A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
Age of the biological father.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/25249)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (2/25249)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (3/25249)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (4/25249)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Control of growth and differentiation by Drosophila RasGAP, a homolog of p120 Ras-GTPase-activating protein. (5/25249)

Mammalian Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), p120 Ras-GAP, has been implicated as both a downregulator and effector of Ras proteins, but its precise role in Ras-mediated signal transduction pathways is unclear. To begin a genetic analysis of the role of p120 Ras-GAP we identified a homolog from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster through its ability to complement the sterility of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) gap1 mutant strain. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila RasGAP stimulated the intrinsic GTPase activity of normal mammalian H-Ras but not that of the oncogenic Val12 mutant. RasGAP was tyrosine phosphorylated in embryos and its Src homology 2 (SH2) domains could bind in vitro to a small number of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins expressed at various developmental stages. Ectopic expression of RasGAP in the wing imaginal disc reduced the size of the adult wing by up to 45% and suppressed ectopic wing vein formation caused by expression of activated forms of Breathless and Heartless, two Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. The in vivo effects of RasGAP overexpression required intact SH2 domains, indicating that intracellular localization of RasGAP through SH2-phosphotyrosine interactions is important for its activity. These results show that RasGAP can function as an inhibitor of signaling pathways mediated by Ras and receptor tyrosine kinases in vivo. Genetic interactions, however, suggested a Ras-independent role for RasGAP in the regulation of growth. The system described here should enable genetic screens to be performed to identify regulators and effectors of p120 Ras-GAP.  (+info)

Down-regulation of RpS21, a putative translation initiation factor interacting with P40, produces viable minute imagos and larval lethality with overgrown hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs. (6/25249)

Down-regulation of the Drosophila ribosomal protein S21 gene (rpS21) causes a dominant weak Minute phenotype and recessively produces massive hyperplasia of the hematopoietic organs and moderate overgrowth of the imaginal discs during larval development. Here, we show that the S21 protein (RpS21) is bound to native 40S ribosomal subunits in a salt-labile association and is absent from polysomes, indicating that it acts as a translation initiation factor rather than as a core ribosomal protein. RpS21 can interact strongly with P40, a ribosomal peripheral protein encoded by the stubarista (sta) gene. Genetic studies reveal that P40 underexpression drastically enhances imaginal disc overgrowth in rpS21-deficient larvae, whereas viable combinations between rpS21 and sta affect the morphology of bristles, antennae, and aristae. These data demonstrate a strong interaction between components of the translation machinery and showed that their underexpression impairs the control of cell proliferation in both hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (7/25249)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (8/25249)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Down syndrome can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, or after birth through a blood test. The symptoms of Down syndrome can vary from person to person, but common physical features include:

* A flat face with a short neck and small ears
* A short stature
* A wide, short hands with short fingers
* A small head
* Almond-shaped eyes that are slanted upward
* A single crease in the palm of the hand

People with Down syndrome may also have cognitive delays and intellectual disability, as well as increased risk of certain medical conditions such as heart defects, gastrointestinal problems, and hearing and vision loss.

There is no cure for Down syndrome, but early intervention and proper medical care can greatly improve the quality of life for individuals with the condition. Treatment may include speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and special education programs. With appropriate support and resources, people with Down syndrome can lead fulfilling and productive lives.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Trisomy is caused by an extra copy of a chromosome, which can be due to one of three mechanisms:

1. Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome): This is the most common type of trisomy and occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. It is estimated to occur in about 1 in every 700 births.
2. Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome): This type of trisomy occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 13. It is estimated to occur in about 1 in every 10,000 births.
3. Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome): This type of trisomy occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 18. It is estimated to occur in about 1 in every 2,500 births.

The symptoms of trisomy can vary depending on the type of trisomy and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

* Delayed physical growth and development
* Intellectual disability
* Distinctive facial features, such as a flat nose, small ears, and a wide, short face
* Heart defects
* Vision and hearing problems
* GI issues
* Increased risk of infection

Trisomy can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing, such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. After birth, it can be diagnosed through a blood test or by analyzing the child's DNA.

There is no cure for trisomy, but treatment and support are available to help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with the condition. This may include physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and medication to manage heart defects or other medical issues. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities.

The prognosis for trisomy varies depending on the type of trisomy and the severity of the condition. Some forms of trisomy are more severe and can be life-threatening, while others may have a more mild impact on the individual's quality of life. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with trisomy can lead fulfilling lives.

In summary, trisomy is a genetic condition that occurs when there is an extra copy of a chromosome. It can cause a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed before or after birth. While there is no cure for trisomy, treatment and support are available to help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with the condition.

Symptoms of megakaryoblastic leukemia may include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and an enlarged spleen. The disease can progress quickly, and without treatment, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as bleeding, infection, and organ failure.

