A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The series of cells in the red blood cell lineage at various stages of differentiation.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A transcription factor that regulates the expression of a large set of hepatic proteins including SERUM ALBUMIN; beta-fibrinogen; and ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN. It is composed of hetero- or homo-dimers of HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA and HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-BETA.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and ... The gene encodes for a transcription factor that belongs to the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hes) subfamily of basic helix-loop- ... BHLH Transcription Factors in Development and Disease. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. bHLH Transcription Factors in ... "Requirement for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 in initial TH2 lineage commitment". Nature Immunology. 10 ...
transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription ... This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and ... "Requirement for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 in initial TH2 lineage commitment". Nature Immunology. 10 ... bHLH Transcription Factors in Development and Disease. 110. Academic Press. pp. 317-338. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-405943-6.00009-9 ...
transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • GO:0001200, GO:0001133, GO: ... BHLH Transcription Factors in Development and Disease. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. bHLH Transcription Factors in ... This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and ... "Requirement for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 in initial TH2 lineage commitment". Nature Immunology. 10 ...
Prediction of putative transcription factor-binding sites. A search for putative transcription factor-binding sites in Tce1 was ... We previously identified a T cell-specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and ... Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs. Sakie Ohmura,1 ... that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte-specific Gata3 ...
Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs. ... The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has ... Gata3. promoter. We previously identified a T cell-specific Gata3. enhancer (. Tce1. ) lying 280 kb downstream from the ... Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs. ...
M-CAT binding factor , M-CAT-binding factor , TEAD-4 , transcriptional enhancer factor TEF-3 , related transcription enhancer ... Gata3 (zeige GATA3 Antikörper) and Cdx2 (zeige CDX2 Antikörper) can act in parallel pathways downstream of Tead4 to induce the ... This gene product is a member of the transcriptional enhancer factor (TEF) family of transcription factors, which contain the ... and binds to the M-CAT regulatory element found in promoters of muscle-specific genes to direct their gene expression. ...
This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate ... This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate ... cis-regulatory regions generally found upstream of genes whereupon transcription factors bind to control lineage-specific gene ... NKTCR stimulation by self-glycolipid antigen activates downstream nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), which activates ...
... other transcription factors also play critical role in TH17 cells-specific lineage development. A recent study has indicated ... Similarly, the upregulation of GATA-3 transcription factor of TH2 cells by IL-4/5/13 could also restrict the expansion of TH17 ... binding protein inhibits interleukin-17 and interleukin-21 production by controlling the activity of IRF-4 transcription factor ... These downstream genes include the conserved intergenic elements in the Il17a-Il17f locus and to the Il17, Il21, and Il22 ...
Lupien M et al. FoxA1 translates epigenetic signatures into enhancer-driven lineage-specific transcription. Cell 132:958-70 ( ... Zheng X et al. Identification of transcription factor AML-1 binding site upstream of human cytomegalovirus UL111A gene. PLoS ... c-Myb and GATA-3 cooperatively regulate IL-13 expression via conserved GATA-3 response element and recruit mixed lineage ... Sadeghi L et al. The Paf1 complex factors Leo1 and Paf1 promote local histone turnover to modulate chromatin states in fission ...
We focus on the oncogenic transcription factors TAL1, LMO2 and NOTCH1 and highlight the significance of the transcriptional ... We focus on the oncogenic transcription factors TAL1, LMO2 and NOTCH1 and highlight the significance of the transcriptional ... Aberrant activation of the GIMAP enhancer by oncogenic transcription factors in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia ( ... Specification of hematopoietic and vascular development by the bHLH transcription factor SCL without direct DNA binding. ...
However, it remains largely unknown as to how these transcription factors are linked to promote lineage- and stage-specific ... E2A was found to directly bind enhancers present in the Bcl 11A and CTCF loci, linking E2A, Bcl 11A, and potentially CTCF into ... The transcription factor Pax5 is regulated by E2A, EBF, IRF4, IRF8 as well as PU.1. It plays an essential role in B-lineage ... The LEF proteins have been shown to act downstream of the Wnt signaling pathway and modulate B cell expansion, thus linking E2A ...
Tcra Enhancer Activation by Inducible Transcription Factors Downstream of Pre-TCR Signaling Beatriz del Blanco, Alberto García- ... CARMA1 Controls Th2 Cell-Specific Cytokine Expression through Regulating JunB and GATA3 Transcription Factors Marzenna Blonska ... Bone Marrow-Derived IL-13Rα1-Positive Thymic Progenitors Are Restricted to the Myeloid Lineage Cara L. Haymaker, F. Betul ... Differential Risk of Tuberculosis Reactivation among Anti-TNF Therapies Is Due to Drug Binding Kinetics and Permeability ...
Th and Treg cell states are defined by expression of master regulator transcription factors [GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), T- ... Indeed, in 1983, they described a downstream endogenous. enhancer element in the Igh gene that was active in a tissue-specific ... For example, mapping of chromatin accessibility and transcription factor binding sites demonstrates that ~ 1-2% of the genome ... Appropriate lineage stability or plasticity is encoded in the mechanisms instructing and maintaining the Th/Treg lineage- ...
In a temporal and developmental sense, ThPOK functions downstream of GATA-3, an early CD4+ lineage transcription factor, and ... Transcriptional regulation, most often repression, is achieved by sequence-specific binding by the ZF domain to regulatory ... ectopically expressed MAZR could bind enhancer elements in the Cd8 gene and suppress CD8 expression (90). Recent studies, ... PLZP was shown to interact directly with the Th2-promoting transcription factor GATA-3 and could antagonize GATA-3 binding to ...
... enhancers to orchestrate the expression of nearby essential genes through the binding of lineage-specific transcription factors ... including genes in the ER transcription factor network such as ESR1, FOXA1, TRPS1, GATA3, and SPDEF and known essential target ... investigated over 10,000 putative enhancers downstream of 2 essential transacting factors and linked them to a specific ... For lineage-selective enhancer-binding transcription factors such as FOXA1, we have developed a model based on epigenomic ...
This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and ... The gene encodes for a transcription factor that belongs to the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hes) subfamily of basic helix-loop- ... BHLH Transcription Factors in Development and Disease. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. bHLH Transcription Factors in ... "Requirement for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 in initial TH2 lineage commitment". Nature Immunology. 10 ...
transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription ... This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and ... "Requirement for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 in initial TH2 lineage commitment". Nature Immunology. 10 ... bHLH Transcription Factors in Development and Disease. 110. Academic Press. pp. 317-338. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-405943-6.00009-9 ...
transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • GO:0001200, GO:0001133, GO: ... BHLH Transcription Factors in Development and Disease. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. bHLH Transcription Factors in ... This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and ... "Requirement for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 in initial TH2 lineage commitment". Nature Immunology. 10 ...
Weakened BAF complex binding sites were selectively enriched for unique transcription factor binding motifs including E-box, ... The SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex is required for maintenance of lineage specific enhancers. Nat. Commun. 8, 14648 ( ... 5B). RNA-seq analysis of neuroblastoma super-enhancer associated transcription factors (SE-TFs) (37) revealed that 6 of 18 ... and GATA3 work in concert to promote mesenchymal cells to adopt an adrenergic identity (33, 35-37). We found that loss of ...
Over the past years, a number of factors have been identified to affect helper T cell lineage determination, including antigen ... the IL-12 p40 promoter and the transcription factors that bind to it are better characterized. CATA enhancer binding protein ... Interestingly, through analysis of IL-5 promoter, Zhang et al [83] also identified GATA-3 as a Th2- specific factor. In ... Candidate downstream targets of p38 regulation are likely to include transcription factors of the activating transcription ...
Alteration in SA lineage-specific transcription factor expression in purified adrenal chromaffin cells. (A) Single-cell ... GATA-3 factors mediate transcription through a cis-regulatory element within the human T-cell receptor delta gene enhancer. Mol ... Gata3 encodes a transcription factor containing two steroid hormone receptor-like zinc fingers that serve as its DNA-binding ... The transcription factor GATA3 is a downstream effector of Hoxb1 specification in rhombomere 4. Development 126,5523 -5531. ...
