are to a second year course on bacterial genes and genomes, and a third year course on bacterial gene regulation. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- The mutant genomes were constructed by the bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis technique, and MCMV ie3 deletion mutants were reconstituted on a mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses the MCMV major immediate-early genes. (asm.org)
- Promoter and expression analysis revealed that the genes downstream of agfD agfEFG most likely did not contribute to the remaining aggregative behaviour. (nih.gov)
- Tyler, J.S., Mills, M.J., and Friedman, D.I. (2004) The operator and early promoter region of the Shiga toxin type 2-encoding bacteriophage 933W and control of toxin expression. (umich.edu)
- In addition, a putative sigma E (sigma 24)-specific promoter was found in front of all rpoH genes from the gamma, but not alpha, subgroup. (nih.gov)
- The LEE2 and LEE3 operons are divergently transcribed with overlapping -10 promoter regions, and gene fusion studies have shown that they are both activated by Ler. (nih.gov)
- Accordingly, MetR activates transcription by binding to the promoter regions of two gene clusters and smu.1487, whose products are involved in methionine biosynthesis (MetEF and Smu.1487) and uptake (AtmBDE). (asm.org)
- PdeB-D were expressed as C-terminal His6-fusions downstream of the T7 promoter from vector pET23a. (nih.gov)
- Although MG1655 does not encode a T7 RNA polymerase gene, the pde genes were expressed from a fortuitous promoter at sufficiently high levels to partially restore the swimming defect of MG1655 ΔyhjH in semi-solid agar. (nih.gov)
- Complementary expression of VirS in the virS deletion mutant restored transcription at the P vapA promoter, even under non-inducing conditions (30°C and pH 8.0). (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, VirS expression increased P vapA promoter activity in the absence of functional VirR. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study suggests that VirS is required for VapA expression and that regulation of P vapA -promoter activity may be achieved by controlling VirS expression levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- It has not yet been demonstrated whether VirS is involved in the regulation of the P vapA -promoter activity. (biomedcentral.com)
- To investigate the factors that control ngn3 gene expression, we mapped the human and mouse ngn3 promoters and delineated transcriptionally active sequences within the human promoter. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Furthermore, experiments using the Pdx1 promoter to drive early and broad expression of ngn3 in the pancreatic buds of transgenic mice demonstrate that ngn3 alone is sufficient to force precursor cells to an endocrine fate ( 4 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In these enterobacterial species, mutations in the promoter or the structural gene of ampD result in constitutive overproduction of cephalosporinase and explain the acquired resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins ( 5 , 11 , 12 , 17 ). (asm.org)
- While the entire cascade downstream of DIF-1 is not known, DIF-1 ultimately induces the nuclear accumulation of the bZIP transcription factors DimA and DimB, which bind the promoter of the prestalk ecmA gene ( 51 ) and regulate its expression. (asm.org)
- They built 2 input AND gate - one input is TF another is a chaperone protein - cahperone is needed to turn on the output promoter therefore - output promoter only active when both promoters are active and found a genetic circuit within salmonella and built it - 3 parts that form core of AND gate - the activator, the chaperone and inducible promoter. (openwetware.org)
- Using NOT gates - an input promoter drives the expression of a repressor protein that turns off an output promoter. (openwetware.org)
- These properties and the low costs of the inducers, i.e. mannitol and glucitol, make the promoter ideal for designing regulated expression systems. (biomedcentral.com)
- An integron is characterized by (i) an intI gene encoding a site-specific recombinase of the tyrosine recombinase family, (ii) an adjacent primary recombination site attI [ 1 ] and (iii) an array of gene cassettes, downstream of a constitutive promoter (Pc). (mdpi.com)
- The integrated gene cassettes can be expressed from the Pc promoter located upstream of the attI site in the integron platform [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Regulation of the two early promoters was analyzed by primer extension and transcriptional promoter fusions to a lacLM reporter. (asm.org)
- Homology comparisons revealed a replication module which is most likely expressed from the promoter located upstream of the cro gene homologue. (asm.org)
- Working with Escherichia coli K-12, over the past 25 years, the lab has elucidated some of the basic rules of promoter recognition by RNA polymerase and some of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcription activators function (see reviews listed below). (birmingham.ac.uk)
- The PLA2G2A gene produces multiple transcripts arising from splice variants and alternative promoter usage. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Its gene is a TATA-less gene, with several transcription initiation sites, which is activated by the binding of Sp1 and acetylated histone H3 (H3) in the core promoter region (CPR) through the derepression of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC). (medworm.com)
- A complex regulatory sequence, the major IE enhancer promoter (MIEP), controls transcription of the IE genes. (asm.org)
- In addition, IE2 down-regulates transcription from its own promoter by binding to the cis -repression signal ( crs ) target site near the transcription start site of ie1/ie2 , thereby mediating autoregulation of its own expression ( 21 , 22 , 36 ). (asm.org)
- A promoter isolated from a cotton gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase is described. (google.com)
- The isolated promoter is operably linked to a coding sequence of interest to make a chimeric gene. (google.com)
- We developed a new genetic part that consists of a unidirectional terminator followed by a constitutive antisense promoter and demonstrate that this part represses gene expression proportionally to the antisense promoter strength. (embopress.org)
- Chip‐based oligo synthesis was applied to build a large library of 5,668 terminator-promoter combinations that was used to control the expression of three repressors (PhlF, SrpR, and TarA) in a simple genetic circuit ( NOT gate). (embopress.org)