Treatment for megakaryoblastic leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, which is a type of cancer medication that kills cancer cells. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may also be recommended. The prognosis for this disease is generally poor, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 30%.

Megakaryoblastic leukemia is a rare condition, accounting for only about 1% to 2% of all cases of acute leukemia. It is most commonly seen in children, but it can also occur in adults. The exact cause of this disease is not known, but genetic mutations and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation have been implicated as potential risk factors.

Overall, megakaryoblastic leukemia is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. With current treatment options, the prognosis for this disease is generally poor, but ongoing research is exploring new and innovative approaches to improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Examples of fetal diseases include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which can cause delays in physical and intellectual development, as well as increased risk of heart defects and other health problems.
2. Spina bifida: A birth defect that affects the development of the spine and brain, resulting in a range of symptoms from mild to severe.
3. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, causing thick mucus buildup and recurring lung infections.
4. Anencephaly: A condition where a portion of the brain and skull are missing, which is usually fatal within a few days or weeks of birth.
5. Clubfoot: A deformity of the foot and ankle that can be treated with casts or surgery.
6. Hirschsprung's disease: A condition where the nerve cells that control bowel movements are missing, leading to constipation and other symptoms.
7. Diaphragmatic hernia: A birth defect that occurs when there is a hole in the diaphragm, allowing organs from the abdomen to move into the chest cavity.
8. Gastroschisis: A birth defect where the intestines protrude through a opening in the abdominal wall.
9. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects that are present at birth, such as holes in the heart or narrowed blood vessels.
10. Neural tube defects: Defects that affect the brain and spine, such as spina bifida and anencephaly.

Early detection and diagnosis of fetal diseases can be crucial for ensuring proper medical care and improving outcomes for affected babies. Prenatal testing, such as ultrasound and blood tests, can help identify fetal anomalies and genetic disorders during pregnancy.

There are several types of genetic nondisjunction, including:

1. Robertsonian translocation: This type of nondisjunction involves the exchange of genetic material between two chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of genetic information that can lead to developmental abnormalities.
2. Turner syndrome: This is a rare condition that occurs when one X chromosome is missing or partially present, leading to physical and developmental abnormalities in females.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: This condition occurs when an extra X chromosome is present, leading to physical and developmental abnormalities in males.
4. Trisomy 13: This condition occurs when there are three copies of chromosome 13, leading to severe developmental and physical abnormalities.
5. Trisomy 18: This condition occurs when there are three copies of chromosome 18, leading to severe developmental and physical abnormalities.

Genetic nondisjunction can be caused by various factors, including genetic mutations, errors during meiosis, or exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. It can be diagnosed through cytogenetic analysis, which involves studying the chromosomes of cells to identify any abnormalities.

Treatment for genetic nondisjunction depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment is necessary, while in others, medication or surgery may be recommended. Prenatal testing can also be done to detect genetic nondisjunction before birth.

In summary, genetic nondisjunction is a chromosomal abnormality that occurs during meiosis and can lead to developmental and physical abnormalities. It can be caused by various factors and diagnosed through cytogenetic analysis. Treatment depends on the specific type and severity of the condition, and prenatal testing is available to detect genetic nondisjunction before birth.

