Caveolin 2: Caveolin 2 is a binding partner of CAVEOLIN 1. It undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by C-SRC PROTEIN PP60 and plays a regulatory role in CAVEOLAE formation.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.MyoglobinuriaRNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Annexin A6: Protein of the annexin family with a probable role in exocytotic and endocytotic membrane events.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Dynamin II: A subtype of dynamin found ubiquitously expressed in a variety of tissues.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Adenomyosis: The extension of endometrial tissue (ENDOMETRIUM) into the MYOMETRIUM. It usually occurs in women in their reproductive years and may result in a diffusely enlarged uterus with ectopic and benign endometrial glands and stroma.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 188.8.131.52.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Thioredoxin Reductase 1: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in the CYTOSOL.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Coatomer Protein: A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Nerve Tissue Proteins
Indeed, downregulation of caveolin-1 leads to less efficient migration in vitro. Genetically engineered mice that lack caveolin ... Various classes of signaling molecules, including G-protein subunits, receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, endothelial ... caveolin-2, and caveolin-3, respectively. All three members are membrane proteins with similar structure. Caveolin forms ... Furthermore, caveolin-3 has been associated with Long QT syndrome. Caveolin-3 has been implicated in the development of certain ...
Takeuchi T, Liang SB, Ohtsuki Y (2003). "Downregulation of expression of a novel cadherin molecule, T-cadherin, in basal cell ... 1998). "T-cadherin and signal-transducing molecules co-localize in caveolin-rich membrane domains of vascular smooth muscle ... Ranscht B, Dours-Zimmermann MT (1991). "T-cadherin, a novel cadherin cell adhesion molecule in the nervous system lacks the ... 2001). "Expression of cell adhesion molecule T-cadherin in the human vasculature". Histochem. Cell Biol. 115 (3): 231-42. doi: ...
The C-terminus of DLC1 is also known to interact with caveolin-1, although the biological significance of this interaction has ... In addition, hydrolysis of PIP2 releases actin regulatory proteins assembled at PIP2 molecules on the membrane and allows them ... The genomic deletion or downregulation of DLC1 expression in early tumors could serve as an indicator for future cancer ... Expression of DLC1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the molecule focal ...
Since the process is non-specific, the ligand can be a carrier for larger molecules. If the target cell has a known specific ... caveolin), clathrin-mediated endocytosis remains the best studied. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of many receptor types begins ... The role of receptor-mediated endocytosis is well recognized in the downregulation of transmembrane signal transduction but can ... by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor
Another method is using small molecules to inhibit the EGFR tyrosine kinase, which is on the cytoplasmic side of the receptor. ... Caveolin binding negatively regulates tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase activities". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... interplay of c-Cbl and Cbl-b in epidermal growth factor receptor downregulation". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 28 (9): 3020- ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ...
... and in the down-regulation of several oncogenes known to be involved in disease progression (i.e., interleukin 6, caveolin-1, ... In molecular biology miR-205 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other ... This down regulation was also observed in breast cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 compared to the non- ... at least in part through the down-regulation of protein kinase Cepsilon. miR-205 activated tumor suppressor genes by targeting ...
Ribozymes are catalytic RNA molecules used to inhibit gene expression. These molecules work by cleaving mRNA molecules, ... downregulation of TGF-beta and procollagen I and III gene expression". Experimental Lung Research. 21 (5): 791-808. PMID ... from invading murine lung epithelial cells by knocking down the caveolin-2 (CAV2) gene. Thus, though bacteria cannot be ... The genes can be silenced by siRNA molecules that cause the endonucleatic cleavage of the target mRNA molecules or by miRNA ...
"Down-regulation of stromal caveolin-1 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a potent predictor of lymph node ... MIA3 resides at the ER exit site and functions as a guide for loading the cargo molecule collagen VII into COPII carriers, ... MIA3 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit site, where it loads cargo molecules such as collagen VII into COPII ... 21 (1): 329-36. doi:10.1245/s10434-013-3225-x. PMID 23982252. El Fitori J, Kleeff J, Giese NA, Guweidhi A, Bosserhoff AK, ...
Ghosh S, Kumar A, Chandna S (Jul 2015). "Connexin-43 downregulation in G2/M phase enriched tumour cells causes extensive low- ... Caveolin 1, Tight junction protein 1 CSNK1D, and PTPmu (PTPRM). Mitochondria portal Connexin Hypoplastic left heart syndrome ... which are intercellular channels that connect adjacent cells to permit the exchange of low molecular weight molecules, such as ... "Connexin family members target to lipid raft domains and interact with caveolin-1". Biochemistry. 41 (18): 5754-64. doi:10.1021 ...
Lu, Zhimin; Ghosh, Sourav; Wang, Zhiyong; Hunter, Tony (December 2003). "Downregulation of caveolin-1 function by EGF leads to ... Small molecules that are able to inhibit TGF-β induced EMT are under development. Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a small molecule ... Small molecule inhibitors of EMT are suggested to not act as a replacement for traditional chemotherapeutic agents but are ... Another small molecule inhibitor Galunisertib (LY2157299) is a potent TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor that was ...
Lu ML, Schneider MC, Zheng Y, Zhang X, Richie JP (April 2001). "Caveolin-1 interacts with androgen receptor. A positive ... Tan JA, Hall SH, Petrusz P, French FS (September 2000). "Thyroid receptor activator molecule, TRAM-1, is an androgen receptor ... Androgen receptors interact with other proteins in the nucleus, resulting in up- or down-regulation of specific gene ... Caveolin 1, CDK9, COX5B, CREB-binding protein, Cyclin D1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, DACH1, Death associated protein 6, L-DOPA ...
... is a difficult molecule to target. Because NEDD9 serves as a scaffolding molecule for other signaling proteins that play ... Consistent with these findings is a study demonstrating downregulation of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, occludin, β-catenin) ... "The interaction between caveolin-1 and Rho-GTPases promotes metastasis by controlling the expression of alpha5-integrin and the ... Sakai R, Iwamatsu A, Hirano N, Ogawa S, Tanaka T, Mano H, Yazaki Y, Hirai H (1994). "A novel signaling molecule, p130, forms ...
