Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Tobacco necrosis satellite virus: An icosahedral RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory Tobacco necrosis virus (see NECROVIRUS) for its replication.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Tobacco mosaic satellite virus: A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.Tombusviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Circoviridae: A family of very small viruses containing circular, single-stranded DNA and possessing no envelope. The modes of transmission are not known.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Hospitals, Satellite: Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The capsid organisation is similar to bacteriophage PM2 - a double stranded bacterial virus. Satellite viruses are small ... A virus with a novel method of genome packing infecting species of the genus Sulfolobus has been described. As this virus does ... The nucleic acid is usually double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but may also be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA viruses belong to ... differ in having either single or double stranded DNA genomes. Within the double stranded forms have runs of single stranded ...
Chronic bee-paralysis satellite virus Subgroup 2: Tobacco necrosis satellite virus Double-stranded DNA satellite viruses ( ... viruses possess single-stranded DNA. Group III: viruses possess double-stranded RNA genomes, e.g. rotavirus. Group IV: viruses ... nomenclature Biological classification International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses List of genera of viruses List of virus ... DNA or RNA), Symmetry (Helical or Icosahedral or Complex), presence of envelope, diameter of capsid, number of capsomers. This ...
... which is copied to produce a double-stranded molecule of viral DNA. After this DNA is integrated into the host genome using the ... Satellite viruses Family Sarthroviridae Genus Albetovirus Genus Aumaivirus Genus Papanivirus Genus Virtovirus Chronic bee ... genome segment number (one to twelve), and virion organization (Triangulation number, capsid layers, spikes, turrets, etc.). ... Unassigned genera Genus Blunervirus Genus Cilevirus Genus Higrevirus Genus Idaeovirus Genus Negevirus Genus Ourmiavirus Genus ...
Sputnik has a circular double stranded DNA genome consisting of 18,343 base pairs. It contains genes able to infect all three ... Viruses like Sputnik that depend on co-infection of the host cell by helper viruses are known as satellite viruses. At its ... In 2016, for classification of Sputnik-like viruses, including Zamilon, genus Sputnikvirus in the family Lavidaviridae has been ... putative DNA helicase/primase (HEL/PRIM), putative cysteine protease (PRSC), putative MCP, and putative minor capsid protein ( ...
These virophages can have linear or circular double stranded DNA genomes. Virophages in culture have icosahedral capsid ... Some of the largest genomes of virophages are similar to the genome size of an adenovirus. Unlike satellite viruses, virophages ... Family Lavidaviridae Genus Sputnikvirus Species Mimivirus-dependent virus Sputnik Species Mimivirus-dependent virus Zamilon ... Virophages have small double stranded DNA genomes that are either circular or linear in shape. The size of these genomes can ...
Its circular double-stranded DNA genome is 17,276 base pairs in length. Virophages typically have particles whose diameter is ... a group of small DNA viruses that infect protists and require a helper virus to replicate; they are a type of satellite virus. ... DNA primase-polymerase and DNA-packaging ATPase enzymes, major and minor capsid proteins, a structural protein and a collagen- ... by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses into the species Mimivirus-dependent virus Zamilon within the genus ...
DNA viruses (divided into double-stranded DNA viruses and single-stranded DNA viruses), RNA viruses (divided into positive- ... satellites (nucleic acid molecules with or without a capsid that require a helper virus for infection and reproduction), and ... a virus whose RNA genome was reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA), then integrated into the host's genome and ... lists 5450 viruses, organized in over 2,000 species, 287 genera, 73 families and 3 orders. Virologists also study subviral ...
They have a double-stranded DNA genome, and a protein core surrounded by a lipid bilayer and an icosahedral capsid. The capsid ... Micromonas pusilla virus SP1 Ostreococcus tauri virus OtV5 Genus: Prymnesiovirus Chrysochromulina brevifilum virus PW1 Genus: ... In areas of dense bloom termination, the white color is reflective and can be seen in satellite imagery. Wilson et al. (2002) ... Viruses belonging to Phycodnaviridae harbor double-stranded DNA genomes with sizes of several 100kbp, which together with other ...
Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA genomes and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA genomes. Viral ... Some viruses, called satellites, can replicate only within cells that have already been infected by another virus. Viruses are ... Virally coded protein subunits will self-assemble to form a capsid, in general requiring the presence of the virus genome. ... In 2013, the Pandoravirus genus was discovered in Chile and Australia, and has genomes about twice as large as Megavirus and ...
Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA genomes and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA genomes.[93] ... Genus (-virus) Species (-virus). In the current (2013) ICTV taxonomy, 7 orders have been established, the Caudovirales, ... Most enveloped viruses are dependent on the envelope for their infectivity.[83]. Complex. These viruses possess a capsid that ... These viruses, which are dependent on the presence of other virus species in the host cell, are called satellites and may ...
Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA genomes and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA genomes.[93] ... Genus (-virus) Subgenus (-virus) Species. As of 2018, 14 orders, 143 families, 64 subfamilies, 846 genera, and 4,958 species of ... Most enveloped viruses are dependent on the envelope for their infectivity.[83]. Complex. These viruses possess a capsid that ... These viruses, which are dependent on the presence of other virus species in the host cell, are called satellites and may ...
There are also archaean viruses, which replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and ... Exceptionally diverse morphotypes and genomes of crenarchaeal hyperthermophilic viruses. Biochemical Society Transactions. 2004 ... ISBN 0-565-09175-1. "NASA Satellite Detects Red Glow to Map Global Ocean Plant Health" NASA, 28 May 2009. "Satellite Sees Ocean ... "List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature - Genus Thiomargarita". LPSN. Archived from the original on 28 August ...
Genome[edit]. Hepadnaviruses have very small genomes of partially double-stranded, partially single stranded circular DNA. The ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ... Genus. Structure. Symmetry. Capsid. Genomic arrangement. Genomic segmentation Avihepadnavirus. Icosahedral. T=4. Non-enveloped ... where the partially double stranded DNA is 'repaired' by the viral polymerase to form a complete circular dsDNA genome (called ...
... thus changing the genome of that cell.[2] Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ... Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ...
The capsid organisation is similar to bacteriophage PM2 - a double stranded bacterial virus. Satellite viruses are small ... A virus with a novel method of genome packing infecting species of the genus Sulfolobus has been described. As this virus does ... The nucleic acid is usually double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but may also be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA viruses belong to ... differ in having either single or double stranded DNA genomes. Within the double stranded forms have runs of single stranded ...
Chronic bee-paralysis satellite virus Subgroup 2: Tobacco necrosis satellite virus Double-stranded DNA satellite viruses ( ... viruses possess single-stranded DNA. Group III: viruses possess double-stranded RNA genomes, e.g. rotavirus. Group IV: viruses ... nomenclature Biological classification International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses List of genera of viruses List of virus ... DNA or RNA), Symmetry (Helical or Icosahedral or Complex), presence of envelope, diameter of capsid, number of capsomers. This ...
A method for diagnosing hepatitis virus infection or a hepatitis disease condition in a subject based on hepatitis virus- ... the genome is found in an incomplete double-stranded form. Upon infection by HBV, the incomplete partial double stranded DNA is ... spherical virus classified in the genus Hepatovirus of the Picornaviridae family. The HAV genome consists of a single-strand, ... The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and ...
... including double-stranded (ds) RNA, circular single-stranded (ss) DNA, negative sense (−)ssRNA, and positive sense (+)ssRNA ... Fungal viruses, or mycoviruses, are widespread in all major groups of fungi and next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently ... Here we discuss in depth the molecular features of known viruses infecting R. solani and their potential as biological control ... R. solani harbors a range of dsRNA and ssRNA viruses, either belonging to established families, such as Endornaviridae, ...
A virus consists of a protein mantle that encapsulates a strand of DNA or RNA, either single-stranded or double-stranded. The ... Satellites, Viroids, and Prions are listed in the virus Family/Subfamily/Genus/species taxonomy. Example: Family-Prions, ... Viroid (like Viruses but lack a protein capsid; plant pathogens) Mimivirus (a large virus, 400nm, that is able to produce ... A virus killed by fragmentation can resurrect itself if the entire genome from various pieces of fragmented virions are placed ...
... armored virus explanation free. What is armored virus? Meaning of armored virus medical term. What does armored virus mean? ... Looking for online definition of armored virus in the Medical Dictionary? ... vaccinia virus. A double-stranded DNA virus, the causative agent of cowpox and a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus. Vaccines ... Although viral architecture is very complex, every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid.Most animal viruses are also ...
DNA viruses (divided into double-stranded DNA viruses and single-stranded DNA viruses), ... satellites (nucleic acid molecules with or without a capsid that require a helper virus for infection and reproduction), and ... a virus whose RNA genome was reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA), then integrated into the hosts genome and ... lists 5450 viruses, organized in over 2,000 species, 287 genera, 73 families and 3 orders. ...
