Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA5 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 188.8.131.52.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mice, Inbred C57BLTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 184.108.40.206.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
"Entrez Gene: forkhead box A1". Bingle CD, Gowan S (1996). "Molecular cloning of the forkhead transcription factor HNF-3 alpha ... FOXA1 is a downstream target of GATA3 in the mammary gland. Expression in ERα− cancers may identify a subset of tumors that is ... Mincheva A, Lichter P, Schütz G, Kaestner KH (1997). "Assignment of the human genes for hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-alpha, - ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA1 gene. FOXA1 is a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. ...
... and BCL6-corepressor target genes The MTA3-NuRD complex interacts with GATA3 to regulate the expression of GATA3 downstream ... The SP1 transcription factor stimulates the transcription of MTA3. MicroRNA-495 inhibits the level of MTA3 mRNA as well as the ... Metastasis-associated protein MTA3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTA3 gene. MTA3 protein localizes in the ... Kumar R, Wang RA (May 2016). "Structure, expression and functions of MTA genes". Gene. 582 (2): 112-21. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ...
The gene encodes for a transcription factor that belongs to the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hes) subfamily of basic helix-loop- ... helix factor genes which encode transcriptional repressors that function as downstream targets to regulate cell fate during ... Gata3 enhances T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation signals by regulating BHLHE41 expression through an autoregulatory loop. ... "Basic helix-loop-helix family, member e41", or BHLHE41, is a gene that encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ...
... virus latent membrane protein 1 targeting DNAzyme and the latter a DNAzyme targeting the transcription factor GATA3 which ... of Dz13 as a therapeutic agent derives from the fact that inactivation of c-Jun can have an effect on downstream genes such as ... Australian Cancer Trials (2010) A phase I study of the Dz13 drug targeting the c-Jun gene in subjects with skin cancer (nodular ... 381(9880):1835-43 Cao, Y. et al (2014) Therapeutic evaluation of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 targeted ...
Embryonal fyn-associated substrate
Activating transcription factor), NF-κβ, NF-κβ1, GATA-3, C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha), glucocorticoid ... The EFS gene is one of more than 100 of the genes located in a centromeric 10.21 Mb "minimal critical region" on Chromosome 14 ... Embryonal fyn-associated substrate is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFS gene. It is also known as CASS3. EFS ( ... EFS as a CAS-family member function is transmission of integrin-initiated signals from the extracellular matrix to downstream ...
This up-regulation is directly controlled by GATA3 transcription factor. IL-33 combined with IL-2, IL-7 or TSLP also stimulates ... even though they are encoded by distinct genes, they use the same receptor complex IL-1Rrp2 and coreceptor IL-1RAcP and deliver ... The interleukin-1 superfamily has 11 members, which have similar gene structure, although originally it contained only four ... which does not activate downstream signaling, so it acts as an inhibitor of IL-1α and IL-1β signaling by competing with them ...
Bmi-1 also regulates multiple downstream factors or genes. It represses p19Arf and p16Ink4a. Bmi-1-/- neural stem cells and ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMI1 gene (B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1). ... Trimarchi JM, Fairchild B, Wen J, Lees JA (2001). "The E2F6 transcription factor is a component of the mammalian Bmi1- ... "Regulation of Th2 cell development by Polycomb group gene bmi-1 through the stabilization of GATA3". J. Immunol. 177 (11): 7656 ...
... is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LMO2 gene. LMO2 encodes a cysteine-rich, two LIM domain protein that is required ... The LMO2 transcription start site is located approximately 25 kb downstream from the 11p13 T-cell translocation cluster (11p13 ... Wilkinson DA, Neale GA, Mao S, Naeve CW, Goorha RM (Jan 1997). "Elf-2, a rhombotin-2 binding ets transcription factor: ... Davenport J, Neale GA, Goorha R (Nov 2000). "Identification of genes potentially involved in LMO2-induced leukemogenesis". ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
An example of this includes the translocation of C-MYC, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that leads to increased cell ... GATA3, PIP4K2A and, more rarely, TP53. These genes play important roles in cellular development, proliferation, and ... diverse signals converging on a few key downstream regulators". Mol Cell Endocrinol. 351 (2): 142-51. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2012.01 ... September 1999). "Oncogenic homeodomain transcription factor E2A-Pbx1 activates a novel WNT gene in pre-B acute lymphoblastoid ...
"NFAT3 transcription factor inhibits breast cancer cell motility by targeting the Lipocalin 2 gene". Oncogene. 29 (15): 2292-301 ... GATA-3 directly controls the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and other genes associated with epithelial differentiation, ... the TNF-like receptor TWEAKR and its ligand TWEAK act downstream of NFAT1 to regulate breast cancer cell invasion". Journal of ... known functions of the encoded protein). These carcinogens cause DNA damage such as DNA cross links and double strand ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
An example of this includes the translocation of C-MYC, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that leads to increased cell ... GATA3, PIP4K2A and, more rarely, TP53. These genes play important roles in cellular development, proliferation, and ... diverse signals converging on a few key downstream regulators". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 351 (2): 142-51. doi: ... "Oncogenic homeodomain transcription factor E2A-Pbx1 activates a novel WNT gene in pre-B acute lymphoblastoid leukemia". ...
