A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
Age of the biological father.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/25249)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (2/25249)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (3/25249)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (4/25249)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Control of growth and differentiation by Drosophila RasGAP, a homolog of p120 Ras-GTPase-activating protein. (5/25249)

Mammalian Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), p120 Ras-GAP, has been implicated as both a downregulator and effector of Ras proteins, but its precise role in Ras-mediated signal transduction pathways is unclear. To begin a genetic analysis of the role of p120 Ras-GAP we identified a homolog from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster through its ability to complement the sterility of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) gap1 mutant strain. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila RasGAP stimulated the intrinsic GTPase activity of normal mammalian H-Ras but not that of the oncogenic Val12 mutant. RasGAP was tyrosine phosphorylated in embryos and its Src homology 2 (SH2) domains could bind in vitro to a small number of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins expressed at various developmental stages. Ectopic expression of RasGAP in the wing imaginal disc reduced the size of the adult wing by up to 45% and suppressed ectopic wing vein formation caused by expression of activated forms of Breathless and Heartless, two Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. The in vivo effects of RasGAP overexpression required intact SH2 domains, indicating that intracellular localization of RasGAP through SH2-phosphotyrosine interactions is important for its activity. These results show that RasGAP can function as an inhibitor of signaling pathways mediated by Ras and receptor tyrosine kinases in vivo. Genetic interactions, however, suggested a Ras-independent role for RasGAP in the regulation of growth. The system described here should enable genetic screens to be performed to identify regulators and effectors of p120 Ras-GAP.  (+info)

Down-regulation of RpS21, a putative translation initiation factor interacting with P40, produces viable minute imagos and larval lethality with overgrown hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs. (6/25249)

Down-regulation of the Drosophila ribosomal protein S21 gene (rpS21) causes a dominant weak Minute phenotype and recessively produces massive hyperplasia of the hematopoietic organs and moderate overgrowth of the imaginal discs during larval development. Here, we show that the S21 protein (RpS21) is bound to native 40S ribosomal subunits in a salt-labile association and is absent from polysomes, indicating that it acts as a translation initiation factor rather than as a core ribosomal protein. RpS21 can interact strongly with P40, a ribosomal peripheral protein encoded by the stubarista (sta) gene. Genetic studies reveal that P40 underexpression drastically enhances imaginal disc overgrowth in rpS21-deficient larvae, whereas viable combinations between rpS21 and sta affect the morphology of bristles, antennae, and aristae. These data demonstrate a strong interaction between components of the translation machinery and showed that their underexpression impairs the control of cell proliferation in both hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (7/25249)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (8/25249)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Effect of miR-503 Down-Regulation on Growth and Invasion of Esophagus Carcinoma and Related Immune Function - Order reprints #895518
Xie, W., Xie, H., Liu, F., Li, W., Dan, J., Mei, Y., Dan, L., Xiao, X., Li, J. and Chen, X. (2013), Propranolol induces apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells through downregulation of CD147. British Journal of Dermatology, 168: 739-748. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12193 ...
Dr. Katzmanns Protein Sorting and Receptor Downregulation Lab at Mayo Clinic looks at ESCRTs and associated factors facilitate the MVB sorting process.
(KudoZ) English to Portuguese translation of marked down-regulation: regulação descendente marcante, regulação descendente acentuada [Medical (general) (Medical)].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tiazofurin down-regulates expression of c-Ki-ras oncogene in a leukemic patient. AU - Weber, G.. AU - Nagai, M.. AU - Natsumeda, Y.. AU - Eble, J. N.. AU - Jayaram, H. N.. AU - Paulik, E.. AU - Zhen, W.. AU - Hoffman, R.. AU - Tricot, G.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025806199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025806199&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 1705812. AN - SCOPUS:0025806199. VL - 3. SP - 61. EP - 66. JO - Oncology Research. JF - Oncology Research. SN - 0965-0407. IS - 3. ER - ...
The antileukemic effect of inhibiting bromodomain and extra-terminal domain-containing (BET-containing) proteins (BETPs) such as BRD4 has largely been largely attributed to transcriptional downregulation of cellular anabolic and antiapoptotic processes, but its effect on the bone marrow microenvironment, a sanctuary favoring the persistence of leukemic stem/progenitor cells, is unexplored. Sustained degradation of BETP with the small-molecule BET proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) ARV-825 resulted in a marked downregulation of surface CXCR4 and CD44, key proteins in leukemia-microenvironment interactions, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Abrogation of surface CXCR4 expression impaired SDF-1α-directed migration and was mediated through transcriptional downregulation of PIM1 kinase, which in turn phosphorylates CXCR4 and facilitates its surface localization. Downregulation of CD44, including isoforms CD44v8-10 impaired cystine uptake, lowered intracellular reduced glutathione, and ...
The antileukemic effect of inhibiting bromodomain and extra-terminal domain-containing (BET-containing) proteins (BETPs) such as BRD4 has largely been largely attributed to transcriptional downregulation of cellular anabolic and antiapoptotic processes, but its effect on the bone marrow microenvironment, a sanctuary favoring the persistence of leukemic stem/progenitor cells, is unexplored. Sustained degradation of BETP with the small-molecule BET proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) ARV-825 resulted in a marked downregulation of surface CXCR4 and CD44, key proteins in leukemia-microenvironment interactions, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Abrogation of surface CXCR4 expression impaired SDF-1α-directed migration and was mediated through transcriptional downregulation of PIM1 kinase, which in turn phosphorylates CXCR4 and facilitates its surface localization. Downregulation of CD44, including isoforms CD44v8-10 impaired cystine uptake, lowered intracellular reduced glutathione, and ...
In addition to initiating signaling events, the activation of cell surface receptors also triggers regulatory processes that restrict the duration of signaling. Acute attenuation of signaling can be accomplished either via ligand-induced internalization of receptors (endocytic downregulation) or via ligand-induced receptor desensitization. These phenomena have traditionally been viewed in the context of adaptation wherein the receptor system enters a refractory state in the presence of sustained ligand stimuli and thereby prevents the cell from over-responding to the ligand. Here we use the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) as model systems to respectively examine the effects of downregulation and desensitization on the ability of signaling receptors to decode time-varying ligand stimuli. Using a mathematical model, we show that downregulation and desensitization mechanisms can lead to tight and efficient input-output coupling thereby ensuring synchronous
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5-HT1a and 5-ht7 receptors The functional need for 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors dimerization is continues to be revised (Matthys et al., 2011; Gellynck et al., 2013; Herrick-Davis, 2013); indicating that it differentially regulates receptor signaling and trafficking (Renner et al., 2012). But nonetheless we have no idea the implications of the in storage formation and amnesic circumstances; hence, the analysis of signaling linked to 5-HT7 receptor in memory space development, amnesia and forgetting may provide significant insights (Meneses, 2014a,b). For example, as the association of 5-HT7 receptor activation, improved memory space and improved cAMP appears to be dependable findings; certainly elements such as for example differential rules of hippocampal manifestation aswell as individual variations might be essential (observe Meneses, 2013). Furthermore, a biphasic and brain-region selective down-regulation of cAMP concentrations is definitely observed assisting object acknowledgement in the ...
Oncogenic Ras downregulates CD24 expression in NIH/3T3 cells. CD24 mRNA expression in vector control (Control) and RasV12 cells was determined by (A) RT-PCR and
title: Role of targeting integrin-linked kinase in suppression of invasion and metastasis through downregulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in renal cell carcinoma, doi: none, category: Thesis
RESULTS: 775 genes were differentially expressed and clustered in terms of their growth factor responsiveness. As well as identifying uncharacterized genes as novel targets of ErbB2-dependent signalling, ErbB2 overexpression augmented the induction of multiple genes involved in proliferation (e.g. MYC, MAP2K1, MAP2K3), autocrine growth factor signalling (VEGF, PDGF) and adhesion/cytoskeletal regulation (ZYX, THBS1, VCL, CNN3, ITGA2, ITGA3, NEDD9, TAGLN), linking them to the hyper-poliferative and altered adhesive phenotype of the ErbB2-overexpressing cells. We also report ErbB2-dependent down-regulation of multiple interferon-stimulated genes that may permit ErbB2-overexpressing cells to resist the anti-proliferative action of interferons. Finally, IGFBP3 was unique in its pattern of regulation and we further investigated a possible role for IGFBP3 down-regulation in ErbB2-dependent transformation through suppressed IGF1 signalling. We show that IGF1-dependent signalling and proliferation were ...
when a ligan binds, the signal produced by the liogand must be stopped. one way is receptor downregulation, in which the receptor is internalized and degraded in the lysosome ...
I have more to say on some of the ensuing discussion on the direction of causality when I procure some other references, but for now lets fast forward a bit. Taubes goes on to describe metabolic adaptation, regulation and homeostasis. The implication he makes in this discussion is that human metabolism is extremely varied and adaptable. Yes, there are differences due to hormonal levels (e.g. hypothyroidism is a basic example), and different macronutrients elicit different thermogenic effects, but there are limits. Hormonal signals can downregulate metabolism, lower body temp, etc. But theres only so far this can go ... or we die! By the same token, overfeeding studies have demonstrated time and again that whatever signalling and adaptations (futile cycling) may occur in response cannot prevent considerable weight gain. Taubes basically implies that no matter what we may do consciously to (a) maintain caloric balance, (b) induce positive caloric balance, or (c) induce a caloric deficit, our ...
Down-regulation of Akt1 in IGF-IR cells induces migration and EMT. (A, top) The motility of IGF-IR cells with isoform-specific down-regulation of Akt was assess
Oncotarget | https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.1174 Xu Di, Guofeng Zhang, Yaqin Zhang, Kazuyo Takeda, Leslie A. Rivera Rosado, Baolin Zhang
Book now at Article One - American Grill in Washington, explore menu, see photos and read 217 reviews: A very nice atmosphere. We did, however, have to contend with a screaming baby at the front desk. Otherwise, the staff was very polite and attentive.
