Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Antioxidant Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.NF-E2-Related Factor 1: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is involved in regulating inflammatory responses, MORPHOGENESIS, and HEME biosynthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.HydroquinonesLuciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Neurofibromin 1: A protein found most abundantly in the nervous system. Defects or deficiencies in this protein are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Mutations in the gene (GENE, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) affect two known functions: regulation of ras-GTPase and tumor suppression.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1: Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neurofibromatosis 1: An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1: A transcription factor that controls the expression of variety of proteins including CYTOCHROME C and 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHETASE. It plays an important role in maintenance of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of MITOCHONDRIA.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 184.108.40.206.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTATA Box Binding Protein-Like Proteins: A class of proteins related in structure and function to TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN that can take the place of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN in the transcription initiation complex. They are found in most multicellular organisms and may be involved in tissue-specific promoter regulation. They bind to DNA and interact with TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS, however they may lack specificity for the TATA-BOX.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II: The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Neurofibromatosis 2: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.MafK Transcription Factor: A small Maf protein involved in differentiation of ERYTHROID CELLS. MafK was originally described as the small subunit of the NF-E2 Transcription Factor, but other small MAF PROTEINS also serve as NF-E2 subunits.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Nuclear Factor 45 Protein: A protein subunit that takes part in forming nuclear factor 90 protein complexes.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Maf Transcription Factors: Maf transcription factors are a family of basic-leucine zipper transcription factors that are closely related to V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. The C-MAF PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN was the first mammalian Maf transcription factor identified, and now the family is known to include a variety of other Maf proteins such as MAFB TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFG TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; and MAFK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins: A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.MafG Transcription Factor: MafG is a ubiquitously expressed small maf protein that is involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROCYTES. It dimerizes with P45 NF-E2 PROTEIN and activates expression of ALPHA-GLOBIN and BETA-GLOBIN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 220.127.116.11.Salvia officinalis: A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Neurofibromin 2: A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2: Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Factor Brn-3B: A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 18.104.22.168.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.TurkeyCytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 22.214.171.124.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
"Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 1 impairs glucose metabolism in mice". Genes to Cells. 19 (8): 650-65. doi:10.1111/ ... Growth factors induce higher activity of mTORC, which then promotes activity of its downstream protein SREBP-1, a transcription ... heavy subunit promoter". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1517 (2): 212-9. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00276-1. PMID 11342101. Yang ... Biswas M, Phan D, Watanabe M, Chan JY (Nov 2011). "The Fbw7 tumor suppressor regulates nuclear factor E2-related factor 1 ...
... transcription factors to the NEDD9 promoter. Prostaglandin E2 induces NEDD9 transcription. The Fox transcription factor ... the NEDD9 promoter also has potential binding sites for a number of additional transcription factors, including STAT5A and NF- ... In response to integrin activation, FAK or the related kinase RAFTK recruits NEDD9 into a focal adhesion site, binds it via the ... A number of studies have identified NEDD9 as a downstream effector in the TGF-beta signaling pathway, essential for promoting ...
Th 9 cells
STAT5, downstream factor of IL-2, induce TH9 cells IL-9. STAT5 directly bind to Il-9 gene promoter, although it has not yet ... calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (TNFRSF4 or OX40), and thymic ... induced permissive chromatin modification facilitates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated interleukin-9 (IL-9) transactivation ... STAT6 repress the expression of transcription factors T-bet and Foxp3 in TH9 cells, that normally block IL-9 production. GATA-3 ...
"Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha recruits the transcriptional co-activator p300 on the GLUT2 gene promoter". Diabetes. 51 (5): ... EP300 is closely related to another gene, CREB binding protein, which is found on human chromosome 16. p300 HAT functions as ... The p300 interaction with transcription factors is managed by one or more of p300 domains: the nuclear receptor interaction ... "Post-activation turn-off of NF-kappa B-dependent transcription is regulated by acetylation of p65". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (4): ...
E2, E3, E4) in the human population. ApoE4 is the primary genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. This strong ... Delahaye NF, Coltel N, Puthier D, Barbier M, Benech P, Joly F, Iraqi FA, Grau GE, Nguyen C, Rihet P (2007). "Gene expression ... The downstream pathway of reelin was further clarified with the help of other mutant mice, including yotari and scrambler. ... Tochigi M, Iwamoto K, Bundo M, Komori A, Sasaki T, Kato N, Kato T (Mar 2008). "Methylation status of the reelin promoter region ...
"High-throughput sequencing identifies STAT3 as the DNA-associated factor for p53-NF-kappaB-complex-dependent gene expression in ... Yu H, Huang YJ, Liu Z, Wang LE, Li G, Sturgis EM, Johnson DG, Wei Q (September 2011). "Effects of MDM2 promoter polymorphisms ... Mechanical signals such as hypoxia affect levels of p53 in these niche cells through the hypoxia inducible factors, HIF-1α and ... Bernier-Villamor V, Sampson DA, Matunis MJ, Lima CD (February 2002). "Structural basis for E2-mediated SUMO conjugation ...
Novel Hematopoietic Target Genes in the NRF2-Mediated Transcriptional Pathway
... and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related ... "Heme regulates the dynamic exchange of Bach1 and NF-E2-related factors in the Maf transcription factor network," Proceedings of ... in promoter regions of downstream detoxifying enzymes. Known examples of NRF2 gene targets include hemeoxygenase-1 (HMOX1), NAD ... R. A. Shivdasani and S. H. Orkin, "Erythropoiesis and globin gene expression in mice lacking the transcription factor NF-E2," ...
Regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 Antioxidant Response by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System: An Insight into Cullin-Ring Ubiquitin...
Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that has emerged as the cells main defense mechanism against many ... This enables NF-κB to translocate to the nucleus and activate an array of downstream genes involved in many processes, ... which resulted in upregulation of NF-κB-derived tumor angiogenic factors. The Keap1-interacting domain was mapped to the Kelch ... The promoter regions of Nrf2 target genes contain a specific DNA sequence, called the antioxidant response element (ARE), that ...
Signal Transduction Via Co-stimulatory and Co-inhibitory Receptors | Springer for Research & Development
... interacts with members of the TNFR-associated factor family and activates the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1. J Biol ... induced germinal center kinase-related (GCKR) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activation depends upon the E2/E3 ... promoter through a composite element containing the CD28RE and NF-IL-2B AP-1 sites. Mol Cell Biol 17:4051-4058PubMed ... Sabbagh L, Pulle G, Liu Y, Tsitsikov EN, Watts TH (2008) ERK-dependent Bim modulation downstream of the 4-1BB-TRAF1 signaling ...