Inferring regulatory element landscapes and transcription factor networks from cancer methylomes | Genome Biology | Full Text
... understanding the cis-regulatory interface between cancer-associated transcription factors and their functional target genes. ... We identified networks regulated by known cancer drivers such as GATA3 and FOXA1 (breast cancer), SOX17 and FOXA2 (endometrial ... Transcription factor motif analysis of enhancers is coupled with expression analysis of transcription factors to infer upstream ... an R-based tool that uses DNA methylation to identify enhancers and correlates enhancer state with expression of nearby genes ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Regulatory elements controlling ASCL1 expression are bound by LMO1, MYCN and the transcription factors GATA3, HAND2, PHOX2B, ... Our ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses reveal that a key gene directly regulated by LMO1 and MYCN is ASCL1, which encodes a basic ... RET fusions or rearrangements are somatic juxtapositions of 5 sequences from other genes with 3 RET sequences encoding ... The trafficking mechanisms and transcriptional targets downstream of long-range neurotrophic factor ligand/receptor signaling ...
JCI - The molecular basis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
The HOX11 gene encodes a DNA-binding nuclear transcription factor belonging to a distinct family of homeobox genes. Proc Natl ... and inactivation of important transcription factors such as RUNX1, GATA3, and ETV6 (32, 33). Notably, these tumors frequently ... a prominent role for RUNX1 in the control of the oncogenic program downstream of the TLX1 and TLX3 HOX transcription factor ... Loss of transcription factor tumor suppressor genes Over the last few years, a wide variety of tumor suppressor genes have been ...
FOXA1 - Wikipedia
"Entrez Gene: forkhead box A1". Bingle CD, Gowan S (1996). "Molecular cloning of the forkhead transcription factor HNF-3 alpha ... FOXA1 is a downstream target of GATA3 in the mammary gland. Expression in ERα− cancers may identify a subset of tumors that is ... Mincheva A, Lichter P, Schütz G, Kaestner KH (1997). "Assignment of the human genes for hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-alpha, - ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA1 gene. FOXA1 is a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. ...
H3K4 tri‐methylation provides an epigenetic signature of active enhancers | The EMBO Journal
... specific enhancer located 280 kb downstream of the Gata3 gene (Hosoya‐Ohmura et al, 2011). As shown in Figures 1A and C, all ... specific enhancers by defined transcription factors in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Genes Dev 23: 2824-2838. ... that synergistically activate the expression of the Dntt gene (encoding Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase or TdT) in T ... 50 kb genomic regions located upstream and downstream of the selected genes, and an additional set comprising 18 gene clusters ...
BMP signaling regulates sympathetic nervous system development through Smad4-dependent and -independent pathways | Development
The expression of transcription factors Gata3 and Hand2, the known regulators of noradrenergic differentiation (Lim et al., ... 3), resembling the phenotype of embryos carrying a deletion of the gene encoding the bHLH factor Ascl1 (Guillemot et al., 1993 ... Howard, M. J., Stanke, M., Schneider, C., Wu, X. and Rohrer, H. (2000). The transcription factor dHAND is a downstream effector ... Massague, J., Seoane, J. and Wotton, D. (2005). Smad transcription factors. Genes Dev. 19,2783 -2810. ...
Impact of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in IL-4, IL-4R Genes and Systemic Concentration of IL-4 on the Incidence of Glioma in...
... it may be possible that gene alterations may influence gene transcription and/or mRNA stabilization, perhaps involving specific ... STAT6 promotes transcription of GATA3 (a TH2-cell inducer) and MHC II to induce IgE class switching in B cells . ... Signal transduction downstream of both of these receptors occurs via signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT6 ... Serum IgE, tumor epidermal growth factor receptor expression, and inherited polymorphisms associated with glioma survival. ...
... a GATA3 transcription factor binding protein G3B (3) , and a coactivator of estrogen receptor (4) . RIZ contains the canonical ... The protein encoded by the Drosophila position-effect variegation suppressor gene Su(var)3-9 combines domains of antagonistic ... 20 PR domain-containing genes and ∼30 SET domain-containing genes in humans (10) . ... The retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein RIZ is a downstream effector of estrogen action. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ...
Deciphering essential cistromes using genome-wide CRISPR screens | PNAS
... including genes in the ER transcription factor network such as ESR1, FOXA1, TRPS1, GATA3, and SPDEF and known essential target ... essentiality of nearby genes (through CRISPR gene screens), as well as high-quality transcription factor and histone mark ChIP- ... Here our approach investigated over 10,000 putative enhancers downstream of 2 essential transacting factors and linked them to ... S1E). The sequences encoding the sgRNA were PCR-amplified from the transduced cells at day 0 and after 4 wk of culture. The ...
STAT5-Induced Lunatic Fringe during Th2 Development Alters Delta-like 4-Mediated Th2 Cytokine Production in Respiratory...
... proteins and the transcription factor CSL/RBP-Jk (encoded by Rbpj) to induce target gene transcription HES genes in mammals. ... We identified a conserved GATA3 binding site on the 5′ untranslated region of Lfng that was 8.6 kb downstream of the ... at least in part due to Notch-induced transcription of Gata3, a Th2-specific transcription factor (11, 13). The activation of ... and the two most important transcription factors are GATA3 and STAT5 (33). Although early Th2 differentiation requires GATA3, ...