- The degree to which antisense promoters repress gene expression is proportional to the strength of the antisense promoter. (embopress.org)
- Genetic engineers typically follow a simple scheme for controlling gene expression: a promoter and terminator flank the gene in the same orientation. (embopress.org)
- For the induction of alkane-degradation genes in this construct the BioBrick consisted out of the P(CaiF) promoter, AlkS gene and PalkB gene. (igem.org)
- We constructed a screening strain of the classical biotype strain O395 that carries a chromosomally integrated tetracycline resistance gene ( tetA ) controlled by the cholera toxin ( ctx ) promoter. (sciencemag.org)
- We identified 109 compounds as inhibitors of ctx promoter activation by their ability to prevent tetA expression in the reporter strain. (sciencemag.org)
- Two recent papers from Pascale Cossart and colleagues [ 6 , 7 ] present a comprehensive microarray analysis of the trans-criptome of Listeria monocytogenes in different conditions, uncovering an unsuspected variety of regulatory roles for noncoding RNAs in controlling changes in gene expression that characterize the transition from saprophytic to pathogenic lifestyle. (biomedcentral.com)
- This selection methodology should be generally applicable to the identification of genes from pathogenic organisms that are induced upon association with host cells or tissues. (sciencemag.org)
- Because a microbe's ability to survive killing by phagocytes correlates with its ability to cause disease ( 2 , 3 ), the identification of genes that are preferentially transcribed in the intracellular environment of the host is central to our understanding of how pathogenic organisms mount a successful infection. (sciencemag.org)
- While the proteins associated with gene expression regulation have been extensively studied in the pathogenic strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv, post-transcriptional regulation involving small RNAs (sRNAs) remains poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
- Much of the recent work has focussed on the expression of virulence determinants in pathogenic strains. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- Promoters that regulate the expression of some of the major virulence determinants of pathogenic E. coli (in collaboration with Anne-Marie Krachler and Ian Henderson). (birmingham.ac.uk)
- cbb 3 -C c O is an essential enzyme for many different pathogenic bacterial species, e.g. (asm.org)
- This set of genes is transcribed from four promoters (Fig. 1 and refs. (pnas.org)
- The plant signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and/or xenobiotic chemicals like the auxin mimic 2,4-D induce transcriptional activation of defense- and stress-related genes that contain activation sequence-1 ( as-1 )-like cis -elements in their promoters. (plantcell.org)
- Here, we report the identification of Arabidopsis thaliana SCARECROW-like 14 (SCL14), a member of the GRAS family of regulatory proteins, as a TGA-interacting protein that is required for the activation of TGA-dependent but NPR1-independent SA- and 2,4-D-inducible promoters. (plantcell.org)
- The SarA protein binds and activates the promoters of a number of genes, including agr , and represses other genes, such as sspA and spa ( 5 , 9 ). (asm.org)
- The identification of a characteristic genetic switch including two divergent promoters and two cognate repressor genes strongly indicates that φ31 was derived from a temperate bacteriophage. (asm.org)
- I gene expression in the absence of cro exerted minor influences on the regulation of the two promoters within the genetic switch. (asm.org)
- Early work with CRP, and with the related activator, FNR, was concerned with simple promoters, such as the E. coli lac or gal promoters, where one molecule of activator is sufficient for full induction. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- Because bacterial gene expression is exquisitely sensitive to the environment, the majority of promoters are complex, and the lab has focused on cases where one molecule of activator is insufficient for full induction. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- The relation between the activity of bacterial promoters and their location in bacterial folded chromosomes. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- The HCMV IE2-p86 protein is a potent transactivator of HCMV early promoters and of heterologous viral as well as cellular promoters (reviewed in 31 and 27 ). (asm.org)
- A set of unidirectional terminators and constitutive promoters can be combined in a modular manner to implement gene expression control. (embopress.org)
- Here, we propose that promoters oriented opposite to a gene can be used reliably to tune gene expression and control the input threshold of genetic switches. (embopress.org)
- However, relatively little is known regarding the functions of the genes that control the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. (redorbit.com)
- Within this 46 kilobase pair cluster are 43 identified genes which include the coding sequences for the structural reaction center polypeptides (RC), the structural light harvest I complex (LHI), as well as the coding sequences for the enzymes required for the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) and for the biosynthesis of the carotenoids, spheroidene and spheroidenone. (springer.com)
- Armstrong GA, Alberti M, Leach F and Hearst JE (1989) Nucleotide sequence, organization and nature of the protein products of the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus . (springer.com)
- Armstrong GA, Alberti M, Leach F and Hearst JE (1990b) Organization of the Rhodobacter capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster. (springer.com)
- Armstrong GA, Cook DN, Ma D, Alberti M, Burke DH and Hearst JE (1993a) Regulation of carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis genes and identification of an evolutionarily conserved gene required for bacteriochlorophyll accumulation. (springer.com)
- Armstrong GA, Hundle BS and Hearst JE (1993b) Evolutionary conservation and structural similarities of carotenoid biosynthesis gene products from photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organisms. (springer.com)
- The inducible biosynthesis of these cephalosporinases has been reported phenotypically for these bacterial species. (asm.org)