NRF2 modulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling: Influence on adipogenesis<...
The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) are transcription factors controlling pathways ... Conversely, this study demonstrates that NRF2 regulates expression of Ahr and subsequently modulates several downstream events ... 230-bp region of the promoter of Ahr. Since AHR negatively controls adipocyte differentiation, we postulated that NRF2 would ... N2 - The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) are transcription factors controlling ...
Full text] CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting | DDDT
... is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the ... 1,* Hong Zhao,1,* Haitao Chen,1 Qinghua Yao2,3 1First Clinical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 2Department of ... Typical signaling pathways related to cell proliferation: a number of downstream effectors of CXCR4 (PI3K/Akt, Src/ERK1-2, NF- ... Estrogen E2 was found to stimulate CXCR4 transcription via estrogen receptor (ER)-binding sites at the CXCR4 promoter enhancing ...
Mechanism of Action of Sulforaphane: Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Isoforms Contributing to the Induction...
... a cis-regulatory DNA sequence located in the promoter region of these genes ( 10). NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a member of ... Because the putative binding sites for many transcription factors other than Nrf2 are found within the upstream human HO-1 ... 17). Once p38 MAPK is phosphorylated and activated, it phosphorylates and/or activates downstream substrates, kinases, or ... activation but not of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) inhibition. Biochem J 2004; 379: 587-93. ...
The Drosophila Toll Signaling Pathway | The Journal of Immunology
... eventually leading to the activation of the NF-κB factors Dorsal-related immunity factor or Dorsal. In this study, we review ... However, conserved mechanisms in downstream parts of the Toll pathway and mammalian NF-κB signaling are evident. The Drosophila ... which was first identified as a transcription factor that binds to Metchnikowin and Drosomycin promoters (78), was confirmed to ... Cleaved IMD associates with the E3-ligase IAP2, E2-ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UEV1a, Bendless (Ubc13), and Effete (Ubc5) and ...
What's hot today: Current papers in developmental biology and gene function
First, p62 is transcriptionally induced upon oxidative stress by the NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) by direct binding to an ... initiator and downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. Previous studies ... Dref and other factors of the TATA box-binding protein-related factor 2 (TRF2) complex were previously predicted to be involved ... autophagy-related gene 8 and autophagy in Drosophila are regulated by Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ...
... the NF-κB transcription factor was important for both the VEGF and COX-2 promoter activation. Because COX-2 inhibition with ... Downstream kinases and transcription factors modulate gene expression and result in cell growth (Yap et al., 2008). ... a microarray study was performed and showed that the expression of several cancer-related genes and NF-κBtranscriptional ... This in turn induces COX-2 gene and protein up-regulation, resulting in the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). By interacting ...
The Cap 'n' Collar Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related Factor 2) Controls Both Constitutive and...
The promoter of Gsta1 contains a perfect ARE (5′-GTGACAAAGCA-3′) located 4 bp downstream from a closely related imperfect ARE ... Chan K., Lu R., Chang J. C., Kan Y. W. NRF2, a member of the NFE2 family of transcription factors, is not essential for murine ... NF, nuclear factor; Nrf, nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor; GSH, reduced glutathione. ... The Cap n Collar Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related Factor 2) Controls Both Constitutive and ...
Studies also indicated that exposure of animals to oltipraz triggers nuclear accumulation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) with ... M1 and M2 also increased the luciferase activity from pGL-1651, which contained the luciferase structural gene downstream of ... The response to these allyl sulfur compounds appears to depend on several factors, including the speciation, quantity, and ... the -1.65-kilobase GSTA2 promoter region. Nuclear C/EBPbeta levels were enhanced by the metabolites but not by M3 or M4. Among ...
Ramasamy Paulmurugan | Stanford Medicine Profiles
NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activators promote cellular defense mechanism and facilitate disease prevention associated with ... promoter through the forkhead transcription factors. RIP1 expression blocks accumulation of cells in G(1) in response to serum ... In this study, we further identified the potential of PTS in Nrf2 activation and ARE-driven downstream target genes expression ... Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulatory transcription factor that plays an important role in ...
Haring MA[au] - PubMed - NCBI
The transcription factor EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II activates the MYB ODORANT1 promoter at a MYB binding site specific for ... WRKY40 and WRKY6 act downstream of the green leaf volatile E-2-hexenal in Arabidopsis. ... RNA sequencing on Solanum lycopersicum trichomes identifies transcription factors that activate terpene synthase promoters. ... Shaipulah NF, Muhlemann JK, Woodworth BD, Van Moerkercke A, Verdonk JC, Ramirez AA, Haring MA, Dudareva N, Schuurink RC. ...
Gene Expression sub-cluster 25
Constitutive NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) activation has been recently reported to play a pivotal role in enhancing cell ... family of atypical homeodomain-containing transcription factors are important downstream effectors of oncogenic fusion proteins ... Zinc finger protein 382 (ZNF382) has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene possibly regulated by promoter ... Constitutive aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-¿B) signaling pathway has been detected in various lymphoid ...
MicroRNA 399 as a potential integrator of photo-response, phosphate homeostasis, and sucrose signaling under long day condition...
Abbreviations: AP2, APETALA 2-TYPE PROTEIN; SPL, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE; NF-Y, NUCLEAR FACTOR Y; TIR1, ... 2d). Floral-related functions of target genes were further identified, such as floral organ development (GO: 0048437), floral ... 7b). Nevertheless, whether the target gene PHO2 precisely regulates the expression of the downstream floral genes (such as FT) ... The miR156 family, is the main regulator of 11 of the 17 SPL transcription factors. Rising SPL levels positively regulate ...
Experts and Doctors on transcription factors in Japan
Species about Experts and Doctors on transcription factors in Japan ... It thus seems likely that an NF-AT-related factor is involved in the regulation of IL-5 gene transcription. .. ... Human small Maf proteins form heterodimers with CNC family transcription factors and recognize the NF-E2 motif. Oncogene. 1997; ... Promoter analysis of the elicitor-induced WRKY gene OsWRKY53, which is involved in defense responses in rice. Biosci Biotechnol ...
Interleukin-18 as a Therapeutic Target in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure | SpringerLink
... is a proinflammatory cytokine in the IL-1 family that has been implicated in a number of disease states. In animal models of ... the IL-18R recruits tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6) which allows for the activation of NF-κB and its ... Once the active receptor complex is assembled, IL-18R shares many downstream signaling pathways with the IL-1 receptor (39). ... Kalogeropoulos AP, Georgiopoulou VV, Butler J. (2012) From risk factors to structural heart disease: the role of inflammation. ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Targeting the Redox Balance in Inflammatory Skin Conditions | HTML
Nevertheless, the clinical use of antioxidant-related therapies is still in its infancy. ... NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is physically confined to binding partner Keap1 in the cytosol . Keap1 glutathionylation ... and several vitamins have been implicated as promoters of skin health and rejuvenation . External factors like chronic sun ... kinase activities due to oxidative modifications affect downstream signaling pathways and consequently transcription factor ...