Frontiers | Transcriptional Enhancers in the Regulation of T Cell Differentiation | Immunology
In turn, these changes are choreographed by the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic regulators that act to ... with a particular focus on the role of regulatory elements encoded within the genome, known as transcriptional enhancers. We ... ultimately ensuring lineage-appropriate gene expression. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that control T cell differentiation, ... In turn, these changes are choreographed by the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic regulators that act to ...
POU-domain factor Brn3a regulates both distinct and common programs of gene expression in the spinal and trigeminal sensory...
In mice lacking the POU-domain transcription factor Brn3a, the DRG and TG exhibit many common changes in gene expression, but a ... In the wild-type TG these Brn3a-repressed genes are silent, yet their promoter regions exhibit histone H3-acetylation levels ... These results demonstrate that one developmental role of Brn3a is to repress potential differences in gene expression between ... suggesting that chromatin modifications play a role in cell-specific target gene regulation by Brn3a. ...
Allele-specific long-distance regulation dictates IL-32 isoform switching and mediates susceptibility to HIV-1 | Science...
Gene ontology (GO) biological process analysis of down-regulated genes revealed overrepresentation of factors involved in the ... and 8 encoding the B isoform of IL-32 (IL-32β), whereas the downstream promoter EPD IL32_1 generates shorter transcripts such ... DNA specificity determinants associate with distinct transcription factor functions. PLOS Genet. 5, e1000778 (2009).. ... and GATA3) bind to the rs4349147 DHS (24-27). YY1 has been implicated in long-range chromatin interaction within the TH2 ...
Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Group
The transcription factor GATA3 scans chromatin for its cognate recognition site and interacts stable with target site DNA in ... This complex is composed of 6 core subunits each of which is encoded by 2 or more gene paralogs. Combinatorial assembly of ... The long-term goals of the laboratory are to understand how eukaryotic cells regulate genes within the context of chromatin ( ... Diet constitutes an important means by which animals interact with their environment, with powerful downstream impacts on ...
NKL homeobox gene MSX1 acts like a tumor suppressor in NK-cell leukemia | Oncotarget
NKL homeobox gene MSX1 acts like a tumor suppressor in NK-cell leukemia ... Thus, in both T- and NK-cells the TFs encoding genes GATA3, HHEX and MSX1 constitute a regulatory network which, however, ... The transcription factors IRF8 and PU.1 negatively regulate plasma cell differentiation. J Exp Med. 2014;211:2169-2181. ... might result in decreased STAT5 activity which is located downstream of IL7R. Of note, the IL7-STAT5 pathway is important for ...
Multiple differences in gene expression in regulatory Vα24JαQ T cells from identical twins discordant for type I diabetes | PNAS
Based on this data, the discordant regulation of other genes such as transcription factors might be predicted to be important ... Differences also were noted in the expression of mRNAs encoding transcription factors and signaling modulators important for ... The genes are related by either being downstream of PI3-kinase, particularly several genes that regulate cell survival, or are ... These included GATA3, STAT1, STAT4, JunB, JunD, and NFAT4. Notably, JunB and GATA3 recently were reported to be preferentially ...
We also included key transcription factors for breast cancer such as FOXA1, GATA3, and ESR1 ChIP-seq data in ER+ breast cancer ... The variant rs11668840 is 1.2 kb downstream of the transcription termination site of the ANKLE1 gene and is not located within ... Factorbook.org: a Wiki-based database for transcription factor-binding data generated by the ENCODE consortium. Nucleic Acids ... Paired-Box genes are frequently expressed in cancer and often required for cancer cell survival. Oncogene 2003;22:7989-97. ...
Genome-Wide Association Study of Maternal and Inherited Loci for Conotruncal Heart Defects
... few specific genetic risk factors have been identified. To determine whether common variants acting through the genotype of the ... to identify genes, transcription factor binding sites, and regions of open chromatin. ... 2004) A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 6062-6067. * View ... and located approximately 86 kb downstream from FHIT, which encodes a tumor suppressor protein involved in cell cycle ...
Gata3 participates in a complex transcriptional feedback network to regulate sympathoadrenal differentiation | Development
Gata3 encodes a transcription factor containing two steroid hormone receptor-like zinc fingers that serve as its DNA-binding ... The human Dbh gene is postulated to lie downstream of Gata3 in the hierarchy of SA development as the onset of hDBH-directed ... which might generate either a hypomorphic or complete response if Gata3 indeed regulates those other transcription factor genes ... The transcription factor GATA3 is a downstream effector of Hoxb1 specification in rhombomere 4. Development 126,5523 -5531. ...
Network analysis of human glaucomatous optic nerve head astrocytes | BMC Medical Genomics | Full Text
The analysis revealed that synergistic action of the transcription factors AP-1, vitamin D receptor and Nuclear Factor-kappaB ... genes differentially expressed in glaucoma and closely connected genes/proteins in the interactome. Our results suggest several ... We found that the products of over two thirds of genes linked to glaucoma by genetic analysis can be functionally ... Finally, we built and analyzed an integrative disease pathology network from a combined set of genes revealed in genetic ...
Desiccating Stress Promotion of Th17 Differentiation by Ocular Surface Tissues through a Dendritic Cell-Mediated Pathway | IOVS...
IL-17 activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. 6,7 The genes encoding IL-17A ... Analysis of the expression of transcription factors showed clearly that IL-17-producing T cells express neither GATA-3 nor T- ... 25 two transcription factors that promote the Th17 cell-associated gene expression program, leading to the production of IL-17 ... GATA3) is regulated by STAT6 in Th2 cells. 22 The differentiation of Th17 cells is initiated by STAT3, downstream of IL-6- ...