... social regulation (e.g. norms), co-regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation. State ... Look up regulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE) New Perspectives on Regulation ( ... self-regulation) in contrast to state regulation of minimum wages etc. Regulations may create costs as well as benefits and may ... Jerusalem Papers in Regulation and Governance, No. 1, 2010 Orbach, Barak, What Is Regulation? 30 Yale Journal on Regulation ...
... ( V ) = V m i n − l o a d − V m a x − l o a d {\displaystyle {\text{Load Regulation}}(V)=V_{min-load}-V_{max- ... Line regulation Linear regulator "Line and Load Regulation for Programmable DC Power Supplies and Precision DC Sources- ... Load Regulation = 100 % V m i n − l o a d − V m a x − l o a d V n o m − l o a d {\displaystyle \%{\text{Load Regulation}}=100 ... Load regulation is the capability to maintain a constant voltage (or current) level on the output channel of a power supply ...
... , also known as Regulation Crowdfunding or Reg CF is a section of the United States Code, in particular 17 U.S.C ... Regulation A "SEC.gov , Regulation Crowdfunding". www.sec.gov. Retrieved 2021-10-18. "SeedInvest". SeedInvest. Retrieved 2021- ...
... can refer to: The physiological regulation of oxygen in plants and animals. See Control of respiration. The ... sexual practice of erotic asphyxiation This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Oxygen regulation. If ...
The (new) ePrivacy Regulation will repeal the (current) ePrivacy Directive. Contrary to an EU Directive, an EU Regulation is a ... The ePrivacy Regulation (ePR) is a proposal for the regulation of various privacy-related topics, mostly in relation to ... The history of the regulation goes back to January 2017 when the European Commission proposed the ePrivacy Regulation. The ... It has therefore been implemented into national laws and regulations. If the proposed ePrivacy Regulation became effective, ...
The Insolvency Regulation is an EU Regulation concerning the rules of jurisdiction for opening insolvency proceedings in the ... Unusually for a European regulation, the EC Insolvency Regulation does not seek to harmonise insolvency laws between the ... Israël, Jona (2005). European Cross-border Insolvency Regulation. ISBN 9789050954983. "Council regulation (EC) No 1346/2000 of ... European Union regulations, European Union regulations by number). ...
United Kingdom military units usually carry two Regulation Colours: the Regulation King's Colour and Regulation Regimental ... The Regulation Colours are the standard colours used in the armed forces of the countries falling under the Commonwealth of ...
Look up regulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Regulation may refer to: Government functions: Regulation of the polity ... Time beyond regulation is used in some sports or situations within sports to break ties, and is known as overtime. Regulation ... Voltage regulation, degree to which a device's output voltage remains nominal Categories of voltage control: Line regulation, ... by the executive branch pursuant to leave of the legislative branch Regulations, class of statutory instruments Regulation ( ...
... may refer to: Government by algorithm, use of algorithms in government Regulation of algorithms, rules ... and laws for algorithms This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Algorithmic regulation. If an ...
... refers to attempts by a government to regulate wages paid to citizens. Minimum wage regulation attempts to set ... Both would agree, that if its aim is to improve the living standards of society, wage regulation defeats itself. Posner says, " ...
The CLP Regulation (for "Classification, Labelling and Packaging") is a European Union regulation from 2008, which aligns the ... European Union regulations, Occupational safety and health, 2008 in law, 2008 in the European Union, Regulation of chemicals in ... and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006. New classification, labelling and packaging regulation, European Chemicals Agency, ... was made with Commission Regulation 790/2009.[jargon] Full title: Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and ...
In Belgium, a regulation (Dutch: verordening, French: règlement) is a form of legislation passed by the Brussels Parliament in ...
Macroprudential regulation v t e (Consumer protection, Financial regulation, Systemic risk, Business cycle, All stub articles, ... Microprudential regulation or microprudential supervision is firm-level oversight or financial regulation by regulators of ... Therefore, micro-prudential regulation also reduces systemic risk. Micro-prudential regulation involves enforcing standards, e. ... The motivation for micro-prudential regulation is rooted in consumer protection: ensuring solvency of financial institutions ...
... may refer to: Population control Wildlife management Human population planning This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title Population regulation. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the ...
Distribution regulation involves a "regulation point": the point at which the equipment tries to maintain constant voltage. ... presents a number of significant challenges for voltage regulation. Conventional voltage regulation equipment works under the ... In the voltage regulation formula, Vno load is the voltage measured at the receiving end terminals when the receiving end is an ... Voltage regulation describes the ability of a system to provide near constant voltage over a wide range of load conditions. The ...
"Regulation Bill passes 2nd and 3rd Knesset readings". Ynetnews. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "What is, in fact, the Regulation ... Knesset passes settlement regulation law at the Knesset website (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles with short ... "Regulation Bill passes 2nd and 3rd Knesset readings". Knesset website (Hebrew). Retrieved 6 February 2017. " ... "Attorney General to Netanyahu: I will not Defend the Regulation Law before the Supreme Court (Hebrew)". Ynet. Retrieved 13 ...