- By non-scar deletion and heterologous expression techniques, the biosynthesis of the AHL-signals was confirmed to be only catalyzed by Phz I, while other AHLs synthases i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
- More than 30 biosynthetic genes are required for the biosynthesis of cobalamin. (asmscience.org)
- Since glyphosate-class herbicides inhibit aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, they not only kill plant cells, but are also toxic to bacterial cells. (google.com)
- Genetic studies, including linkage analyses and knockout mouse strains, have identified various genes for which sequence variation affects host responses to Listeria infection 6,8-14 . (jove.com)
- The Toll pathway was initially identified in a series of genetic screens for genes involved in early Drosophila embryonic development. (jimmunol.org)
- Subsequent genetic screens led to the discovery of genes important in the dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of the embryo (i.e., the dorsal group of genes, including Toll , tube , pelle , cactus , the NF-κB homolog dorsal , and seven genes upstream of Toll ) ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Together with previous genetic data, these results suggest a model in which the ngn3 gene is activated by the coordinated activities of several pancreatic transcription factors and inhibited by Notch signaling through HES1. (diabetesjournals.org)
- A natural cluster of genes containing nearly all the genetic information specifically required for photosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus has been sequenced. (springer.com)
- Backman K, Chen Y-M and Magasanik B, (1981) Physical and genetic characterization of the glnA-glnG region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. (springer.com)
- Acquired resistance develops with gene mutations or via external genetic acquisition from nearby resistant organisms, through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (asm.org)
- DNA homology studies with the f gene region revealed a mosaic-like DNA structure, indicating that this locus might be the result of genetic exchanges between different Agrobacterium strains during evolution. (labome.org)
- Twenty-six strains representing these three genetic configurations were selected to investigate the transcription and expression levels of scpB and lmb genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To understand how Hog1 controls gene expression, we designed a genetic screen to isolate new transcription factors under the control of the MAPK and identified the MEF2-like transcription factor, Smp1, as a target for Hog1. (asm.org)
- In addition, biochemical and genetic analyses reveal that the riboswitch may further control CD3246 expression by revealing or occluding this newly formed RBS. (nih.gov)
- Its competitiveness for this ecological niche may also relate to cell density-dependent regulation of its acid tolerance response (ATR), natural genetic competence, and bacteriocin activity. (jci.org)
- The genetic code stored in DNA in form of nucleotide sequence is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression products give rise to the organism's phenotype. (wikibooks.org)
- This work quantifies the role of antisense transcription in regulatory networks and introduces a new mode to control gene expression that has been previously overlooked in genetic engineering. (embopress.org)
- Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Pathogenicity Genes in Xanthomonas citri Subsp. (ufl.edu)
- Gene expression appears to be directed by overlapping posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, each responding to a particular metabolic signal, conceptually akin to regulation by multiple DNA-binding transcription factors. (pnas.org)
- Unique sets of nuclear transcription factors expressed in the developing and matured pancreas control these gene expression events ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Transcription factors under regulation of sRNA have pink borders. (nih.gov)
- A number of DET1-interacting proteins are conserved in Dictyostelium , and the apparently conserved role of DET1 in regulatory pathways involving the bZIP transcription factors DimB, c-Jun, and HY5 suggests a highly conserved mechanism regulating development in multicellular eukaryotes. (asm.org)
- Activation of a MAPK results in modification of a set of target proteins, often transcription factors, that allow the generation of appropriate cellular responses to an external stimulus. (asm.org)
- Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a universal mechanism to regulate many biological processes by eliminating rate-limiting enzymes and key components such as transcription factors. (plantphysiol.org)
- Transcription initiation is modulated by an interplay of several allosteric DNA-binding transcription factors using effector molecules from three different pathways (arginine, pyrimidines, purines), nucleoid-associated factors (NAPs), trigger enzymes (enzymes with a second unlinked gene regulatory function), DNA remodeling (bending and wrapping), UTP-dependent reiterative transcription initiation, and stringent control by the alarmone ppGpp. (springer.com)
- Following infection, the expression of IE genes is regulated by incoming virion-associated proteins and/or cellular transcription factors. (asm.org)
- The IE transcription factors ZEBRA (ZTA) and RTA in EBV ( 6 , 12 , 17 ) and RTA in KSHV and MHV-68 ( 27 , 53 , 58 ) initiate the lytic cascade by activating the expression of downstream early genes (e.g. (asm.org)
- Discovery of new ribonuclease activities in B. subtilis and other Gram-positive species, especially the dual-functioning RNase J1, which specifies both an endonuclease activity and the long-sought bacterial 5'-to-3' exoribonuclease activity, has led to the recognition of intriguing mechanisms of gene regulation at the level of RNA decay. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this work, we describe a unique series of posttranscriptional regulatory strategies that influence expression of ethanolamine utilization genes ( eut ) in Enterococcus , Clostridium , and Listeria species. (pnas.org)
- Expression of Mcr7 was found to be restricted to M. tuberculosis species and totally silenced in a phoP mutant. (prolekare.cz)
- The relative expression of the normal and prmt8e6+43 variants in different species can be inferred from the reads of intron 5 that contains the 43-nt extension or not in the RNA-seq data of NCBI Gene database. (bvsalud.org)
- The evolution of gene expression regulation has contributed to species differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