An Overview of the Role of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Gut Infections and Inflammation
... and other transcription factors such as T-bet for ILC1, RORα and Gata-3 for ILC2, and TCF1 and Gata-3 for ILC3 (Figure 1). Mice ... the gene encoding T-bet) for their development, while RORc (the gene encoding RORγt) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were ... T-bet in ILCs3 controls expression of various target genes such as those encoding IFN-γ, Fas ligand, IL-12Rβ1, and CXCR3 [37, ... act downstream to IL-25 and IL-33 and make a substantial contribution to antihelminth immunity through their ability to produce ...
Early precursors and molecular determinants of tissue-resident memory CD8+ T lymphocytes revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing...
Gata3, Irf4, and Id2). Among the genes more highly expressed by splenic CD8+ T cells were Batf and Zeb2, transcription factors ... We also observed that genes encoding components and downstream mediators of the TCR signaling pathway (Zap70, Itk, Lats2, ... including several transcription factors, suggesting that these clusters were regulated by distinct gene expression programs ( ... genes encoding for transcription factors, such as Batf3, that have not been previously implicated in CD8+ T cell ...
Produktübersicht anti-TEAD4 Antikörper
This gene product is a member of the transcriptional enhancer factor (TEF) family of transcription factors, which contain the ... Gata3 (zeige GATA3 Antikörper) and Cdx2 (zeige CDX2 Antikörper) can act in parallel pathways downstream of Tead4 to induce the ... Transcription factor TEAD4 regulates expression of myogenin and the unfolded protein response genes during C2C12 cell ... Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms, some of which are translated through the use of a non-AUG (UUG) ...
Re(de)fining Innate Lymphocyte Lineages in the Face of Cancer | Cancer Immunology Research
The transcription factor GATA-3 controls cell fate and maintenance of type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunity 2012;37:634-48. ... Although extensive gene expression profiling revealed only a small set of genes whose expression pattern can distinguish ... Type 3 ILCs (ILC3) express the transcription factor RORγt (encoded by Rorc) and produce IL22 and IL17a (14). ILC3s are ... Downstream of CLP, the EILP can develop into all innate lymphocyte lineages, but not T or B cells. Circulating NK cells develop ...
Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Unique Regulation of Transcription of Th2-Specific Genes by GATA3 | The Journal of Immunology
The transcription factor GATA-3 is necessary and sufficient for Th2 cytokine gene expression in CD4 T cells. Cell 89: 587-596. ... to 5 kb downstream of transcriptional end site (TES). Using these criteria, we identified 250 genes selectively bound by GATA3 ... including those encoding Th2 cytokines. IL-4-mediated STAT6 activation induces high levels of transcription of GATA3, a master ... B, GATA3-bound target genes. C, GATA3 nontarget genes. D, The RS of the Th2-specific genes in GATA3-introduced STAT6-deficient ...
Le Cong's Profile | Stanford Profiles
We further identify Gata-3, a zinc-finger transcription factor in the dysfunctional module, as a regulator of dysfunction, and ... Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration ... with 100 times fewer measurements than genes); and (3) that it is possible to blindly recover gene expression from composite ... This distinct dysfunction module is downstream of intracellular metallothioneins that regulate zinc metabolism and can be ...
Bridges Meristem and Organ Primordia Boundaries through , , and during Flower Development in | proLékaře.cz
The boundary regulator HAN encodes a GATA-3 type transcription factor with a single zinc finger domain and plays a role in ... Hibara K, Takada S, Tasaka M. CUC1 gene activates the expression of SAM-related genes to induce adventitious shoot formation. ... The GATA-type transcription factors GNC and GNL/CGA1 repress gibberellin signaling downstream from DELLA proteins and ... PETAL LOSS, a trihelix transcription factor gene, regulates perianth architecture in the Arabidopsis flower. Development. 2004; ...
March | 2019 | SRC Pathway
Th and Treg cell states are defined by expression of master regulator transcription factors [GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), T- ... networks of genes but subtle at the level of individual gene expression. The ability to build predictive models from small but ... Indeed, in 1983, they described a downstream endogenous. enhancer element in the Igh gene that was active in a tissue-specific ... Appropriate lineage stability or plasticity is encoded in the mechanisms instructing and maintaining the Th/Treg lineage- ...
Experts and Doctors on base sequence in Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Genomes and Genes, Locale, Species, Publications about Experts and Doctors on base sequence in Baltimore, Maryland, United ... gene: an alternatively spliced homologue of the human transcription factor. Biochem J. 2001;359:387-92 pubmed ... Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:519-30 pubmed publisher ..These results provide much improved information about CB2 gene structure ... Coordinate regulation of GATA-3 and Th2 cytokine gene expression by the RNA-binding protein HuR. J Immunol. 2011;187:441-9 ...