TY - JOUR. T1 - PPARα is down-regulated following liver transplantation in mice. AU - Nakagawa, Kan. AU - Tanaka, Naoki. AU - Morita, Miwa. AU - Sugioka, Atsushi. AU - Miyagawa, Shin Ichi. AU - Gonzalez, Frank J.. AU - Aoyama, Toshifumi. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Background & Aims: Graft dysfunction is one of the major complications after liver transplantation, but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Since steatotic liver grafts are susceptible to post-transplant dysfunction, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α plays an important role in the maintenance of hepatic lipid homeostasis, we examined the role of PPARα in liver transplantation. Methods: Livers were harvested from Sv/129 wild-type (Ppara +/+) mice and PPARα-null (Ppara -/-) mice and transplanted orthotopically into syngeneic Ppara +/+ mice. Results: Hepatocellular damage was unexpectedly milder in transplanted Ppara -/- livers compared with Ppara +/+ ones. This was likely due to decreased lipid peroxides ...
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Our recent work established the essential role of β-arrestin in the internalization of the M2 mAChR [9]. The present study extends the observations of previous work and demonstrates that the agonist-promoted down-regulation of M1 and M2 mAChRs is β-arrestin dependent, and that the ubiquitination pattern of β-arrestin has a critical role in the differential down-regulation for M1 vs M2 mAChRs.. It has been previously established in a variety of cell lines that a prolonged activation of M1 or M2 mAChRs induces receptor down-regulation. In agreement with these findings, long-term stimulation of M1 or M2 mAChRs induced receptor down-regulation with the M1 mAChR showing significantly more down-regulation than M2 subtype. This observation suggests that the two subtypes are differentially regulated by endogenous β-arrestins. No down-regulation of either mAChR subtype occurred in the absence of β-arrestin and either β-arrestin subtype was able to rescue receptor down-regulation.. The observations ...
Sustained endotoxemia leads to marked down-regulation of early steps in the insulin-signaling cascade. Crit Care Med. 2001 Apr; 29(4):839-46 ...
We report the emerging role of microRNA (miRNA) deregulation associated with activation of an oncogene SOX4 (a member of the SRY-related HMG-box) in esophageal carcinoma. Paired esophageal cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues were obtained from 42 patients who underwent primary surgical resection f …
The disialoganglioside GD3 plays a major role in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been reported that ganglioside GD3 can induce apoptosis through bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway. However, the relationship between ganglioside GD3 and B-cell/CLL lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is not full …
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PARACTIN®: is a patented extract of Andrographis Paniculata (containing Andrographolide, 14-Deoxyandrographolides, and Neoandrographolides). Multiple double-blind randomized controed trials (RTC) published in PubMed demonstrated that PARACTIN® reduces the activity of COX-2 enzyme and nproduction of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1βand IL-10 through selective down-regulation of the genes involved in immune and inflammation processes ((TNFSF14, TNF, TNFRSF6, and IL1A, CCL8 and CXCL11, JAK3 and STAT5A, TLR4 and TLR8 and NF-κB). By inhibiting Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFkB) and other genes that participate in the inflammatory cascade, PARACTIN® inhibits the production of a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukins (signaling proteins used by our immune system) and other markers of inflammation (ESR, CRP, IgA, Rheumatoid factor) and modulates the dysregulated immune response. Studies showed that it is safe and as effective as NSAIDs or DMARDs for treating acute as we as ...
In chronic heart failure (HF), sympathetic nervous system overdrive induces the upregulation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) with a consequent β-adrenergic receptor downregulation/desensitization. Importantly, in failing myocardium, β-adrenergic receptor dysregulation is clinically seen by loss of inotropic reserve. Currently, β-blockers represent a solid pillar of HF therapy that at the molecular level efficiently counteracts both β-adrenergic receptor downregulation and GRK2 upregulation. GRK2 inhibition represents a promising new strategy to rescue the failing heart, and we have recently demonstrated that in some animal models, it could be used as a substitute for or in conjunction with β-blockers. GRK2 inhibition may be effective by interfering with other intracellular processes. The present study provides the first evidence of a direct and GRK2-dependent interaction between the β1-adrenergic receptor and the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1). We show that the ...
Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. However, its exact role in cancer is discussed controversially because both tumor suppressive and oncogenic effects have been described. Here we followed-up on our previous observation that inhibition of Hsp90 may increase ATF3 expression and sought to determine the role of ATF3 in colon cancer. Regulation of ATF3 was determined in cancer cells using signaling inhibitors and a heat-shock protein-90 (Hsp90) antagonist. Human HCT116 cancer cells were stably transfected with an ATF3-shRNA or a luciferase-shRNA expression plasmid and alterations in cell motility were assessed in migration assays. The impact of ATF3 down-regulation on cancer growth and metastasis were investigated in a subcutaneous tumor model, a model of hepatic tumor growth and in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Human colon cancer tissues were analyzed for ATF3 expression. The results show that therapeutic Hsp90 inhibition
This study further elucidates the role of CYP33 in gene transcription by studying the effects of CYP33 overexpression and siRNA-mediated down-regulation on the expression of MLL target genes such as c-MYC, p21, p27, and HOXA9. CYP33 is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase (PPIase) which mediates repression of HOX gene expression after binding to the 3rd PHD finger of MLL through its own RRM domain. Upon binding to MLL, CYP33 increases recruitment of HDAC to the MLL repression domain which in turn leads to deacetylation of histone H3. This ultimately causes repression of MLL target genes (Xia et al. 2003). Chromosomal translocations involving the MLL gene (Mixed Lineage Leukemia) can lead to the production of fusion proteins with any of more than 60 different partner proteins and is implicated in the initiation of leukemia. Expression of MLL fusion proteins leads to increased expression of MLL target genes such as HOXA7, HOXA9 and MEIS1 (Hess et al., 2010). MLL-fusion proteins lack the 3rd PHD finger and ...
Head and thorax development in the Drosophila embryo requires the maternal determinant of the anterior patterning system bicoid (bcd) (Frohnhofer and Nusslein-Volhard, 1986). The Bcd protein is expressed as a maternal anteroposterior concentration gradient in the early developing embryo (Driever and Nusslein-Volhard, 1988b; Struhl et al., 1989) and it is necessary for the expression of numerous zygotic genes in distinct anterior domains. Among them, the gap gene hunchback (hb), which is required for the formation of the segmented part of the head and of the thorax, is activated by low levels of Bcd and expands from 54% to 100% of egg length (EL). In contrast to hb, the expression of another Bcd target gene, the head gap gene orthodenticle (otd), which is involved in the development of antennal and pre-antennal segments, is restricted to 100-70% of EL in the domain where high levels of Bcd concentration are found. Bcd is a homeodomain (HD)-containing transcription factor that probably activates ...
By studying activated DC, it was found that CD82 appeared to have an opposing function to CD37. Whereas CD37 expression was down-regulated following activation of DC, CD82 was up-regulated and restrained DC migration to lymph nodes. DC that were deficient in either CD37 or CD82 were unable to become fully functional and DC that were deficient in CD82 were able to spread much further than CD37 deficient DC. Thus, unactivated DC were observed to have high CD37 expression and low CD82 expression leading to a highly mobile cell that is able to travel easily around the body. Activated DC (DC that have sensed an infection) have low CD37 expression and high CD82 expression which limits mobility of the DC but is able to efficiently signal to immune cells that an infection is present ...
Interferon regulatory aspect (IRF)-3 may have a crucial function in viral and bacterial innate immune system replies by regulating the creation of type We interferon (IFN). cells. This inhibition was because of its suppression from the transcriptional activation TC-E 5001 of IRF-3, as proven by inhibition of IRF-3 PRD (III-I) luciferase activity along with the phosphorylation design of IRF-3 within the immunoblotting test. Furthermore, TQ targeted the autophosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), an upstream essential enzyme in charge of IRF-3 activation. Used together, these results claim that TQ can downregulate IRF-3 activation via inhibition of TBK1, which would eventually decrease the creation of type I IFN. TQ also governed IRF-3, among the inflammatory transcription elements, offering a novel understanding into its anti-inflammatory actions. (TRIF). Upon arousal by LPS, TLR-4 recruits the adaptor proteins TRIF, which in turn recruits tumor necrosis TC-E 5001 aspect ...
Balikova, A., Jääger, K., Viil, J., Maimets, T. and Kadaja-Saarepuu, L. (2012). Leukocyte marker CD43 promotes cell growth in co-operation with β-catenin in non-hematopoietic cancer cells. Int J Oncol 41:299-309. Kadaja-Saarepuu, L., Lõoke, M., Balikova, A. and Maimets, T. (2011) Tumor suppressor p53 down-regulates expression of human leukocyte marker. CD43 in non-hematopoietic tumor cells. Int J Oncol 40(2):567-76. Kadaja-Saarepuu, L., Laos, S., Jääger, K., Viil, J., Balikova, A., Lõoke, M.,Hansson, G.C. and Maimets, T. (2008) CD43 promotes cell growth and. helps to evade FAS-mediated apoptosis in non-hematopoietic cancer cells lacking the tumor suppressors p53 or ARF. Oncogene 27(12):1705-15. ...