Caveolin-1 regulates leucocyte behaviour in fibrotic lung disease | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
... high CXCR4 and MMP-9 and signalling molecule hyperactivation). ... Results Leucocyte caveolin-1 is important in lung fibrosis. In ... Objectives Reduced caveolin-1 levels in lung fibroblasts from patients with scleroderma and the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice ... In bleomycin-treated mice, the levels of caveolin-1 in leucocytes and the effect of CSD peptide on leucocyte accumulation in ... Conclusions Caveolin-1 downregulation in leucocytes contributes to fibrotic lung disease, highlighting caveolin-1 as a ...
Caveolin proteins in signaling, oncogenic transformation and muscular dystrophy | Journal of Cell Science
1998). Targeted down-regulation of caveolin-1 is sufficient to drive cell transformation and hyperactivate the p42/44 MAP ... 1993). Signal transducing molecules and GPI-linked proteins form a caveolin-rich insoluble complex in MDCK cells. J. Cell Biol ... The caveolin scaffolding domain interacts with several signaling molecules, sequestering them in the absence of activating ... Down-regulation of caveolin-1 protein expression leads to deregulated signaling and consequently tumorigenesis, whereas ...
Expression and clinical significance of Caveolin-1 in prostate Cancer after transurethral surgery | BMC Urology | Full Text
The expression of caveolin-1 was significantly higher in prostate cancer samples than in benign prostatic hyperplasia samples ( ... Caveolin-1 was detected by streptavidin-perosidase (SP) immunohistochemical staining in pathological tissue slices. The results ... The expression of caveolin-1 is not associated with preoperative serum PSA levels. ... The current research aims to investigate caveolin-1 expression in prostate cancer tissue and its relationship with pathological ...
Differential Expression and Function of Caveolin-1 in Human Gastric Cancer Progression | Cancer Research
Down-regulation of caveolin-1, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, in sarcomas. Am J Pathol 2001; 158: 833-9. ... ATPase and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the human gastric carcinoma cell lines HGT-1 and SNU-5, respectively ( 19, 20 ... Lu Z, Ghosh S, Wang Z, Hunter T. Down-regulation of caveolin-1 function by EGF leads to the loss of E-cadherin, increased ... indicating that early down-regulation of caveolin-1 may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis. Conversely, caveolin-1 provides ...
Roxithromycin treatment inhibits TGF-β1-induced activation of ERK and AKT and down-regulation of Caveolin-1 in rat airway...
Further, caveolin-1 level was down-regulated by TGF-β1 and up-regulated by inhibitors and RXM. Our findings demonstrate that ... Additionally, the expressions of caveolin-1, phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) in ASMCs treated ... RXM treatment inhibits TGF-β1-induced activation of ERK and AKT and down-regulation of caveolin-1, which may be the potential ... proliferation and caveolinn-1 expression. Firstly, the rat ovalbumin (OVA) model was built according to the previous papers. ...
Estrogen replacement treatment in diabetic ovariectomized female rats potentiates postischemic leukocyte adhesion in cerebral...
Inflammatory cell adhesion molecules in ischemic cerebrovascular disease.. *C J M Frijns, L J Kappelle ... Combined endothelial nitric oxide synthase upregulation and caveolin-1 downregulation decrease leukocyte adhesion in pial ... Showing 1-10 of 21 references. Estrogen stimulates microglia and brain recovery from hypoxia-ischemia in normoglycemic but not ...
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition as a Mechanism of Metastasis | SpringerLink
Downregulation of caveolin-1 function by EGF leads to the loss of E-cadherin, increased transcriptional activity of β-catenin, ... The signaling molecules can cooperate or act sequentially to initiate transcriptional programs that involve many ... Smad4 is Essential for Down-regulation of E-cadherin Induced by TGF-β in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line PANC-1. J. Biochem. (Tokyo ... p38 and a p38-interacting protein are critical for downregulation of E-cadherin during mouse gastrulation. Cell 125: 957-69, ...
Frontiers | Cholesterol and Its Metabolites in Tumor Growth: Therapeutic Potential of Statins in Cancer Treatment |...
... cholesterol becomes a signaling molecule. Furthermore, cholesterol-derived oxysterols activate liver X receptors (LXRs) or ... cholesterol becomes a signaling molecule. Furthermore, cholesterol-derived oxysterols activate liver X receptors (LXRs) or ... Cholesterol as Signal Molecule on Membrane Rafts. Cholesterol can act as a signaling molecule at the membrane rafts (28). It is ... Characterization of caveolin-rich membrane domains isolated from an endothelial-rich source: implications for human disease. J ...
Proteomic characterization of paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines distinguishes...
"Cell Adhesion Molecules", "Small Cell Lung Cancer", and "ECM-Receptor Interaction" pathways. Caveolin-1 and filamin A were ... protein levels of beta-catenin seen in the tumorigenic RC-77 T/E cells were mirrored in the downregulation of caveolin-1 mRNA ... CD44: from adhesion molecules to signalling regulators. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003;4:33-45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Caveolin, cholesterol and Ras signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:E35-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
Patent US7448265 - Isometric system, method and apparatus for isometric exercise - Google Patents
In turn, down-regulation of eNOS is apparently mediated by the stimulation of levels of caveolin-1 by LDL. Caveolin-1 is an ... Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as a signaling molecule in mammalian and other systems. NO, is a labile, endogenously ... LDL and cholesterol have been shown to prevent the down-regulation of eNOS. ... including effects on the endothelium and the release of biological active signaling molecules, including nitric oxide. The ...
Search results | fsu.digital.flvc.org
... level in the tumorigenic RC-77 T/E cells mirrored the upregulation of beta-catenin mRNA and downregulation of caveolin-1 mRNA ... The "ECM-Receptor Interaction" and "Cell Adhesion Molecules", and the "Tight Junction" and "Adherens Junction" pathways ... Our results indicate that the expression of beta-catenin and caveolin-1 may be prostate cancer- and race-specific. Although the ... After subtracting race-specific non-malignant RNA expression, beta-catenin and caveolin-1 mRNA expression levels were higher in ...