... is the approach to financial regulation that aims to mitigate risk to the financial system as a ... Bank regulation European Systemic Risk Board Financial regulation Financial Stability Board Financial Stability Oversight ... Conference Macroprudential regulation and policy (BIS - BoK, 2011), a collection of the articles presented during the ... The main goal of macroprudential regulation is to reduce the risk and the macroeconomic costs of financial instability. It is ...
See the section on Rent regulation#Forms of rent regulation for more detail. "PH6.1 RENTAL REGULATION" (PDF). OECD.org - ... The Catalonia region of Spain passed a rent-regulation law in September 2020. Rent regulation covered the whole of the UK ... Rent regulation: An introduction' (2003) 10 Swedish Economic Policy Review 3 H Lind, 'Rent Regulation: A Conceptual and ... Rent regulation in the United States is an issue for each state. In 1921, the US Supreme Court case of Block v. Hirsh held by a ...
"The theory of regulation in times of crisis" An overview of the Regulation School A scholarly blog on the Regulation School in ... "regulation". Regulation in the sense of government action does have a part in regulation theory. Robert Boyer distinguished two ... to Regulation Theory Article on Lipietz's approach to Regulation Theory A page containing some notes on the Regulation School's ... "mode of regulation of competition" (1850-1930). It consisted of a first mode of regulation, from 1850 to the beginning of the ...
... is a type of financial regulation that requires financial firms to control risks and hold adequate ... Prudential regulation can be split into microprudential regulation that focuses on the individual firms and making sure that ... protection such as the UK with the Prudential Regulation Authority or in Australia with the Australian Prudential Regulation ... they can withstand shocks and macroprudential regulation that looks at the whole financial system and systemic risk. Some ...
The Regulation of the Rhine (German: Rheinregulierung) or Rhine Correction (Rheinkorrektion), refers to the canalisation of the ... The 1892 treaty between Austria-Hungary and Switzerland on the regulation of the Rhine put to an end the many flood disasters ...
Text of the Regulation Taking of Evidence regulation at the Judicial Atlas (2001 in law, European Union regulations, 2001 in ... Council Regulation (EC) No. 1206/2001 of 28 May 2001 on cooperation between the courts of the Member States in the taking of ... The regulation applies to all the member states of the European Union with the exception of Denmark. The 2015 Danish European ... This regulation enables a somewhat simplified route by allowing direct contact between the courts in the member states. A ...
The Dublin Regulation (Regulation No. 604/2013; sometimes the Dublin III Regulation; previously the Dublin II Regulation and ... The Dublin III Regulation (No. 604/2013) was approved in June 2013, replacing the Dublin II Regulation, and applies to all ... It is the cornerstone of the Dublin System, which consists of the Dublin Regulation and the EURODAC Regulation, which ... repealed by Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 Regulation (EU) No 604/ ...
The regulation is found under Title 17 of the Code of Federal Regulations, chapter 2, part 230. The legal citation is 17 C.F.R ... On March 25, 2015, the SEC issued new final regulations amending Regulation A. Montana and Massachusetts state regulators sued ... of any Regulation A+ offering. Their minimum investment is $100. Regulation A allows companies to conduct a publicity campaign ... Official site Adopting Release for the amendments to Regulation A Guidance on the Application of Regulation A (Articles needing ...
The regulation of transcription is a vital process in all living organisms. It is orchestrated by transcription factors and ... Transcription regulation at about 60% of promoters is controlled by methylation of cytosines within CpG dinucleotides (where 5 ... In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to ... A large part of gene regulation occurs through transcription factors that either recruit or inhibit the binding of the general ...
... (12 CFR 217) is a Federal Reserve regulation which sets out capital requirements for banks in the United States. ... were incorporated into Regulation D. As a result of Section 11 of the Banking Act of 1933, Regulation Q was promulgated by the ... which was then the only remaining substantive component of Regulation Q. The Regulation Q prohibition of interest-bearing ... That version of Regulation Q no longer exists; all its remaining aspects, such as the type of entities that may own or maintain ...
Regulation (EC) No 1393/2007 (current) Council regulation (EC) No 1348/2000 of 29 May 2000 Not in force, replaced by regulation ... The Service Regulation, officially the Council Regulation (EC) No. 1393/2007 on the service in the Member States of judicial ... The 2000 regulation was subsequently replaced by the 2007 regulation. Denmark informed the Commission of its acceptance of the ... The substance of this convention was replaced by Regulation 1348/2000. The regulation applied to all the member states of the ...
... refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. This regulation is vastly ... In comparison to transcriptional regulation, it results in much more immediate cellular adjustment through direct regulation of ... Regulation of this process begins with the supply of methionine by a tRNA anticodon that basepairs AUG. This base pairing comes ... An example of regulation at the level of termination is functional translational readthrough of the lactate dehydrogenase gene ...
... and "affect regulation theory" are important concepts in psychiatry and psychology and in close relation with ... Affect regulation is the actual performance one can demonstrate in a difficult situation regardless of what their mood or ... Taylor, Graeme J.; Bagby, R. Michael; Parker, James D. A. (7 October 1999). Disorders of Affect Regulation: Alexithymia in ... Schore, Allan N. (6 August 2012). Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development. ...