Androgen suppression mediates transcriptional downregulation of DNA repair genes. Stimulation with supraphysiologic levels of dihydrotestosterone induces formation of lethal DNA breaks through recruitment of topoisomerase II enzymes to fragile DNA sites. Bipolar castration and stimulation that contributes to increasing DNA damage represents a novel strategy of sensitizing prostate cancer to cytotoxic therapies, including radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 22(13); 1-3. ©2016 AACR.. See related article by Hedayati et al., p. 3310 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of NFκB and pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth by curcumin is dependent on specificity protein down-regulation. AU - Jutooru, Indira. AU - Chadalapaka, Gayathri. AU - Lei, Ping. AU - Safe, Stephen. PY - 2010/8/13. Y1 - 2010/8/13. N2 - Curcumin activates diverse anticancer activities that lead to inhibition of cancer cell and tumor growth, induction of apoptosis, and antiangiogenic responses. In this study, we observed that curcumin inhibits Panc28 and L3.6pL pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth in nude mice bearing L3.6pL cells as xenografts. In addition, curcumin decreased expression of p50 and p65 proteins and NFκB-dependent transactivation and also decreased Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 transcription factors that are overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells. Because both Sp transcription factors and NFκB regulate several common genes such as cyclin D1, survivin, and vascular endothelial growth factor that contribute to the cancer phenotype, we also investigated ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Fei Gao, Jiyu Guan, Limei Liu, Sheng Zhang, Peipei An, Anran Fan, Guangqi Song, Peng Zhang, Tianchuang Zhao, Bo Tang, Xueming Zhang, Ziyi Li].
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
In the original manuscript, the text in figure 1 is illegible. Furthermore, there is an unnecessary carriage return (page 1716, ~line 18) crystallographic ... methods. [...]
Curcumin blocks CCL2 induced adhesion, motility and invasion, in part, through down-regulation of CCL2 expression and proteolytic activity is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at Oregon Health & Science University.
Mutations in the parkin gene, which encodes a ubiquitin ligase, has been implicated as one of causative factor for genetic parkinsonism. Interestingly, parkin role has also been implicated in cancer as a putative tumor suppressor with the gene been frequently targeted by deletion and inactivation in several human malignant tumors. Here, we demonstrated a potential tumor suppressor role for parkin in gliomas. We found that parkin expression was dramatically reduced in glioma cells and that the restoration of parkin expression promoted G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and mitigated the proliferation rate of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, parkin-expressing glioma cells showed a reduction in levels of cyclin D1, but not cyclin E, and a selective downregulation of Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and VEGF receptor levels. In accordance, cells derived from a parkin-null mouse model exhibited increased levels of cyclin D1, VEGF receptor, and Akt phosphorylation, and divided significantly ...
These findings reflect the selective downregulation of HLA-Bw4 by HIV infection and implicate educated KIR3DL1+ NK cells as the major NK population responding to HIV infection. To directly measure NK-mediated killing of DHIV3-infected cells, we assessed the viability of infected cells after co-culture with autologous NK cells. 77 unique alleles of are classified into four subtypes based on their surface expression density and sequence homology: alleles can be segregated further into or subtypes. In experiments using transfectant systems and tetramer binding, specific combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4 subtypes exhibit different receptor-ligand binding affinities and inhibitory strengths (13, 14, 21). KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1-n subtypes are not known to engage Bw4 molecules on neighboring cells; however, specific peptides including those from HIV may facilitate engagement of KIR3DS1 by Bw4-80I (22). KIR3DL1-l and Ch subtypes, in contrast, bind both Bw4 subtypes, with ATN-161 trifluoroacetate salt ...
Conversely, if one supposes that internalized receptor is immune to down-regulation and that down-regulation occurs proportionately to occupancy of receptor by agonist in the membrane, then again, down-regulation is greater at low fenoterol concentrations than the model predicts. As before this proposal cannot be saved by supposing a saturable process because the down-regulation is a first order process.. Kinetic models that are consistent with the data can be constructed if a pool of receptor in addition to the endocytosed pool can be invoked. Here we propose a scheme (Fig. 7A, model II), the key features of which are that down-regulation can occur by either of two pathways; one pathway involving a high agonist affinity component with a low capacity that is independent of internalization and a second pathway using a low-affinity, high-capacity event that is closely correlated with internalization. This scheme provides an explanation for the dissociation of internalization from down-regulation ...
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Cardiomyocyte death is currently recognized as a critical factor in the development of heart disease. heart. (Jin et al. 2002; Jonassen et al. 2001; Means et al. 2007). Its been recommended that Akt can be involved with cardioprotection mediated by preconditioning also, some short cycles of I/R in front of you sustained amount of ischemia (Mocanu et al. 2002; Steenbergen and Murphy 2008; Tong et al. 2000; Uchiyama et al. 2004). Diverse mobile Akt focuses on localized in a variety of BMS 378806 mobile compartments confer safety through transcriptional-(Brunet et al. 1999; Make et al. 2002; BMS 378806 Craig et al. 2001; Muraski et al. 2007) and post-transcriptional rules of pro-survival/pro-apoptotic protein (Datta et al. 1997; del Peso et al. 1997; Kuwahara et al. 2000; Rosenzweig and Matsui 2005; Cooper and Pap 1998; Shiojima and Walsh 2006). Excitement of receptors that activate PI3K outcomes in an upsurge in PIP3; this drives Akt translocation towards the plasma membrane where it turns into ...
IL-1 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates intracellular signaling cascades a few of which might involve IL-1 receptor associated kinase-1 (IRAK1). become detected in moderate from cells treated with IFN- only or in conjunction with IL-1. Over-expression of IRAK1 resulted in improved constitutive and cytokine induced creation of CCL5 and CCL20. Inhibition of IRAK1 activity through RNAi or manifestation of a dominating negative mutant clogged creation of CCL5 and CCL20 but experienced SGX-145 no impact upon the IL-1 improvement of IFN- induced CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 creation. To conclude IL-1 regulates T cell focusing on chemokine creation in keratinocytes through IRAK1 reliant and self-employed pathways. These pathways may donate to severe and chronic pores and skin swelling. transcription in the current presence of biotin-16-UTP (Roche, Indianapolis, IN). The cRNA was purified using ArrayGrade cRNA Cleanup Package (SuperArray Bioscience Corp.) based on the producers guidelines ...
Wei, W.,Ming, X.,Yi, Z. Y.,et al. Autoimmunity Mediated Down-regulation Of B 2-adrenergic Receptor In COPD[J]. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE,2010,181 ...
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This morning I had my Down Regulation appointment. This consisted of yet another internal scan. And being taught how to use the pen that holds my next lot of drugs. Somehow I get the feeling that sticking a needle in me is a whole lot different to sticking a needle into the little pad thing…
Mouse monoclonal antibody MX35 was developed against ovarian cancer. The antibody showed homogeneous reactivity with approximately 90% of human ovarian epithelial cancers and with a limited number of normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Although mAb MX35 has been used in a number of clinical trials in ovarian cancer, it has been difficult to define the molecular identity of MX35. We report here that mAb MX35 recognizes the sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2b (NaPi2b) in human cancer cells. This conclusion is based on several lines of experimental evidence, including 1) the identification of SLC34A2, the gene coding for NaPi2b, by immunoscreening an ovarian cancer cell line cDNA expression library with mAb MX35; 2) mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained by fragmentation from mAb MX35 affinity-purified antigen, which show complete sequence homology to amino acid sequences in NaPi2b; 3) selective down-regulation of SLC34A2 gene expression by RNA interference and the ...
miRNAs (microRNAs) have been shown to play a role in myocardial fibrosis. The present study was designed to analyse whether alterations in miRNA expression contribute to the progression of myocardial fibrosis in AS (aortic valve stenosis) patients through up-regulation of the pro-fibrotic factor TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β type 1). Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained from 28 patients with severe AS, and from the necropsies of 10 control subjects. AS patients presented increased myocardial CVF (collagen volume fraction) and TGF-β1 compared with the controls, these parameters being correlated in all patients. Patients were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to their CVF: SF (severe fibrosis; CVF ,15%; n=15) and non-SF (CVF ≤15%; n=13). TGF-β1 was increased in patients with SF compared with those with non-SF. To analyse the involvement of miRNAs in SF, the miRNA expression profile of 10 patients (four with non-SF and six with SF) was analysed showing that 99 ...
No effective chemotherapy for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, especially glioblastoma, exists so far. Despite the progress in surgical techniques and advances in the irradiation treatment, the concomitant chemotherapy is essential for the prevention of relapse and of major importance for patient outcome. The introduction of temozolomide combined with radiation in clinical practice led to slightly improved long-term survival, but malignant gliomas remain resistant to cancer chemotherapy. Thus, new strategies for the treatment of brain tumors are still needed. Objectives of this work were the evaluation of the TmHU protein as siRNA transfection reagent (Chapter 2), investigations on new kinesin Eg5 inhibitors, which specifically inhibit cell division during mitosis (Chapter 3), and the exploration of new tariquidar analogs as ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitors (Chapter 4). Due to the selective down-regulation of oncogene expression by small interfering RNA, siRNAs are considered as promising ...
Aging is characterized by loss of function of the adaptive immune system, but the underlying causes are poorly understood. To assess the molecular effects of aging on B cell development, we profiled gene expression and chromatin features genome-wide, including histone modifications and chromosome conformation, in bone marrow pro-B and pre-B cells from young and aged mice. Our analysis reveals that the expression levels of most genes are generally preserved in B cell precursors isolated from aged compared with young mice. Nonetheless, age-specific expression changes are observed at numerous genes, including microRNA encoding genes. Importantly, these changes are underpinned by multi-layered alterations in chromatin structure, including chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, long-range promoter interactions, and nuclear compartmentalization. Previous work has shown that differentiation is linked to changes in promoter-regulatory element interactions. We find that aging in B cell precursors is
TY - JOUR. T1 - CDK4 down-regulation induced by paclitaxel is associated with G1 arrest in gastric cancer cells. AU - Yoo, Young Do. AU - Park, Jong Kuk. AU - Choi, Ju Youn. AU - Lee, Kee Ho. AU - Kang, Yoon Koo. AU - Kim, Chong Suk. AU - Shin, Sang Won. AU - Kim, Yeul Hong. AU - Kim, Jun Suk. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Paclitaxel induces a cell cycle block at G2-M phase by preventing the depolymerization of microtubules and induces p53-independent apoptosis in many cancer cells. We observed that gastric cancer cells treated with paclitaxel have shown a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 down-regulation. This paclitaxel-induced CDK4 down-regulation resulted in a cell cycle arrest at G1-S phase. To confirm this observation, we prepared stable transfectants that overexpressed CDK4 and analyzed the cell cycle progression. Ectopic expression of CDK4 in SNU cells resulted in a release of paclitaxel-induced G1 arrest. The release of G1 arrest by enforced expression of CDK4 seems to make the cells more ...