- In contrast to other species, where it is an essential protein, loss of DET1 is nonlethal in Dictyostelium , although viability is significantly reduced. (asm.org)
- Small regulatory RNA genes have been found in most bacterial species. (els.net)
- Most studies of regulatory sRNAs have been carried out in E. coli and approximately 80 species of sRNAs have been identified in this organism. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lactococcal phages are classified into 12 different species based on morphology, DNA homology, and protein profiles ( 35 ), but only three phage species, the prolate-headed c2 species and the isometric-headed 936 and P335 species represent the major virulent types responsible for problems in dairy plants. (asm.org)
- In particular, small RNAs (sRNAs) have been implicated in control of both primary and secondary metabolic pathways in many bacterial species. (asmscience.org)
- Extensive Identification of Bacterial Riboflavin Transporters and Their Distribution across Bacterial Species PLoS ONE, 10, e0126124. (unam.mx)
- The development of antimicrobials has lagged behind the development of antibiotic resistance for many life-threatening bacterial species. (sciencemag.org)
- σ 54 forms a distinct subfamily of sigma factors referred to as σ N in almost all species for which these proteins have been characterized to date. (asm.org)
- A number of HTS files for model species are in the process of being processed and deposited at http://coevol.rdc.uottawa.ca to demonstrate that this approach not only saves a huge amount of storage space and transmission bandwidth, but also dramatically reduces time in downstream data analysis. (uottawa.ca)
- Consequently, the 3' end of ssu rRNA (3'TAIL) is strongly conserved among bacterial species because a change in the region may impact the translation of many protein-coding genes. (uottawa.ca)
- Such differences in 3'TAIL lead to species-specific SDs (designated SDEc for E. coli and SDBs for B. subtilis) that can form strong and well-positioned SD/aSD pairing in one species but not in the other. (uottawa.ca)
- Selection mediated by the species-specific 3'TAIL is expected to favour SDBs against SDEc in B. subtilis but favour SDEc against SDBs in E. coli. (uottawa.ca)
- The cro gene homologue regulates its own production and is an efficient repressor of c I gene expression. (asm.org)
- It is possible that flavin mononucleotide (FMN) itself directly regulates riboflavin gene expression, since various nucleotides, including flavin mononucleotides and riboflavin, are reported to bind specifically to RNA aptamers. (asmscience.org)
- and finally (5) RelA, but not DTD, negatively regulates phospholipase C (PLC) production by repressing plc gene expression. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- This study is among the first to demonstrate that gut microbiota critically regulates the expression of lncRNAs not only locally in intestine but also remotely in other metabolic organs, suggesting that common transcriptional machinery may be shared to transcribe lncRNA-PCG pairs, and lncRNAs may interact with PCGs to regulate tissue-specific pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- The genes involved in the formation of the AE lesions are contained within a pathogenicity island named the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). (nih.gov)
- sRNAs can play a major role in bacterial pathogenicity and influence eukaryotic host molecular functions such as levels of host cell microRNA and long noncoding RNA. (els.net)
- For example, ncRv11806 shows expression only in the stationary phase, suggesting its role in mycobacterial latency which is a key attribute to long term pathogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have purified Ler as a His-tagged protein and used it to perform DNA-binding assays with LEE2 and LEE3. (nih.gov)
- PdeC) proteins used in the PDE assays. (nih.gov)
- Using reporter assays in Escherichia coli, we investigated the difference in gene expression between the spliced product and the alternative GTP-attack product. (nih.gov)
- In contrast to the thorough functional characterization of the isolated HCMV IE2 protein that was mostly done by transient transfection assays, little is known about its role in the context of the viral infection. (asm.org)
- The interaction and colocalization between FOXC1 and its putative protein partner were confirmed by Ni 2+ pull-down assays, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
- Both proteins were functional in biochemical assays. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Protein degradation plays a key role in cell physiology of all organisms by regulating the availability of certain short‐lived regulatory proteins or preventing the accumulation of abnormal proteins. (embopress.org)
- Coordinated virulence gene expression is thought to be critical for infection and is orchestrated by multiple factors involving two-component systems, global regulatory proteins, and the quorum-sensing system , . (prolekare.cz)
- A growing family of regulatory proteins that deliver signals between cells of the immune system has been identified. (google.com)
- Mutations in the gene cactus , a gain-of-function mutation in the Toll receptor gene, or the constitutive expression of dorsal can induce lamellocyte differentiation and cause the formation of melanotic tumor phenotypes ( 12 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Construction of specific mutations in genes controlling expression of these cell-associated and extracellular factors and analysis of virulence in animal models have shown that only the exopolysaccharide capsule, the presence of a functional flagellar biogenesis system, and the siderophore to acquire iron from transferrin are essential virulence determinants ( 28 , 74 , 77 ). (asm.org)
- To describe mutations in the PAX6 gene in five patients with aniridia from three unrelated families. (labome.org)
- The origins of resistance are intensively studied and many mechanisms involved in resistance have been identified, such as exogenous gene acquisition by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mutations in the targeted functions, and more recently, antibiotic tolerance through persistence. (mdpi.com)
- Myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene mutations in nonduplication type 1 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (labome.org)
- Mutations in the human forkhead box C1 gene ( FOXC1 ) cause Axenfeld-Rieger (AR) malformations, often leading to glaucoma. (arvojournals.org)