... is a field of law, often bracketed with antitrust (as in the phrase "antitrust and trade regulation law"), ... sources of information about antitrust and trade regulation law Sample of Trade Regulation Talk blog. The Florida State Bar , ... Antitrust law is often considered a subset of trade regulation law. Franchise and distribution law, consumer protection law, ... See CCH launches Trade Regulation blog. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The viruses that cause EVD are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. People can get EVD through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person infected with Ebola virus.
Emotion Regulation as measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, DERS; Self Esteem as measured by the Rosenberg ... Treatment of multiple traumatized adolescents by enhancing regulation skills and reducing trauma related symptoms: rationale, ... Treatment of multiple traumatized adolescents by enhancing regulation skills and reducing trauma related symptoms: rationale, ... participants receive 12 sessions of the Dutch version of Skill Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR-A), ...
Changes to rules and regulations. Ameriprise Financial reserves the right to revise these Rules and Regulations at any time and ... "Rules and Regulations"). By accessing the Site you indicate your acknowledgment and acceptance of these Rules and Regulations. ... Laws and regulations. User access to and use of the Site are subject to all applicable federal, state and local laws, rules and ... Rules, Regulations and Disclaimers. For Ameriprise Financial internet world wide web sites. Ameriprise Financial, Inc., its ...
... the results obtained in the current study might suggest potential candidate genes for the regulation of milk production traits ... Epigenetic regulation of functional candidate genes for milk production traits in dairy sheep subjected to protein restriction ... Epigenetic regulation of functional candidate genes for milk production traits in dairy sheep subjected to protein restriction ... the results obtained in the current study might suggest potential candidate genes for the regulation of milk production traits ...
CLIA Regulations. Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements (42 CFR 493). Source: Government Printing Office (GPO) ... The final CLIA regulations were published in 1992, phased in through 1994, and amended in 1993, 1995, and 2003. Visit the CLIA ... The interpretive guidelines to the CLIA regulations are published in the CMS State Operations Manual (SOM). The SOM is used by ... The section of the federal regulations titled "Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements" is issued by the Centers ...
... information on the interpretation and application of the Reimbursement Related to Assisted Human Reproduction Regulations, ... If there is a discrepancy between the text in this guidance and the Regulations, the Regulations will take precedence. ... 13. These Regulations come into force on the day on which section 12 of the Assisted Human Reproduction Act, chapter 2 of the ... The Regulations establish a verifiable process by which reimbursements that are subject to section 12 of the AHR Act may be ...
HPA down-regulation -- RDoC Element. Type of Element: Physiology. The following construct(s)/subconstruct(s) refer to this ...
Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Group. 2016 - present. *Orlando KA, Wade PA. Epigenetic remodelling upon FGFR inhibition ...
NLMs networks, gene regulation, and chromatin research focuses on diverse aspects of gene regulation, such as chromatin ... This area of research includes the role of gene regulation and interaction networks in diseases such as cancer, using big data ... Conducting research on chromatin structure, epigenetics, and gene expression/regulation. *Investigating nucleosomal binding ...
Molecular biologists studying nuclear organization and chromatin structure learning how gene transcriptional regulators such as enhancers and insulators function.
Critically evaluate the current state of knowledge of the roles that the autonomic neural system (ANS) plays in regulation of ... Develop computational modeling of stress, negative feedback, feed-forward regulation, allostatic load and positive feedback ... "Autonomic Neural Mechanisms of Cardiopulmonary Regulation." The workshop brought together both national and international multi ...
Safety, Regulation & Guidance. *Memo from NIH Associate Director for Science Policy on Biosafety Stewardship Month, October 1, ...
Chief, Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, NIMH-IRP. ...
2023)‎. Health practitioner regulation and national health goals. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 101 (‎9)‎, 595 - ...
Gene Regulation Section Ranjan Sen, Ph.D., Chief Epigenetic changes during VDJ recombination: Multiple epigenetic marks have ... Home Research & Funding Labs at NIA Laboratory of Molecular Biology & Immunology Gene Regulation Section ... been proposed to contribute to the regulation of antigen receptor gene assembly via V(D)J recombination. We provide a ...
This PA, Peptide Regulation of Alcohol Intake, is related to the priority area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Potential ... PEPTIDE REGULATION OF ALCOHOL INTAKE Release Date: August 23, 1999 PA NUMBER: PAS-99-156 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... The down-regulation of NPY by leptin occurs in the paraventricular nucleus, modulating CRF and thyrotropin releasing hormone ( ... Therefore, studying the role of these peptides in the regulation of alcohol consumption is warranted. The goal of this ...
The Transcriptional Regulation of Lymphocytes Unit focuses on the mechanisms behind T Cell specification. We integrate several ... The Transcriptional Regulation of Lymphocytes Unit focuses on the mechanisms behind T Cell specification. We integrate several ...
2014)‎. Tobacco product regulation. World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. https://extranet. ...
... Grant Number: 5R01AG012161-14 PI Name: SHAPSES, SUE AMY Project Title: ... NUTRITIONAL REGULATION OF BONE Abstract: Osteoporosis and obesity are both important public health problems. Weight (wt) ...