Recent studies have shown that selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) is significantly down-regulated in a variety of solid tumors. Nevertheless, the clinical relevance of SELENBP1 in human bladder cancer has not been described in any detail, and the molecular mechanism underlying its inhibitory role in cancer cell growth is largely unknown. SELENBP1 expression levels in tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues were evaluated using immunoblotting assay. The association of SELENBP1 expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcome was determined using publicly available dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas bladder cancer (TCGA-BLCA) cohort. DNA methylation in SELENBP1 gene was assessed using online MEXPRESS tool. We generated stable SELENBP1-overexpression and their corresponding control cell lines to determine its potential effect on cell cycle and transcriptional activity of p21 by using flow cytometry and luciferase reporter assay, respectively. The dominant-negative mutant constructs,
Dopamine is one of the key neurotransmitters actively involved in the brain. Research shows that by increasing the levels of dopamine within the reward circuits in the brain, nicotine acts as a chemical with intense addictive qualities. In many studies it has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine and heroin.[citation needed] Like other physically addictive drugs, nicotine withdrawal causes down-regulation of the production of dopamine and other stimulatory neurotransmitters as the brain attempts to compensate for artificial stimulation. As dopamine regulates the sensitivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors decreases. To compensate for this compensatory mechanism, the brain in turn upregulates the number of receptors, convoluting its regulatory effects with compensatory mechanisms meant to counteract other compensatory mechanisms. An example is the increase in norepinephrine, one of the successors to dopamine, which inhibit reuptake of the glutamate receptors,[45] in charge of memory ...
Over the past few years, the discovery of miRNAs has changed the landscape of human genetics and they have been widely studied in the field of oncology, where altered miRNA expression has been observed in a variety of human cancers [28]. Indeed, miRNA-expression profiling of human epithelial malignancies has led to the identification of signatures associated with diagnosis, staging, progression, prognosis and even response to treatment [29, 30]. However, few mechanistic studies have been carried out to dissect the functional role of miRNA in RCC, particularly in the context of immune dysfunction which may underlie disease progression. In fact, attaining effective tumor immunity is a major goal of the modern biologic therapy, limited by the tumor microenvironment and regulatory mechanisms affecting T cell and NK cell effectors [31].. The major finding in this report is that CD8+ T cells isolated from RCC patients exhibit defects in proliferation and a propensity to undergo apoptotic cell death ...
Research on the regulation of fish muscle physiology and growth was addressed originally by classical in vivo approaches; however, systemic interactions resulted in many questions that could be better considered through in vitro myocyte studies. The first paper published by our group in this field was with Tom Moon on brown trout cardiomyocytes, where the insulin and IGF-I receptors were characterized and the down-regulatory effects of an excess of peptides demonstrated. We followed the research on cultured skeletal muscle cells through the collaboration with INRA focused on the characterization of IGF-I receptors and its signaling pathways through in vitro development. Later on, we showed the important metabolic role of IGFs, although these studies were only the first stage of a prolific area of work that has offered a useful tool to advance in our knowledge of the endocrine and nutritional regulation of fish growth and metabolism. Obviously, the findings obtained in vitro serve the purpose to ...
The central dogma postulates that genes are first copied into messenger RNAs, which are then decoded into proteins with the help of transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs. It has long been known that there is more to the world of RNA than just these three classes, but the development of high-throughput RNA sequencing has revealed just how active RNAs can be. Much of the genome is transcribed, without these transcripts being translated into proteins. As these non-coding RNAs have been characterized, it is clear that many of them have regulatory roles. It has also been revealed how chemical modifications to all classes of RNAs affect their behavior, such as what they interact with and when, and how long they hang around for before being degraded.. Genome Biology has recently published a special issue on RNA & gene regulation, exploring this new world.. Perhaps some of the best understood regulatory RNAs are the microRNAs, short RNAs that bind to mRNA which mostly causes downregulation by either ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Down-Regulation of Serum/Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Colorectal Tumours Is Largely Independent of Promoter Hypermethylation. AU - Lessi, Francesca. AU - Beggs, Andrew. AU - De Palo, Mariagrazia. AU - Anti, Marcello. AU - Macarone Palmieri, Raffaele. AU - Francesconi, Simona. AU - Gomes, Vito. AU - Bevilacqua, Generoso. AU - Tomlinson, Ian. AU - Segditsas, Stefania. AU - Landsberger, Nicoletta. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0013840. DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0013840. M3 - Article. VL - 5. SP - e13840. JO - PLoS ONE. JF - PLoS ONE. SN - 1932-6203. IS - 11. ER - ...
Tryndyak, V. P., Ross, S. A., Beland, F. A. and Pogribny, I. P. (2009), Down-regulation of the microRNAs miR-34a, miR-127, and miR-200b in rat liver during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by a methyl-deficient diet. Mol. Carcinog., 48: 479-487. doi: 10.1002/mc.20484 ...
PIK-93 is a potent PI3K inhibitor. PIK93 selectively inhibits the type III PI 4-kinase beta enzyme, and small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of the individual PI 4-kinase enzymes, revealed that PI 4-kinase beta has a dominant role in ceramide transport between the ER and Golgi.
Our results show that genetic elimination of BAMBI as a modulator of the signaling of the family of TGF cytokines renders the almost-resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain more susceptible to the development of diabetic glomerular abnormalities, as determined by proteinuria with a widening of the FPs. This is associated with increased activation of ERK1/2 and Smad1/5 alternative TGF-β signaling pathways. The Vegfr2 and Angpt1 genes, which control glomerular endothelial survival and microvascular stability, were downmodulated in glomeruli from diabetic BAMBI−/− mice compared with BAMBI+/+ mice. Incubation of glomeruli from nondiabetic BAMBI+/+ or BAMBI−/− mice with TGF-β resulted in further downregulation of Angpt1 and Vegfr2 in glomeruli from BAMBI−/− compared with BAMBI+/+ mice. The enhanced downregulation of Vegfr2 in glomeruli of diabetic mice by eliminating BAMBI could be localized to glomerular endothelial cells using an H2B-EYFP reporter under the control of Vegfr2/Flk1 regulatory ...
Regulation. Further information: Regulation of alternative medicine and Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy ... Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine ranges widely from country to country, and state to state.[152] In Austria and ... Adequacy of regulation and CAM safety. Many of the claims regarding the safety and efficacy of alternative medicine are ... Use and regulation. Appeal. Practitioners of complementary medicine usually discuss and advise patients as to available ...
Legality of smoke-free regulations[edit]. Businesses affected by smoke-free regulations have filed lawsuits claiming that these ... "Better regulation, Better Benefits: Getting the Balance Right. Case Studies" (PDF). Department of Business Innovation and ... No-smoking regulations came into effect in Scotland on 26 March 2006,[110] in Wales on 2 April 2007, in Northern Ireland on 30 ... Smoking bans, or smoke-free laws, are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, ...
"Safety and regulation of chiropractic". NHS Choices. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2016.. ... Education, licensing, and regulation. Main articles: Chiropractic education and List of chiropractic schools ... is the statutory governmental body responsible for the regulation of chiropractic in the UK.[175][176] The U.S. CCE requires a ...
Early regulation[edit]. Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ... Social isolation has a hindering effect in AHN whereas normal regulation of androgens increases AHN. A study using male rats ... Androgen levels have been implicated in the regulation of human aggression and libido. Indeed, androgens are capable of ...
Radioactivity and regulations[edit]. Pure diamonds, before and after treatment. Clockwise from left bottom: (1) Initial (2×2 mm ... The concerns for possible health risks related to the residual radioactivity of the gemstones led to government regulations in ...
Regulation[edit]. In most countries, the central has a regulator dedicated to monitoring the provision of PSTN services in that ...
Practice conditions and regulations[edit]. Shortages of health professionals[edit]. See also: Health workforce, Doctor shortage ... Regulation and registration of professionals[edit]. Main article: Health professional requisites. Practicing without a license ... The number of professions subject to regulation, requisites for individuals to receive professional licensure, and nature of ...
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion. • positive regulation of ... Regulation[edit]. The activity of CaV1.2 channels is tightly regulated by the Ca2+ signals they produce. An increase in ... regulation of ion transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source. • ... regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction. • membrane depolarization during cardiac muscle cell action potential. • ...
With the turn of the 20th century came greater government regulation of the practice of medicine. These new regulations forced ... Regulation in Australia[edit]. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or ... 4 Regulation in the United States *4.1 Outsourcing facilities. *4.2 Drug testing and reporting of incidents *4.2.1 New England ... Regulation in the United States[edit]. In the United States, compounding pharmacies are licensed and regulated by states. ...
Examples of histone modifications in transcriptional regulation Type of. modification Histone H3K4 H3K9 H3K14 H3K27 H3K79 H3K36 ... Chromatin regulation[edit]. Histones undergo posttranslational modifications that alter their interaction with DNA and nuclear ... This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... Johansen KM, Johansen J (2006). "Regulation of chromatin structure by histone H3S10 phosphorylation". Chromosome Research. 14 ( ...
Regulation[edit]. Glycogen phosphorylase is regulated by both allosteric control and by phosphorylation. ... "The protein phosphatases involved in cellular regulation". European Journal of Biochemistry. 156 (1): 101-110. doi:10.1111/j. ... of the catalytic site to the surface is significant in that it makes the protein activity highly susceptible to regulation, as ...
Regulations & FDA Codes[edit]. The US Code of Food Regulations defines what the fat and moisture content of brick cheese must ...