2009) CCCTC-binding factor and the transcription factor T-bet orchestrate T helper 1 cell-specific structure and function at ... S4A). TCR signaling leads to IFN-γ production via several downstream transcription factors, including nuclear factor-kappa B ... 1998) GATA-3-dependent enhancer activity in IL-4 gene regulation. J Immunol 161(8):3822-3826. ... 2000) A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment. Cell 100(6):655-669. ...
Meanwhile, NFAT proteins bind to these regulatory elements and activate RORγt transcription in cooperation with NF-kB. Our data ... The master transcription factor RORγt, encoded by the RORC gene, controls the polarization of CD4+ T cells expressing ... The lineage-specific transcription factor, RORγt, encoded by the RORC gene modulates Th17 polarization and function, as well as ... thus demonstrate that NFAT specifically regulate RORγt expression by binding to the RORC locus and promoting its permissive ...
While PRC1 complexes still repress lineage-specific genes, they also facilitate gene transcription. Examples are found during ... Notably, the distribution of RING1B, FOXA1, and GRHL2 binding is influenced by the ERα binding pattern. All three factors can ... 6D, bottom right). Next, we determined the binding motifs located within 100 base pairs (bp) upstream and downstream of the ... or an epigenetic factor to stabilize their function (4, 30, 57). Ligand-bound ERα is recruited to chromatin along with a number ...
Smad4 cooperates with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1/T cell-specific factor to increase c-myc expression in the absence of ... CD4 expression and repression of CD8 are mediated by the Th2 transcription factor GATA3 and its downstream target Th-POK (Wang ... Although the signature transcription factors for the iNKT lineage and the iNKT1, iNKT2, and iNKT17 cell fates have been defined ... A recent study revealed that activating transcription factor 2 family transcription factors (ATF2) can promote transcription ...
Interaction of GATA-3/T-bet transcription factors regulates expression of sialyl Lewis X homing receptors on Th1/Th2 ... that is recognized by specific binding proteins to execute defined down-stream biological processes.[16, 17] However, recent ... The zinc finger transcription factor Th-POK regulates CD4 versus CD8 T-cell lineage commitment. Nature 2005; 433:826-33.. * ... Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites. ...
... directly alter recognizable transcription factor binding motifs. Rather, most non-coding risk variants, including those that ... The results implicate a very specific subset of enhancers involved in T-cell stimulation as causal determinants of autoimmune ... often in regions adjacent to transcription factor binding motifs. Hundreds of risk loci for autoimmunity have been identified ... disease risk tends to be linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in cell-type-specific enhancers, ...
TH9 cells generated in vitro exhibit a heterogeneous phenotype based on the expression of the transcription factors GATA-3 and ... GTPgS binding as an index of total G-protein and Ga-subtype-specific activation by GPCRs / Rajendra Mistry, Mark R. Dowling, ... TH17-polarizing cytokines upregulated the expression of the transcription factor ROR[Gamma]t and drove the expansion of memory ... lineage in the Drosophila testis. Loss of Psc and Su(z)2 gene function in CySC but not in the germline stem cell (GSC) lineage ...
Given the downstream changes in pSmad2 binding and transcription of the known direct target genes, we next addressed how ... of left/right asymmetric expression of nodal by a left side-specific enhancer with sequence similarity to a lefty-2 enhancer. ... Transcription factors binding to sequences similar to these motifs identified by the STAMP program using TRANSFAC PWM are ... that the same transcription factor pSmad2 is able to bind and transcriptionally regulate different subsets of target genes in a ...
stat4 transcription factor*rac gtp binding proteins*radiation chimera*yolk sac*neurofibromatosis 1 genes*fanconi anemia*gata3 ... and characterization of a novel Schwann and outflow tract endocardial cushion lineage-restricted periostin enhancer. Dev Biol. ... However, neonatal BMSC VEGF and IL-6 secretion is stimulant-specific and utilization of the NFkB pathway is more complex. .. ... These data further support a role for Btk in regulating TLR-induced cytokine production from APCs and provide downstream ...
... chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor)-interacting protein 1 (CTIP1) is a sequence-specific DNA binding ... It has been proposed that other transcription factors act in concert with, downstream, or even upstream of Foxp3 in controlling ... Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. Immunity. 22:329-341. doi:10.1016/j.immuni. ... in a construct that contains the Foxp3 promoter upstream of and the Foxp3 enhancer 1 (Smad enhancer) downstream of Firefly ...
Erives, A., Corbo, J. C. and Levine, M. (1998). Lineage-specific regulation of the Ciona snail gene in the embryonic mesoderm ... or of a 12-mer of DNA binding sites for the β-catenin co-factor TCF (DasGupta et al., 2005) placed in front of the Ci-bra basal ... Corbo, J. C., Levine, M. and Zeller, R. W. (1997). Characterization of a notochord-specific enhancer from the Brachyury ... The dINT construct (positions -314 to -85) is as pfog-314 at the 5′ end and deletes intron 1 and downstream sequences at the 3 ...
Thus, reviewing the key factors involved in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and ... Because of their capability of differentiation into lineage-specific cells, stem cells are an attractive therapeutic modality ... MALAT-1 has been reported to activate the transcription of latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 3 (LTBP3), a ... This suggests that MEG3 is an important factor in epigenetic regulation of lineage-specific genes during ESC differentiation. ...
  • Upon differentiation into MPPs and LMPPs, the mRNA levels of the erythroid specific genes decrease, while the levels of the myeloid transcription factors remain stable. (blogspot.com)
  • Appreciable expression of lymphoid specific genes such as preTα and Pax5 is not seen until the CLP stage. (blogspot.com)
  • This suggests that the "default" lineages for the hematopoietic system lean toward the innate immune system, and that lineage commitment occurs upon both the upregulation and activation of a lineage specific gene network with the concomitant downregulation or suppression of transcription of genes associated with alternative cell lineages. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, BTB-ZF genes have been shown to control T cell versus B cell commitment and CD4 versus CD8 lineage commitment. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation, most often repression, is achieved by sequence-specific binding by the ZF domain to regulatory regions in target genes, coupled with the recruitment of cofactors involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional silencing/activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • [14] The gene encodes for a transcription factor that belongs to the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hes) subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix factor genes which encode transcriptional repressors that function as downstream targets to regulate cell fate during tissue development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and BHLHe41. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, SA lineage-specific restoration of Gata3 function in the Gata3 mutant background rescues the expression phenotypes of the downstream, as well as the putative upstream genes. (biologists.org)
  • The study of the epigenetic modifications of the Ifng locus in Th1 cells and Il4 locus in Th2 cells showed that these genes are associated with permissive histone marks in the relevant lineage, while they are enriched with repressive modifications in the lineages that do not express the cytokine 8 . (nature.com)
  • RING1B is overexpressed in patients with luminal breast cancer (BC) and recruited to actively transcribed genes and enhancers co-occupied by the estrogen receptor α (ERα). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cell fate determination, or lineage commitment, which is often initiated by exposure to developmental cues, accompanies both up-regulation of genes specific for one lineage and down-regulation of genes associated with other lineages. (wiley.com)
  • Hence, nuclear machinery that is involved in activation or repression of genes constitutes an integral part of lineage commitment. (wiley.com)
  • To address how quantitative Nodal/Activin signals are translated qualitatively into distinct cell fates decisions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of phospho-Smad2, the primary downstream transcriptional factor of the Nodal/Activin pathway, followed by massively parallel sequencing, and show that phospho-Smad2 binds to and regulates distinct subsets of target genes in a dose-dependent manner. (prolekare.cz)
  • Mechanistic experiments demonstrate that Bcl11b bound to conserved noncoding regions in the Foxp3 and IL-10 genes, therefore participating in regulation of expression of these genes. (rupress.org)
  • Whereas the enhancers of both genes contain critical and interchangeable GATA sites, their distinct patterns of activation stem from the additional presence of two Ets sites in the Ci-otx enhancer. (biologists.org)
  • Our study has generated the first lens chromatin accessibility maps that support a general model of stage-specific chromatin changes associated with transcriptional activities of batteries of genes required for lens fiber cell formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both promoters and enhancers of transcriptionally active genes display increased sensitivity to nuclease digestion [ 3 ] and are located to "open" chromatin domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Germline variation can influence either step in this process, and case-control genome-wide association (GWA) studies have successfully identified ALL-associated SNPs in genes including ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, PIP4K2A, CDKN2A/2B , and GATA3 ( 8-15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Super-enhancers (SEs) in a broad range of human cell types are large clusters of enhancers with aberrant high levels of transcription factor binding, which are central to drive expression of genes in controlling cell identity and stimulating oncogenic transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 20 kb on average) with exceptionally higher (as compared to binding to typical enhancers) binding of transcriptional coactivators, such as mediator or EP300, or BRD4, or CDK7 [ 14 ], and have high potential to activate transcription of their target genes (Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although genes expressed in several cell types including embryonic stem cells ( Hox genes), B-lineage cells (immunoglobulin genes) and erythroid cells (globin genes) have emerged as important models to understand eukaryotic transcription, cytokine genes expressed in T-helper cells are particularly attractive models to study lineage specific regulation. (prolekare.cz)