Frontiers | ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses | Microbiology
Indeed, many UPR-related transcription factors manage Atg expression (Table 1). As demonstrated previously, yeasts with ... while HCV E2 protein binds to PERK and inhibits downstream eIF2α phosphorylation by acting as a pseudosubstrate (Pavio et al., ... and negatively regulates MAVS-mediated NF-κB and type I IFN promoters, and permits VSV replication. Furthermore, through an ... Gade, P., Roy, S. K., Li, H., Nallar, S. C., and Kalvakolanu, D. V. (2008). Critical role for transcription factor C/EBP-beta ...
Pelargonidin Ameliorates MCAO-Induced Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats by Action on the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway |...
Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a member of the leucine zipper family of transcription factors, plays an important ... NF-κB and other factors, and decreases mortality due to LPS-induced endotoxemia in mice . In the present study, we found ... Giampieri F ,Forbes-Hernandez TY, Gasparrini M. Strawberry as a health promoter: an evidence based review. Food Funct. 2015;6: ... a downstream target gene for Nrf2), and thereby helps to provide cytoprotection . It has also been reported that ...
Frontiers | Alpha-Arbutin Promotes Wound Healing by Lowering ROS and Upregulating Insulin/IGF-1 Pathway in Human Dermal...
In addition, we found a high possibility of wound healing and the upregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor ( ... In silico comparative genomics analysis conducted using our original tool, SHOE, suggested transcription factors with a role in ... These results suggested that transcription factors that are involved in tumor suppression and toxicity response. Our results ... We further conducted in silico phylogenetic footprinting analysis of promoter regions. ...
Interaction of Hepatitis C Viral Proteins with Cellular Oncoproteins in the Induction of Liver Cancer
... promoter did not produce any tumors [47-49]. Core in other combinations like Core-E1-E2 failed to induce HCC in significant ... C. Homer, D. A. Knight, L. Hananeia et al., "Y-box factor YB1 controls p53 apoptotic function," Oncogene, vol. 24, no. 56, pp. ... D. Selimovic, A. El-Khattouti, H. Ghozian et al., "Hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: an insight into ... Hepatocellular carcinoma, like other types of cancer, results from interactions of multiple factors in different signaling ...
Most recent papers with the keyword ESE1 | Read by QxMD
ETS transcription factor ESE1/ELF3 orchestrates a positive feedback loop that constitutively activates NF-κB and drives ... We have identified transcription factors that interact with a promoter region involved in expression of the Arabidopsis ... signaling pathway regulate plant salt tolerance by activating the expression of downstream target genes such as those related ... We reported previously that levels of the δ-crystallin/E2-box factor 1 (δEF1) family proteins (Zinc finger E-box binding ...
Structure-function relationships in the IL-17 receptor: Implications for signal transduction and therapy
receptor activator of NF-κB ligand. TF. transcription factor. TFBS. transcription factor binding site. EPO. erythropoietin. MS ... 5.3.3. Other IL-17-induced transcription factors In addition to NF-κB and C/EBP, the AP-1 binding site is also enriched in IL- ... For example, TNFα and IL-17 additively activate the IL-6 promoter . This regulation does not occur via NF-κB, but the ... tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-17 synergistically up-regulate nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in ...
anti-TAL1 Primary Antibodies
NF-E2 (zeige NFE2 Antikörper), TAL1 and KLF1 (zeige KLF1 Antikörper), all activators play a primary role in HSs (zeige GFER ... erythroid differentiation factor (TAL1) Antikörper * TAL bHLH transcription factor 1, erythroid differentiation factor (Tal1) ... Ets1-related protein (zeige ETV2 Antikörper) plays a critical role in the initiation of definitive hematopoiesis by controlling ... Concurrent exogenous expression of three transcription factors, GATA1 (zeige GATA1 Antikörper), FLI1 (zeige FLI1 Antikörper) ...
NFE2L1 - Wikipedia
"Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 1 impairs glucose metabolism in mice". Genes to Cells. 19 (8): 650-65. doi:10.1111/ ... Growth factors induce higher activity of mTORC, which then promotes activity of its downstream protein SREBP-1, a transcription ... heavy subunit promoter". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1517 (2): 212-9. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00276-1. PMID 11342101. Yang ... Biswas M, Phan D, Watanabe M, Chan JY (Nov 2011). "The Fbw7 tumor suppressor regulates nuclear factor E2-related factor 1 ...
T Cell Activation-Induced CrkII Binding to the Zap70 Protein Tyrosine Kinase Is Mediated by Lck-Dependent Phosphorylation of...
... and enhanced the transcriptional activity of the NF-AT and IL-2 promoters (39, 40, 47). In addition, phosphorylation of Tyr315 ... To test whether Tyr315 is a downstream target for phosphorylation by Lck (or a Lck-dependent PTK), we overexpressed the Myc- ... 54) have suggested that the effects noted in Zap70(Y315F) T cells were not necessarily related to the lack of interaction ... v-Crk modulation of growth factor-induced PC12 cell differentiation involves the Src homology 2 domain of v-Crk and sustained ...
A MHC-encoded ubiquitin-like protein (FAT10) binds noncovalently to the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 | PNAS
As an independent prognostic factor, FAT10 promotes hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma progression via Akt/GSK3 ... Investigations into the auto-FAT10ylation of the bispecific E2 conjugating enzyme UBA6-specific E2 enzyme 1 ... Investigating the Promoter of FAT10 Gene in HCC Patients. Shuaichen Liu, Yu Jin, Dongwei Zhang, Jingbo Wang, Guangyi Wang, ... Factors behind improved air quality in China. Strict clean air policies implemented during 2013-2017 in China helped decrease ...
Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications |...
... and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and basic ... nerve growth factors, and cytokines. These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through ... fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and ... Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, ...
NEDD9 - Wikipedia
... transcription factors to the NEDD9 promoter. Prostaglandin E2 induces NEDD9 transcription. The Fox transcription factor ... the NEDD9 promoter also has potential binding sites for a number of additional transcription factors, including STAT5A and NF- ... In response to integrin activation, FAK or the related kinase RAFTK recruits NEDD9 into a focal adhesion site, binds it via the ... A number of studies have identified NEDD9 as a downstream effector in the TGF-beta signaling pathway, essential for promoting ...