The regulation, ironically drafted in secret, comes as Republican support for the embattled administrator wanes. ... Cryptocurrency Crash Bolsters Case For Stricter Regulation. Even crypto boosters want new laws, but some experts say regulators ... The Trump administration has actively worked to roll back nearly 100 regulations on climate change, which the president has ... A judge ruled the secretary of educations attempts to delay the Obama administrations regulations "unlawful." ...
Cardiac and Vascular Regulation. The concept of central integration in cardiac and vascular regulation can be better understood ... Pupillary Regulation. Central integration for pupillary regulation is in the dorsal midbrain and Edinger-Westphal nucleus. ... Gastrointestinal Regulation. Central integration of the gastrointestinal (GI) system occurs in spinal centers and the central ... Genitourinary Regulation. Central integration occurs in spinal centers and the central autonomic network. ...
Regulation; PEL¶ over 8-hour workday. Regulation; for a single time period up to 5 min in any 2 hours.. ... Table 1. Federal Regulations and Guidelines for Trichloroethylene. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. ... Federal Regulations: Environment. Levels of environmental exposure to TCE are generally low and are decreasing because ... After completing this section, you will be able to identify existing regulations and guidelines for TCE in the environment and ...
On July 18, 2007, the revised International Health Regulations (IHRs) entered into effect for the United States. IHRs are an ... Notice to Readers: Revised International Health Regulations Effective for the United States ... will support the new regulations (available at http://www.cste.org/ps/2007ps/2007psfinal/id/07-id-06.pdf). ...
... September 3-5, 2014. William H. Natcher Conference Center. National ...
Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over ones own emotional state. It may involve behaviors such as rethinking ... Emotion regulation can also include "up-regulation," or amping up ones emotions, which can be useful when an imminent danger ... Why Emotion Regulation Is Important Unlike small children, adults are expected to be able to manage their emotions-especially ... Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over ones own emotional state. It may involve behaviors such as rethinking ...
Shipping Regulations - Biomedical Materials Centers for Disease Control, Office of Health ans Safety, Biosafety Branch (TO ...
Get actionable insights into health information and technology topics from our subject matter experts ...
Trust in Government - Better Regulation. TRUST IN THE REGULATORY SYSTEM. Building, maintaining and validating trust is a ... Risk-based approaches to the design of regulation and compliance strategies can improve the welfare of the general public by ... The global financial and economic crisis has uncovered major failings in governance and regulation, which have undermined trust ... is a systemic approach to critically assessing the positive and negative effects of proposed and existing regulations. OECD ...
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of the Director (OD), convened a workshop on "Autonomic Neural Mechanisms of Cardiopulmonary Regulation. (nih.gov)
  • That allows EPA to evaluate the intended use and to regulate prospective manufacturers or processors of TCE before the use occurs, provided that regulation is warranted under the act (NTP, 2016). (cdc.gov)
  • Agreement 9/2016 , Regulation governing for the declaration of equivalence of foreign higher education qualifications at the academic level of doctoral studies. (uv.es)
  • The outcome could have repercussions for cryptocurrency regulation. (investopedia.com)
  • The Transcriptional Regulation of Lymphocytes Unit focuses on the mechanisms behind T Cell specification. (nih.gov)
  • The European Union's proposed regulation aims at protecting crypto investors and maintaining the digital currency's market stability. (investopedia.com)
  • The European Union is at advanced stages of finalising the new Markets in Crypto-Assets Regulation. (pwc.com)
  • This PwC Crypto Regulation 2023 report details the ongoing regulatory developments in over 25 jurisdictions. (pwc.com)
  • As recent events have shown, there is a need for sensible, consistent regulation of crypto markets around the world. (pwc.com)
  • Epigenetic changes during VDJ recombination: Multiple epigenetic marks have been proposed to contribute to the regulation of antigen receptor gene assembly via V(D)J recombination. (nih.gov)
  • NLM's networks, gene regulation, and chromatin research focuses on diverse aspects of gene regulation, such as chromatin organization, DNA conformation, DNA-protein interaction, DNA regulatory elements, and gene regulatory networks. (nih.gov)
  • This area of research includes the role of gene regulation and interaction networks in diseases such as cancer, using big data from new experimental technologies. (nih.gov)
  • Organization (WHO) recognized the need to overhaul of preexisting systems and infrastructure, past and present international public health cooperation, and they revised objectives of health ministries and their external partners, the International Health Regulations (IHR). (cdc.gov)
  • On July 18, 2007, the revised International Health Regulations (IHRs) entered into effect for the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • A judge ruled the secretary of education's attempts to delay the Obama administration's regulations "unlawful. (huffpost.com)
  • While the Mexico City policy was longstanding, this Bush regulation Obama officials are addressing was issued only in late 2008 and took effect on the former president's last day in office. (npr.org)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services will begin the process to formally rescind the regulation next week, according to Obama administration sources. (npr.org)
  • The section of the federal regulations titled "Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements" is issued by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to enact the CLIA law passed by Congress (see below). (cdc.gov)
  • In general terms, the CLIA regulations establish quality standards for laboratory testing performed on specimens from humans, such as blood, body fluid and tissue, for the purpose of diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease, or assessment of health. (cdc.gov)