- Due to heterozygous mutations in the PTEN gene patients develop the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome which includes Bannayan Riley Ruvalcaba syndrome and Cowden's syndrome. (ox.ac.uk)
- Regulation of bacterial gene expression at the post-transcriptional level has emerged as a major control mechanism, although not yet as well recognized as the mechanisms of control at the transcriptional level. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A similar mechanism of homocysteine- and MetR-dependent control of methionine biosynthetic genes operates in S. thermophilus . (asm.org)
- These data suggest a common mechanism for the regulation of the methionine supply in streptococci. (asm.org)
- It is best studied in the context of transvection-a mechanism of interallelic gene regulation involving paired chromosomes-and repression of the expression of white by Zeste mutants. (gmu.edu)
- The mechanism of cephalosporinase expression has been studied in detail for E. cloacae and was found to be related to peptidoglycan components ( 13 ). (asm.org)
- An underlying common mechanism for both genes in determination of the onset of polarized growth and its links to other cellular developmental processes is discussed. (labome.org)
- While the mechanism by which DET1 functions is unclear, it appears that it has a key role in regulation of developmental plasticity and integration of information on environmental conditions into the developmental program of an organism. (asm.org)
- Sir-dependent transcriptional silencing was the primary mechanism driving heterogeneous Epa1 expression in C. glabrata BG2, but not in CBS138 (ATCC 2001). (asm.org)
- Recent studies indicate a chaperone-assisted, highlysynchronized mechanism of secondary and tertiary structure formation uponmembrane insertion of beta-barrel membrane proteins such as OmpA thatinvolves at least three structurally distinct folding intermediates. (embl.de)
- One mechanism by which SAPKs, and MAPKs in general, modulate gene expression is by direct modification of transcription activators. (asm.org)
- Mechanism for gene control by a natural allosteric group I ribozyme. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, this architecture provides the riboswitch with a mechanism for extended regulation after splicing has occurred or as a backup mechanism for suppression of translation in the event of misregulated splicing. (nih.gov)
- Here we used a combination of approaches in vivo and in vitro to analyze the mechanism used by RNAIII to regulate the expression of staphylocoagulase. (prolekare.cz)
- This docking and undocking mechanism of riboswitch with the change in concentration of ligand preQ1 is observed to control the signaling of gene regulation, commonly known as "ON" or "OFF" signaling for gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- In particular, we recently established that the AGR2 protein serves an essential role in EGFR presentation to the cell surface, and represents a novel mechanism of regulating cell signaling. (stanford.edu)
- Transcription regulation mechanism of the syntaxin 1A gene via protein kinase A Syntaxin 1A (Stx1a) is primarily involved in the docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones in neurons. (medworm.com)
- It has been suggested that some lncRNAs act in cis to regulate the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes (PCGs) in a mechanism that fine-tunes gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Molecular mechanism of transcription inhibition by phage T7 gp2 protein. (rutgers.edu)
- Failure of p32 to interact with FOXC1 containing the disease-causing F112S mutation indicates that impaired protein interaction may be a disease mechanism for AR malformations. (arvojournals.org)
- Despite these lines of evidence, however, the regulatory mechanism of TH and Ddc gene expression in the context of melanization has been elusive. (biologists.org)
- Among the genes under the control of Hog1 are genes that encode proteins implicated in carbohydrate metabolism, general stress protection, protein production, and signal transduction (reviewed in reference 8 ). (asm.org)
- These include soluble decoy receptors for TLR4, IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)M, TNF-α-induced protein 3 or TNFAIP3 (A20), tripartite motif-containing protein 30A (TRIM30α), and splice variants of signal-transduction proteins such as MyD88s ( 11 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Phospholipase D (PLD) and heterotrimeric G-proteins are involved in plant signal transduction pathways at the plasma membrane. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- The macrophage transcriptome reacts to infections with the induction of a pathogen-unspecific expression program as well as the induction of pathogen-specific expression signatures, both of which contribute to the immunologic activation of the infected cell. (stanford.edu)
- Kidney infections in mice are attenuated between three- and fivefold by deletion of the EPA1 gene cluster ( HYR/EPA1-EPA2-EPA3 ) ( 13 ). (asm.org)
- It has been postulated that the EPA genes could be differentially regulated in order to maximize adherence to different host cell types during infections ( 9 , 12 - 14 , 57 ). (asm.org)
- Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of persistent and chronic infections. (asm.org)
- In terms of recent advancement, quorum sensing disruption is one of the emerging anti-virulence strategies against bacterial infections [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Members of the bacterial genus Streptococcus are responsible for causing a wide variety of infections in humans. (jci.org)
- This has arisen, in part, because of the estimate by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that 65% of human bacterial infections involve biofilms. (jci.org)
- We are entering a challenging era where microbial resistance to antibiotics will complicate the treatment of nearly all common bacterial infections. (sciencemag.org)
- The nucleotides forming the 5′ strand of the key stem of the pseudoknot are located within the gene for IF3, whereas those forming the 3′ strand are located 280 nt downstream, immediately upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of the gene for L35. (pnas.org)
- Here we show that premature termination of IF3 translation at a nonsense codon introduced upstream of the pseudoknot results in a substantial enhancement of L20-mediated repression of L35 expression. (pnas.org)