PathwayProteinOxidativeTranscription factorProteinsInducesKinaseTarget genesProstaglandinAntioxidant responseHemeReceptorEnzymesIntracellularGene promotersPGE2CellularInterleukinEnzymeExpressionRegulationBindsActivatorInflammationUpregulationProliferationApoptosisActivationCytokinesModulatesTargetsRegulateInductionEpithelialUbiquitinDegradationDifferentiationAbstractSubunitProximalGenomicPI3KCharacterizationSynthesisHypoxiaInhibitsMechanismsStat3Genes involvedProgressionInflammatoryStimulation
- In this study, we review the current literature on the Toll pathway and compare the Drosophila and mammalian NF-κB pathways. (jimmunol.org)
- To test the hypothesis that NSF and dysbindin/BLOC-1 participate in a pathway-regulating synaptic function, the role for NSF was studied in dysbindin/BLOC-1-dependent synaptic homeostatic plasticity in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
- In addition, we found a high possibility of wound healing and the upregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IFG1R) pathway. (frontiersin.org)
- In silico comparative genomics analysis conducted using our original tool, SHOE, suggested transcription factors with a role in tumor suppression and toxicity response as candidates for regulating the alpha-arbutin-mediated pathway. (frontiersin.org)
- In this study, we found that supplementing arbutin on human dermal fibroblasts decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of the oxidative stress pathway, activated the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) pathway, and promoted consequent wound healing by downregulating the matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) network. (frontiersin.org)
- The results also revealed that the nuclear receptor factor 2 (NFE2L2) plays a pivotal role in the signaling of the downstream regulation of oxidative stress pathway genes. (frontiersin.org)
- Ethylene biosynthesis and the ethylene signaling pathway regulate plant salt tolerance by activating the expression of downstream target genes such as those related to ROS and Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Epstein-Barr virus-coded miR-BART13 promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth and metastasis via targeting of the NKIRAS2/NF-?B pathway. (abcam.com)
- Click on a target from the pathway image to view related information. (bio-rad.com)
- This event initiates a signaling pathway that releases NF-κB into the cell nucleus, activating genes associated with the transcription of proteins related to the inflammatory process, such as iNOS, responsible for NO synthesis, COXs, which synthetize prostaglandins, and cytokines like IL-6. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
- Interaction between SQSTM1 and TRAF6 leads to the K63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and subsequent activation of the NF-κB pathway (9). (cellsignal.com)
- as well as the canonical inflammatory pathway, specifically, nuclear element kappa-light-chain-enhancer of triggered B cells (NF-and interleukin 18 (IL-18) . (code3systems.com)
- 4. Functions of E2 in Epithelial Cells In general, the effects of E2 on epithelial cells activate the classic genomic pathway, which happens over the course of hours. (code3systems.com)
- Myeloid-specific GPCR kinase-2 negatively regulates NF-κB1p105-ERK pathway and limits endotoxemic shock in mice. (genes2cognition.org)
- Our results further identify TLR4-induced NF-κB1p105-ERK pathway to be selectively regulated by GRK2. (genes2cognition.org)
- LPS-induced activation of NF-κB1p105-MEK-ERK pathway is significantly enhanced in the GRK2▵mye macrophages compared to GRK2fl/fl cells and importantly, inhibition of the p105 and ERK pathways in the GRK2▵mye macrophages, limits the enhanced production of LPS-induced cytokines/chemokines. (genes2cognition.org)
- The activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/antioxidant response element signalling pathway regulates the expression of numbers of genes that are cytoprotective, antioxidative and detoxificative in action. (ijpsonline.com)
- In the MAPK signaling pathway, western blot assay also indicated that pterostilbene up-regulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2. (nanostilbene.com)
- Protein networks, or interactomes, downstream of dysbindin/BLOC-1 remain partially explored despite their potential to illuminate neurodevelopmental disorder mechanisms. (sdbonline.org)
- Differential effects of the oxidized metabolites of oltipraz on the activation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta and NF-E2-related factor-2 for GSTA2 gene induction. (openrepository.com)
- A redox factor protein, ref1, is involved in negative gene regulation by extracellular calcium. (labome.org)
- Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) also known as nuclear factor erythroid-2-like 1 (NFE2L1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Neither Ethylene-Insensitive 2 (EIN2) nor EIN3 changed the expression patterns of SOS genes including SOS1, SOS2, SOS3 and SOS3-like Calcium Binding Protein 8 (SCaBP8), but SOS2 activated the expression of one target gene of EIN3, Ethylene and Salt-inducible ERF 1 (ESE1). (readbyqxmd.com)
- We reported previously that levels of the δ-crystallin/E2-box factor 1 (δEF1) family proteins (Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 [ZEBδEF1 and ZEB2/ Smad-interacting protein 1), key regulators of the EMT, are positively correlated with EMT phenotypes and aggressiveness of breast cancer. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Goardon, Schuh, Hajar, Ma, Jouault, Dzierzak, Roméo, Maouche-Chrétien: Ectopic expression of TAL-1 protein in Ly-6E.1-htal-1 transgenic mice induces defects in B- and T-lymphoid differentiation. (antikoerper-online.de)
- NEDD-9 is also known as enhancer of filamentation 1 (EF1), CRK-associated substrate-related protein (CAS-L), and Cas scaffolding protein family member 2 (CASS2). (wikipedia.org)
- overexpressed a human cDNA library in S. cerevisiae, and screened for genes that simultaneously affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding phenotype, and thus identified the HEF1 protein (Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1). (wikipedia.org)
- cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
- NEDD9 is a noncatalytic scaffolding protein that contains docking sites for proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, regulating magnitude and duration of cell signaling cascades The overall structure of NEDD9 is represented graphically in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
- CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) belongs to the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family, and these proteins function as transcription factors in many biological processes, including cell differentiation, motility, growth arrest, proliferation, cell death, metabolism and immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
- The purpose of this work was to study the prognostic influence in breast cancer of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), key players in oxidative stress control that are currently evaluated as possible therapeutic targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- also called thioredoxin binding protein 2 or vitamin D3-upregulated protein 1) [ 5 ] are key players in oxidative stress control. (biomedcentral.com)
- TXN stimulates the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) (AP-1) and specificity protein 1 (SP-1), and elevates hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) protein levels, which in turn influence vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (biomedcentral.com)
- The effect of BDB on the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione-related enzymes and the cell survival of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) was investigated. (mdpi.com)
- HLTF is a tumor suppressor gene - In cancer, two mechanisms of HLTF inactivation are reported: (i) hypermethylation of its promoter and (ii) expression of truncated protein forms that have lost domains involved in DNA repair. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 2008). The thin tilted lines link the 3' end of each exon to the last amino acid it encodes, except for exons 1 and 25 where they indicate the 1st and last protein residues, respectively. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- IL-17 receptor signaling induces activation of Nuclear factor kappa-B ( NF-kB ), Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and 1 ( ERK1/2 ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins ( C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta ) followed by subsequent transcription of IL-17 target genes involved in inflammation and autoimmunity [ 1 ]. (bio-rad.com)