  • This procedure revealed several deregulated genes including overexpressed IRF4, MIR155HG and MIR17HG and downregulated AUTS2, EP300, GATA3 and HHEX. (oncotarget.com)
  • Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (Satb1) is acetylated and predominantly functions as repressor of target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only a few isoforms contain the requisite three or more N-terminal zinc motifs that confer high affinity binding to a specific core DNA sequence element in the promoters of target genes. (cancerindex.org)
  • Estrogen receptor (ER)-associated cofactors and cooperating transcription factors are one of the primary components determining transcriptional activity of estrogen target genes and may constitute potential therapeutic targets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms of ER-mediated gene induction have focused primarily on promoter proximal regions of target genes ( 1 - 4 ) but have provided significant information about the multiprotein complexes involved in estrogen-stimulated gene transcription ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The role of cooperating transcription factors, such as AP-1, Sp-1, and cAMP proteins, in assisting ER transcription was derived from reporter assay experiments, showing that the binding motifs for these specific transcription factors occur in the promoters of estrogen target genes of interest and are required for transcription ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that TAL1 interacts with RUNX1 and ETS1, and that these transcription factors are critically required for TAL1 binding to genes that modulate T‐cell differentiation. (embopress.org)
  • The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle genes and cellular senescence. (cancerindex.org)
  • This involved calcineurin/transcription factor EB (TFEB) pathway and its target genes, cathepsin B, cathepsin D, and LAMP-1, to mediate lysosomal exocytosis. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The POU family of transcription factors can activate the expression of their target genes through binding to an octameric sequence motif of an ATGCAAAT consensus sequence. (springeropen.com)
  • This term refers to the predetermined, tissue-specific set of genes that characterizes every cell within a multicellular organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcription regulation is a major controller of gene expression dynamics during development and disease, where transcription factors (TFs) modulate expression of genes through direct or indirect DNA interaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To achieve this, specific sets of genes are activated or silenced during development using instructions which include epigenetic and transcription control mechanisms [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In our search for factors that propagate the transcriptional programs of differentiated Th cells, we previously found that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which are known as epigenetic regulators that maintain repressive chromatin states, bind differentially the signature cytokine genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data support a model whereby the non-differentially expressed PcG proteins are recruited in a Th-lineage specific manner to their target genes to enforce the maintenance of specific transcriptional programs as transcriptional repressors or activators. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ZEB also binds to the promoter of pivotal hematopoietic genes (including those encoding interleukin-2, CD4, GATA-3, and α 4 -integrin), and mice in which ZEB has been genetically targeted show thymic atrophy, severe defects in lymphocyte differentiation, and increased expression of the α 4 -integrin and CD4. (asm.org)
  • While the biological significance of multiple transcriptional regulatory domains remains unclear, it is likely that these domains are directed at different target genes or at different sets of transcription factors in a single promoter. (asm.org)
  • ZEB/zfh-1 is an active transcriptional repressor that binds to a subset of E boxes (with higher affinity for the CACCTG sequence) and E-box-like sequences in muscle and hematopoietic genes ( 20 , 49-51 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Binding sites for ZEB are present in the promoter regions of a number of muscle genes such as the MRF themselves ( 5 , 15 , 65 ), muscle creatine kinase ( 1 ), acethylcholine receptor δ ( 58 ), etc. (asm.org)
  • Finally, TFEB antibody was used for CHIP/Q-PCR assay and revealed up-regulation of genes known to be downstream of TFEB. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Transcription factors that are involved in differential production and regulation of cytokine genes, for example GATA3 in Th2, are well studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These rearrangements will juxtapose one of these T-cell receptor genes with many critical partner genes, many of which code for transcription factors. (usal.es)
  • These mutations are found in genes involved in the JAK-STAT and Ras/PI3K/AKT pathways, in epigenetic regulation, in mRNA maturation and ribosome activity, in modifying histone methylation or acetylation, and that function as regulators of transcription. (usal.es)
  • However, despite their well-defined roles in the establishment of anteroposterior pattern and considerable research into their mechanism of action, relatively few target genes have been identified in the downstream regulatory network. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, the data can also be classified into genetic motifs that are predicted by the specific combinations of Hox genes and other regulators of hindbrain anteroposterior identity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PRH protein forms oligomeric complexes that bind to tandemly repeated PRH recognition sequences within or at a distance from PRH-target genes and recruit a variety of PRH-interacting proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • PRH can also bind to other transcription factors and co-regulate specific target genes either directly through DNA binding, or indirectly through effects on the activity of its partner proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, multiple PRH target genes, including the genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors, Endoglin, and Goosecoid, are known to be important in the control of cell proliferation and cell survival and/or the regulation of cell migration and invasion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The study of transcriptional regulation has been greatly facilitated by the development of reporter genes and transcription factor expression vectors, which have become versatile tools for manipulating promoters, as well as transcription factors in order to examine their function. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcription of these genes is constant, at a pace depending on the need and half-life of each protein. (mdpi.com)
  • These signals are transmitted to the nucleus in the form of active transcription factors that trigger transcription by binding to response elements mainly in the 5′ sequences or promoters of genes, activating the transcriptional machinery. (mdpi.com)
  • Because mice lacking the BMP inhibitor Noggin fail to express Lef1, our findings support a model, whereby a sequential inhibition and then activation of BMPRIA is necessary to define a band of hair progenitor cells, which possess enough Lef1 and stabilized β-catenin to activate the hair specific keratin genes and generate the hair shaft. (rupress.org)
  • We focus on the oncogenic transcription factors TAL1, LMO2 , and NOTCH1 and highlight the significance of the transcriptional regulatory programs in normal hematopoietic stem cells and T-ALL. (frontiersin.org)
  • The transcription factor Ikaros was among the first transcriptional regulators shown to play an important role in orchestrating lymphoid development. (blogspot.com)
  • [8] In the clock, the transcriptional factors Clock and Bmal form a heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data not only underscore the hypothesis that Gata3 is essential for the differentiation and survival of SA cells, but also suggest that their differentiation is controlled by mutually reinforcing feedback transcriptional interactions between Gata3, Mash1, Hand2 and Phox2b in the SA lineage. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, reviewing the key factors involved in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and maintenance is important. (hindawi.com)
  • In certain human cancers, the expression of critical oncogenes is driven from large regulatory elements, called super-enhancers, that recruit much of the cell's transcriptional apparatus and are defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac). (sciencemag.org)
  • MYB binds to this new site and recruits its H3K27 acetylase-binding partner CBP, as well as core components of a major leukemogenic transcriptional complex that contains RUNX1, GATA-3, and TAL1 itself. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, although histone H3 lysine 4 mono‐methylation (H3K4me1) indicates the presence of transcriptional gene enhancers, it does not provide clearcut information about their actual position and stage‐specific activity. (embopress.org)
  • Gata2 -/fl ) embryos revealed that the VE enhancer harbors what we believe to be a previously undiscovered Gata2 transcriptional regulatory activity in definitive (fetal and adult) HSCs, and unexpectedly that GATA-2 deficiency in the endothelial lineage results in edema and hemorrhage, leading to late gestational lethality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Besides, active enhancers can generate enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs), and eRNA transcripts might contribute to enhancer-mediated target gene expression and function in transcriptional activation [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the nucleus, DNA-binding proteins of the T-cell factor (Tcf) and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef-1) family are bound by transcriptional repressors such as transducin-like enhancer proteins (Tle) and C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the nucleus, β-catenin interacts with diverse DNA binding partners to remodel chromatin and orchestrate transcriptional programs ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The balance between different NF-κB homo- and heterodimers will determine which dimers are bound to specific κB sites and thereby regulate the level of transcriptional activity. (asm.org)