PromoterRegulateRegulatorsLociEnhancerMethylationChromosomeEmbryonicSubsetsFOXA1MutationsHistoneEnhancersInduceReceptorsSusceptibilityHomeoboxLymphoidTargetsActivationAnalysesPutativeDifferentiallyLineageRepressorsMicroarrayHematopoieticPhenotypeNeuronsRegulation of gene exIRF4FibroblastTh17Expression patternsModulateMRNARegulatesHomeodomainDistinctRegulatorNFATLncRNAEpithelialIsoformsSets of genes
- Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in cytokine gene sequences, particularly within the promoter region of these genes, and have been shown to be associated with the development of different types of brain tumors. (medsci.org)
- In the wild-type TG these Brn3a-repressed genes are silent, yet their promoter regions exhibit histone H3-acetylation levels similar to constitutively transcribed gene loci. (biomedcentral.com)
- Gata3 mutant mice expire of noradrenergic deficiency by embryonic day (E) 11 and can be rescued pharmacologically or, as shown here, by restoring Gata3 function specifically in sympathoadrenal (SA) lineages using the human DBH promoter to direct Gata3 transgenic expression. (biologists.org)
- Initiation of transcription under both cultural conditions occurred at the same transcription start point (tsp), 23 bp downstream from a putative BoxA promoter element. (labome.org)
- Cabart P, Murphy S. Assembly of human small nuclear RNA gene-specific transcription factor IIIB complex de novo on and off promoter. (labome.org)
- Moreover, mutation of the BURE reduces pol III transcription and induces transcription by RNA polymerase II from the U2 gene promoter carrying a minimal TATA box. (labome.org)
- This heterodimer binds to the E-Box promoter element, thereby promoting transcription of downstream genes such as Per and BHLHe41. (wikipedia.org)
- In higher eukaryotes, DNA can be methylated at cytosine mainly in the context of CpG dinucleotide sequences, producing 5-methylcytosine (5mC), the accumulation of which at promoter regions is often associated with the repressive state of gene loci as well as its stable maintenance, known as gene silencing. (wiley.com)
- Six single nucleotide polymorphisms are located in predicted promoter regions of which one disrupts a transcription factor binding site. (ahajournals.org)
- Genomically, copy number loss or promoter methylation of PR genes occurred in 75% of ER+PR-HER2- tumors, collectively explaining PR loss. (thno.org)
- Moreover, the PcG protein Mel-18 was necessary to recruit the Th1-lineage specifying transcription factor T-bet, and the T cell receptor (TCR)-inducible transcription factor NFAT1 to the Ifng promoter in Th1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- RT-PCR and MMP1 activity assays confirmed the bimodal regulation and DNA sequencing of 69 individuals identified an MMP1 gene promoter polymorphism that segregated precisely with the MMP1 bimodal expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chromatin immunoprecipation (ChIP) experiments indicated that the transcription factors (TFs) ETS1, ETS2 and GATA3, bind to the MMP1 promoter in the region of this polymorphism and may contribute to the bimodal expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Binding sites for ZEB are present in the promoter regions of a number of muscle genes such as the MRF themselves ( 5 , 15 , 65 ), muscle creatine kinase ( 1 ), acethylcholine receptor δ ( 58 ), etc. (asm.org)
- 3- Promoter proximal binding of factors was more conserved across cell types while the distal binding sites are more cell type specific. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the analyzes of IL-5 promoter, 1.2 Kb-long promoter region was shown to define transactivation of IL-5 gene only in Th2 clones. (nii.ac.jp)
- Furthermore, in case of IL-4, the proximal promoter gives considerably less activity than intact IL-4 gene locus in Th2 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- regulate noradrenergic phenotype selection of SNS neurons by regulating the genes that encode the enzymes required for norepinephrine synthesis. (biologists.org)
- These results demonstrate that one developmental role of Brn3a is to repress potential differences in gene expression between sensory neurons generated at different axial levels, and to regulate a convergent program of developmental gene expression, in which functionally similar populations of neurons are generated from different embryological substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
- The generation of cellular diversity in the developing vertebrate nervous system is one of the most complex problems in biology, and a large number of transcription factors have been identified that orchestrate neurodevelopment and regulate the molecular identity of neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
- In peripheral CD4 T cells, the activation of STAT6 induces high-level GATA3 mRNA expression ( 12 ), and we and others have recently reported that STAT6 binds to specific regions of the GATA3 gene to regulate its transcription ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- We previously identified a cis -regulatory element located 22 kb upstream of the Ifng gene (Conserved Non-coding Sequence -22, or CNS-22) that is a site for recruitment of the transcription factors T-bet, Runx3, NF-κB and STAT4, which act to regulate transcription of the Ifng gene in Th1 cells. (prolekare.cz)
- These findings identify a role for acute histone acetylation in the enhancer function of distal conserved cis -elements that regulate of Ifng gene expression. (prolekare.cz)
- Furthermore, Blimp-1 coordinates with other transcription factors to regulate expression of IL-2, IL-21 and IL-10 in effector T lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we determined the degree of functional overlap between the two transcription factor families in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), characterizing their ability to regulate chloroplast biogenesis both alone and in concert. (plantphysiol.org)
- In turn, these changes are choreographed by the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic regulators that act to restructure the genome, ultimately ensuring lineage-appropriate gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
- Additionally, mRNA analyses of purified chromaffin cells from Gata3 mutants show that levels of Mash1, Hand2 and Phox2b (postulated upstream regulators of Gata3) as well as terminally differentiated SA lineage products (tyrosine hydroxylase, Th, and dopamineβ -hydroxylase, Dbh) are markedly altered. (biologists.org)
- Previous studies showed that boundary genes interact with meristem regulators and primordia genes during embryogenesis or leaf development. (prolekare.cz)