- In most cells, NFκB is composed of a heterodimer of p65 and p50, where the p65 protein is responsible for the transactivation potential. (biomedcentral.com)
- We find that PU.1 inhibits the erythroid program by binding to GATA‐1 on its target genes and organizing a complex of proteins that creates a repressive chromatin structure containing lysine‐9 methylated H3 histones and heterochromatin protein 1. (embopress.org)
- Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and autophagy (1-4). (cellsignal.com)
- They are members of the activator protein-1 family that regulates diverse processes, including cell proliferation, embryonic development, vascular smooth muscle cell growth, and apoptosis. (alliedacademies.org)
- Hypertonicity is known to activate AQP 2 promoter activity via the TonEBP path-way, and increases the mRNA and protein expression of AQP 2 in vitro [ 16 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP or NFAT5) plays a key role in this process by stimulating transcrip-tion of aldose reductase (AR) [ 24 ], sodium-chloride-betaine cotransporter (BGT1), sodium-myo-inositol co-transporter (SMIT), and taurine transporter that mediate intracellular accumulation of sorbitol, betaine, myo-inositol, and taurine, respectively as shown in Figure 1 [ 25 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Ubiquitin is an evolutionarily conserved 76-amino acid protein that is used to label and alter the fate of cellular proteins, and are thus known as small protein modifiers ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- First, ubiquitin is activated in an ATP-dependent manner by a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), then transferred to a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) via a thiol-ester bond, and finally conjugated to a target protein through the ε-amino group of a lysine residue via ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3). (aacrjournals.org)
- This complex binds directly either to an ERE in target gene promoters or to transcriptional factors via protein tethered to DNA . (code3systems.com)
- Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 is a repressor of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 under basal or normal conditions, which is responsible for cytoplasmic sequestration and proteosomal degradation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 via ubiquitination. (ijpsonline.com)
- NT5E catalyzes the terminal step of extracellular adenosine formation from adenosine monophosphate, which drives the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels and the downstream activation of the four G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (2). (cellsignal.com)
- Background: Ki-67, named after the location where it was discovered (Kiel University, Germany), is a nuclear nonhistone protein (1) that is universally expressed among proliferating cells and absent in quiescent cells (2). (cellsignal.com)
- The substrate specificity of UPS is achieved by the E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts in concert with the E1 and E2 ligases to recognize and mark specific protein molecules destined for degradation by attaching to them chains of ubiquitin molecules. (jove.com)
- TRIF, TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon β. (spotidoc.com)
- Magnetic resonance imaging and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were used to measure the volume of cerebral ischemia and modified neurological severity score (mNSS), the Morris water maze test to assess neurological functions, and ELISA to determine the levels of inflammatory factors in serum including TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-10 and oxidative factors i.e. (researchsquare.com)
- Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) reduces thioredoxin 1 (TXN), which in turn reduces oxidized cysteins in cellular proteins and scavenges peroxides by peroxiredoxins (PRDX), thus protecting cells against oxidative stress. (biomedcentral.com)
- and (2) to evaluate its use as a nutritional intervention in health and disease, with a special emphasis on experimental studies relating to oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and cognition. (mdpi.com)
- The oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), including oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions, is the prime cause of skin aging [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
- A number of various factors have been found to be associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress. (mdpi.com)
- Oxidative stress has been implicated in the majority of initiating factors. (intechopen.com)
- Several factors ranging from radiation, pollution, high fat and sugar diet, alcohol consumption, smoking, tobacco consumption and even certain drugs contribute to oxidative stress. (ijpsonline.com)
- This article reviews the potential therapeutic role of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 activators in prevention and treatment of those diseases in which oxidative stress plays a definitive role in the pathogenesis. (ijpsonline.com)
- N rf 2 (NF-E2- related factor 2) is a transcription factor that has emerged as the cell's main defense mechanism against many harmful environmental toxicants and carcinogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Northern blotting has shown that mouse small intestine contains relatively large amounts of the nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor (Nrf) 2 transcription factor but relatively little Nrf1. (aacrjournals.org)
- Structure of the rat thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) gene. (labome.org)
- Takeba Y, Nagafuchi H, Takeno M, Kashiwakura J, Suzuki N. Txk, a member of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase of Tec family, acts as a Th1 cell-specific transcription factor and regulates IFN-gamma gene transcription. (labome.org)
- Thus, Txk is expressed on Th1/Th0 cells with the IFN-gamma production and acts as a Th1 cell-specific transcription factor. (labome.org)
- NFE2L1 is a cap 'n' collar, basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
- ESE1 is an epithelium-restricted transcription factor and its multiple domain structure predicts its interaction with other proteins with diverse cellular functions. (readbyqxmd.com)
- The Fox transcription factor Forkhead box C1 (FoxC1) and PAX5 transcription factor have been reported to induce NEDD9 transcription. (wikipedia.org)
- Osterix is a novel bone-related transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, and bone maturation. (kstudy.com)
- HLTF is a transcription factor - The Helicase-Like Transcription Factor (HLTF/SMARCA3) belongs to the family of SWI/SNF proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin in a variety of cellular processes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- One feature that cytotoxic treatments of cancer have in common is activation of the transcription factor NFκB, which regulates inflammation, cell survival and P-gp expression and suppresses the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic agents. (biomedcentral.com)
- Repression of one transcription factor bound to DNA by another transcription factor not on the DNA represents a new mechanism for downregulating an alternative gene expression program during lineage commitment of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors. (embopress.org)
- NF-kB is a Rel family transcription factor that activates an inflammatory cascade, leading to interleukin (IL)-8 productions. (alliedacademies.org)
- We found a highly significant enrichment for several transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) leading to the prediction that corresponding transcription factors, such as Sp1, Tcfap2, E2f, Myc and Egr, are regulated by Rage signaling. (beds.ac.uk)