  • We find that Nkx3-1 and LEF-1 bind to several ER cis -regulatory elements in vivo , but they both function as transcriptional repressors of estrogen signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our genome-wide ChIP-chip analysis ( 8 ) and others ( 11 , 12 ) estimate that only approximately 3% to 5% of ER binding occurs at promoter proximal regions, and as such, the distal enhancer regions are likely to dictate the significant majority of transcriptional regulation ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The responses to chronic hypoxia are, at least substantially, orchestrated by activation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs), whose stability and subsequent transcriptional activation are regulated by HIF hydroxylases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), initially isolated as a HIFα interacting protein following a yeast two-hybrid screen, is an asparaginyl hydroxylase that negatively regulates transcriptional activation by HIF. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Another study utilizing comprehensive gene expression analyses to examine diversity of human fibroblasts across the body revealed diverse transcriptional phenotypes based on organ- and site-specific anatomic location expressed by transcriptional regulation, humoral signaling ligands, and ECM remodeling [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unexpectedly, their binding to the Ifng ( Interferon-g) in Th1 cells and Il4 ( Interleukin-4 ) in Th2 cells, was correlated with transcriptional activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most C-terminal domain inhibits muscle differentiation in mammalian cells by specifically blocking the transcriptional activity of the myogenic factor MEF2C. (asm.org)
  • Most transcriptional repressors and activators have an identifiable domain that regulates transcription and that is transferable to a heterologous DNA-binding domain (active repression or activation). (asm.org)
  • The molecular mechanism of action of some of these transcriptional regulatory sequences is being uncovered, and these results may provide insight into relationships between regulatory sequences and how they selectively control tissue-specific processes. (asm.org)
  • The C-terminal domain is required for the transcriptional activation of the sodium-dependent bile acid co-transporter (NTCP) gene and is therefore likely to be required for the activation of transcription in other contexts [ 28 , 29 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The understanding of promoter complexity and transcription factor structure offers an insight into the mechanisms of transcriptional control and their impact on cell behaviour. (mdpi.com)
  • This review focuses on some of the many applications of molecular cut-and-paste tools for the manipulation of promoters and transcription factors leading to the understanding of crucial aspects of transcriptional regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The dominant view of transcriptional regulation has been that this is the rate-limiting step of transcription and, therefore, the main point of regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • In the mesoderm, the transcription factor SCL dimerizes with the E proteins to commence a hematopoietic program. (blogspot.com)
  • The Hox proteins interact with the co-factor Meis1 to direct normal hematopoiesis. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, the BTB-ZF protein PLZP has been shown to associate with HDAC-2 in Th2-skewed CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, and these two proteins colocalize at regulatory elements in the IL-13 gene where they likely act in concert to modulate transcription ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Transcription factors that mediate BMP signaling in specifying the SA lineage have been identified and include the zinc-finger protein, Gata3, the bHLH proteins Mash1 (Ascl1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) and Hand2, as well as the closely related homeodomain transcription factors Phox2a and Phox2b. (biologists.org)
  • Meanwhile, NFAT proteins bind to these regulatory elements and activate RORγt transcription in cooperation with NF-kB. (nature.com)
  • 4 ] 5mC is recognized by methyl DNA binding proteins through specific peptide modules such as MBD (methyl-CpG binding domain) or triple-zinc-finger motif. (wiley.com)
  • At the level of chromatin, these regions display increased nuclease sensitivity, reduced nucleosome density, including nucleosome-free regions, and specific combinations of posttranslational modifications of core histone proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, it has been shown that SCL can form a multiprotein complex in hematopoietic cells, which includes the transcription factors E2A and GATA-1, linked by the transcription factor binding proteins LMO2 and Ldb-1. (bloodjournal.org)
  • McCann R, Craig S. The I/LWEQ module: a conserved sequence that signifies F-actin binding in functionally diverse proteins from yeast to mammals. (labome.org)
  • Transcription factors of the Rel/NF-κB family are activated in response to signals that lead to cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and these proteins are critical elements involved in the regulation of immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Members of the NF-κB family are characterized by the presence of a Rel homology domain (Fig. 1 ) which contains a nuclear localization sequence and is involved in sequence-specific DNA binding, dimerization, and interaction with the inhibitory IκB proteins ( 67 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific pattern that provides an additional level of regulation. (asm.org)
  • The IκB proteins bind with different affinities and specificities to NF-κB dimers. (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins associated with chromatin remodeling. (cancerindex.org)
  • We find enriched Nkx and TCF/LEF motifs and on further investigation determine that Nkx and LEF proteins act as repressors by competing with ER for binding to common regions within the genome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations (e.g. deletions, fusions) that affect the integrity of transcription factors by altering their DNA‐binding specificity and/or capacity to interact with cofactors can transform these proteins into potent oncogenes. (embopress.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11854453 Receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, are persistently expressed during cardiac development, yet mice lacking type II or type IA BMP receptors die at gastrulation and cannot be used to assess potential later roles in creation of the heart. (jove.com)
  • HSC may contain several protein including Suppressor of Fused (Sufu), kinesin-like proteins Kif7, unc-51-like kinase 3 (Ulk3), and Gli2/3FL transcription elements [4C8]. (ap26113.com)
  • What makes ITAMs special is that there are proteins such as ZAP70 that contain dual SH2 domains and bind to the ITAM phosphorylated tyrosines as a unit. (antievolution.org)
  • ChIP-seq has been used for the profiling of histone modifications and binding sites of other proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chromatin structure and the binding activity of PcG proteins and transcription factors at the Ifng promoter were assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and (ii) the MEF-2 proteins, which synergize with MRF proteins to regulate muscle differentiation and activate transcription either by binding to specific DNA sequences or by interacting with the MRF proteins ( 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Major changes in transcription, morphology, and function occur at the basal/spinous layer transition and again at the granular/stratum corneum transition such that differentiated cells reaching the skin surface are enucleated cellular skeletons that are packed with cables of keratin filaments encased by a γ-glutamyl-ε-lysine cross-linked cornified envelope of proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Databases established by next generation sequencing data analysis has identified ever increasing numbers of potential targets for RUNX proteins and other transcription factors. (inforang.com)
  • Here, we summarize diverse functions of RUNX proteins mainly on lymphoid lineage cells by incorporating recent discoveries. (inforang.com)
  • The Runt-related transcription factors (RUNX) transcription factors are present in all metazoans, and there are three members of the RUNX family proteins in mammals that play pivotal roles in multiple developmental processes. (inforang.com)
  • RUNX proteins contain a well-conserved DNA-binding domain (Runt domain). (inforang.com)
  • In addition, like some other homeodomain proteins, PRH can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This is consistent with the involvement of multiple PRH-interacting proteins, including the oncoprotein c-Myc, translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), and the promyelocytic leukaemia protein (PML), in the control of cell proliferation and cell survival. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Their differentiation is distinct to either the T H 1 or T H 2 cell lineage, but strongly influences development of adaptive responses, including autoimmunity. (hindawi.com)
  • During this process of differentiation, a new pattern of cytokine expression is established that provides the gene products that are responsible for the specific effector functions of these cells, and therefore their ability to protect the host from a variety of pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Gata3 -null embryos, there was significant impairment of SA differentiation and increased apoptosis in adrenal chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons. (biologists.org)
  • We show that Gata3 is essential not only for Th and Dbh activation, but also for cell survival and differentiation of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. (biologists.org)
  • Differentiation is maintained by a network of subset-specific transcription factors and is stabilized through multiple cell divisions by epigenetic processes that regulate accessibility of regulatory chromatin regions, and promote heritable gene expression patterns. (nature.com)
  • Expression of T-bet in Th1, GATA3 in Th2 and RORγt in Th17 cells supports differentiation and function of the respective Th population 1 . (nature.com)
  • Causal variants tend to occur near binding sites for master regulators of immune differentiation and stimulus-dependent gene activation, but only 10-20% directly alter recognizable transcription factor binding motifs. (nature.com)