Abstract 4396: Caveolin-1 as an oncopromoter in solidtumors: A role mediated by STAT3 in vitro. | Cancer Research
The siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Cav-1 caused the arrest of proliferation in the cell line, which remains stable up to 24 ... Abstract 4393: BLID is a novel drug-inducible apoptotic molecule: Implications in chemosensitization of breast cancer. ... Abstract 4396: Caveolin-1 as an oncopromoter in solidtumors: A role mediated by STAT3 in vitro.. Anna Gasperi-Campani, Fabia ... Caveolin-1 as an oncopromoter in solidtumors: A role mediated by STAT3 in vitro. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 104th ...
Caveolin - Wikipedia
Indeed, downregulation of caveolin-1 leads to less efficient migration in vitro. Genetically engineered mice that lack caveolin ... Various classes of signaling molecules, including G-protein subunits, receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, endothelial ... caveolin-2, and caveolin-3, respectively. All three members are membrane proteins with similar structure. Caveolin forms ... Furthermore, caveolin-3 has been associated with Long QT syndrome. Caveolin-3 has been implicated in the development of certain ...
Influence of cholesterol/caveolin-1/caveolae homeostasis on membrane properties and substrate adhesion characteristics of adult...
... cholesterol enhances the adhesion of monocytes to the endothelium by translocating cell adhesion molecules-bound to caveolin-1- ... Nevertheless, depletion of cholesterol or downregulation of the CAV-1 gene both independently decreased the membrane ... The defining feature of caveolae is the presence of the protein caveolin [10, 11]. Caveolin-1 (CAV-1), a scaffolding protein, ... Caveolin-1 and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H677-86.CrossRefPubMed ...
3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) promotes invasion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases | BMC Cancer...
PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor ... and to downregulation of the breast tumor suppressor caveolin-1 [13, 14]. PDK1 has been found to serve as an effective ... Williams TM, Medina F, Badano I, Hazan RB, Hutchinson J, Muller WJ, Chopra NG, Scherer PE, Pestell RG, Lisanti MP: Caveolin-1 ... PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor ...
Synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid induces growth arrest in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer...
Src tyrosine kinases, Gα subunits, and H-Ras share a common membrane-anchored scaffolding protein, caveolin. Caveolin binding ... CDDO induces cyclin D1 down-regulation in MCF7/Neo and MCF7/HER2 cells. A, breast cancer cells were exposed to the indicated ... as negative regulators of signal transduction through their direct interactions with caveolae-associated signaling molecules, ... Caveolin-1 is a potent suppressor of mammary tumor growth and metastasis (29), and recent studies have shown that caveolins are ...
Caveolin-1 sensitizes rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells to bromocriptine induced apoptosis | Cancer Cell International | Full Text
... inverted flask-shaped invaginations on plasma membranes where signal transduction molecules are concentrated. Currently, ... Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at tyrosine 14 was enhanced after bromocriptine treatment, suggesting that bromocriptine-induced ... Our results reveal that caveolin-1 increases sensitivity for apoptosis induction in pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and may ... Transiently expressed mouse recombinant caveolin-1 induced apoptosis in GH3 cells by enhancing the activity of caspase 8. ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | The Effect of Methyl-β-cyclodextrin on Apoptosis, Proliferative Activity, and Oxidative Stress in...
We did observe a time-dependent downregulation of the insulin levels in ASCCTRL and ASCCTRL (+) MβCD and an upregulation in ASC ... Hailstones, D.; Sleer, L.S.; Parton, R.G.; Stanley, K.K. Regulation of caveolin and caveolae by cholesterol in MDCK cells. J. ... Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ... We observed that MβCD treatment caused downregulation of the transcript levels in both ASCCTRL (+) MβCD and ASCEMS (+) MβCD ...
JCI - Integrin-mediated type II TGF-β receptor tyrosine dephosphorylation controls SMAD-dependent profibrotic signaling
Integrin α1β1 promotes caveolin-1 dephosphorylation by activating T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(51 ... High-throughput small-molecule assays identified the polyamine spermidine as a TCPTP activator (33). Like the integrin α1 tail ... Enhancing integrin α1 inserted (I) domain affinity to ligand potentiates integrin α1β1-mediated down-regulation of collagen ... Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling by small molecule agonist of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase. BMC Cancer. ...
WikiGenes - CAV1 - caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa
Caveolin proteins directly interact with signaling molecules including EGF receptor and suppress the activation of EGFR upon ... VEGF-induced down-regulation of caveolin-1 expression also resulted in the morphological loss of cell surface caveolae ... Conversely, down-regulation of caveolin-1 expression by a caveolin-1 antisense expression construct can down-regulate ligand- ... PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas did not show significant down-regulation, and thus, caveolin-1 may become a useful ...
Hepatoepigenetic Alterations in Viral and Nonviral-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Downregulation of miR-99a in HCC is associated with suppressed tumour growth . Downregulation of miR-125 promotes ... J. Yan, Q. Lu, J. Dong, X. Li, K. Ma, and L. Cai, "Hepatitis B virus X protein suppresses caveolin-1 expression in ... CLDN14 is a cell adhesion tight junction molecule that belongs to the claudin family proteins found in all epithelial and ... Downregulation of GADD45α in HCC was associated with uncontrolled HBV-infected hepatocytes growth and hepatocarcinogenesis, ...
BS-181 HCl | Inhibition of DNA Glycosylases via Small Molecules
... migration and lack of adhesion through downregulation from the cell-cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, advertising mobile ... FR in addition has been proven to inhibit caveolin-1, therefore supporting anchorage-independent development and proliferation ... FR continues to be demonstrated to give rise to malignancy by performing like a signaling molecule. Much like other GPI family ... 1) . Open up in another window Physique 1 A model depicting FR-mediated internalization of folates and rules of malignancy ...
Dissection of the insulin signaling pathway via quantitative phosphoproteomics | PNAS
Caveolin-1 is known to become tyrosine phosphorylated and acts as a scaffolding protein to organize signaling molecules and ... The SDR and PKCδ binding protein belong to a class of molecules called STICKs (substrates that interact with C-kinase) (42). ... Annexin A2, a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, displayed a similarly rapid down regulation, followed by recovery ... 2002) The insulin receptor catalyzes the tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1. J Biol Chem 277:30153-30158.. ...
In vitro gentamicin exposure alters caveolae protein profile in cochlear spiral ligament pericytes | Proteome Science | Full...