  • The SOM is used by state offices to administer various federal programs, such as clinical laboratory certification under the CLIA regulations, and enforced by CMS. (cdc.gov)
  • Guidance documents are meant to provide assistance to industry and health care professionals on how to comply with governing statutes and regulations. (canada.ca)
  • This Guidance document provides information on the interpretation and application of the Reimbursement Related to Assisted Human Reproduction Regulations (the Regulations) which are made under the Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act). (canada.ca)
  • The Regulations and this Guidance document apply to persons who make reimbursements under the AHR Act. (canada.ca)
  • It is also a source of guidance to laboratories for interpreting the CLIA regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • User access to and use of the Site are subject to all applicable federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations. (ameriprise.com)
  • Laws, regulations, administrative requirements, policies, or policy, and financing other government instruments in place are sufficient for implementation of obligations under IHR. (cdc.gov)
  • Most OTC drugs are not reviewed and approved by FDA, however they may be marketed if they comply with applicable regulations and policies. (nih.gov)
  • Provides, inter alia, that where a person or mine does not fully comply with a requirement of the regulations, but the State mining engineer is satisfied that there is substantial compliance, he may in writing exempt the person or mine from the requirement, subject to such terms and conditions as he specifies. (ilo.org)
  • Furthermore, the AHR Act allows a surrogate mother to be reimbursed in accordance with the Regulations for the loss of work-related income incurred during her pregnancy if a qualified medical practitioner certifies in writing that continuing to work may pose a risk to her health or that of the embryo or foetus. (canada.ca)
  • Critically evaluate the current state of knowledge of the roles that the autonomic neural system (ANS) plays in regulation of cardiopulmonary function in health and in pathophysiology of arrhythmias, heart failure, and breathing disorders. (nih.gov)
  • The regulations and the framework describe the capacities across an entire public health system. (cdc.gov)
  • The federal government has developed regulations and guidelines for TCE to protect the public and workers from potential adverse health effects from exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • In some cases, though, a lack of appropriate emotion regulation may be a sign of a mental health condition such as borderline personality disorder or depression . (psychologytoday.com)
  • Search our medical & health expert witness and consultant directory that includes expert listings for pharmacology, independent medical examiners, brain injury and trauma, competence, medical chart review, FDA Medical Device Regulation and more. (law.com)
  • Supporters of the regulation say it was needed to clarify protections for health care workers who do not wish to participate in abortion or abortion-related activities. (npr.org)
  • The lack of regulations resulted in confusion and a lack of awareness within the health care community, leaving health care personnel vulnerable to discrimination and forcing them to drop their specialties at a crucial time of health care scarcity," says Tony Perkins of the Family Research Council. (npr.org)
  • The rules as written appropriately protect pro-life health care workers," said Stephen H. Aden, senior legal counsel for the Alliance Defense Fund, which is defending the regulation in several lawsuits that have been filed against it. (npr.org)
  • The Consumer Services and Health Care Regulation Commission is responsible for programs in the areas of health care facility licensing and certification, health care quality, and weights and measures. (in.gov)
  • State or federal regulations require health facilities or entities to report certain types of "incidents" to the IDOH. (in.gov)
  • For anyone who has begun to find the health care battle in Congress tiresome, another interesting legislative push is beginning to heat up: financial regulation. (theatlantic.com)
  • This regulation establishes the University's Environmental Health and Safety Committee, Chemical Safety Committee, Institutional Biosafety Committee, and Radiation Safety Committee. (uky.edu)
  • Sets forth final regulations relating to amendments made to IRC Section 402(c) by Section 13613 of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, Public Law 115-97 (131 Stat. 2054). (irs.gov)
  • There's broad public support for some financial regulation in response to last year's crisis. (theatlantic.com)
  • Given the sophisticated technologies involved with these virtual assets, countries must discuss whether a given regulation is needed, said Sitharaman, whose country is this year's G20 president. (reuters.com)
  • The Regulations establish a verifiable process by which reimbursements that are subject to section 12 of the AHR Act may be made. (canada.ca)
  • OECD analysis shows that conducting RIA within an appropriate systematic framework can strengthen the capacity of governments to ensure that regulations are efficient and effective. (oecd.org)
  • Indeed, some of the most important impacts of environmental policies take place outside of the market that is targeted for regulation. (repec.org)
  • Environmental Taxation and Regulation ," NBER Working Papers 8458, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • Environmental taxation and regulation ," Handbook of Public Economics , in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed. (repec.org)
  • Visit the CLIA Documents page to search and view the Federal Register Notices and former editions of the Code of Federal Regulations (published annually in October). (cdc.gov)
  • This review considers regulation of P450 in a context that describes the potential role and physiological significance of each modification. (nih.gov)
  • The Committees functions within the context of established external regulations, University policies, and recognized standards for the safe conduct of operations. (uky.edu)