- Here we combined genetic, molecular and biochemical tools to explore interactions between the boundary gene HANABA TARANU (HAN) and two meristem regulators BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) and PINHEAD (PNH), and three primordia-specific genes PETAL LOSS (PTL), JAGGED (JAG) and BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) during flower development. (prolekare.cz)
- Interactions have been found between boundary regulators and genes controlling meristem maintenance or primordia development. (prolekare.cz)
- The lineage-specifying transcription factors, T-bet in Th1 and GATA3 in Th2 cells, function as master regulators that establish the appropriate gene expression profiles for one lineage and oppose the alternative fates. (biomedcentral.com)
- lncRNAs are newly recognized as regulators of gene expression, transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. (haematologica.org)
- In order to better understand the biology of PDAC we used iRegulon to identify transcription factors (TFs) as master regulators of PDAC and its subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of molecular subtypes and identify key transcription factors as master regulators in a large cohort of PDAC patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- 5- Finally, by integrating the data with disease-associated gene loci from GWAS studies, we highlight the value of this data to associate novel regulators to disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- These chromosomal rearrangements place T-ALL transcription factor oncogenes under the control of strong T cell-specific enhancers located in the TCRB (7q34) or TCRA-TCRD (14q11) loci, resulting in their aberrant expression in T cell progenitors. (jci.org)
- Gene and network analysis uncovered loci associated with ALL that are missed by GWA studies, such as MEIS1 . (aacrjournals.org)
- Identification of enhancer sets predicted to be co-regulated by the same transcription factor. (biomedcentral.com)
- c One of the 230 hypomethylated probe-gene pairs in BRCA containing a GATA motif corresponds to a downstream enhancer of the CCND1 gene. (biomedcentral.com)
- This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. (cancerindex.org)
- PREs were prominent within enhancer regions near cytokine-encoding DEGs ( IL17A , IL19 and IL1B ), suggesting that PREs might be incorporated into complex decoy oligonucleotides (cdODNs). (springeropen.com)
- The concomitant presence of the three H3K4 methylation states (H3K4me1/2/3) was found to clearly reflect the activity of bona fide T‐cell gene enhancers. (embopress.org)
- Many lineage-restricted promoters are associated with bivalent histone methylation and highly combinatorial histone modification patterns, which may determine their selective priming of gene expression during lineage commitment. (bloodjournal.org)
- DNA methylation and histone modifications are central to epigenetic gene regulation, which has been shown to play a crucial role in development. (wiley.com)
- Richard Flavell is co-discoverer of introns in cellular genes: he showed DNA methylation correlates inversely with, and prevents, gene expression. (yale.edu)
- The gene is also mapped to 6 G2-G3 on the mouse chromosome, and 4q43 distal-q4 on the rat chromosome respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- Interferon alpha is coded by 13 genes on chromosome 9, and is strongly produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. (brainscape.com)
- He went on to demonstrate the first case of regulation of gene expression in trans, via "chromosome kissing. (yale.edu)
- and this significantly restores Th and Dbh deficiency in Gata3 mutant mice, thereby overcoming the Gata3 mutation-induced embryonic lethality. (biologists.org)
- GATA3 is predominantly expressed in T lymphocytes and the embryonic brain ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Although genes expressed in several cell types including embryonic stem cells ( Hox genes), B-lineage cells (immunoglobulin genes) and erythroid cells (globin genes) have emerged as important models to understand eukaryotic transcription, cytokine genes expressed in T-helper cells are particularly attractive models to study lineage specific regulation. (prolekare.cz)
- Based on their transcription factor-driven and functional identities, ILCs are grouped into three classes, ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3, that mirror the helper T-cell subsets ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- For each of these Th subsets, lineage-defining transcription factors, important for the establishment of the identity of the subset, have been described. (nature.com)
- FOXA1 acts as a pioneer factor for ERa in ERα+ breast cancer, and its expression might identify ERα+ cancers that undergo rapid reprogramming of ERa signaling that is associated with poor outcomes and treatment resistance. (wikipedia.org)
- FOXA1 is a downstream target of GATA3 in the mammary gland. (wikipedia.org)
- We find that gene expression patterns within early neoplasias are distinct from both normal and breast cancer patterns and identify a pattern of pro-oncogenic changes, including elevated transcription of ERBB2 , FOXA1 , and GATA3 at this early stage. (biomedcentral.com)
- After updated presentations on the work performed by the teams attending the meeting, a consensus was reached regarding the existence of a group of Basal-Squamous-like tumors - designated BASQ - charaterized the high expression of KRT5/6 and KRT14 and low/undetectable expression of FOXA1 and GATA3. (iospress.com)
- Mutations in this gene have been recurrently seen in instances of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, our data demonstrate that in malignant NK-cell lines AUTS2 performed MSX1 activation as well, but in accordance with downregulated MSX1 transcription therein we detected reduced AUTS2 expression, a small genomic deletion at 7q11 removing exons 3 and 4, and truncating mutations in exon 1. (oncotarget.com)
- Development of childhood ALL is thought to be caused by (i) chromosomal translocations (such as TEL-AML1 fusions) or hyperdiploidy, which can happen in utero , followed by (ii) secondary somatic gene deletions or mutations that ultimately lead to disease ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- We show that promoters of genes affiliated with regulation of hematopoietic cell maturation are occupied by bivalent histone modifications in HSCs and their immediate progeny. (bloodjournal.org)