Planning and Zoning Regulations[edit]. Professional Office Overlay Zones (formerly Design Districts) have been established on ... Town of Trumbull Zoning Regulations Adopted June 25, 2008 p. 61-64 ... Town of Trumbull Zoning Regulations Adopted June 25, 2008 p. 96-103 ... Town of Trumbull Zoning Regulations Adopted June 25, 2008 p. 115-116 ...
Neural regulation[edit]. The innate immune response to infectious and sterile injury is modulated by neural circuits that ...
Regulations challenged[edit]. McDonald challenged four broad aspects of Chicago's gun registration law, which, according to the ... attempting to overturn other gun control regulations not covered by McDonald. Helmke predicted that in that regard the NRA was ... a large number of lawsuits are needed in order to determine whether any other existing State gun regulations might also be ... the cases are different in scope in terms of the specific regulations challenged and the legal argument for applying the Second ...
Labeling regulations have been modified to provide for mandatory labeling of ingredients plus voluntary labeling, termed ... Popping B, Diaz-Amigo C (2018). "European Regulations for Labeling Requirements for Food Allergens and Substances Causing ... The European Union has initiated a process to create labeling regulations for unintentional contamination but is not expected ... The EU Food Information for Consumers Regulation 1169/2011 - requires food businesses to provide allergy information on food ...
Regulation[edit]. See also: Financial regulation in Australia. Formally, there is extensive and detailed regulation of ... A change in regulations allowed building societies and credit unions to become banks without having to demutualise, and several ... A change in regulations allowed building societies and credit unions to become banks without having to demutualise, and several ... This was in an environment where little government control or regulation of banks had been established and led to the failure ...
Regulation[edit]. As of 2019[update], the European Food Safety Authority has rejected all petitions by commercial manufacturers ... "Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims ... Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 (example, search EFSA for other opinion reports on probiotics". EFSA Journal. 11 (2): 3085. ...
Regulations[edit]. Three main kinds of oxygen masks are used by pilots and crews who fly at high altitudes: continuous flow, ...
positive regulation of leukocyte migration. • platelet degranulation. • regulation of integrin activation. • cell adhesion. • ... Gene and regulation[edit]. P-selectin is located on chromosome 1q21-q24, spans , 50 kb and contains 17 exons in humans.[7] P- ... positive regulation of platelet activation. • leukocyte migration. • response to lipopolysaccharide. • calcium-dependent cell- ... positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • inflammatory response. • calcium-mediated signaling using ...
Regulation[edit]. Some jurisdictions over the world restrict the publication of the results of opinion polls, especially during ... most of them have no regulation and some only prohibit it in the final days or hours until the relevant poll closes.[42] A ...
Regulation[edit]. From 1969 to 1992, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received 157 reports of health problems related ... "COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 872/2012". EUR-Lex. Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved 9 October 2017 ...
Production and regulation[edit]. POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or ... "Mitochondrial-genome-encoded RNAs: differential regulation by corticotropin in bovine adrenocortical cells". Proceedings of ...
Gene regulation[edit]. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. At the cellular level, homeostasis is carried out by ... Main articles: Blood sugar regulation and Glycolysis § Regulation of the rate limiting enzymes ... Copper regulation[edit]. Main article: Copper in health § Homeostasis. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to ... receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or down-regulation, and ...
Regulation. Main article: Explosive material § Regulation. Various countries around the world have enacted explosives laws and ...
United States regulation[edit]. The USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) began a voluntary, fee-for-service ratite ...
Government regulations[edit]. The World Health Organization (WHO), the specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is ... Canadian regulations are described by the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate which requires an eight- ... FDA Issues Regulation Prohibiting Sale of Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedrine Alkaloids and Reiterates Its Advice That ... and to assure self-regulation for protection of public health and safety.[60] In the United Kingdom, the training of herbalists ...
Canadian regulations[edit]. According to Canadian regulations, icing sugar shall be powdered sugar and may contain food color.[ ... "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-07-16 ...
Regulations[edit]. Homeowner associations have been criticized for having excessively restrictive rules and regulations on how ... Reasonable Rules and Regulations[edit]. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the ... The HOA board should follow legal requirements to inform homeowners about any changes made to the rules and regulations. The ... The benefits that a homeowner association (HOA) provides to homeowners vary depending on the specific regulations and practices ...
"Commission Regulation (EU) No 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 establishing a list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than ... There have been allegations, particularly in Italy and Spain, that regulation can be sometimes lax and corrupt.[81] Major ... of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006". EFSA Journal. 9 (4): 2044 [19 pp]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2044.. ... Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label, then the real origin must ...
"Fire Code" means Ontario Regulation 213/07 (Fire Code) made under the Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997. R.R.O. 1990, ... "spray booth" means a spray booth as defined in Ontario Regulation 213/07 (Fire Code) made under the Fire Protection and ... 1. In this Regulation,. "adequate", when used in relation to a procedure, plan, material, device, object or thing, means that ... a) details of the measures to be taken for compliance with the relevant provisions of this Regulation that are listed in the ...
But without stricter regulation, urban poultry farming is risky for both humans and birds. ... Very few regulations required humane slaughter or disease reporting. Only four municipalities required owners to provide birds ... In a recent study with University of California, Davis animal scientist Joy Mench, we examined urban poultry regulations in ... Based on our survey of Colorado, we believe cities need to carefully consider their backyard chicken regulations and develop ...
OHS Regulation or Related Materials. Submit your email address to receive a copy of the OHS regulation or related materials you ... The online OHS Regulation is not the official version of the OHS Regulation, which may be purchased from Crown Publications. ... iii) the requirements of this Regulation.. (2) Unless otherwise specified by this Regulation, the installation, inspection, ... See also section 4.4 of the of the OHS Regulation.. 4.36 Glass. (1) Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.] ...
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule ... Allosteric regulations are a natural example of control loops, such as feedback from downstream products or feedforward from ... Long-range allostery is especially important in cell signaling.[1] Allosteric regulation is also particularly important in the ... The sequential model of allosteric regulation holds that subunits are not connected in such a way that a conformational change ...
regulation (countable and uncountable, plural regulations). *(uncountable) The act of regulating or the condition of being ... regulation (not comparable). *In conformity with applicable rules and regulations. * 1969, Thomas Wiseman, The Quick and the ... regulation in Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913. *regulation in The Century Dictionary, The ... It is regulation that these directives are to be destroyed on receipt.. ...
... specifies that banks must institute internal rules that regulate the amount of risk that they can take in their ... A regulation set forth by the Federal Reserve. ... DEFINITION of Regulation F. A regulation set forth by the ... BREAKING DOWN Regulation F. Regulation F covers the collection of checks as well as various other services that larger banks ... interest rate swaps and repurchase agreements fall under this regulation. Regulation F may also allow banks that are highly ...
Louis tragedy or the Tuskegee syphilis experiment have prompted regulations in biomedical research. Over the years, regulations ... The regulation of science refers to use of law, or other ruling, by academic or governmental bodies to allow or restrict ... CS1 maint: Extra text (link) J. Samuel Walker and Thomas R. Wellock (September 2010). A Short History of Nuclear Regulation, ... The FDA and the Department of Health and Human Services oversee the implementation of these regulations. The issue of ...
CDC and other agencies implement public health laws passed by Congress through Federal Regulations. After a Congressional bill ... CDC has certain authorities to implement regulations related to protecting America from health and safety threats, both foreign ... becomes law, federal agencies may be responsible for putting the law into action through the development of regulations-also ... You can also find the official text of CDC regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations under Title 42-Public ...
If we looked at the FDA more like a neutral broker, a source of authoritative and up-to-date information on the food and drugs out there, I think wed be much better off. But instead, weve turned them into the Drug Nannies.. Similarly, the SEC, indeed the entire financial regulatory apparatus, revolves around writing rules, and then making sure that companies live up to them. Some of those rules, like financial statement filings, enhance transparency. But many others jealously guard the perogatives of the SEC and its minions--the safe harbor provisions for the three big regulatory agencies, for example, which lets the SEC control the definition of what a good, safe security is. From what I understand, one of the reasons that so many at the SEC opposed GLB was that merging investment banks with commercial banks meant handing over some of their regulatory power to the agencies that oversaw the commercial sector.. ...
The Division is responsible for the regulation of biocides, pesticides, detergents, chemicals as they are regulated by REACH, ... and duties under the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. ... The Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) is a Division of the Health & Safety Executive (HSE). ... Chemicals Regulation Division. The Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) is responsible for the regulation of biocides, ...
The Advertising Regulation Department protects investors by ensuring that broker-dealers communications are fair, balanced and ... What and When to File with Advertising Regulation. Find Advertising Regulation guidance on what and when to file that is ... However, any use beyond what is required by Regulation 60 may require the illustrations to be filed with NASD Regulation as ... Advertising Regulation: Expect More Than Just Hype. When deciding where and in what to invest, its important that investors ...
Media Regulation at Reason.com, the leading libertarian magazine and video website covering news, politics, culture, science, ... Media Regulation Making the Fairness Doctrine Great Again Media bias has been far less harmful than media regulation bias. That ... and the debate about Internet regulation is abysmal. ...
... of innate immunity. Key cytokines in the innate immune response include: TNF-α, IL-1, IL-10, IL-12, type I ... Although cytokine regulation of inflammation and immunity is essential for defending against infection and injury, excess ... Further activation of the adaptive immune response depends on cytokine regulation of T-cell differentiation into subsets of T- ... Cytokine Regulation. News-Medical. 21 September 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Cytokine-Regulation.aspx,. ...
Description of gene regulation research in the Cancer and Cell Biology Program, a Ph.D. program in the Baylor College of ... Gene regulation research in the Cancer & Cell Biology Program is focused on mechanisms that act to induce or repress the ...