... which can undergo endocytosis and transcytosis to transport small molecules in and out the cells. A different protein profile ... caveolin 2 (cav2) and caveolin 3 (cav3). Cav1 is a structural protein essential for caveolae formation observed also in the ... Control: Subcategories panel B from the top left corner clock wise are: Signaling molecule and interaction, Signal transduction ... or down-regulation of Mfsd2a protein on the cell surface of endothelial cell membrane . Caveolae are cholesterol rich ...
The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide | Nutrition...
Down-regulation of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory biomarkers after moderate wine consumption in healthy women: a ... Resveratrol stimulates nitric oxide production by increasing estrogen receptor alpha-Src-caveolin-1 interaction and ... The large majority of these phytochemicals are redox active molecules and therefore defined as antioxidants. Antioxidants can ... A disadvantage of the FRAP assay is its inability to detect other small molecular weight thiols and sulfur containing molecules ...
The chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2γ, reduces the expression of glutamate transporter-1 on astrocytes and...
Raft-containing fractions were tracked by the enrichment of caveolin-1 and the dendritic lipid raft marker, flotillin-1. Cell ... The MIP-2γ effect on the expression of GLT-1 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, flow cytometric analysis or western blot ... Astrocytes over-expressing MIP-2γ down-regulated the expression of GLT-1 at the mRNA and protein level and caused ... MIP-2γ overexpression in astrocytes enhanced the neuronal toxicity of glutamate by decreasing GLT-1 activity, but MIP-2γ itself ...
Specific Phospholipid Oxidation Products Inhibit Ligand Activation of Toll-Like Receptors 4 and 2 | Arteriosclerosis,...
A role for caveolin in transport of cholesterol from endoplasmic reticulum to plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 29427- ... Their results, similar to ours, suggest that the molecular target for inhibition is TLR itself or its associated molecules, but ... might contribute to downregulation of the acute response to bacterial lipid-containing products and propagate more chronic ... For overexpression of caveolin-1, BAECs were transfected with 0.5 μg/well of the pcI-neo vector (Promega) containing the human ...
Expression of Caveolin-1 in Rat Urinary Bladder with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis
Our results suggest that cystitis may lead to significant down-regulation of caveolin 1 expression in rat urinary bladder, ... and localization of all caveolin family members in the urinary bladder and to unveil functional role of these molecule in the ... caveolin 2 and caveolin 3 that have a specific expression pattern to particular cell type. Among them, caveolin 1 is essential ... Src tyrosine kinases, Galpha subunits, and H-Ras share a common membrane-anchored scaffolding protein, caveolin. Caveolin ...
Caveolin-1-dependent β1 integrin endocytosis is a critical regulator of fibronectin turnover | Journal of Cell Science
Downregulation of caveolin-1 reduces both fibronectin and β1 integrin endocytosis. β1 integrins play a major role in mediating ... Aplin, A. E., Howe, A. K. and Juliano, R. L. (1999). Cell adhesion molecules, signal transduction and cell growth. Curr. Opin. ... To confirm that downregulation of caveolin-1 in the caveolin-1 siRNA-expressing cells is responsible for decreased endocytosis ... We also show that downregulation of caveolin-1 expression by siRNA results in marked reduction of β1 integrin and fibronectin ...
Tumor suppressorCAV1PathwaysIntegrinsMolecularMember of the caveolin gene familyInteractsPhosphorylationAbstractProliferationAdhesion moleculesScaffoldRegulatesReceptorsOncogenicGeneInhibitionEndothelial nitric oSiRNALocalizationEndogenousMembrane proteinCholesterolRole of CaveolinApoptosisPathwayOverexpressionVitro and in vivoCaveolinsKinasesCellsRecombinantContributesVascularRegulationInhibitorsIntercellularImmunohistochemistryIsoformsCellularFocal adhesionsFibroblastsMutationsPhenotypeOligomersGenes have been identified
- Cav-1 and Cav-2 genes map to a known tumor suppressor locus (6-A2/ 7q31). (biologists.org)
- Several studies implicate that caveolin-1 fulfills a tumor-suppressor role in vitro and in vivo ( 8 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Dose-response studies showed that the growth inhibition seen at lower concentrations of CDDO correlated with induction of the tumor suppressor gene caveolin-1, which is known to inhibit breast cancer cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- We previously demonstrated that opioid binding protein cell adhesion molecule (OPCML) was frequently epigenetically inactivated in epithelial ovarian cancers, with tumor suppressor function in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- The OPCML tumor suppressor negatively regulates a specific spectrum of receptor tyrosine kinases in ovarian cancer cells by binding to their extracellular domain and altering trafficking to a nonclathrin, caveolin-1-associated endosomal pathway that results in receptor tyrosine kinase polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Recombinant OPCML domain 1-3 recapitulates this mechanism and may allow for the implementation of an extracellular tumor-suppressor replacement strategy. (aacrjournals.org)
- In our study, we found that the tumor suppressor caveolin-1 (Cav1) is reduced upon infection with H. pylori , and CagA was sufficient but not necessary for this down-regulation. (plos.org)
- Loss of Cav1 was caused by H. pylori -dependent activation of sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and this event abolished the interaction of Cav1 with p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1), a second bona fide tumor suppressor in gastric tissue. (plos.org)
- Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is both a tumor suppressor and an oncoprotein. (oncotarget.com)
- Moreover, we show that caveolin-1 (official protein symbol CAV1) constitutively regulates α5β1 integrin endocytosis, regardless of the presence or absence of fibronectin and fibronectin matrix. (biologists.org)
- After carbon tetrachloride administration, caveolin-1 deficient (Cav1 −/− ) mice showed enhanced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling, as reflected by a significantly greater amount of phosphorylation of Smad2 and collagen deposition in livers over wild type (WT) animals. (hepaticcellnews.com)
- Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an oncogenic membrane protein associated with endocytosis, extracellular matrix organisation, cholesterol distribution, cell migration and signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
- Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. (plos.org)
- Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. (plos.org)
- Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. (plos.org)
- The protein levels of caveolin‑1 (Cav‑1) and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 were determined by western blotting, and the interaction of Cav1 and HSC70 was investigated by co‑immunoprecipitation experiments. (spandidos-publications.com)
- PPARγ upregulates and interacts with caveolin-1 (Cav1), a scaffold protein of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). (asm.org)
- Downregulation of Cav1 increased Ras/MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of serine 84 in PPARγ and enhanced nuclear translocation and ligand-independent transcription of PPARγ target genes. (asm.org)
- Cav1 cooperated with the endogenous Ras/MAPK inhibitor docking protein 1 (Dok1) to promote the ligand-dependent transcriptional activity of PPARγ and to inhibit cell proliferation. (asm.org)