- ribosomes that have terminated translation of the upstream coat protein gene first disrupt the secondary structure that sequesters the RBS of the lysis gene and then initiate translation of that gene ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- Although the lacI repressor gene is able to regulate expression of the lacZYA genes when placed anywhere in the chromosome, this gene is normally positioned immediately upstream of lacZYA . (springer.com)
- In C. freundii and E. cloacae , an ampR gene is located upstream of ampC and is divergently transcribed compared to ampC . (asm.org)
- Many sRNA genes are activated by environmental stress factors, and the sRNA genes have complex upstream regulatory sites. (els.net)
- The regions upstream and downstream of the hemB gene were sequenced. (nih.gov)
- The replication module encoded genes with strong homology to helicases and primases found in several Streptococcus thermophilus phages. (asm.org)
- Several regions showing extensive DNA and protein homologies to different temperate phages of Lactococcus , Lactobacillus , and Streptococcus were also discovered, indicating the likely exchange of DNA cassettes through horizontal gene transfer in the dynamic ecological environment of dairy fermentations. (asm.org)
- In eukaryotes, different modes of post-transcriptional regulation at the level of the RNA itself (i.e., not translational regulation) can occur. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, unlike all other such genes, metabolite binding to the glmS UTR does not induce transcription termination or translational regulation but induces autocatalytic cleavage at a 5'-proximal site, leaving a downstream fragment with a 5'-hydroxyl end [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The result is a novel type of translational coupling, where unfolding of the pseudoknot by ribosomes translating IF3 does not increase expression of L35 directly, but alleviates its repression by L20. (pnas.org)
- Translational coupling is where an event-altering translation of one gene also affects translation of the downstream gene without affecting its transcription. (pnas.org)
- Second, L20 directly represses the expression of rpmI , and indirectly that of its own gene, rplT , via translational coupling with rpmI ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- The transcriptional and translational machinery associated with bacterial adaptation in response to environmental changes have been widely studied in M. tuberculosis [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- B ) β-Galactosidase activity in E. coli transformed with lacZ translational fusion constructs. (nih.gov)
- Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. (wikibooks.org)
- For Listeria monocytogenes , the genes of the ethanolamine utilization ( eut ) locus exhibit increased expression inside the host cell, and loss of one of the key enzymes, EutB, causes a defect in intracellular growth ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Once phagocytosed, various bacterial proteins enable Listeria to escape the phagosome, survive within the cytosol, and infect neighboring cells 5 . (jove.com)
- We describe here a straightforward method for measuring bacterial load (colony forming units [CFU] per tissue) and preparing single-cell suspensions of the liver and spleen for FACS analysis of immune responses in Listeria -infected mice. (jove.com)
- The members of these eukaryotic gene clusters contribute to a common function but do not usually share sequence similarity. (springer.com)
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are common signaling modules found in both higher and lower eukaryotic cells. (asm.org)
- Unlike eukaryotic organelles, bacterial microcompartments are assembled entirely by proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
- sRNAs, which belong to the non-coding RNA family and range from approximately 50 to 400 nucleotides, serve various important gene regulatory roles. (nih.gov)
- Despite this understanding of their functionality, the global properties associated with regulation by sRNAs are not yet understood. (nih.gov)
- Of interest is the lack of knowledge about sRNAs implicated in Gram-positive compared to Gram-negative bacterial resistance. (asm.org)
- however, some sRNAs bind proteins and can regulate transcription or translation indirectly. (els.net)
- sRNAs can control gene expression at the level of translation or transcription. (els.net)
- sRNAs can indirectly regulate the expression of global genes, some by binding proteins that control gene expression. (els.net)
- The systems level analysis of sRNA highlights the condition-specific expression of sRNAs which might enable the pathogen survival by rewiring regulatory circuits. (biomedcentral.com)
- A subclass of non-coding RNAs, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), has been found to play important regulatory roles in gene expression in prokaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2013. Bacterial sRNAs: regulation in stress. (asmscience.org)
- As was found for the protein-protein interaction network, the targets that are regulated by the same sRNA also tend to be closely knit within the transcription-regulatory network (larger density, p-val = 0.036), and inward interactions between them are greater than the outward interactions (higher in-degree ratio, p-val = 0.023). (nih.gov)
- The RNA chaperone protein Hfq is involved in many RNA/RNA interactions and ribonucleases RNase E and RNase III have been implicated in destabilisation of target mRNAs. (els.net)
- i.e., it represses the transcription of more than 90 genes in E. coli upon interactions with its corepressor, Fe(II), and causes derepression in the absence of Fe(II) ( 16 ). (asm.org)
- In this approach, proteins are modeled as nodes and their interactions act as an edge, which sheds light on whether some of the biological properties may be correlated with the network topology. (biomedcentral.com)
- Collectively, these initial studies identified lncRNAs as necessary moderators of chromatin architecture and gene expression through interactions with PCGs. (biomedcentral.com)
- This work exposes a novel strategy wherein the oligomerization state of a protein not only determines the capacity to bind separate related targets but also couples the interactions to different functional consequences. (labome.org)
- SERGEANT CA. The influence of Sutherlandia frutescens on adrenal steroid hormones and downstream receptor interactions . (sun.ac.za)