- In addition, many lineage-specifying promoters in these primitive cells possess a diverse range of histone modification patterns, together suggesting that specific combinations prepare these genes for selective expression or silencing during lineage commitment. (bloodjournal.org)
- The study of the epigenetic modifications of the Ifng locus in Th1 cells and Il4 locus in Th2 cells showed that these genes are associated with permissive histone marks in the relevant lineage, while they are enriched with repressive modifications in the lineages that do not express the cytokine 8 . (nature.com)
- The complex for C to U sliding in vesicles develop of a complex of transportation histone transcription of members, kinase beta effect susceptible sequence 1( APOBEC-1) and a including host glomerulosa( ACF) in immunodeficiency to the histone acid. (erik-mill.de)
- Collagen IX performs found to the transcription of histone transcription II levels( Eyre et al. (erik-mill.de)
- RING1B is overexpressed in patients with luminal breast cancer (BC) and recruited to actively transcribed genes and enhancers co-occupied by the estrogen receptor α (ERα). (sciencemag.org)
- Analysis of active (or open) promoters and enhancers reveals important cis -DNA motifs that establish the molecular foundation for temporally and spatially regulated gene expression in lens. (biomedcentral.com)
- Tissue specificity of transcription is primarily regulated by a combinatorial action of sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors and their interactions with promoters and distal enhancers [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- TGF-β signals within the tissue induce expression of CD103, a key factor for tissue retention, whereas low levels of T-bet expression are required for interleukin-15 (IL-15) responsiveness, which plays an important role for long-term survival of T RM cells in some tissues ( 13 , 15 ). (thehub.press)
- Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-25 signaling induce the expression of genes encoding inflammatory factors and are implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases. (jove.com)
- Androgen receptors purified by ion-exchange chromatography were unable to bind to ARE, suggesting the presence of other factors required for DNA binding. (labome.org)
- In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders. (beds.ac.uk)
- The innate immune system contains genome-encoded receptors that provide a first line of defense to infection. (yale.edu)
- To identify genes that influence susceptibility to CTDs through the maternal and inherited (i.e. case) genotype, we conducted a family-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) and analyzed suggestive associations in an independent, family-based follow-up sample. (plos.org)
- Many risk factors including deranged regulation of susceptibility genes (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
- 10 - 13 This process, known as multilineage gene priming, is supported by the low-level transcription of several lineage-affiliated genes of lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid genetic programs which occurs in HSCs and early progenitor cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- For comparison, we also explored the gene expression patterns of 15 cell lines derived from lymphoid, endothelial, stromal and other epithelial cancers. (jove.com)
- It is not surprising that such haploinsufficiencies are detrimental, as they should result in multiple transcription defects of diverse downstream targets (for review see S eidman and S eidman 2002 ). (genetics.org)
- ChIP-seq analysis of GNC identified PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR and brassinosteroid activity genes as targets whose repression by GNC facilitates chloroplast biogenesis. (plantphysiol.org)
- In addition, GNC targets and represses genes involved in ERECTA signaling and thereby facilitates stomatal development. (plantphysiol.org)
- BMP-induced SNS development results in the activation of a number of transcription factors. (biologists.org)
- Tak1 acts by activation of downstream kinases, including P38 and Jun kinases ( Zhang, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
- Moreover, RNA sequencing demonstrated that rs4349147 G/− cells express a lower relative ratio of IL-32α to non-α isoforms than rs4349147 −/A cells and display increased expression of lymphocyte activation factors rendering them more prone to infection with HIV-1. (sciencemag.org)
- To delineate differences in gene expression that might account for the discordant phenotype and to ask whether the loss of IL-4 secretion was the only defect, a comprehensive analysis of T cell activation was undertaken in a representative clone pair derived from these disease-discordant twins. (pnas.org)
- Activation of naïve CD8 + T cells occurs in the spleen or draining lymph nodes, resulting in the up-regulation of key transcription factors including Blimp-1 ( 12 ). (thehub.press)
- For example, CUC genes promote SAM formation via the activation of meristem marker SHOOT MERISTEMLESS ( STM ), and in return, STM represses CUC expression in the meristem [ 9 , 22 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Transcriptome studies of dendritic cells harvested from the spleens of immunized mice identified antigen presentation and immune activation as the main gene expression signatures induced by VLPs, while TLR signaling and Th1 signatures characterize ncRNA VLPs. (asm.org)
- Hence, nuclear machinery that is involved in activation or repression of genes constitutes an integral part of lineage commitment. (wiley.com)
- Using cytokine reporter and LT-deficient mice, we find that complete disruption of LT signaling markedly diminishes ILC2 activation and downstream responses during type 2 inflammation. (rupress.org)
- Our ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses reveal that a key gene directly regulated by LMO1 and MYCN is ASCL1, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. (bvsalud.org)
- Microarray analyses identified distinct gene level alterations within the epithelial compartments in the absence of Ror2, with marked changes observed in genes associated with the actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
- A total of 1735 ChIP-sequencing datasets in mouse and human cell types and tissues were used to perform bioinformatic analyses to unravel diverse features of transcription control. (biomedcentral.com)
- Expression of the human ortholog also correlates with IFNG expression in Th1 and natural killer cells, suggesting a role for this gene in initiating Th1 lineage development from naive Th precursor cells. (cancerindex.org)