  • Increasing Nodal signals above basal levels by direct stimulation with Activin promotes differentiation towards the mesendodermal lineages while repression of signaling with the specific Nodal/Activin receptor inhibitor SB431542 induces trophectodermal differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Because of their capability of differentiation into lineage-specific cells, stem cells are an attractive therapeutic modality in regenerative medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • Differentiation is mostly regulated at the level of transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differentiation-dependent regulation of the Ifng cytokine gene locus in T helper (Th) cells has emerged as an excellent model for functional study of distal elements that control lineage-specific gene expression. (prolekare.cz)
  • Accordingly, lymphocyte differentiation depends on activities of particular transcription factors (TFs) like PAX5 for B-cells, BCL11B for T-cells, and ID2, NFIL3 and STAT5 for NK-cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Following a detailed review of the specifics of this signaling pathway, we describe its role in the differentiation, polarization, and memory formation of post-thymic T lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PPARγ is necessary and sufficient for adipocyte differentiation and is implicated in the transcription of a group of adipogenesis-specific transcripts. (stembook.org)
  • In addition, Blimp-1 promotes T helper (Th) 2 lineage commitment and limits Th1, Th17 and follicular helper T cell differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TAL1/SCL is a master regulator of haematopoiesis whose expression promotes opposite outcomes depending on the cell type: differentiation in the erythroid lineage or oncogenesis in the T‐cell lineage. (embopress.org)
  • Thus, our findings highlight a critical role of the cellular environment in modulating transcription factor binding, and provide insight into the mechanism by which TAL1 inhibits differentiation leading to oncogenesis in the T‐cell lineage. (embopress.org)
  • Cell differentiation is regulated by finely tuned mechanisms directed by cell‐specific and ubiquitous transcription factors. (embopress.org)
  • cellular differentiation involves a carefully orchestrated program of gene transcription resulting in a cell type-specific transcriptome. (physiology.org)
  • Understanding how the normal SMC differentiation program is governed represents an important first step toward elucidating the pathways and factors leading to attenuated gene expression in SMC-associated diseases. (physiology.org)
  • Functional enrichment analyses based on separate post-hoc 2-group comparisons revealed several functional themes within the vocal fold fibroblast related to transcription factors for signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells and extracellular matrix components such as cell signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differentiation of osteoprogenitors takes place in order of Runx2, one factor essential for bone tissue development and skeletal advancement [30,31]. (ap26113.com)
  • Appearance and actions of GLI1/2 protein in individual ASC tri-lineage differentiation applications never have been described. (ap26113.com)
  • IL-12 strongly potentiates the differentiation toward the Th1 lineage and IL-4 toward Th2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the activities of the polarizing cytokines ultimately lead to distinct Th phenotypes, the differentiation processes have similar features such as the expression of lineage-specifying transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. (jci.org)
  • Gata3 mutant mice expire of noradrenergic deficiency by embryonic day (E) 11 and can be rescued pharmacologically or, as shown here, by restoring Gata3 function specifically in sympathoadrenal (SA) lineages using the human DBH promoter to direct Gata3 transgenic expression. (biologists.org)
  • Crucially, Nodal/Activin signaling directly controls the Oct4 master regulator of pluripotency by graded phospho-Smad2 binding in the promoter region. (prolekare.cz)
  • Our results suggest that the transcription factor NF-Y binds to a GGCCAAT motif in the tph proximal promoter and activates transcription. (labome.org)
  • Bcl11b bound to Foxp3 and IL-10 promoters, as well as to critical conserved noncoding sequences within the Foxp3 and IL-10 loci, and mutating the Bcl11b binding site in the Foxp3 promoter reduced expression of a luciferase reporter gene. (rupress.org)
  • This binding also affects the three-dimensional structure of DNA, allowing the interaction between the activators and enhancers, the transcription factors, as well as the core promoter region and the RNA polymerase [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Initiation of transcription under both cultural conditions occurred at the same transcription start point (tsp), 23 bp downstream from a putative BoxA promoter element. (labome.org)
  • A large number of factors are involved in regulating ER transcription at promoter regions, although recent chromosome-wide and genome-wide location analyses have revealed the role of distal cis -regulatory elements ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • More recent promoter analysis of ER-binding sites suggests that the genuine number of ER-binding sites may be higher than the first prediction ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3- Promoter proximal binding of factors was more conserved across cell types while the distal binding sites are more cell type specific. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the PcG protein Mel-18 was necessary to recruit the Th1-lineage specifying transcription factor T-bet, and the T cell receptor (TCR)-inducible transcription factor NFAT1 to the Ifng promoter in Th1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex binds both promoters and terminators to regulate gene expression. (abcam.com)
  • Promoters and enhancers are cis -regulatory DNA sequences that control specificity and quantity of transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of active (or open) promoters and enhancers reveals important cis -DNA motifs that establish the molecular foundation for temporally and spatially regulated gene expression in lens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue specificity of transcription is primarily regulated by a combinatorial action of sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors and their interactions with promoters and distal enhancers [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ChIP-seq of a TF allows the mapping of target regions in both promoters (the region surrounding the gene start, containing regulatory elements) and at gene-distal regions, including enhancers (regulatory elements located far from the corresponding gene start), and allows the subsequent identification of specific sequence motifs bound by a given TF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Core binding factor (CBF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that binds to the core element of many enhancers and promoters. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • The zinc-finger repressor protein Gfi1 (growth factor independence 1) is also required for HSC self-renewal. (blogspot.com)
  • 45 in human and mice, are characterized as having one or more C-terminal C 2 H 2 Krüppel -type zinc finger DNA binding domains in combination with an N-terminal BTB domain that mediates protein-protein interactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Of note, administration of a mAb specific for CXCR3 was found to be therapeutically beneficial in a Lewis rat model of EAE induced by the adoptive transfer of unpolarized myelin BAY 57-1293 order basic protein reactive T cells [10]. (srcpathway.com)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix family, member e41 ", or BHLHE41 , is a gene that encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor repressor protein in various tissues of both humans and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • [23] The basic helix-loop-helix domain allows members of the protein family to dimerize with each other to affect gene transcription through binding to specific DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • By examining the pathways upstream and downstream of Bmi1, hence the molecular pathways that regulate self-renewal, his laboratory found that USP16, a protein that dampens Bmi1 signals, causes a stem cell defect in various stem cells in Down's syndrome, including neural stem cells. (stanford.edu)
  • TF binding to enhancers recruits coactivators, such as mediator (MED) complexes, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and p300. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Generally, functional enhancers are binding by monomethylation at lysine 4 (K4me1), acetylation at lysine 27 (K27 ac), and absent of trimethylation at lysine 4 (K4me3) of the histone H3 protein [ 5 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) characterized by the expression of the master transcription factor forkhead box protein p3 (Foxp3) suppress anticancer immunity, thereby hindering protective immunosurveillance of tumours and hampering effective antitumour immune responses in tumour-bearing hosts, constitute a current research hotspot in the field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The jun-B protein, and perhaps other members of the jun family, may play a role in regulating the genomic response to growth factors. (labome.org)
  • Endocardial Cushion and Myocardial Defects After Cardiac Myocyte-specific Conditional Deletion of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor ALK3 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (jove.com)
  • full-length Gli2 and Gli3 (Gli2/3FL) BRL-15572 protein are bound with a putative cytoplasmic complicated known as Hedgehog signaling complicated (HSC). (ap26113.com)
  • BRL-15572 Osteogenesis is normally characterized by appearance of lineage-specific protein, such as for example early markers Sp7 and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and past due markers osteopontin (Opn) and osteocalcin (Bglap) [29,33,34]. (ap26113.com)
  • ZEB is a zinc finger-homeodomain protein that represses transcription by binding to a subset of E-box sequences. (asm.org)
  • We present evidence here that the zinc finger-homeodomain protein ZEB contains two independent repressor domains that target different sets of transcription factors and regulate distinct biologic processes. (asm.org)
  • The proline rich homeodomain protein (PRH), also known as haematopoietically expressed homeobox (HHEX), is an essential transcription factor in embryonic development and in the adult. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The proline rich homeodomain protein/haematopoietically expressed homeobox (PRH/HHEX), is a transcription factor encoded by the HHEX gene [ 1 - 3 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Transcription is the first step in protein expression and the major point of regulation of the components that determine the characteristics, fate and functions of cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Though translation of the mRNA message, as well as modification and correct folding of the polypeptide chains are essential for the protein composition of a cell, expression of all the components begins by transcription from DNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Operationally, we define a functional element as a discrete genome segment that encodes a defined product ( e.g. , protein or non-coding RNA) or displays a reproducible biochemical signature ( e.g. , protein-binding, or a specific chromatin structure). (bioseek.eu)