- We demonstrated binding of PhoP to at least 35 targets on the M. tuberculosis chromosome and direct impact on expression of 30 genes, while further amplification of the signal is provided by regulators acting downstream. (prolekare.cz)
- The complex nature of the regulatory pathways governing virulence and biofilm formation in S. aureus arises from the fact that multiple regulators can activate or repress a single target gene. (asm.org)
- Over the last decade, small (often noncoding) RNA molecules have been discovered as important regulators influencing myriad aspects of bacterial physiology and virulence. (asmscience.org)
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs), short noncoding RNA, have emerged recently as key regulators of gene expression acting at the posttranscriptional level ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
- How this results in depression of gene expression was shown recently by Winkler and colleagues to be due to RNase J1-mediated degradation of the downstream cleavage product ( Fig. 1A ) [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Thus, glmS gene expression is regulated by a combination of metabolite-mediated ribozyme cleavage and exonucleolytic degradation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Cullins are a small family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that together with substrate adaptors catalyze the conjugation of ubiquitin chains to their targets, resulting in their degradation by the 26S proteasome ( 25 ). (asm.org)
- Besides degradation of misfolded proteins, several specific substrates were found for Clp proteases. (embopress.org)
- ARSDA includes functions to take advantage of HTS data in the new sequence format for downstream data analysis such as gene expression characterization. (uottawa.ca)
- Many other functions have been updated and improved including PWM for motif characterization, Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery, hidden Markov models for protein secondary structure prediction, self-organizing map for non-linear clustering of transcriptomic data, comprehensive sequence alignment and phylogenetic functions. (uottawa.ca)
- One of the best characterized two-component systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is represented by the PhoPR pair, with PhoR being the transmembrane sensor kinase and PhoP playing an essential part in controlling expression of virulence-associated genes, such as those encoding the ESX-1 secretion apparatus. (prolekare.cz)
- The AK-HSD gene codes for aspartate kinase, an intermediate domain (coding for the linker region between the two enzymes in the bifunctional form), and finally the coding sequence for homoserine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
- Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is primarily expressed in actively growing, young plant tissues, particularly in the apical and lateral meristems. (wikipedia.org)
- Homoserine dehydrogenase and aspartate kinase are both subject to significant regulation (refer to figure 3). (wikipedia.org)
- The organization of the L. pentosus xylose genes, 5'-xylR (1167 bp, repressor) - xylA (1350 bp, D-xylose isomerase) - xylB (1506 bp, D-xylulose kinase) - 3' is similar to that in B. subtilis. (tudelft.nl)
- Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increases in extracellular osmolarity activates the stress-activated Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is essential for cell survival upon osmotic stress. (asm.org)
- Palmitoylation of rPLD1 is not necessary for catalytic activity, since N-terminal truncation mutants lacking the first 168 or 319 amino acids exhibit high basal activity although they cannot be stimulated by protein kinase C (PKC). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- VirR alone can induce vapA expression, but VapA expression is enhanced when four genes downstream of virR are also present. (biomedcentral.com)
- Urinary tract E. coli isolate 83972 has been shown to induce several iron systems, i.e., enterobactin, salmochelin, aerobactin, hemin, and yersiniabactin, during growth in vitro in iron-limiting medium and also in vivo in the human urinary tract ( 31 , 33 ). (asm.org)
- In this organism, PreQ1 binding to the riboswitch aptamer is thought to induce premature transcription termination within the leader to down-regulate expression of these genes. (wikipedia.org)
- These PRRs must interact in a complicated fashion to induce a unique set of antimicrobial genes. (asm.org)
- In a 384-well format, the strain was treated with 10 μg/mL samples from the library to identify compounds that conferred tetracycline sensitivity when the strain was grown under in vitro conditions that would normally induce CT expression. (sciencemag.org)
- Phage lambda and other members of the lambdoid family of phages and their Escherichia coli host serve as the model system for these studies. (umich.edu)
- Expression of the early genes of phage l is regulated by the viral encoded N protein. (umich.edu)
- In particular, we are exploring how phage-encoded functions contribute to toxin expression and release. (umich.edu)
- Phage regulatory circuits and virulence gene expression. (umich.edu)
- In the case of coupling between genes V and VII of the single-stranded DNA phage f1, it has been proposed that gene V "hands over" ribosomes to the inherently defective RBS of the downstream gene VII ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- Targets degraded by ClpXP are exemplified by the stationary phase transcription factor σ S , several phage proteins and the heterodimeric form of the UmuD protein involved in SOS mutagenesis. (embopress.org)
- Neither a phage attachment site nor an integrase gene, required to establish lysogeny, was identified, explaining its lytic lifestyle and suggesting its origin from a temperate phage ancestor. (asm.org)
- This reporter strain was found to exhibit detectable fluorescence color changes under bright field in response to intracellular c-di-GMP level altered by induced expression of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) PleD. (nih.gov)
- PDE activities of the L. monocytogenes proteins PdeB-D.A: Restoration of motility in semi-solid (0.25%) agar of strain MG1655 ΔyhjH by L. monocytogenes PdeB, PdeC and PdeD is indicative of their c-di-GMP PDE activities. (nih.gov)
- The cloned genes represent functional xylose genes since they are able to complement the inability of a L. casei strain to ferment D-xylose. (tudelft.nl)