- We found that heme bound to Bach2, a transcription factor essential for humoral immunity, including antibody class switch. (bloodjournal.org)
- Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 is a master transcription factor belonging to the leucine zipper family. (ijpsonline.com)
- Chemokines are small, structurally related proteins that play a significant role in leukocyte trafficking and are divided into four groups (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) based on the position of the first two conserved cysteines. (dovepress.com)
- Maternal Cup controls translation of localized mRNAs encoding the Oskar and Nanos proteins and binds to the general translation initiation factor eIF4E . (sdbonline.org)
- Human dysbindin/BLOC-1 coprecipitates with NSF and vice versa, and both proteins colocalized in a Drosophila model synapse . (sdbonline.org)
- These results demonstrate that dysbindin /BLOC-1 expression defects result in altered cellular content of proteins of the vesicle fusion apparatus and therefore influence synaptic plasticity. (sdbonline.org)
- Most soluble misfolded proteins are cleared through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which involves action of a cascade of three canonical ubiquitin enzymes: E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme initiates the reaction by using ATP to covalently activate and then conjugate the ubiquitin to an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. (frontiersin.org)
- In this review we focus on the interaction of viral proteins with important regulators of cell cycle-oncoproteins YB-1, p53, and cyclin D1-which play a major role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and genomic stability. (hindawi.com)
- On the other hand, nicotine inhibits apoptosis by activating survival factors such as Myc, XIAP, and survivin proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
- In unstimulated cells, NFκB is sequestered predominantly in the cytoplasm in an inactive complex through interaction with IκB inhibitor proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- PU.1 and GATA‐1 are two sequence‐specific DNA binding proteins that play central roles in the lineage commitment decisions of common myelo‐erythroid progenitors (CMPs) to become myeloid progenitors or megakaryocytic‐erythroid progenitors, respectively ( Graf, 2002 ). (embopress.org)
- In addition to their roles as sequence‐specific DNA binding proteins, PU.1 and GATA‐1 also physically interact. (embopress.org)
- Type response factor proteins with virion genome neurotransmitter Students, where it may know DNA transcription( Birk et al. (erik-mill.de)
- Hypertonicity in the form of high NaCl also increases the DNA binding activity of AP-1 proteins, c-Fos/Fra, and c-jun in vivo [ 10 , 11 , 12 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- E2 binding to ER induces some conformational changes permitting ER to dissociate from chaperone heat-shock proteins and dimerize with additional receptors (ERs). (code3systems.com)
- 2002). A related proteins, NXT2, can functionally replacement for NXT1 in the dimer complicated (Herold et al. (biobender.com)
- The expression of apoptosis and cell cycle related proteins procaspase 3, caspase 3,P53 and programmed cell death 4(PDCD4)were analyzed by Western blotting. (bvsalud.org)
- LIM-homeodomain proteins direct cellular differentiation by activating transcription of cell-type-specific genes, but this activation requires cooperation with other nuclear factors. (worldwidescience.org)
- Here, we show that Ets1 induces ZEB expression and activates the ZEB1 promoter, independently of its threonine 38 phosphorylation status. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Prostaglandin E2 induces NEDD9 transcription. (wikipedia.org)
- E2 escalates the rest of epithelial restricted junctions, which induces the flux over the epithelium. (code3systems.com)
- Importantly, sulforaphane not only activated MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases 1/2 and ERK1/2, but also strongly suppressed anisomycin-induced activation of p38 MAPK isoforms by blocking phosphorylation of upstream kinases, MKK3/6. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our findings outline a new model that includes an active intestinal ROS /I κ B kinase/nuclear receptor corepressor 1 loop that can be applied to an understanding of breast milk-induced jaundice. (aspetjournals.org)
- found Finally leads the download Machining Technology: Machine Tools of spectrum receptor which increases of the death, water, and kinase promoter of MHC glucose activity signals. (evakoch.com)
- In addition to its critical role in the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis, thioredoxin has multiple actions in the cell - such as activation of ribonucleotide reductase, inhibition of apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 and induction of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - which contribute to many hallmarks of cancer, such as increased proliferation, inhibited apoptosis and angiogenesis [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The complex for C to U sliding in vesicles develop of a complex of transportation histone transcription of members, kinase beta effect susceptible sequence 1( APOBEC-1) and a including host glomerulosa( ACF) in immunodeficiency to the histone acid. (erik-mill.de)
- AQP 1 is induced by hyper-tonic stress, accompanied by activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38 kinase and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) [ 18 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- EREs can PXD101 be found in lots of gene promoters such as for example oxytocin, (TRIF), that are connected with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1/4 (IRAK1/4). (code3systems.com)
- CHIP assays proved that the translocation of MLL1 to chromatin was dependent on NF-?B. Our results suggest that MLL1 is recruited to its target genes by activated NF-?B and regulates their transcription. (labome.org)
- Although the natural withanolide withaferin A and polyphenol quercetin, show comparable inhibition of NFκB target genes (involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell cycle, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and multidrug resistance) in doxorubicin-sensitive K562 and -resistant K562/Adr cells, only withaferin A can overcome attenuated caspase activation and apoptosis in K562/Adr cells, whereas quercetin-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis is delayed only. (biomedcentral.com)
- 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is an active compounds that upregulates prostaglandin E2 which is directly associated with high proliferative colorectal cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- They are the proximal cause of prostaglandin E2 release, fever, and stimulate the mu receptor causing analgesia. (brainscape.com)
- Coordinated expression of these enzymes, such as glutathione S -transferase (GST), NAD[P]H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 or quinone reductase), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), is under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response element (ARE), a cis -regulatory DNA sequence located in the promoter region of these genes ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- When added to B-cell primary cultures, heme enhanced the transcription of Blimp-1, the master regulator of plasma cells, and skewed plasma cell differentiation toward the IgM isotype, decreasing the IgG levels in vitro. (bloodjournal.org)
- Heme oxygenase-1, which is known to be regulated by heme, was repressed by both Bach2 and Bach1 in B cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- For example, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that degrades heme, inhibits dendritic cell maturation. (bloodjournal.org)
- 8 Greater serum immunoglobulin M levels are observed in HO-1-deficient mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, 9 suggesting that intracellular heme levels may regulate antibody production. (bloodjournal.org)
- Aizawa S, Nakano H, Ishida T, Horie R, Nagai M, Ito K, Yagita H, Okumura K, Inoue J, Watanabe T (1997) Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 5 and TRAF2 are involved in CD30-mediated NFkappaB activation. (springer.com)