  • Researchers have reported that alexithymia is associated with distress and difficulty with emotion regulation. (psychologytoday.com)
  • I think that Dodd's struggles even within his own party in the Senate underscore the difficulty that lies ahead for financial regulation. (theatlantic.com)
  • The proposed regulation sets forth alternatives to the physical presence requirement in Section 1.401(a)-21(d)(6) for the witnessing of a spousal consent. (irs.gov)
  • After briefings from CDC on the need for state and local support to implement the revised IHRs, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists on June 28, 2007, approved a resolution that the organization will support the new regulations (available at http://www.cste.org/ps/2007ps/2007psfinal/id/07-id-06.pdf ). (cdc.gov)
  • The interpretive guidelines to the CLIA regulations are published in the CMS State Operations Manual (SOM). (cdc.gov)
  • After completing this section, you will be able to identify existing regulations and guidelines for TCE in the environment and in the workplace . (cdc.gov)
  • The sooner that we get such regulations the safer these markets can be, and the sooner they can flourish. (pwc.com)
  • persons who incur expenditures for the maintenance and transport of an in vitro embryo that also fall within the scope of eligible expenditures set out in the Regulations may also be reimbursed. (canada.ca)
  • Eligible expenditures incurred in the course of sperm or ova donation, in the maintenance or transportation of an in vitro embryo, or, for surrogate mothers, eligible expenditures incurred by her in relation to her surrogacy and the loss of work-related income, may be reimbursed only if it is done in accordance with the regulations. (canada.ca)
  • Except where an exemption is provided for in the Regulations, a receipt for the eligible expenditure must be provided to the reimburser as a condition of the reimbursement. (canada.ca)
  • By accessing the Site you indicate your acknowledgment and acceptance of these Rules and Regulations. (ameriprise.com)
  • You know this whole period has the feeling a little bit like right after Enron, when you knew Congress was working up some new rules and regulations. (marketplace.org)
  • The proposed regulations provide an exception, if certain requirements are met, to the application of the "unified plan rule" for MEPs in the event of a failure by one or more employers participating in the plan to take actions required of them to satisfy the applicable requirements of the Code. (irs.gov)
  • While there are many ways to influence one's emotional state for the better, emotion regulation often involves what experts call "down-regulation," or reducing the intensity of emotions. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Specifically, they require evidence that a reimbursement has been made in accordance with the Act and Regulations, which is to be documented by the parties involved. (canada.ca)
  • The numerous Formula One regulations, made and enforced by the FIA and later the FISA , have changed dramatically since the first Formula One World Championship in 1950. (wikipedia.org)
  • Made under the Mines Regulation Act 1946. (ilo.org)
  • Risk-based approaches to the design of regulation and compliance strategies can improve the welfare of the general public by providing better protection from hazards, more efficient government services and reduced costs for business. (oecd.org)
  • With the new Congress sure to consider fresh regulations for the financial industry, and soon too, we've asked Marketplace's Steven Henn to recap what got us to this point. (marketplace.org)
  • Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) is a systemic approach to critically assessing the positive and negative effects of proposed and existing regulations. (oecd.org)
  • Regulations of official postgraduate studies at the Universitat de València. (uv.es)
  • Criteria for the equivalence of studies taken in PhD programmes adapted to the EHEA with PhD programmes with previous regulations. (uv.es)
  • Knowledge of P450 posttranslational regulation is derived from studies with relatively few enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • The global financial and economic crisis has uncovered major failings in governance and regulation, which have undermined trust in public and private institutions alike. (oecd.org)
  • For traditional financial institutions, digital assets regulation gives the long needed clarity and certainty to enter the space and start building their digital assets offerings. (pwc.com)
  • A recognized international expert in US FDA regulations and quality system implementation. (law.com)
  • While regulation alone cannot solve that, clarity across terminology and application of regulation, along with firms' enhancements to their risk management capabilities and procedures, is a good starting point. (pwc.com)
  • We are talking to all nations, that if it requires regulation, then one country alone cannot do anything,' Sitharaman told reporters after meeting the central bank's directors in New Delhi. (reuters.com)
  • Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over one's own emotional state. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This article covers the current state of F1 technical and sporting regulations, as well as the history of the technical regulations since 1950. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the introduction of current proteomics tools, we are primed to answer many important questions regarding regulation of P450 in response to a posttranslational modification. (nih.gov)
  • This would be, frankly, an insane classification on which to base regulations of whatever technology you had in mind. (foresight.org)
  • Amid all the finger pointing going on here, and there is plenty of it, one thing that comes up a lot is regulation, or the lack thereof. (marketplace.org)
  • The regulation, ironically drafted in secret, comes as Republican support for the embattled administrator wanes. (huffpost.com)
  • The final CLIA regulations were published in 1992, phased in through 1994, and amended in 1993, 1995, and 2003. (cdc.gov)