- The xylT gene was functionally expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum 80, a strain which lacks proton motive force-linked D-xylose transport activity. (tudelft.nl)
- Inefficient silencing in the latter strain was not due to a difference in EPA1 sequence or (sub)telomere length and was overcome by ectopic SIR3 expression. (asm.org)
- Deletion of the IS 1548 sequence between scpB and lmb genes in a CC19 serotype III GBS strain substantially reduced the transcription of lmb gene (13.5-fold), the binding ability to laminin (6.2-fold), and the expression of Lmb protein (5.0-fold). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Together with the absence of immunochemical cross-reactivity, these enzymatic properties demonstrate that the membrane-bound enzyme is distinct from the extracellular enzyme recently characterized and cloned from the same bacterial strain [C. Ogino et al. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Experiments were also performed to further characterize a new avirulence gene, avrGf1, isolated from Xcc strain Aw, which induces HR in grapefruit. (ufl.edu)
- (a) Regulation by cis -encoded RNA, subdivided into signal-mediated folding or unfolding of the translation initiation region (top) or transcription termination/antitermination (bottom). (biomedcentral.com)
- The imperfect duplex is sufficient to prevent the formation of the ribosomal initiation complex and to repress the expression of a reporter gene in vivo . (prolekare.cz)
- Like any other riboswitch, the two most common types of gene regulation mediated by preQ1 riboswitch are through transcription attenuation or inhibition of translation initiation. (wikipedia.org)
- This requires the bacterium to switch genes on and off as it traverses different environments, ranging from a saprophytic lifestyle to the gut lumen after ingestion to invasion of epithelial cells and intracellular survival. (biomedcentral.com)
- Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is the intracellular effector of the quorum sensing system that temporally controls a large number of virulence factors including exoproteins and cell-wall-associated proteins. (prolekare.cz)
- Nod factors initiate multiple early responses on plant hosts, including a burst of intracellular calcium levels in root hairs, calcium oscillations (calcium spiking), and the induction of nodulation-specific genes whose products are referred to as "nodulins. (plantphysiol.org)
- Recent data indicate that this process is regulated by intracellular signaling and changes in gene expression that define an "apoptosis differentiation program. (bioseek.eu)
- 4 , 7 Precise regulation of PMN apoptosis is also essential for resolution of inflammation as this prevents release of toxic intracellular components that can damage healthy tissue. (bioseek.eu)
- Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produces attaching and effacing lesions (AE) on epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
- Individual-cell analyses of expression revealed very striking heterogeneity for Epa1, an adhesin that mediates ∼95% of adherence to epithelial cells in vitro . (asm.org)
- Sorted cells expressing high or low levels of Epa1 exhibited high and low adherence to epithelial cells, indicating a link between gene expression noise and potential virulence. (asm.org)
- In this study, we investigated the regulation of the mtl genes in order to identify the elements needed to construct a strong mannitol inducible expression system in B. subtilis . (biomedcentral.com)
- More is known about riboflavin (rib) genes in B. subtilis than in any other microorganism. (asmscience.org)
- Among well-positioned SDs, SDEc is used more in E. coli than in B. subtilis, and SDBs more in B. subtilis than in E. coli. (uottawa.ca)
- c-di-GMP riboswitches are structured RNAs located in the 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) of mRNAs that regulate expression of downstream genes in response to changing concentrations of the second messenger c-di-GMP. (nih.gov)
- Using RNA interference to inhibit the function of immune signaling pathways in C. elegans , we found that different immune response pathways regulate expression of distinct but overlapping sets of antimicrobial genes. (asm.org)
- As alternative sigma factors have been shown to regulate expression of both virulence and virulence-associated genes, these proteins can contribute both directly and indirectly to bacterial virulence. (asm.org)
- Connected to this, it is likely that the 5' exonuclease activity of RNase J1 can act directly on the 5' end of native transcripts, once the 5' triphosphate is converted to a 5'-monophosphate by an RNA pyrophosphohydrolase (RppH) activity, similar to the one shown recently by Belasco and colleagues to exist in E. coli [ 8 - 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Strikingly, we show here that K18, and at a less extent K8, controls the expression of cMet and other surface receptors such TfR and integrin β1, by promoting the stability of their corresponding transcripts. (frontiersin.org)
- Transcriptional and phenotypic analyses of a sarZ mutant demonstrated that the decreased transcription of mgrA and the agr RNAIII molecule was accompanied by increased transcription of spa (protein A) and downregulation of hla (alpha-hemolysin) and sspA (V8 protease) transcripts when compared to its isogenic parent. (asm.org)
- While we could detect transcripts for the immediate-early gene ie1 in cells infected with the ie3 mutants, we failed to detect transcripts for representative β and γ genes. (asm.org)
- The corresponding IE transcripts of MCMV encode the 89-kDa acidic IE1 phosphoprotein pp89 ( 15 , 16 ) and the 88-kDa IE3 protein ( 24 ). (asm.org)
- Sds3 engages the scaffolding protein Sin3A, via a bipartite motif within the Sin3 interaction domain (SID) comprising a helix and an extended segment. (gmu.edu)
- To close this gap, a yeast protein interaction screen offering Arabidopsis thaliana class II transcription factor TGA2 as bait was performed. (plantcell.org)
- Hfq is the RNA‐binding protein that facilitates the RNA/RNA interaction. (els.net)
- In this study, the role of specific microRNAs in TLR-signaling pathway was investigated to reveal the cross-interaction and -regulation in the MyD88 pathway. (jimmunol.org)
- Detailed protein interaction and phosphorylation data are explored to establish a simplified Boolean model of the central platelet cascades. (uni-freiburg.de)
- There is evidence suggesting that PLD acts downstream from G-proteins, but a direct interaction of specific members has not been shown. (embl-heidelberg.de)