- Caveolin-1 is involved mainly in the interaction of signaling molecules and the regulation of signaling channels, as well as the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and angiogenesis signaling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- This checkpoint function of caveolin-1 explains its effect on diverse signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
- The "ECM-Receptor Interaction" and "Cell Adhesion Molecules", and the "Tight Junction" and "Adherens Junction" pathways contained proteins are associated with RC-77 N/E and RC-77 T/E cells, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- The aim of the present work was to prosecute the investigation on such molecular pathways in solid tumors, based on our recent data obtained in cell lines from SCLC (SCLC-R1) and NSCLC (RAL) and from glioblastoma (A-172) where we demonstrated an oncopromoter activity of Cav-1 through the activation of STAT3 signaling pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- Many signaling pathways, including the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, transduce signals from the cell surface to downstream targets via tyrosine kinases and phosphatases ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- IRS 1-4 interact with other intracellular signaling molecules primarily through SH2 domains leading to activation of several downstream pathways. (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, CD4 downregulation and modulation of the expression of alternate and co-receptors as well as pathways associated with viral integration into the genome were also observed in these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The leukocyte extravasation cascade is a complex multistep process that requires the activation of various adhesion molecules and signaling pathways, as well as actin remodeling, in both leukocytes and endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
- We also employed defined perturbations of cellular pathways paired with systems biology approaches to uncover protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. (nih.gov)
- The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
- Further work is needed to identify the point of discrepancy in these signaling molecules' pathways in dystrophynopathies. (conicyt.cl)
- Second, we show that caveolin-1 constitutively regulates endocytosis of α5β1 integrins, and that α5β1 integrin endocytosis can occur in the absence of fibronectin and fibronectin matrix. (biologists.org)
- Expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on the endothelium and activation of the β2-integrins lymphocyte function-associated Ag-1 and macrophage-1 Ag or the β1-integrin very late Ag-4 on leukocytes mediate firm adhesion. (jimmunol.org)
- Recently, the membrane protein caveolin was found in complexes with beta1 integrins. (semanticscholar.org)
- Extracellular matrix proteoglycans, growth factors, integrins, caveolin-3, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression do not show significant differences. (conicyt.cl)
- To validate the results in human disease and to identify caveolin-1-regulated molecular mechanisms, monocytes and neutrophils were isolated from patients with scleroderma and control subjects and caveolin-1, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression/activation were evaluated. (bmj.com)
- 1998 ). Molecular genetics of the caveolin gene family: implications for human cancers, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and muscular dystrophy. (biologists.org)
- The molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-survival and tumor-promoting functions of Cav-1 and the down-stream mediators of Cav-1 functional role in metastatic cancer have jet to be fully identified. (aacrjournals.org)
- They indicate the necessity to study this protein's function in each specific tumor context and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-survival and tumor-promoting functions of Cav-1. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, research to explore the underlying molecular network between Cav-1 and stress signals is warranted. (oncotarget.com)
- Molecular and cellular experiments revealed that APN receptor 1 (AdipoR1) colocalized with Cav-3, forming AdipoR1/Cav-3 complex via specific Cav-3 scaffolding domain binding motifs. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 Defining the molecular basis linking diabetes and ischemic heart disease may help in identifying novel therapeutic targets that will not only reduce myocardial infarction risk but also decrease cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. (ahajournals.org)
- Therefore, the aims of the present study were to (1) determine the role of caveolin-3 (Cav-3) (the predominant form of caveolin expressed in cardiomyocytes) in the cardioprotective actions of APN, and (2) investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for Cav-3 regulation of APN transmembrane signaling. (ahajournals.org)
- The molecular and functional characteristics of most relevant FOX molecules (FOXO, FOXM1, FOXP3) have been described within the context of CRC biology, including their usefulness regarding diagnosis and prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
Member of the caveolin gene family1
- The caveolin scaffolding domain interacts with several signaling molecules, sequestering them in the absence of activating signals, and thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. (biologists.org)
- Caveolin-1 is their essential structural protein that forms oligomers (with caveolin-2) and interacts with cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in lipid rafts. (aacrjournals.org)
- Caveolin-1 is also a scaffold protein that directly interacts with signaling molecules (receptors, kinases, adhesion molecules, and G-proteins) and controls their subcellular distributions and activation status. (aacrjournals.org)
- It interacts with extracellular molecules and is also involved in intracellular signal transduction cascades. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at tyrosine 14 was enhanced after bromocriptine treatment, suggesting that bromocriptine-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 may contribute to sensitization of apoptosis in GH3 cells exposed to bromocriptine. (biomedcentral.com)
- Insulin or IGF-1 binding initiates a complex cascade of events, starting with phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on the insulin and the IGF-1 receptors ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Phosphorylation of caveolin by src tyrosine kinases. (semanticscholar.org)
- and also a decrease in insulin receptor substrate-1 Ser 307 phosphorylation in JNK and inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKKβ) activation in these tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Insulin stimulates a signaling network composed of a number of molecules, initiating the activation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 ( 6 ⇓ - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Following tyrosine phosphorylation, IRS-1/IRS-2 bind and activate the enzyme phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). The activation of PI3-K increases serine phosphorylation of Akt, which is responsible for most of the metabolic actions of insulin, such as glucose transport, lipogenesis, and glycogen synthesis ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Members of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), counteract this effect by inducing cyclin D1 expression and reducing PPARγ activity by phosphorylation on serine 84 (serine 82 in mouse) in its N-terminal activation function (AF1) ( 7 ). (asm.org)
- These structural similarities allow for common mechanisms of regulation: the phosphorylation of the conserved tyrosine residues (Tyr-416 and Tyr-527) and the intramolecular interactions among the domains are crucial for the regulation of SFKs (Fig. 1 B). (ijbs.com)
- Our data indicate that THC induced ceramide accumulation and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation and thereby activated an ER stress response that promoted autophagy via tribbles homolog 3-dependent (TRB3-dependent) inhibition of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) axis. (mrnice.nl)