  • Revaluation of the association of the STOX1 (STORKHEAD_BOX1 PROTEIN 1) transcription factor mutation (Y153H, C allele) with the early utero-vascular origins of placental pathology is warranted. (bvsalud.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. (cancerindex.org)
  • This gene encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • These findings identify a role for acute histone acetylation in the enhancer function of distal conserved cis -elements that regulate of Ifng gene expression. (prolekare.cz)
  • Results from prior work exploring anatomic demarcation by positional variation in fibroblasts suggest that site-specific variations in fibroblast gene expression are not individual or random, but rather, systematically related to their positional identities relative to three major anatomic axes: anterior-posterior, proximal-distal, and dermal versus nondermal [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, mRNA analyses of purified chromaffin cells from Gata3 mutants show that levels of Mash1, Hand2 and Phox2b (postulated upstream regulators of Gata3) as well as terminally differentiated SA lineage products (tyrosine hydroxylase, Th, and dopamineβ -hydroxylase, Dbh) are markedly altered. (biologists.org)
  • In a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, we found that heterozygous somatic mutations are acquired that introduce binding motifs for the MYB transcription factor in a precise noncoding site, which creates a super-enhancer upstream of the TAL1 oncogene. (sciencemag.org)
  • We previously identified a cis -regulatory element located 22 kb upstream of the Ifng gene (Conserved Non-coding Sequence -22, or CNS-22) that is a site for recruitment of the transcription factors T-bet, Runx3, NF-κB and STAT4, which act to regulate transcription of the Ifng gene in Th1 cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • TCFL5 is a new bHLH transcription factor that negatively regulates upstream transcription factor-dependent transcription. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • This places the block downstream from Lef1 expression but upstream from β-catenin stabilization. (rupress.org)
  • This subset of CD4+ memory effector T cells is functionally distinct from either the T H 1 or T H 2 cell lineage [ 6 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several members of the BTB-ZF family have emerged as critical factors that control development of specific lineages and also of specific effector subsets within these lineages. (jimmunol.org)
  • LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the development of Th2-like effector iNKT cells that produce IL-4, including those that also produce interferon-γ. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, Blimp-1 coordinates with other transcription factors to regulate expression of IL-2, IL-21 and IL-10 in effector T lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data thus demonstrate that NFAT specifically regulate RORγt expression by binding to the RORC locus and promoting its permissive conformation. (nature.com)
  • β-catenin accumulates and translocates into the nucleus, where it binds to diverse DNA-binding partners to regulate gene transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ERRs, which are coexpressed with ERs in prostatic cells, could regulate cell growth and modulate ER-mediated pathways via interference on ERalpha transcription in prostatic cells. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • RING1B is recruited in a cyclic manner to ERα, FOXA1, and GRHL2 cobound sites and regulates estrogen-induced enhancers and ERα recruitment. (sciencemag.org)
  • We previously identified a vascular endothelial (VE) enhancer that regulates GATA-2 activity in pan-endothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, we unexpectedly discovered that in addition to its contribution to endothelial cell development, the VE enhancer also regulates GATA-2 expression in definitive fetal liver and adult BM HSCs, and that GATA-2 function is required for proper lymphatic vascular development during embryogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Lysosomal Ca2+ Signaling Regulates High Glucose-Mediated Interleukin-1β Secretion via Transcription Factor EB in Human Monocytic Cells. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Lysosomal Ca2+ Signaling Regulates High Glucose-Mediated Interleukin-1β Secretion via Transcription Factor EB in Human Monocytic Cells. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The C_EBP family of transcription factors regulates viral and cellular CCAAT_enhancer element-mediated transcription. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Trans-acting T-cell specific transcription factor GATA-3 is a member of GATA family of transcription factors that regulates development of multiple tissues. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Antp is a sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that regulates segmental identity in the mesothorax. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Twenty-six DNA-binding TFs, recognizing these cis -motifs, are markedly up-regulated in differentiating lens fibers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As specific examples, our ATAC-seq data uncovered both the regulatory regions and TF binding motifs in Foxe3 , Prox1 , and Mip loci that are consistent with previous, though incomplete, experimental data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isoforms, however, differ in the number of N-terminal zinc finger motifs that bind DNA and in nuclear localization signal presence, resulting in members with and without DNA-binding properties. (cancerindex.org)
  • Recent mapping of ER-binding sites on a genome-wide scale has provided insight into novel cooperating factors based on the enrichment of transcription factor motifs within the ER-binding sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have used the ER-binding sites in combination with sequence conservation to identify the statistical enrichment of Nkx and LEF motifs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Roles for AP-1, Oct1, and C/EBP factors in ER activity were also shown based on the enrichment of their binding motifs ( 8 , 15 , 16 ), in many cases within binding sites that were conserved between species. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our study shows limited overlap in the TAL1‐binding profile between the two cell types with an unexpected preference for ETS and RUNX motifs adjacent to E‐boxes in the T‐cell lineage. (embopress.org)
  • Further research on characterizing these pathways and BHLHE41's specific role is still being conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ligand-receptor interactions trigger a diversity of downstream signaling pathways, including the "canonical" Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the Wnt/Planar cell polarity pathway, and the Wnt/Ca 2+ pathway ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although several non-receptor-mediated pathways (such as oxidative stress or UV irradiation) lead to activation of NF-κB, it is the receptor-mediated events which result in activation of these transcription factors that have been best characterized (Fig. 2 ). (asm.org)
  • A combination of the conservation information from 16 species ( 17 ), with our 3,665 ER-binding sites, provides insight into novel regulatory pathways of ER signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been shown that HSCs express many myeloid required transcription factors, including MPO, CEBPα, and MCSFR. (blogspot.com)
  • 22 This analysis indicated that SCL was expressed in all of the progenitors examined, including day 12 spleen colony-forming cells (CFCs) and progenitors for erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Human blood cells originate in the bone marrow where hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) generate ancestors of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. (oncotarget.com)
  • Initially characterized as activating elements in the neural lineages, these Ets sites additionally act as repressors in non-neural lineages, and restrict GATA-mediated activation of Ci-otx . (biologists.org)
  • Indeed, crucial roles of the epigenetic machinery in establishment and maintenance of particular lineages during early development have been well documented. (wiley.com)
  • To better understand how CNS-22 and other Ifng CNSs regulated Ifng transcription in response to these distinct stimuli, we examined activation-dependent changes in epigenetic modifications across the extended Ifng locus in CNS-22-deficient T cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Therefore, the lineage-specifying transcription factors may induce the expression of downstream specific factors or alternatively, facilitate restricted binding of a generally expressed epigenetic machinery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The helix-loop-helix transcription factor SCL ( TAL1 ) is indispensable for blood cell formation in the mouse embryo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • T HE HELIX-LOOP-HELIX transcription factor SCL ( TAL1 ) was initially cloned as a partner in the t(1;14) translocation, which characterized certain human T-cell leukemias. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Analysis of the genome‐wide binding properties of TAL1 in these two haematopoietic lineages revealed new insight into the mechanism by which transcription factors select their binding sites in alternate lineages. (embopress.org)
  • The lineage-specifying transcription factors, T-bet in Th1 and GATA3 in Th2 cells, function as master regulators that establish the appropriate gene expression profiles for one lineage and oppose the alternative fates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The path of regulation inside our array evaluation strongly factors towards immunosuppression: miR-150 and miR-342 - both regulators of pro-inflammatory procedures (Robertson et al. (gpr109a.info)
  • The Hox family of homeodomain transcription factors comprises pivotal regulators of cell specification and identity during animal development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bioinformatics algorithms via ROSE software locate genomic proximity for grouping elements to assign super-enhancer to a putative target gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depletion of ARID1A in human NGP neuroblastoma cells promoted the adrenergic-to-mesenchymal transition with changes in enhancer-mediated gene expression due to alterations in the genomic occupancies of distinct SWI/SNF assemblies, BAF and PBAF. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, our data demonstrate that in malignant NK-cell lines AUTS2 performed MSX1 activation as well, but in accordance with downregulated MSX1 transcription therein we detected reduced AUTS2 expression, a small genomic deletion at 7q11 removing exons 3 and 4, and truncating mutations in exon 1. (oncotarget.com)