- Arch RH, Thompson CB (1998) 4-1BB and Ox40 are members of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-nerve growth factor receptor subfamily that bind TNF receptor-associated factors and activate nuclear factor kappaB. (springer.com)
- C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). (dovepress.com)
- 4 , 5 The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352-amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR that selectively binds to the CXC chemokine SDF-1 or CXCL12. (dovepress.com)
- CXCR4 is the physiological receptor for SDF-1, in addition to CXCR7. (dovepress.com)
- The Toll receptor is activated when the proteolytically cleaved ligand Spatzle binds to the receptor, eventually leading to the activation of the NF-κB factors Dorsal-related immunity factor or Dorsal. (jimmunol.org)
- However, in the last year important new insights into the composition and dynamics of the receptor complex and mechanisms of downstream signal transduction have been made, which will be reviewed here. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The 5' region of the NEDD9 promoter is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and contains a retinoic acid response element (RARE) that is specifically bound by a retinoid X receptor (RXR)/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
- Yet most of their known biological functions are mediated by their binding to and activation of the ligand-dependent transcription factors, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). (biomedcentral.com)
- On the basis of their ligand-binding properties, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) are divided into two classes: (1) α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgtx)-binding nAChRs containing α7 or α9 subunits, which form homopentamers, and (2) α-Bgtx nonbinding nAChRs containing α2-α6 and β2-β4 subunits, which form heteromeric receptors with high affinities for receptor agonists such as acetylcholine and nicotine ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This one-fourth is known in targets with oncogenic person reaction( MSD) human to metazoa in the SUMF1( initial receptor 1) factor nascent for this PTM. (evakoch.com)
- BMPR-II is a type 2 receptor of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of cytokines, members of which are regarded as essential for the cellular processes of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Launch Estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breasts cancers constitutes around 30% of most instances with limited restorative targets designed for this heterogeneous disease . (angiogenesis-blog.com)
- Interferon regulatory factor 3 is involved in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and TLR3-induced IL-12p35 gene activation. (wikipathways.org)
- In caspase-1 electrons receptor XV mediates required including spliced class residues Ca2+ to the symbol intra-Golgi( Amenta et al. (erik-mill.de)
- TGActcaGC) in promoter regions of downstream detoxifying enzymes. (hindawi.com)
- Cutting-edge studies reported that high-risk transformation ability of adipose tissue is due to production of different pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-8, IL-6 or IL-2 and other enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). (biomedcentral.com)
- The identification of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and their large multiprotein complexes has yielded important insights into how these enzymes regulate transcription (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
- Although only one enzyme (E1) is known in humans to catalyze the first step of ubiquitylation, approximately 60 enzymes (E2) could perform the second step and approximately 1,000 (E3) enzymes could perform the third, making the number of possible combinations and substrate specificities very high ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- a Significance of intracellular binding of sIL-1R2 to IL-1α is not known. (springer.com)
- This stays because late conditions are required displaced to be specific caspase-1 and Toll-like intracellular production protons physical to next t gene, downstream cisternae of receptors are higher than in the CETN2 tRNA, and when there are carnitine VOCs reaction, they can be ribosomal and 6(1 GHGs. (evakoch.com)
- Figure 1 demonstrates the complexity of intracellular steroid hormone conversion (intracrinology). (biomedcentral.com)
- 8 Experimental support for this hypothesis comes from a number of studies showing that the interaction of NO with cytochrome C oxidase in different types of cells is associated with the resistance to apoptosis induced by various kinds of stressors, including growth factor deprivation, 9 treatment with staurosporine, 9,10 O 2 limitation, 10 or intracellular calcium overload. (ahajournals.org)
- This study consisted of a proteome-wide search for polypeptides whose cellular content is sensitive to dysbindin/BLOC-1 loss of function. (sdbonline.org)
- These results indicate that Stat3 mediates cellular growth by modulating AP-1 activity through the induction of BATF. (labome.org)
- This interaction results in a temporal and spatial organization of multiple cellular elements at the T cell-APC-contact region, referred to as the immunological synapse ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Both external and endogenous stimuli turn on or switch off critical events of this relay, thereby transmitting proper signaling to diverse downstream target molecules in a highly sophisticated fashion for fine-tuning of cellular homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The classic effects of E2 on epithelial cells are associated with proliferation, differentiation, and cellular apoptosis. (code3systems.com)
- Matthias Bartelmann et al 2017 New J. In earlier download Making Innovation Pay: People, we are been a smooth transfer GTPase( KFT) for long virus component and mediated that the cellular velocity antigen change understood from Publications-related repressors can steer shown well proteolytically well if reference motifs have involved into head to sister complex directly. (erik-mill.de)
- Agata Y, Kawasaki A, Nishimura H, Ishida Y, Tsubata T, Yagita H, Honjo T (1996) Expression of the PD-1 antigen on the surface of stimulated mouse T and B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
- Much work has elegantly demonstrated that Th17 cells arise as a distinct subpopulation, driven by IL-6, TGFβ, IL-21 and perhaps IL-1β and expanded by IL-23 through exclusive IL-23R expression on Th17 cells [ 17 - 24 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- With regards to hormonal signaling in breast carcinomas, global gene expression analyses have led to the identification of gene expression signatures that are characteristic of ERα-positive tumors that have stipulated functional studies of hitherto poorly understood transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hao H, Aixia Y, Dan L, Lei F, Nancai Y, Wen S. Baicalin suppresses expression of Chlamydia protease-like activity factor in Hep-2 cells infected by Chlamydia trachomatis. (labome.org)
- inhibits osteopontin expression in human decidual stromal cells and can be attenuated by 1? (labome.org)
- In the mouse, a transcriptome analysis of the heart and brain revealed the expression of a full-lenght HLTF RNA isoform (exons 1-25) and a spliced isoform (exons 1-21 + intron 21) in a ratio 26 :1 (heart) and 5 :1 (brain) (Helmer et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Constitutive expression of NFκB leads to activation of several factors involved in cell cycle progression and cell differentiation for cancer metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Regulation of p53 tumour suppressor target gene expression by the p52 NF-kappaB subunit. (wikipathways.org)
- Although these features are thought to be stable aspects of repressed chromatin, we find that silencing of PU.1 expression leads to removal of the repression complex, loss of the repressive chromatin marks and reactivation of the erythroid program. (embopress.org)
- Then, using the recombinant plasmid we constructed a cell line in which the expression of NanoLuc luciferase (NLuc) was regulated by NF-κB. (bvsalud.org)
- Besides, the NF-κB inhibitor, triptolide, reduced the expression of NLuc in a dose-dependent way. (bvsalud.org)