It draws on the initiatives for Better Regulation promoted by both organisations over the last few years. ... The EU Better Regulation project is a partnership between the OECD and the European Commission. ... Better Regulation in Europe: Belgium. The EU 15 Better Regulation project is a partnership between the OECD and the European ... Better Regulation initiatives of Belgium-wide relevance. Ensure that its Better Regulation advocacy work continues to receive ...
Contact details for monitoring organisations/competent authorities in Member States dealing with the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR ... Interested private entities that fulfil the requirements within the regulation may apply to become monitoring organisations. ... Interested private entities that fulfil the requirements within the regulation may apply to become monitoring organisations. ... More recent information is available under http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/timber_regulation.htm ...
Privacy, Regulation, and the Internet (Exploring Liberty) - Duration: 25:18. Libertarianism.org 4,415 views ... Internet regulation, Internet freedom, Internet activism - Duration: 30:03. AdamVsTheManRT 10,611 views ... Terrys Floor Speech on Keeping the Internet Free From Government Regulation - Duration: 5:52. NebraskaTerry 233 views ... The Internet and International Telecommunications Regulation - the ITRs - Duration: 3:16. Internet Society 11,216 views ...
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Regulation No.. Title. ... The NIOSH regulations are found in the following parts of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and are linked below. ... NIOSH is also directly responsible for several regulations. These regulations mostly outline procedures and requirements for ... Also, OSHAs regulation at 29 CFR 1910.1020(h)(2) requires that: "Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business and there is ...
... is the working copy of the official 41 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) chapters 300-304. ... This edition of the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) ... Home/Policy & Regulations/Regulations/Federal Travel Regulation ...
Correct regulation makes a huge difference to the responsiveness of a piano. The proccess of regulating an upright piano is ... Technical Info 5 upright regulation * 1. The Owners Guide to Piano RepairFocus On: Vertical Piano Regulation Information ... a regulation every 5 - 10 years should be adequate. Since apiano goes out of regulation as a result of the amount of play, a ... A job of regulation is in order.The following commonly asked questions have been answered to give you theinformation you need ...
... * Prenatal Lead Exposure Linked with Decreased ... Research, funded in part by NIEHS, has uncovered new details about the regulation of telomeres. These repeated DNA sequences ...
talk about the role of regulation coming out of the recession and in the future, with Alan Murray. ... Viewpoints: Laurence Fink on Regulation. In the latest Viewpoints Breakfast series, Laurence Fink, Chairman and CEO of ... talk about the role of regulation coming out of the recession and in the future, with Alan Murray. ...
... late Lazard Chairman and CEO Bruce Wasserstein speaks to Alan Murray about government regulation. From June 5, 2008. ... Viewpoints: Wasserstein on Government Regulation. For WSJs Viewpoints series, late Lazard Chairman and CEO Bruce Wasserstein ... speaks to Alan Murray about government regulation. From June 5, 2008. ...
... the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) gives EU residents new, expanded rights over their personal data. ... Backed by fines of up to €20 million or 4% of global revenue, whichever is higher, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR ... The General Data Protection Regulation (GPDR) is a global game changer. No organization storing or processing the personal data ... as well as complying with regulation in a constantly evolving threat environment and regulatory landscape. ...
Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over ones own emotional state. It may involve behaviors such as rethinking ... Emotion regulation can also include "up-regulation," or amping up ones emotions, which can be useful when an imminent danger ... Why Emotion Regulation Is Important Unlike small children, adults are expected to be able to manage their emotions-especially ... Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over ones own emotional state. It may involve behaviors such as rethinking ...
... * 1. Essential science for broadband regulation PREDICTABLE NETWORK SOLUTIONS © 2015 ... Any new regulation has to be efficient and effective in its ability to detect, isolate and attribute any performance issues. • ... Regulation would would need to consider all possible traffic management policies and mechanisms in all current and likely ... The utility must consider the impact of the regulation on the weaker in society, such as small businesses, the disabled, those ...
219.03 Item 402(c)(2)(viii) of Regulation S-K and Item 402(h)(2)(iii) and (iv) of Regulation S-K require amounts that are ... Is this information considered to be a "non-GAAP financial measure" for purposes of Regulation G and Item 10 of Regulation S-K? ... of Regulation S-K, based on the exclusion provided by Item 601(b)(10)(iii)(C)(4) of Regulation S-K. [Mar. 13, 2007] [same as C& ... of Regulation S-K, based on the exclusion provided by Item 601(b)(10)(iii)(C)(4) of Regulation S-K. [Mar. 13, 2007] [same as C& ...
... regulation affects welfare through two other channels. (i) Regulation calms down existing consumers, because a reduction in the ... Regulation can increase welfare, for example, through fines (even with no changes in prices). Besides the standard channel (i.e ... regulation affects welfare through two other channels. (i) Regulation calms down existing consumers, because a reduction in the ... "A Mechanism for Institutionalised Threat of Regulation: Evidence from the Swedish District Heating Market," Economics Working ...
... Guest Editors: Brenton Graveley and Mihaela Zavolan. RNA plays important roles in the many complex ... A major shift in our understanding of genome regulation has emerged recently. It is now apparent that the majority of cellular ... The 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs play a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Selection ... which may contribute to the production of protein variants or to the regulation of gene expression via nonsense-mediated ...
  • Backed by fines of up to €20 million or 4% of global revenue, whichever is higher, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) gives EU residents new, expanded rights over their personal data. (ey.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GPDR) is a global game changer. (ey.com)
  • What is General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)? (adobe.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the European Union's privacy law that harmonizes and modernizes data protection requirements. (adobe.com)
  • A key part of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation is letting individuals choose and control what happens to their personal data. (adobe.com)
  • Think you know what it takes to protect your critical data under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)? (mcafee.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is legislation designed to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all European Union (EU) citizens' data privacy, and to reshape the way organizations across the region approach data privacy. (mcafee.com)
  • Disclaimer: The information provided on this General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) page is our informed interpretation of the GDPR and is for information purposes only. (mcafee.com)
  • The European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which comes into effect in May 2018, has far-reaching implications that extend far beyond the EU. (cmswire.com)
  • These regulations outline the statewide standards and licensing requirements for commercial cannabis manufacturers, became effective on December 7, 2017 and were re-adopted with some changes on June 6, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • MCSB published proposed regulations on July 13, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • On March 23, 2018, MCSB released proposed emergency regulations that would allow cannabis manufacturers to utilize shared-use facilities. (ca.gov)
  • The emergency regulations for shared-use facilities were approved and went into effect on April 13, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • GDPR-inspired privacy regulations are cascading into other regions and countries. (adobe.com)
  • Even if the public weren't involved in the development of the Voluntary Code of Practice, and even if search engines weren't coerced into agreeing to it under the not-so-subtle threat of direct government regulation, at least the agreement might claim a fig leaf of legitimacy if it were negotiated and published in a transparent fashion. (eff.org)
  • FOIA regulation 5 USC §552(a)(4)(A)(ii) states fees shall be limited to reasonable standard charges for document search, duplication, and review. (ncd.gov)
  • You can also find the official text of CDC regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations under Title 42-Public Health External . (cdc.gov)
  • The NIOSH regulations are found in the following parts of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and are linked below. (cdc.gov)
  • All formal Federal regulations are published in the Federal Register and also in the Code of Federal Regulations , a large multivolume series. (usda.gov)
  • Regulations are codified annually in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (epa.gov)
  • View the recorded sessions from the 2019 FINRA Advertising Regulation Conference, and receive access to all conference materials. (finra.org)
  • View the online brochure for the 2019 Advertising Regulation Conference. (finra.org)
  • Gene regulation research in the Cancer & Cell Biology Program is focused on mechanisms that act to induce or repress the expression of genes, epigenetic changes in chromatin, binding of proteins to specific DNA elements to regulate transcription and mechanisms that modulate translation of mRNA. (bcm.edu)
  • Recent advances, such as findings of extensive modifications of regulatory RNAs, indicate that our understanding of the role of RNAs in gene regulation is far from complete. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs play a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Can We Stomach Gene Regulation? (redorbit.com)
  • A breakthrough in decoding gene regulation of Helicobacter pylori has been made by an international research team led by Jörg Vogel of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin. (redorbit.com)
  • A new model for gene regulation? (redorbit.com)
  • But a very important protein required for the regulation of gene expression by sRNAs is missing in Helicobacter pylori. (redorbit.com)
  • We hope to get completely new insights into gene regulation", says Vogel. (redorbit.com)
  • Regulation of gene transcription by neuronal activity is evident in a large number of neuronal processes ranging from neural development and refinement of neuronal connections to learning and response to injury. (springer.com)
  • The major aim of Transcriptional Regulation by Neuronal Activity: To the Nucleus and Back is to illustrate key advances in the field - specifically how signals are transmitted to the nucleus in response to neuronal activity, what genes are activated and how this is achieved, and how these changes in gene expression alter neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of MHC gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding several of these transcription factors, such as H-2RIIBP/RXR beta, NK kappa B, I-kappa B, hXBP-1 and NF-Y, allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • This application proposes to study the molecular basis of retinal development using the regulation of rhodopsin gene expression as a model system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The new regulations come as the banking industry has seen the overall bonus pool fall coming into 2016, according to a recent report from the Office of the New York State Comptroller. (cnbc.com)
  • When a regulation comes into force, it overrides all national laws dealing with the same subject matter and subsequent national legislation must be consistent with and made in the light of the regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC and other agencies implement public health laws passed by Congress through Federal Regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Accountability is another of the simple conditions that EFF places on any industry code of practice that has a similar broad impact on Internet users as laws or regulations. (eff.org)
  • The links below provide additional information on the requirements and exceptions under the AWA, and complying with other applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. (usda.gov)
  • For a complete list of U.S. laws and regulations pertaining to biotechnology under the Coordinated Framework, click here . (usda.gov)