  • Further, thousands of genomic loci are bound by PPARγ and coactivators in 3T3-L1 cells, as described in Lefterova et al (Lefterova Mi). (stembook.org)
  • 2- We demonstrated that factors have a specific genomic location preferences that are, for most factors, conserved across species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Hox family of transcription factors also plays a critical role in hematopoietic development and HSC self-renewal. (blogspot.com)
  • The conservation of this family of transcription factors in many phyla and their association with antimicrobial responses indicate their central role in the regulation of innate immunity. (asm.org)
  • In mammals the NF-κB family of transcription factors contains five members: NF-κB 1 (p105/p50), NF-κB 2 (p100/p52), RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • NF-κB2 is a member of the NF-κB family of transcription factors that also include NF-κB1 (p105/p50), RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These data further support a role for Btk in regulating TLR-induced cytokine production from APCs and provide downstream targets for analysis of Btk function. (labome.org)
  • Our understanding of the maternal factors that initiate early chordate development, and of their direct zygotic targets, is still fragmentary. (biologists.org)
  • Second, deciphering the precise cis-regulatory logic that enables combinations of maternal factors to activate their targets in distinct territories has proved difficult owing largely to the size and complexity of the vertebrate genomes. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, specific inhibitors targeting SEs assembly and activation have offered potential targets for treating various tumors including hematological malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • it's not unreasonable to think that the downstream targets of A74 will be identified soon, i guess we can reserve judgement til then. (antievolution.org)
  • In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders. (beds.ac.uk)
  • and 3) the discovery of increasingly specific molecular targets proved critical for disease progression in preclinical models, has tilted the balance between risks and benefits towards the use of immunotherapy for relapse/refractory T-ALL. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • These transcription factors are activated by beta catenin, mediate the Wnt signaling pathway and are antagonized by the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway. (cancerindex.org)
  • Over the past years, a number of factors have been identified to affect helper T cell lineage determination, including antigen receptor, coreceptors and, most importantly, cytokine environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we demonstrate a unique function for the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) in the postselection expansion of iNKT cells through a direct induction of the CD127 component of the receptor for interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the transcription factor c- myc . (rupress.org)
  • Receptor binding techniques. (stanford.edu)
  • To circumvent the normal E10.5 demise encountered in Gata2 -/- embryos, we utilized a version of Cre recombinase fused to a tamoxifen-sensitive (Tx-sensitive) ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (CreERT 2 , ref. 15 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • found that the binding chain of the IL-2 receptor, namely, the CD25 molecule, can be used as a surface marker of suppressor T cells, and the concept of Tregs was clearly proposed [ 14 , 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B, upon Wnt binding to its Fzd receptor and Lpr5/6 coreceptor, Disheveled (Dvl) is recruited to the Wnt/receptor complex to promote phosphorylation of the Lrp5/6 coreceptor by Ck1 and Gsk-3β, generating a high-affinity binding site for axin and subsequent disruption of the destruction complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Luke M, Coffey D. Human androgen receptor binding to the androgen response element of prostate specific antigen. (labome.org)
  • Estrogen receptor (ER) transcription is a fundamental process in the regulation of breast cancer cell division and tumor progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Trafficking receptor signatures define blood plasmablasts responding to tissue-specific immune challenge. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, we used a Cre/lox system for cardiac myocyte-specific deletion of the type IA BMP receptor, ALK3. (jove.com)
  • 5. the RAG transposon integrated into the receptor near the binding site-coding region. (antievolution.org)
  • This project was designed to test the hypothesis that specific cytokines that are secreted by macrophages, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), cause gene expression changes in endometrial stromal cells. (omictools.com)
  • To describe this heterogeneity, a model of considerable current interest posits that tumors are hierarchically organized, and initiated by cancer stem cells, which are able to self-renew as well as to differentiate into all other lineages in the tumor [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary EVT and HTR8/SVneo cells carrying STOX1 Y153H secreted lower levels of IL (interleukin) 6, and IL-8, and higher CXCL16 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 16) and TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) than wild-type EVT and Swan71 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Such diverse functional roles for organelles that were once thought to be simple may be attributed to their distinct heteroplasmic genome, exclusive maternal lineage of inheritance, and ability to generate signals to communicate with other cellular organelles. (jci.org)
  • Following fertilization, inheritance of these factors initiates distinct developmental programs in embryonic cells. (biologists.org)
  • Distinct functional states of enhancer landscape can be marked by the combinatorial patterns of histone modifications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to distinct cell lineages based on anatomic site, it was found that adult fibroblasts maintained key features of HOX gene expression patterns established during embryogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that ZEB has evolved with two independent repressor domains which target distinct sets of transcription factors and function in different tissues. (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, there is some evidence that the repressor domains in Krüppel target a distinct but overlapping set of transcription factors in transfection assays ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • For each of these Th subsets, lineage-defining transcription factors, important for the establishment of the identity of the subset, have been described. (nature.com)
  • We integrated these predictions with transcription and cis -regulatory element annotations, derived by mapping RNA and chromatin in primary immune cells, including resting and stimulated CD4 + T-cell subsets, regulatory T cells, CD8 + T cells, B cells, and monocytes. (nature.com)
  • We previously identified and characterized a Gata2 intron 4 enhancer that conferred reporter gene activity in transgenic mice in both blood and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) as well as in poorly characterized subsets of hematopoietic cells ( 5 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To more thoroughly define the in vivo regulatory properties of this enhancer, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Cre transgenic mouse line using the Gata2 VE enhancer ( Gata2 VECre) and utilized it to temporally direct tissue-specific conditional loss of Gata2 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we report the generation of conditionally inducible Gata2 vascular endothelial (VE) enhancer-regulated Cre transgenic lines and the consequences of their induced activity in a floxed Gata2 (Gata2 fl ) genetic background. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Erythroid and megakaryoctye required factors such as Gata1, EpoR and MPL are also expressed in the most primitive of bone marrow hematopoietic precursors. (blogspot.com)
  • Complementary studies examining the expression pattern of SCL in hematopoietic populations in mice and humans demonstrated selective expression in primitive CD34 + cells and in erythroid, megakaryocytic, and mast cell lineages. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Defining regulatory elements governing cell-restricted gene expression can be difficult because cis -elements may reside tens of kilobases away from start site(s) of transcription. (physiology.org)
  • These BAC mice represent a new model system in which to systematically assess regulatory elements governing SM-Calp transcription in vivo. (physiology.org)
  • In contrast to drug-rescued Gata3 mutants, SA tissue-specific Gata3 complementation restored nearly normal development of sympathetic neurons and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells as well as of Mash1, Hand2 and Phox2b expression. (biologists.org)
  • The identification of axial maternal determinants and of how they combinatorially initiate tissue-specific zygotic gene expression has had a profound conceptual impact on developmental biology ( Nüsslein-Volhard, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • Tissue-specific features of these processes are demonstrated via comparative studies of embryonic stem cells, forebrain, and liver chromatins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this review is to provide a background on the biology of NF-κB and to highlight areas of the innate and adaptive immune response in which these transcription factors have a key regulatory function and to review what is currently known about their roles in resistance to infection, the host-pathogen interaction, and development of human disease. (asm.org)
  • However, within the last few years Taxifolin cell signaling many groundbreaking functions on a book person in the innate disease fighting capability, the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) [1], possess dramatically transformed our understanding of the composition from the innate lymphoid lineage [2] and led us to reconsider the partnership between innate and adaptive lymphoid lineages in the framework of progression. (gpr109a.info)