- The aim of our study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of RXM treatment in mediating the effect of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation and caveolinn-1 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ectopic expression of caveolin-1 in AGS cells decreased proliferation but promoted anchorage-independent growth and survival. (aacrjournals.org)
- PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor activation, and is oncogenic when expressed in mouse mammary epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Cav-1 caused the arrest of proliferation in the cell line, which remains stable up to 24 h after the removal of siRNA and then gradually returns to normal levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- Interestingly, both Cav-1 expression and proliferation goes down and turn up in the same way and at the same extent. (aacrjournals.org)
- Together, our findings obtained in malignant tumors like SCLC, NSCLC, glioblastoma and osteosarcoma indicate that Cav-1 silencing induces an arrest of proliferation in vitro in each of them by inhibiting the pathway mediated by STAT3, through different upstream molecules depending on tumor: AKT and ERK in metastatic lung cancer, c-Src and p38 alpha in glioblastoma and SOCS-1 in osteosarcoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results confirm that Cav-1 exerts a role as a promoter of cancer proliferation and its activity strictly depends on cell/tumor type. (aacrjournals.org)
- Currently, caveolin-1 is thought to be a negative regulator of cellular proliferation and an enhancer of apoptosis by blocking signal transduction between cell surface membrane receptors and intracellular signaling protein cascades. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, folate uptake can promote malignancy cell proliferation, migration and lack of adhesion through downregulation from the cell-cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, advertising mobile motility and metastasis. (cancer-colorectal.com)
- FR in addition has been proven to inhibit caveolin-1, therefore supporting anchorage-independent development and proliferation of tumor cells and advertising cancer development [21, (cancer-colorectal.com)
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, as well as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Inactivation of Dusp6 by small molecules or by gene inactivation increased cardiomyocyte proliferation, coronary angiogenesis, and reduced fibrosis after ventricular resection. (biologists.org)
- Then, we analyzed downstream events of the integrin β1 signaling pathway in the proliferation of FS cells and identified caveolin 3 as a potential candidate molecule. (bioscientifica.com)
- Using specific small interfering RNA of caveolin 3, the proliferation of FS cells was inhibited. (bioscientifica.com)
- These findings suggest that matricrine signaling in the proliferation of FS cells was transduced by a caveolin 3-mediated integrin β1 signaling pathway and subsequent activation of the MAPK pathway. (bioscientifica.com)
- Numerous studies have demonstrated that caveolin scaffolding domain binding inhibits the function of multiple caveolar proteins involved in cell growth and proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
- Inflammatory cell adhesion molecules in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. (semanticscholar.org)
- Endothelial adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin or ICAM-1, are connected to the actin cytoskeleton via actin-binding proteins (ABPs). (jimmunol.org)
- During inflammation, the endothelium actively contributes to leukocyte extravasation by expression of adhesion molecules, release of cytokines, presentation of chemokines, and by accommodating leukocyte crawling on its apical surface and transmigration across its cell body or intercellular contacts by "customized" actin dynamics controlling endothelial cell (EC) functionality. (jimmunol.org)
- The ECM constituents that may participate regulating signaling are adhesion molecules, proteoglycans, and growth factors. (conicyt.cl)
- Caveolin binding negatively regulates tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase activities. (biologists.org)
- Cholesterol is needed within cell membranes where it regulates membrane fluidity, signaling initiation, and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Methyl-β-cyclodextrin up-regulates collagen I expression in chronologically-aged skin via its anti-caveolin-1 activity. (nih.gov)
- Cell culture studies suggest that P95 is a novel endocytic protein important to maintain the balance of distinct endosomal sub-populations and potentially regulates the sorting of signaling molecules between them (unpublished work, Zerial lab). (studylibde.com)
- A hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 binding site at position -150 to -131 of the CD26 gene regulates CD26 expression in human intestinal (Caco-2) and hepatic epithelial (HepG2) cell lines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Phospholipase D2 Regulates Endothelial Permeability Through Cytoskeleton Reorganization and Occludin Downregulation Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. (jove.com)
- To characterize specific signaling events downstream of the insulin/IGF-1 receptors, we stimulated differentiated brown adipocytes with insulin and quantitatively analyzed the tyrosine phosphoproteome by MS compared with unstimulated control samples. (pnas.org)
- Similar to other members of the nuclear hormone receptors superfamily, PPAR γ protein has three functional domains: the N-terminal domain, the DNA-binding domain, and a carboxy-terminal ligand-binding pocket (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
- The assembly of signaling molecules surrounding the integrin family of adhesion receptors remains poorly understood. (semanticscholar.org)
- Subsequent studies have demonstrated that PDGF is not one molecule but three, each a dimeric combination of two distinct but structurally related peptide chains designated A and B. The dimeric isoforms PDGF-AA, AB and BB are differentially expressed in various cell types and their effects are mediated through two distinct receptors, termed alpha and beta. (rndsystems.com)
- Recent trends have shown a decrease in the incidence of central lung cancers, such as squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma, with a concomitant increase in the incidence adenocarcinoma, where testing to identify driver oncogenic mutations is essentially useful [ 1 - 3 ]. (jpatholtm.org)
- Loss of Cav-1 may increase susceptibility to oncogenic events. (oncotarget.com)
- 1998 ). Chromosomal localization, genomic organization and developmental expression of the murine caveolin gene family (Cav-1,-2 and-3). (biologists.org)
- 1). Methylation of a CpG island in the 5′ promoter region of the caveolin-1 gene in human breast cancer cell lines. (biologists.org)
- NO production was enhanced by lentiviral vector co-delivery of eNOS and CAV-1 F92A to eASCs, and osteogenesis and Wnt signaling was assessed by gene expression analysis and activity of a novel Runx2-GFP reporter. (biomedcentral.com)
- Canonical Wnt signaling pathway-associated Wnt3a and Wnt8a gene expressions were increased in eNOS-CAV-1 F92A cells undergoing osteogenesis whilst non-canonical Wnt5a was decreased and similar results were seen with NONOate treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prolonged shunting was associated with a tendency to decreased pulmonary gene and protein expressions of HO-1, while pulmonary gene expressions of interleukin (IL)-33, IL-19, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and -2 were increased. (plos.org)
- Pulmonary vascular resistance (evaluated by pressure/flow plots) was inversely correlated to pulmonary HO-1 protein and IL-19 gene expressions, and correlated to pulmonary ICAM-1 gene expression. (plos.org)