- 1 Although several cell-intrinsic and microenvironmental factors that can control these processes have been identified, the precise molecular circuitry controlling HSC self-renewal and lineage restriction has yet to be fully elucidated. (bloodjournal.org)
- Cell fate determination, or lineage commitment, which is often initiated by exposure to developmental cues, accompanies both up-regulation of genes specific for one lineage and down-regulation of genes associated with other lineages. (wiley.com)
- The lineage-specific transcription factor, RORγt, encoded by the RORC gene modulates Th17 polarization and function, as well as thymocyte development. (nature.com)
- We characterized lncRNAs preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and in various downstream differentiated lineage progenitors. (haematologica.org)
- Over the past years, a number of factors have been identified to affect helper T cell lineage determination, including antigen receptor, coreceptors and, most importantly, cytokine environment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we use microarray analysis of E13.5 embryos to demonstrate that the developing DRG and TG have very similar overall patterns of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Simultaneously, we identified 26 highly Th2-specific STAT6-dependent inducible genes by DNA microarray analysis-based three-step selection processes, and among them 17 genes showed GATA3 binding. (jimmunol.org)
- We examined gene expression data from a previously published microarray study that compared normal testis mRNA expression to various TGCT. (stanford.edu)
- Here we describe a comprehensive survey of the gene expression profiles of 12 gastric carcinoma cell lines, using cDNA microarray with 43 000 clones. (jove.com)
- One method based on systematic classification of gene expression profiles has been applied to over 2,000 microarray samples [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- There are, however, exceptions to this rule where deletion of a single gene copy leads to an abnormal phenotype. (genetics.org)
- In this scenario, overexpression of haploinsufficient genes is not expected to be deleterious and should result in the wild-type phenotype being restored. (genetics.org)
- In this study, we carried out whole exome sequence analysis of two families showing inheritance of an RA phenotype, and in both identified a single candidate gene, GREB1L . (genetics.org)
- Around the time of ganglion condensation and cell cycle exit, beginning at E9.5-10.5, nearly all sensory neurons at both spinal and cranial levels co-express the homeodomain transcription factors Brn3a and Islet1 [ 1 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast to drug-rescued Gata3 mutants, SA tissue-specific Gata3 complementation restored nearly normal development of sympathetic neurons and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells as well as of Mash1, Hand2 and Phox2b expression. (biologists.org)
Regulation of gene ex1
- In the gastric cancer cell lines, apart from genes that are highly expressed corresponding to their common epithelial origin from the gastrointestinal tract, we found marked heterogeneity among the gene expression patterns of these cell lines. (jove.com)
- The early neoplasia samples also demonstrate coordinated changes in long non-coding RNA expression and microenvironment stromal gene expression patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast to Tbx21, in the multivariate analysis including clinical features, Eomes mRNA expression was identified as an independent good prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.042) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.001) in addition to a favorable ECOG performance status (p = 0.01 and p = 0.008, respectively). (cancerindex.org)
- In conclusion, we identified a higher Eomes mRNA expression as an independent good prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients treated with sorafenib. (cancerindex.org)
- Furthermore, miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-lncRNA interaction were identified through the bioinformatics algorithm miRanda, then the ceRNA networks, miR-221-5p-lnc_000679- WNT3 , miR-34a-lnc_000181- GATA3 and miR-214-3p-lnc_000344- SMAD3 , were constructed under defined rules, to illustrate their roles in cashmere goat HF biology. (biomedcentral.com)
- 7. The method of claim 3, wherein said increasing the level of said Th2 cell cytokine comprises increasing the level of mRNA encoding said Th2 cytokine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- 8. The method of claim 7, wherein said mRNA encoding said Th2 cytokine is increased 5 fold. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Notably, these genetic alterations define distinct molecular groups of T-ALL with specific gene expression signatures and clinicobiological features. (jci.org)
- Our results demonstrate that ZEB has evolved with two independent repressor domains which target distinct sets of transcription factors and function in different tissues. (asm.org)
- Accordingly, there is some evidence that the repressor domains in Krüppel target a distinct but overlapping set of transcription factors in transfection assays ( 27 ). (asm.org)
- Despite the common luminal origin, HELUs and ADHs proved to be characterized by distinct gene profiles that overlap for 5 genes only. (biomedcentral.com)
- At the molecular level, we report that IL-25-mediated induction of Th2 master regulator GATA-3 and the transcription factor GFI-1 is attenuated in Act1-deficient T cells. (jove.com)
- After the identification of the BHLHE41 gene, Dr. Ken-Ichi Honma 's lab characterized its role as a regulator in the mammalian circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
- Beyond relevant coding genes, microRNA (miRNA) and long non coding RNA (lncRNA) play an indispensable role in hair follicle (HF) development and skin homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hox transcript antisense RNA ( HOTAIR ) is a lncRNA encoded by the HOX gene cluster at the HOXC site ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Through the use of IKKi-deficient mice, we found that IKKi was required for IL-17-induced expression of genes encoding inflammatory molecules in primary airway epithelial cells, neutrophilia and pulmonary inflammation. (jove.com)
- We investigated in silico the expression of 369 genes experimentally recognized as involved in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell identity and mammary gland remodeling, in HELUs or ADHs with respect to the corresponding patient-matched normal tissue. (biomedcentral.com)