  • EPA is called a regulatory agency because Congress authorizes us to write regulations that explain the technical, operational, and legal details necessary to implement laws. (epa.gov)
  • The Advertising Regulation Department protects investors by ensuring that broker-dealers' communications are fair, balanced and not misleading and comply with the advertising rules of FINRA , the SEC, the MSRB and SIPC. (finra.org)
  • This year's conference also includes opportunities to network with industry peers and meet one-on-one with Advertising Regulation Department staff during office hours and throughout the event. (finra.org)
  • Facebook Inc. Chief Executive Officer Mark Zuckerberg called for new global regulations governing the internet, recommending overarching rules on hateful and violent content, election integrity, privacy and data portability. (insurancejournal.com)
  • We focus our review on four main types of alcohol regulations: price/tax restrictions, age-based availability restrictions, spatial availability restrictions, and temporal availability restrictions. (nber.org)
  • For a list of regulations CDC is currently working on, please see the Unified Agenda External of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions. (cdc.gov)
  • Identify and disseminate a shared strategic vision of what Better Regulation is seeking to achieve, both in terms of curbing regulatory inflation, but also for the broader contribution which it can make to economic and other public policy goals. (oecd.org)
  • Undertake a review, associating the ASA and the Better Regulation structures of the other Belgian governments, of whether and how any or all of the Belgium wide bodies with a role in regulatory management could be associated more closely to the Better Regulation processes. (oecd.org)
  • Review and monitor Better Regulation co-operation agreements so that they can play an appropriate supporting role in streamlining the regulatory framework to promote policy coherence across Belgium. (oecd.org)
  • Although NIOSH is generally characterized as a non-regulatory agency, guidance and recommendations issued by NIOSH are often used by other agencies responsible for developing and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • EY data protection and privacy services help organizations stay up-to-date with leading services in data security and data privacy, as well as complying with regulation in a constantly evolving threat environment and regulatory landscape. (ey.com)
  • Having some companies specializing in the still-not-legal dietary ingredient CBD join CRN will help the trade group as it looks to "help FDA, or Congress, craft those regulations," said Andrew Shao, CRN's senior vice president of scientific and regulatory. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Industry and regulatory speakers will facilitate interactive, forward-looking discussions on current practices, policies, priorities and emerging regulations. (finra.org)
  • Kevin Moore, analyst and managing director at Wachovia Securities, said that lawmakers should minimize the investment communitys need to constantly reevaluate the regulatory environment by introducing minimal and flexible regulation. (eweek.com)
  • Once upon a time, Ralph Nader and his legions were virtually the only ones cited by news reports concerning regulatory legislation, but today we are often likely to read about doubts concerning the value of regulation expressed by economists and others all along the political spectrum. (reason.com)
  • In his discussion of the price and entry regulations applied, for example, to public utilities and transportation, he suggests one reason why public opinion might have been ripe 20 years ago for Ralph Nader and the acceleration of regulatory activity since that time in the health and safety areas. (reason.com)
  • The Center on Regulation and Markets at Brookings provides independent, non-partisan research on regulatory policy, applied broadly across microeconomic fields. (brookings.edu)
  • Our research is concentrated on the regulation of processes responsible for the concerted action of cells, tissues, and organs. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Consider how best to secure more effective links between the administration and political units, for shared "buy-in" on Better Regulation processes. (oecd.org)
  • Motivational and behavioral models of developmental regulation form the framework for research on the central processes of agency over the lifespan. (springer.com)
  • The motivational theory of development over the lifespan conceptualizes processes of developmental regulation as a sequence of behavioral phases (goal selection, goal striving, and goal realization) with their own respective control strategies. (springer.com)
  • CBA has become widely accepted for environmental and safety regulation, so why not finance? (cato.org)
  • Congress added this section to the AWA in 2008 and APHIS published specific regulations in 2014. (usda.gov)
  • The proposed regulations and executive orders are directly related to parts of the president's agenda that have been rejected by Congress and the American people - most recently in the November presidential election. (americanthinker.com)
  • On behalf of our activist community, I urge you to contact your representative and ask him or her to support the Reset Act, H.R. 3442, introduced by Rep. Ted Budd (R-N.C.). The bill would require a review of all major federal regulations and allow Congress the option to overturn any such regulation through a majority vote in both houses. (freedomworks.org)
  • It is known that impairments of cellular calcium regulation underlie almost all neurodegenerative diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • For example, age-related loss of calcium regulation was shown to promote cell vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers stress that this kind of research, leading to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying cellular calcium regulation, is critical for the development of new drugs and treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • Under the definition of "smaller reporting company" in Item 10(f) of Regulation S-K, does the corporate parent of a majority-owned subsidiary have to satisfy the public float or revenue requirements of the definition in order for the majority-owned subsidiary to qualify as a smaller reporting company? (sec.gov)
  • Under the definition of "smaller reporting company" in Item 10(f) of Regulation S-K, must the corporate parent of a majority-owned subsidiary be required to file reports under Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act in order for the majority-owned subsidiary to qualify as a smaller reporting company? (sec.gov)
  • The technical definition of a midnight regulation is one issued between Election Day and the inauguration of a new president. (americanthinker.com)
  • While member states are prohibited from obscuring the direct effect of regulations, it is common practice to pass legislation dealing with consequential matters arising from the coming into force of a regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the regulation applies to a different, but in many cases overlapping, range of products than those regulated in the United States under equivalent legislation. (export.gov)
  • From a close-up investigation of Canadian financial regulations before and since the global financial crisis, to a profile of New Zealand's regulation and governance of its non-bank financial sector, to insight for international banks on compliance with anti-money-laundering legislation in Malaysia, the journal presents sophisticated analysis, and in-depth, expert advice. (palgrave.com)
  • anti-money laundering legislation and regulations. (palgrave.com)
  • As the nation's public health protection agency, CDC has certain authorities to implement regulations related to protecting America from health and safety threats, both foreign and within the United States, and increasing public health security. (cdc.gov)
  • The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) developed emergency regulations to implement the mandates of the Medicinal and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act (MAUCRSA). (ca.gov)
  • These regulations were developed to provide opportunities for small manufacturing businesses and in response to demand from cities and counties wishing to implement equity programs. (ca.gov)
  • You may be continuing to implement the changes that will align your organization with this data protection regulation. (mcafee.com)
  • SUMMARY: The National Council on Disability is finalizing regulations which implement the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act of 1974, and the Government in the Sunshine Act. (ncd.gov)
  • BRS derives its authority to write regulations from provisions of the Plant Protection Act , which is a part of the larger Agriculture Risk Protection Act of 2000 . (usda.gov)
  • EPA docket centers provide access to the same information as Regulations.gov for those people without access to the Internet. (epa.gov)
  • You may also submit comments to the docket centers, in addition to submitting them via Regulations.gov. (epa.gov)
  • If EPA decides to proceed with regulation development, then the agency conducts a variety of economic analyses when developing the proposed and final regulations. (epa.gov)
  • EPA rulemakings (i.e., regulations that are under development) could impact you once they become final regulations. (epa.gov)
  • Regulation of April 26, 2013, on the Technical and Operational Rules on Aircraft of Special Category, Not Subject to the Supervision of the European Aviation Safety Agency, [4] which mostly applies to UAS weighing more than 25 kg. (loc.gov)
  • Chairman Hensarling, Ranking Member Waters, and other members of the committee, I appreciate the opportunity to testify on the Federal Reserve's regulation and supervision of financial institutions. (federalreserve.gov)
  • It is unfortunate that the book is so passionless, although its very monotony serves to accent the conclusion that government regulations fail to achieve their presumed objectives and perversely harm the economy instead. (reason.com)
  • A joint study by the Brookings Institution and American Enterprise Institute [http://www.aei-brookings.org/publications/abstract.php?pid=98] found that government regulations that are supposed to save lives actually end up killing more people. (realclearpolitics.com)
  • In the latest Viewpoints Breakfast series, Laurence Fink, Chairman and CEO of BlackRock Inc. talk about the role of regulation coming out of the recession and in the future, with Alan Murray. (wsj.com)
  • For WSJ's 'Viewpoints' series, late Lazard Chairman and CEO Bruce Wasserstein speaks to Alan Murray about government regulation. (wsj.com)
  • Oxygen regulation can refer to: The physiological regulation of oxygen in plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is regulation that these directives are to be destroyed on receipt. (wiktionary.org)
  • [2] [3] Regulations can be distinguished from directives which, at least in principle, need to be transposed into national law . (wikipedia.org)
  • A regulation set forth by the Federal Reserve. (investopedia.com)
  • After a Congressional bill becomes law, federal agencies may be responsible for putting the law into action through the development of regulations-also known as "rules. (cdc.gov)
  • Federal regulations give the public details or specific requirements of how the law will be applied. (cdc.gov)
  • Federal rulemaking usually involves a notice-and-comment process in which regulations are published in the Federal Register External for public comment over a specified time. (cdc.gov)
  • You can provide your comments by going to the federal government's regulations website External to view CDC's rules that are open for public comment External . (cdc.gov)
  • The Unified Agenda, published in the spring and fall of each year, provides information about regulations that the federal government is considering or reviewing within the next 12 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Ensure that the ASA keeps its institutional distinctiveness (location in the Federal Chancellery, autonomous agency, strong link with the stakeholders), which has allowed it to promote, often with great success, Better Regulation initiatives of Belgium-wide relevance. (oecd.org)
  • State or federal regulations require health facilities or entities to report certain types of "incidents" to the IDOH. (in.gov)
  • Witness the moves to reform regulations on airlines and trucking and to limit the activities of the Federal Trade Commission and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (reason.com)
  • Established as a formal policy in 1986, the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology describes the Federal system for evaluating products developed using modern biotechnology. (usda.gov)
  • Comment on regulations, and access rules that have been published in the Federal Register and related documents. (epa.gov)
  • In many cases, state-level environmental agencies administer the federal regulations that EPA puts in place. (epa.gov)
  • This report deals with the regulation of logistics infrastructures in Brazil, focusing in particular on the federal level. (rand.org)
  • SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: These regulations were published for public comment in the Federal Register on June 11, 2015 (80 FR 33199), the comment period ended on August 10, 2015, and one commenter provided input. (ncd.gov)
  • Corporate officials who handle business insurance for their companies oppose federal regulation of the insurance industry by two to one, according to a survey released yesterday by Marsh & McLennan, a New York insurance broker. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In a version of the "don't fix it if it ain't broke" philosophy, a majority of 300 risk managers of major U.S. corporations said the current system of state regulation worked "very" or "fairly" well and should not be changed, although 29 percent of them added they would accept some type of federal/state regulation. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) is responsible for the regulation of biocides, pesticides, detergents, chemicals covered by REACH, and for compliance with the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation. (hse.gov.uk)
  • These Compliance & Disclosure Interpretations ("C&DIs") comprise the Division's interpretations of Regulation S-K. Some of these C&DIs were first published in prior Division publications and have been revised in some cases. (sec.gov)
  • The Gateway to State-by-State Resource Locators Exit , sponsored by EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance , provides access to state-by-state environmental regulations, compliance assistance, and where applicable, permits and forms for a variety of topics. (epa.gov)
  • Ensemble models of allosteric regulation enumerate an allosteric system's statistical ensemble as a function of its potential energy function , and then relate specific statistical measurements of allostery to specific energy terms in the energy function (such as an intermolecular salt bridge between two domains). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, our regulation of that system should support and promote the system's efficiency just as it supports its safety. (federalreserve.gov)
  • The state boiler inspection program implements statutory rules and regulations established to control the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of approximately 38,000 boilers and pressure vessels in the state of Colorado. (mines.edu)
  • In conformity with applicable rules and regulations. (wiktionary.org)
  • Regulation F specifies that banks must institute internal rules that regulate the amount of risk that they can take in their business proceedings with other institutions. (investopedia.com)
  • The process of creating regulations or rules is called rulemaking. (cdc.gov)
  • These regulations mostly outline procedures and requirements for specific health and safety related matters involving a particular industry or set forth rules for NIOSH to follow in administering programs assigned to the Institute. (cdc.gov)
  • They included smaller rules on workplace hazards, gun sellers, nutrition labels and energy efficiency, as well as giant regulations (costing billions) on retirement advice and overtime pay. (americanthinker.com)
  • Regulation of March 26, 2013, on the Exclusion of Some Provisions of the Aviation Law Act for Certain Types of Aircraft and Determining the Conditions and Requirements Relating to the Use of Such Aircraft, [2] which sets out the rules for operation of UAS weighing less than 25 kg. (loc.gov)
  • Obtaining a VLOS operation certificate requires the applicant to sign a declaration of knowledge of relevant regulations and basic theory (airspace, emergencies, flight rules, etc.), and pass theoretical and practical tests conducted by a CAA examiner. (loc.gov)
  • To understand the complexity of the vertical piano action and theprimary cause of an action going out of regulation, consider the cut-away photo ofthe action from an actual piano on the next page. (slideshare.net)
  • Welcome to the home page for the Indiana Department of Health (IDOH) Consumer Services and Health Care Regulation Commission. (in.gov)
  • The dangerous sexual practice of erotic asphyxiation This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Oxygen regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidance and information on the UK implementation of the EC Detergents Regulation. (hse.gov.uk)
  • They have a prominent role in establishing regulations and policies that support the establishment and implementation of utility-sector energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • In a recent study with University of California, Davis animal scientist Joy Mench , we examined urban poultry regulations in Colorado - the only state that collects and makes public animal shelter surrender data. (theconversation.com)
  • Army regulations state a soldier AWOL over 30 days is a deserter. (wiktionary.org)
  • Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over one's own emotional state. (psychologytoday.com)
  • While there are many ways to influence one's emotional state for the better, emotion regulation often involves what experts call "down-regulation," or reducing the intensity of emotions. (psychologytoday.com)
  • China's State Administration for Market Regulation (SAMR) is calling for public feedback regarding regulations for health food products containing probiotics. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Maria Miller, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, will make a statement on press regulation in the House of Commons later. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Regulations are mandatory requirements that can apply to individuals, businesses, state or local governments, non-profit institutions, or others. (epa.gov)
  • Car service app Uber has built a sizable business, and hasn't been too concerned about state and city regulations. (cnbc.com)
  • A voltmeter is then connected in parallel to the resistors and the measured values of voltage for each load state can be used to calculate the load regulation as given in the equation above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings suggest that as backyard chicken farming spreads, states need to develop regulations to better protect animal welfare and human health. (theconversation.com)
  • In some cases, though, a lack of appropriate emotion regulation may be a sign of a mental health condition such as borderline personality disorder or depression . (psychologytoday.com)
  • The Consumer Services and Health Care Regulation Commission is responsible for programs in the areas of health care facility licensing and certification, healthcare quality, vital records, and weights and measures. (in.gov)
  • The description of regulations can be found in Article 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (formerly Article 249 TEC ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kimberly Strassel has a great article in the Wall Street Journal that summarizes the actions taken by President Obama since the election designed to undermine the presidency of Donald Trump by piling thousands of new regulations and executive orders on the new president's desk, daring him to undo them. (americanthinker.com)
  • Regulations require that the horizontal distance from people and structures on the surface must be sufficient to exclude any risk to people, property, or the environment, even after any possible failure. (loc.gov)
  • The parties agree that the Treasury regulation plainly defines production expenditures to include not only the amount spent on the improvement but also the adjusted basis of the entire unit being improved. (forbes.com)
  • FOIA regulation 28 CFR §16.10(a)(2) defines direct costs as expenses that an agency incurs in searching for and duplicating (and, in the case of commercial use requests, reviewing) records in order to respond to a FOIA request. (ncd.gov)
  • Photosynthate supply and phytohormones, particularly cytokinins, interact with nitrogen supply to control the expression of photosynthesis genes, the development of leaves and the whole plant nitrogen distribution, which provides the dominant basis for sink regulation of photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on the regulation of expression of retina-specific genes, in addition to their importance at the basic level, will also have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Banking has entered a new era of regulation. (sas.com)
  • Turn to this journal for briefings, analyses and updates on all aspects of law and regulation affecting banking institutions. (palgrave.com)
  • Published quarterly, the Journal of Banking Regulation offers detailed, insightful coverage of a wide range of relevant topics. (palgrave.com)
  • On July 11, 2013, the EU Cosmetics Regulation entered into effect replacing the EU Cosmetics Directive which had been in place since the 1970s. (export.gov)
  • Although many U.S. exporters of cosmetic products have already taken steps to comply with this regulation, this report assists all U.S. cosmetics manufacturers understand the new requirements so they can better prepare to compete in the EU market. (export.gov)
  • Section 1 of this report provides information on the categories of products covered by the Cosmetics Regulation. (export.gov)
  • The Cosmetics Regulation requires that non-EU based exporters of cosmetic products retain a Responsible Person. (export.gov)
  • Guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits can sleep safe and sound in Europe as of today (11 March) after the last deadline specified in the Cosmetics Regulation entered into force across the European Union, forbidding the industry from using animal testing. (euractiv.com)
  • Alcohol Regulation and Crime , Christopher Carpenter, Carlos Dobkin. (nber.org)
  • [2] There are Council regulations and Commission regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newsnight's political editor Allegra Stratton was told Privy Council members felt proposals for self-regulation put forward by newspapers did not meet the requirements of Lord Justice Leveson's report. (bbc.co.uk)
  • No specific fee scale was applied in the regulation, the Council does not intend to cite a specific cost for duplication. (ncd.gov)
  • Not having specific rates listed in the regulation allows the Council to adjust costs accordingly when a price fluctuation exists which allows the Council flexibility to adjust rates without first necessitating a change in the regulation. (ncd.gov)
  • Senate approves bill that would regulate airline seat sizes The government is another step closer to coming up with regulations on minimum seat sizes for airline flights after the Senate passed an FAA reauthorization bill. (usatoday.com)
  • Information about Regulation (EU) 649/2012 regarding the export or import of chemicals or articles containing chemicals (commonly known as the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Regulation). (hse.gov.uk)
  • We provide a number of tools for you to keep track of and participate in the development of new EPA regulations, and to learn how to comply with existing regulations. (epa.gov)
  • Media bias has been far less harmful than media regulation bias. (reason.com)
  • Further activation of the adaptive immune response depends on cytokine regulation of T-cell differentiation into subsets of T-cells that serve specific functions to defend against harmful stimuli. (news-medical.net)
  • Since the statute is not clear, the Court moved on to intent and there found that the regulation missed the point. (forbes.com)
  • PSCs in some states pioneered regulations and policies that led to the development and practice of utility "demand-side management," which includes customer energy efficiency programs . (aceee.org)
  • Consider whether resources are adequate to the tasks carried out, and ensure that professional capacities and competences are further enhanced, in order to meet the needs of a maturing Better Regulation agenda in support of more effective public administration and economic competitiveness. (oecd.org)
  • The regulation is intended to ensure adequate supplies for local infants and young children, Mead Johnson said. (yahoo.com)
  • Co-operate on the development of a common communication strategy for shared work and achievements, as well as for overall Better Regulation strategy. (oecd.org)
  • The human lifespan provides an age-based timetable for the regulation of development. (springer.com)
  • It draws on the initiatives for Better Regulation promoted by both organisations over the last few years. (oecd.org)
  • Interested private entities that fulfil the requirements within the regulation may apply to become monitoring organisations. (europa.eu)
  • Certain aspects of utility regulation and policy are especially critical for enabling and supporting utility energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • Experience has shown that without very direct and supportive regulations and policies, utilities will not develop and offer significant customer energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • Consequently, leading states have enacted regulations and policies to create new business models for their investor-owned utilities - models that eliminate the financial disincentives that prevent utilities from saving energy and provide incentives for developing successful and effective energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)