- RV expression of HO-1 was decreased, while RV gene expressions TNF-α and ICAM-2 were increased. (plos.org)
- The gene contains 26 exons (indicated in orange squares), ranging from 45 to 1,4 kb in length on the reverse strand. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- This effect has been linked to the inhibition of G 0 -G 1 -S phase cell cycle progression, down-regulation of cyclin D1, enhanced expression of p21 or p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and induction of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- 10 This increase is associated with agonist-stimulated contractile augmentation by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, suggesting that caveolin-3 is involved in nitric oxide influences on contractility in failing myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
- EPA and DHA inhibited cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 monolayer might be caused by down-regulating NPC1L1 mRNA and protein levels, which were associated with inhibition of SREBP-1/− 2 mRNA expression levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Combined treatments targeting siRNA inhibition of caveolin 1 and overexpression of E-cadherin markedly reduced cell viability in both sensitive and MTX-resistant HT29 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
Endothelial nitric o1
- Cav-1 was knocked-down by siRNA using the transfection reagent oligofectamine. (aacrjournals.org)
- and 5) MSCs transfected with CAV-1 siRNA. (springer.com)
- Quantitative image analysis of siAF647-LNP cellular uptake (3 hrs) in HeLa cells silenced with siRNA against key endocytic regulators (Cdc42, Rac-1, Clathrin heavy chain (CHC), caveolin-1 (Cav-1). (nih.gov)
- Many molecules implicated in migratory polarity show uniform cellular distribution under non-activated conditions, but acquire a polarized localization upon exposure to migratory cues. (genes2cognition.org)
- Immunohistochemistry analyses indicated a differential localization for these proteoglycans: glypican-1 and perlecan were found mainly associated to ECM structures, while syndecan-3 was associated to muscle fibers (Álvarez et al. (conicyt.cl)
- RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous caveolin-1 in MKN-45 cells accelerated cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- Rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells, which express endogenous caveolin-1, exhibit increased apoptosis and shrinkage after exposure to bromocriptine. (biomedcentral.com)
- Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the potency of APN as an endogenous cardiovascular protective molecule. (ahajournals.org)
- OPCML is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell adhesion-like molecule and a member of the IgLON family, denoting the immunoglobulin domain protein family that includes limbic system-associated membrane protein ( 20 , 21 ), OPCML, neurotrimin ( 22 ), and more recently neuronal growth regulator 1 ( 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Caveolin 3 is a membrane protein that binds cholesterol and a number of signaling molecules that interact with integrin β1. (bioscientifica.com)
Role of Caveolin4
- The role of caveolin-1 in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC) is currently unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
- 11 However, the role of caveolin-3 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy still remains unknown: it might promote hypertrophy, might inhibit hypertrophy, or might simply be a consequence of hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
- 9 , 10 However, the role of caveolin in APN transmembrane signaling, ie, functioning as either an inhibitor or activator, has never been previously investigated. (ahajournals.org)
- The functional role of caveolin-1 is now a primary focus of the caveolar research field. (asm.org)
- The novel triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) is effective in inducing apoptosis in leukemic ( 5 - 7 ), multiple myeloma ( 8 , 9 ), lung cancer ( 10 ), ovarian cancer ( 11 ), osteosarcoma ( 12 ), and melanoma ( 13 ) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Transiently expressed mouse recombinant caveolin-1 induced apoptosis in GH3 cells by enhancing the activity of caspase 8. (biomedcentral.com)
- Significantly, caveolin-1 induction of GH3 cell apoptosis was sensitized by the administration of bromocriptine. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results reveal that caveolin-1 increases sensitivity for apoptosis induction in pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and may contribute to tumor shrinkage after clinical bromocriptine treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- These data demonstrate that an up-regulation of caveolin-1 may be involved in promoting cell apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF family ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- This is achieved by their death domains recruiting the adaptor molecule Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and the apoptosis initiating protease pro-caspase-8 (or pro-caspase-10). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Among them, caveolin 1 is the best characterized isoform and shown to play roles in receptor mediated signal transduction pathway regulation. (einj.org)
- In this study, we genetically modified equine adipose-derived stem cells (eASCs) with eNOS, CAV-1 WT , and a CAV-1 F92A (CAV-1 WT mutant) and assessed NO-mediated osteogenic differentiation and the relationship with the Wnt signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- Triptolide inhibits the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells via Caveolin-1/CD147/MMPs pathway. (cancerindex.org)
- Of these, we observed induction of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1, MX dynamin-like GTPase (MX1), and ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier, indicating activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway occurs in R. conorii -infected HUVECs. (mcponline.org)
- In the study described here, we explored the effect of HER2 overexpression on the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), a synthetic triterpenoid, both in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model of breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- MIP-2γ overexpression in astrocytes enhanced the neuronal toxicity of glutamate by decreasing GLT-1 activity, but MIP-2γ itself was not toxic to neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
- To investigate the effect of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of caveolin-3 on hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes, we constructed an adenovirus that encoded human wild-type caveolin-3 (Ad.Cav-3), mutant caveolin-3 (Ad.Cav-3Δ), or bacterial β-galactosidase (Ad.LacZ). (ahajournals.org)
- We investigated the effect of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type and dominant-negative caveolin-3 on hypertrophic responses to G q -dependent agonists in cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
- On the other hand, microarray analysis of HT29 and HT29 MTX resistant cells unveiled overexpression of caveolin 1, enolase 2 and PKCα genes in resistant cells without concomitant copy number gain. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cav-1 overexpression was frequently confirmed in advanced cancer stages and positively associated with ABC transporters, cancer stem cell populations, aerobic glycolysis activity and autophagy. (oncotarget.com)
Vitro and in vivo1
- 1999 ). Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) by caveolin. (biologists.org)
- Src family kinases, although caveolin has not been directly implicated in integrin-dependent adhesion. (semanticscholar.org)
- Tyrosine kinases, which exist only in animals, play important roles in controlling animal-specific cellular functions such as rapid cell-cell communication via the plasma membrane [ 1 , 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
- Caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 are widely present in a variety of normal human cells, and caveolin-3 is expressed specifically in muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
- We show by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of biopsies from GC patients ( n = 41) that the nonneoplastic mucosa expressed caveolin-1 in foveolar epithelial cells and adjacent connective tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
- GC cells of only 3 of 41 (7%) patients expressed caveolin-1 and were all of the intestinal type. (aacrjournals.org)
- Strong caveolin-1 reactivity was found in the nonepithelial compartment (myocytes, fibroblasts, perineural, and endothelial cells) in both tumor-free and GC samples. (aacrjournals.org)
- Beta-catenin, alpha-actinin-1, and filamin-A were upregulated in the tumorigenic RC-77 T/E cells, while integrin beta-1, integrin alpha-6, caveolin-1, laminin subunit gamma-2, and CD44 antigen were downregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
- The pathology of prolactinomas involves dysfunction of lactotrophic cells in the anterior pituitary gland which in turn leads to hyperprolactinemia [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study, we investigated the effects of caveolin-1 on pituitary adenoma shrinkage in response to bromocriptine treatment at clinically-relevant concentrations in GH3 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Collectively, these studies highly claim that FR may function not merely like a folate transporter, but could also confer signaling and development advantages on malignant cells (as depicted in Physique ?Figure1)1) . (cancer-colorectal.com)
- After complete incorporation of the heavy or light SILAC amino acids in brown preadipocytes, cells were allowed to differentiate into brown adipocytes as described in ref. 9 ( Fig. 1 ) and stimulated with 100 nM insulin for 5 min. (pnas.org)
- Thus, the permanently SIV/HIV CD4 + producing T cell lines are valuable models for studying survival mechanisms in cells that represent primary targets of HIV-1/SIV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Caveolin-1 Influences LFA-1 Redistribution upon TCR Stimulation in CD8 T Cells. (abcam.com)
- Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) binds to caveolin-1 and inhibits the pro-inflammatory effects of caveolin-1 in endothelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- The leukocyte extravasation cascade is a complex multistep process that requires adhesive interactions and dynamic actin remodeling in both transmigrating immune cells and ECs ( Fig. 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Caveolin-1 contributes to realgar nanoparticle therapy in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. (cancerindex.org)
- Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and the urokinase receptor (CD87) form a functional unit on monocytic cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Here, we show that a large (∼70%) reduction in the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) level in human carcinoma HEp3 cells, while not affecting their in vitro growth, induced a protracted state of tumor dormancy in vivo, with G 0 /G 1 arrest. (rupress.org)
- 1) Laminin-8/9 (α4β1γ1/α4β2γ1) secreted by periodontal ligament fibroblast under serum-free culture were potent chemoattractant for gingival epithelial cells, and may be involved in apical migration of gingival epithelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- 3) Profiling of differentially expressed genes in human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts by DNA microarray revealed that epithelial cells highly expressed desmocollin, keratin-5, VAC-β, and fibroblasts highly expressed vimentin, gp130, and caveolin-2. (nii.ac.jp)
- Based on our results, we propose that in hematopoietic cells, flotillins provide intrinsic cues that govern segregation of certain microdomain-associated molecules during immune cell polarization. (genes2cognition.org)
- In noninfected cells, phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET) increased cell size and [ 3 H]leucine incorporation, along with the induction of sarcomeric reorganization and the reexpression of β-myosin heavy chain, indicating myocyte hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
- Caveolin-1 and -2 are coexpressed and abundantly expressed in adipocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. (ahajournals.org)
- We provide functional evidences indicating that caveolin 1 and E-cadherin, deregulated in MTX resistant cells, may play a critical role in cell survival and may constitute potential targets for coadjuvant therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- In 1993, this adenosine deaminase-binding protein is determined to be identical to CD26, a T-cell activation molecule and a 110-kD glycoprotein that is present also on epithelial cells of various tissues including the liver, kidney, and intestine. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Although caveolin-2 is coexpressed and heterooligomerizes with caveolin-1 in many cell types (most notably adipocytes and endothelial cells), caveolin-2 has traditionally been considered the dispensable structural partner of the widely studied caveolin-1. (asm.org)
- Analysis of apoptotic molecules showed that more pro-caspase-8, FADD, caspase-3 and Bid, but less cFLIP in H460 cells than in H460R cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- IgA-secreting cells were detected by incubating in 100 l of biotinylated goat anti-rat IgA (2 mg/ml at 1 : 2000 dilution) in PBSCTween-20 (2 hr), Degrasyn followed by avidinChorseradish peroxidase (A-HRP, 1 : 1000) for 1 hr at room heat. (acmbcb.org)
- Conclusions Caveolin-1 downregulation in leucocytes contributes to fibrotic lung disease, highlighting caveolin-1 as a promising therapeutic target in scleroderma. (bmj.com)
- How endocytic transport of signaling molecules contributes to the regulation of developmental signaling in the complex in vivo environment of a developing organism is not well understood. (studylibde.com)
- Recently, caveolin-1 was reported to colocalize with Na + K + ATPase and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the human gastric carcinoma cell lines HGT-1 and SNU-5, respectively ( 19 , 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: a viable therapeutic target for atherosclerosis? (semanticscholar.org)
- Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 at the early stages of atherosclerosis in a rat model. (semanticscholar.org)
- We hypothesized that altered HO-1 signalling could be involved in both pulmonary vascular and RV changes. (plos.org)
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and fatal disease characterized by abnormal pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling both leading to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and eventual right ventricular (RV) failure  . (plos.org)
- Our findings demonstrate that RXM treatment inhibits TGF-β1-induced activation of ERK and AKT and down-regulation of caveolin-1, which may be the potential mechanism of RXM protection from chronic inflammatory diseases, including bronchial asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- In cardiomyocytes, caveolin-3 might be involved in the regulation of channel functions. (ahajournals.org)
- 1986). The ECM acts regulating growth factors and cytokines activation status and turnover: several of its molecules have signaling functions, therefore, it likely has an important role in muscle fibrosis and phenotype regulation. (conicyt.cl)
- Statistical analysis was performed on the immunohistochemistry results for the tissue slices to investigate the correlation of caveolin-1 with the prostate cancer pathological grade, clinical stage, and preoperative serum PSA level to provide new information for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. (biomedcentral.com)