  • The identification of super-enhancer relies mainly on the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing analysis using a combination of active enhancer marks (H3K27ac, H3K4me1), co-activators, and transcription factor profiles (especially cell-type defining TFs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, the term "super-enhancer" has not been well-defined and the biological function is still controversial [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer cells acquire super-enhancers at oncogene and cancerous phenotype relies on these abnormal transcription propelled by SEs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ryder K, Lau L, Nathans D. A gene activated by growth factors is related to the oncogene v-jun. (labome.org)
  • For example, the T-cell factor NFAT-1 and the T-cell proto-oncogene RBTN-2 contain two independent transactivator domains ( 36 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Overexpression of the JAK activated transcription factor STAT5 leads to increased self-renewal and expansion of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo , and HSCs from STAT5 knockout mice have a decreased ability to reconstitute irradiated recipients. (blogspot.com)
  • The specific elimination of Tregs in vivo can effectively stimulate the antitumour immune response of tumour patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Commitment of pluripotent precursor cells to specific lineages, such as T or B cells, is obviously fundamental to this process. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data have spawned a model in which SCL is portrayed as a 'master regulator of hematopoiesis' 17 and lies at the apex of a pyramid of transcription factors controlling hematopoietic lineage commitment. (bloodjournal.org)
  • in particular, RORγt was originally described as a thymus-specific isoform of the RORC locus, expressed selectively in double-positive (DP) thymocytes. (nature.com)
  • T B and cells cells produced from the lymphoid lineage participate in the adaptive disease fighting capability. (gpr109a.info)
  • ARID1A is present exclusively in the canonical BAF complexes within the mammalian SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable) (mSWI/SNF) family of chromatin remodeling complexes that modulate chromatin structure and, therefore, gene transcription ( 9 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. (bioseek.eu)
  • This process is driven by IL-12 through signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) activation and results in the expression of the transcription factor T-bet. (hindawi.com)
  • Purification of a unique cell population based on the expression of specific cell surface markers enabled the prospective isolation of CSCs in various types of cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, forced expression of the anti-apoptoptic factor Bcl2 increases HSC self-renewal and transplantation efficiency. (blogspot.com)
  • In the SG of Gata3 mutants, normal expression of Phox2 and other neuronal markers, but not Th or Dbh, was detected, suggesting that Gata3 acts genetically downstream of Phox2 and is required only for the expression of terminal noradrenergic traits. (biologists.org)
  • RING1B loss impairs full estrogen-mediated gene expression and chromatin accessibility for key BC transcription factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expression of the semi-invariant iNKT cell TCR, comprised of an invariant TCRα chain (Vα14Jα18) paired with a biased TCR Vβ repertoire (Vβ8, -7, and -2), allows for recognition of glycolipid-CD1D complexes on neighboring cortical DP thymocytes, which results in their selection into the iNKT cell lineage. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, hematopoietic cells could be stratified into functional groups based on their expression of a developmentally relevant transcription factor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. (cancerindex.org)
  • It has been concluded that the renal cell carcinoma risk allele at 12p12.1 maps to rs7132434, a functional variant in an enhancer that upregulates BHLHE41 expression which, in turn, induces IL-11, a member of the IL-6 cytokine family. (nih.gov)
  • Predicted expanding and contracting peaks can mark regulatory regions associated with transcription factor binding and gene expression changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, transcription factors (TF) are key players in the regulation of cell-specific gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Th1 and Th2 lineages are characterized by the expression of the signature cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concomitant presence of the three H3K4 methylation states (H3K4me1/2/3) was found to clearly reflect the activity of bona fide T‐cell gene enhancers. (embopress.org)
  • [9] BHLHE41 is known for its role in the circadian molecular mechanisms that influence sleep quantity as well as its role in immune function and the maturation of T helper type 2 cell lineages associated with humoral immunity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraspecific comparisons revealed the association of an early regulation of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with the improved chalimus expulsion in resistant species, which was attributed to the exaggerated T helper 1-type (Th1) responses (normally targeting viruses and bacteria) [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These histone modifications contribute to creating an open chromatin environment for the binding of transcription factors to these loci. (nature.com)
  • Observations that Glioma-associated transcription elements Gli1 and Gli2 (Gli1/2), executers from the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway and focuses on from the Transforming Development Element (TGF-) signaling axis, get excited about numerous developmental and pathological procedures unveil them while attractive pharmaceutical focuses on. (ap26113.com)
  • ALL is a malignant clonal proliferation of lymphoid progenitor cells, most commonly of the B-cell lineage (B-ALL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We then transplant those cells into cleared mammary fat pads of recipient mice, allowing tumors to develop from luminal , myoepithelial, stem and progenitor cell lineages. (omictools.com)
  • Like CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, Th cells develop in the thymus, with specificity to recognize specific major histocompatibility (MHC)-peptide complexes on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The N-terminal domain can repress transcription when tethered to a heterologous DNA-binding domain [ 27 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Both are rich on clusters of cis -acting sites that interact with sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enhancer is a class of regulatory DNA sequence that activates transcription of an associated gene from a distance of up to 1 Mbps (millions of base pairs) and independent of its orientation and location with respect to the transcription start sites (TSS) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that disruption of ARID1A homologs in a zebrafish model accelerates the onset and increases the penetrance of MYCN-driven neuroblastoma by increasing cell proliferation in the sympathoadrenal lineage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neuroblastoma is derived from the sympathoadrenal lineage of neural crest cells (NCCs) and typically arises in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, the endogenous SM22 gene is expressed in all three muscle lineages during development and then becomes restricted to adult vascular and visceral SMC in postnatal life ( 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • One of such key factors of stem cell biology is a group of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, deletion of the anti-apoptosis factor Mcl1 leads to the complete failure of hematopoietic development, indicating its necessity for HSC's survival. (blogspot.com)
  • HSCs express not only transcription factors that maintain their self-renewal capacity, but also transcription factors closely associated with the development of multiple lineages. (blogspot.com)
  • During the past two decades substantial insight has been obtained about the participants that promote the development of the B cell lineage and their concerted activities. (blogspot.com)
  • Moreover, recent studies have highlighted a fundamental and nonredundant role for many BTB-ZF factors in the development and function of cells in the immune system. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review will summarize current findings on the eight family members with known roles in orchestrating lymphocyte development: Bcl-6, PLZF, Th inducing POZ/Krüppel-like factor (ThPOK), PLZP, MAZR, BAZF, LRF, and Miz-1 ( Fig. 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the effect of Gata3 loss-of-function during adrenal medullary development is largely undetermined. (biologists.org)
  • Here we have examined the consequences of Gata3 deficiency on sympathetic neuron and adrenal medullary chromaffin cell development, anticipating possible revelation of new insights into Gata3 neuroendocrine function(s). (biologists.org)
  • The lineage-specific transcription factor, RORγt, encoded by the RORC gene modulates Th17 polarization and function, as well as thymocyte development. (nature.com)
  • fringe, a Boundary-specific signaling molecule, mediates interactions between dorsal and ventral cells during Drosophila wing development. (springer.com)
  • This transcription factor functions in heart formation and development. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • Moreover, these transcription factors have additional functions in regulating cellular function beyond development. (inforang.com)
  • In conclusion, placental STOX1 Y153H is a precipitating factor in preterm birth and placental preeclampsia due to defects in early utero-placental development. (bvsalud.org)
  • The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. (jci.org)
  • This results in dysregulation of transcription of the partner gene, which is the main driver in leukemogenesis. (usal.es)
  • GATA factors belong to an evolutionarily conserved family of C4 zinc finger transcription factors that play demonstrably crucial roles in quite diverse developmental programs, including hematopoietic, urogenital, otic, and neuronal developmental elaboration ( 1 - 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We find that ∼ 90% of causal variants are non-coding, with ∼ 60% mapping to immune-cell enhancers, many of which gain histone acetylation and transcribe enhancer-associated RNA upon immune stimulation. (nature.com)
  • Simser J, Mulenga A, Macaluso K, Azad A. An immune responsive factor D-like serine proteinase homologue identified from the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. (labome.org)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4), also known as B cell-stimulatory factor-1, is a monomeric, approximately 13 kDa‑18 kDa Th2 cytokine that shows pleiotropic effects during immune responses (1‑3). (rndsystems.com)