- Besides clock genes, expression levels of some cell cycle-related genes including c-Myc and p53 are also altered . (thefreelibrary.com)
- Following engagement of TCR, the Zap70 undergoes phosphorylation on multiple tyrosine residues that are implicated in the regulation of its catalytic activity and interaction with signaling effector molecules downstream of the TCR. (jimmunol.org)
- The NFκB has a role in oncogenesis and regulation of cancer therapy sensitivity. (biomedcentral.com)
- The roles of mitochondria in the generation of energy, 1 the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2 the regulation of calcium homeostasis, 3 and the orchestration of apoptosis 4 are all widely recognized. (ahajournals.org)
- The constructed reporter system in this study could be applied in the quantification of the NF-κB transcriptional activity and in the NF-κB regulation-related drug screening. (bvsalud.org)
- Hultmark and colleagues ( 5 ) first identified Toll (Toll-1) as an activator of the immune response in a Drosophila cell line in 1995. (jimmunol.org)
- The biological mechanisms of chronic inflammation can be very complex, Nuclear factor- B (NF-κB) is activated by more than 200 different stimuli has for good reason been thought of as the master activator of inflammation. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
- Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), an NF-κB activator, acted on the constructed NLuc cell line and leaded to the specific luciferase reaction. (bvsalud.org)
- Harmful stimuli such as trauma, pathogens or irritants evoke a complex response known as inflammation (1). (mdpi.com)
- We also address its effects in inflammation-related diseases through a discussion of its recently discovered downstream targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chronic inflammation can affect all phases of carcinogenesis, from favoring the initial genetic alterations that drive cancer formation, to acting as a tumor promoter by establishing conditions in the surrounding tissues that allow the tumor to progress and metastasize, and even triggering immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent an effective immune response against the tumors. (the-scientist.com)
- Chronic inflammation is both a causal factor and a consequence of most chronic diseases of aging, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
- Importantly, ROS not only contribute to tumor progression by amplifying genomic instability but transformed cells use ROS signals to drive proliferation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Leukemogenesis is likely to result, at least in part, from the ability of PU.1 to block erythroid differentiation promoted by GATA‐1, because simply providing additional GATA‐1 to the erythroleukemia cells causes them to differentiate and undergo proliferation arrest ( Choe et al , 2003 ). (embopress.org)
- Usually, genital epithelial cells react to E2 by going through cornification (creation of keratins and involucrin), an activity which involves both differentiation and proliferation. (code3systems.com)
- NF-κB activation participates in neuronal apoptosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
- As such, NFκB inhibitors may promote apoptosis in cancer cells and could be used to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. (biomedcentral.com)
- This demonstrates that different classes of natural NFκB inhibitors can show different chemosensitizing effects in P-gp overexpressing cancer cells with impaired caspase activation and attenuated apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- As such, it is believed that inhibitors of NFκB might promote apoptosis in cancer cells and can be helpful to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. (biomedcentral.com)
- OBJECTIVE To investigate the early events of norcantharidin (NCTD) induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, the variation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the NF-E2-relate? (bvsalud.org)
- Homopentamers of α7-nAChR are the most investigated subtype and serve as important channels for Ca 2+ -dependent mechanisms, including activation of second messengers such as PKA, PKC, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK ( Fig. 1 ) ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- stimulated activation of genes downstream of NF-?B. J Cell Sci. (labome.org)
- Interestingly, in addition to transcriptional activation through the CEBPD promoter, a recent study suggested that the abundance of CEBPD can be regulated at both posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hypertonicity-induced phosphorylation of Jak2/STAT3 may lead to activation of the type 1 sodium hydrogen ex-changer (NHE-1) [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, but little is known about factors that regulate its secretion. (openrepository.com)
- They have shown that ER and PR regulate gene transcription either by binding to DNA response elements directly or via other transcription factors and recruiting co-regulators. (biomedcentral.com)
- EBV-related diseases are B cell- and epithelial cell-specific diseases, namely Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (aspetjournals.org)
- It has emerged that hormones act on a subset of mammary epithelial cells and relegate biological functions to paracrine factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- IL-17 released from Th17 cells affects different cell populations of the inflamed tissue, including fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, mast cells, neutrophils, airway epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells [ 1 ], [ 7 ]. (bio-rad.com)
- For example, the epithelial cells of mammary glandsone of the E2 target tissuesare exposed to major morphological and biochemical changes during the lactation cycle . (code3systems.com)
- Additionally, steroid hormones of the ovary and placenta have been implicated as stimulators of mammary gland development, involving complex connections between E2 and epithelial mammary cells, leading to mammogenesis, lactogenesis, galactopoiesis, and involution . (code3systems.com)
- E2 also promotes lactobacillus development in genital epithelial cells by raising the storage space of glycogen in the suprabasal and apical levels . (code3systems.com)
- In order to facilitate mobility during EMT, connections joining the cell to adjacent epithelial cells are dissolved [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ubiquitin is then transferred from the ubiquitin-charged E2 to the lysine residue of a specific target or a growing ubiquitin chain by E3 ubiquitin ligase, which results in a multiubiquitin chain-tagged substrate. (frontiersin.org)
- Many signal transducers and transcription factors involved in EMT are regulated by ubiquitination and the ubiquitin proteasome system. (biomedcentral.com)
- In humans, Th17 differentiation is mediated by IL-23 and IL-6 released from myeloid dendritic cells, IL-1 beta and IL-6 derived from macrophages, as well as IL-21 produced by activated T cells [ 1 ], [ 6 ]. (bio-rad.com)
- PU.1 and GATA‐1 are two critical hematopoietic transcription factors that physically interact and mutually antagonize each other's transcriptional activity and ability to promote myeloid and erythroid differentiation, respectively. (embopress.org)
- Kageyama R, Sasai Y, Nakanishi S. Molecular characterization of transcription factors that bind to the cAMP responsive region of the substance P precursor gene. (labome.org)
- Biophysical characterization of VRC01 suggested that it partially mimics the interaction of CD4 with gp120, and the liganded crystal structures of VRC01 defined specific similarities in the heavy chain of VRC01 and domain 1 of CD4 as related to their binding interaction with gp120 (80). (acmbcb.org)
- Xiang N, Zhao M, Li X, Zheng H, Li G, Li B. Redundant mechanisms for vascular growth factors in retinopathy of prematurity in vitro. (labome.org)
- Even though our understanding of various factors and steps involved in the pathogenesis of CKD and CVD and their obvious links has improved, a complete picture of the mechanisms involved is still unclear. (intechopen.com)
- Without knowing the genetic mechanisms and identifying factors related to shiftwork-promoted health problems, development of prevention and curing strategies may not be achievable. (thefreelibrary.com)