Group VII: viruses possess double-stranded DNA genomes and replicate using reverse transcriptase. The hepatitis B virus can be ... Genus Pelamoviroid; type species: Peach latent mosaic viroid. Satellites. Satellites depend on co-infection of a host cell with ... Virus Family Examples (common names) Virion- naked/enveloped Capsid Symmetry Type of nucleic acid ... DNA viruses. For more details on this topic, see DNA virus.. *Group I: viruses possess double-stranded DNA and include such ...
The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted. ... Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus. * Virus Hépatite 0 questions Tout virus entraînant une inflammation ... Tectiviridae 0 questions A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and ... Dautres, appelés VIRUS SATELLITES, ne peuvent se multiplier quen présence dun virus helper (virus auxiliaire). ...
VII Double-Stranded RNA Viruses VIII DNA Viruses IX Discussion References Chapter 7. Replication of Plant Viruses ... viruses in general range from a monocistronic mRNA in the satellite virus of tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) to a genome larger ... viruses) and 35 genera (groups) of 10 years ago. The genomes of representatives of all but one of the genera have now been ... of plant virology, namely the application of their relatively simple genomes and simple organized capsid structures to the ...
8 Single stranded RNAs. 8a Large linear single stranded satellite RNAs. This category comprises satellites with genomes that ... Virus-dependent Nucleic Acids. This category includes a diverse range of DNA and RNA molecules that do not encode a capsid ... 7 Double stranded RNAs. Most satellites in this category are found in association with viruses in the families Totiviridae and ... Examples include RNAs associated with groundnut rosette virus (genus Umbravirus) or with beet necrotic yellow vein virus (genus ...
... or double-stranded. One example of plant viruses containing double-stranded DNA includes, but not limited to, caulimoviruses ... An icosahedral viral capsid contains 60 copies each of 4 virus proteins VP 1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 and surrounds the RNA genome. ... tomato bushy stunt virus, turnip yellow mosaic virus, carrot mottle virus, among others. In addition, RNA satellite viruses, ... Simian Virus 40 * Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a virus of the genus Polyomavirus, and was originally isolated from the kidney ...
... fowl and in tissue or cell cultures as co-infections with a helper virus. The single stranded 5 kb DNA genome encodes three ... genus Orthohepadnavirus). HDV RNA is encapsidated in distinct virions by the HBsAg capsid protein of the helper virus. HDV is a ... 7 Double stranded RNAs. Most satellites in this category are found in association with viruses in the families Totiviridae and ... Satellite Viruses. These satellites encode a structural protein to encapsidate their genomes. The satellite virus particles are ...
inhibition and increased level of double-stranded RNA-activated proteinkinase.. Virus Research 27, 253±265.. Desport, M., ... related viruses, positive-sense and negative-sense viruses, DI. RNAs and viruses, satellite RNAs and viruses, and even with. ... capsid protein evolved to become more like a Sindbis-virus. capsid, possibly because it needs to interact with Sindbis-like. ... Plant viruses have also been observed to repair their. genomes by recombining with host transgene transcripts. (Borja et al., ...
The double-stranded RNA genome of yeast virus L-A encodes its own putative RNA polymerase by fusing two open reading frames. J ... a satellite virus that encodes the toxin-coding gene and a helper virus without which the satellite virus cannot survive. Three ... This segment is one of three small dsRNA molecules that comprise the viral genome, and the capsid gene is the only gene present ... and integration of geminiviral DNA during the recent evolution of the tobacco plant genus has been inferred bioinformatically ( ...
2015 Multiple layers of chimerism in a single-stranded DNA virus discovered by deep sequencing. Genome Biol. Evol. 7(4): 993- ... during extension of a primer along a double-stranded (or partially double-stranded) template. The dissociated extending strand ... FHV is a +ssRNA virus belonging to the Alphanodavirus genus in the Nodaviridae family. It encapsidates a bipartite genome, ... 1990 Recombination between satellite RNAs of turnip crinkle virus. EMBO J. 9: 1709-1715. ...
Group VII: Double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate through a single-stranded RNA intermediate (dsDNA-RT) ... Group V: Single-stranded RNA viruses whose genome is complementary in base sequence to the mRNA (-ssRNA) ... Nucleic acid (RNA or DNA): R or D *Capsid symmetry (helical, cubical or dual): H, C or B *Presence of a lipid envelope (naked ... Subviral agents (King et al. 2011): Satellites and other virus-dependent nucleic acids - Viroids - Prions ...
Viral load Virus-like particle Virus quantification Antiviral drug Neurotropic virus Oncovirus Satellite virus Giant virus. ... strandedness single-stranded or double-stranded , Sense , and method of replication.. Named after David Baltimore , a Nobel ... Binomial nomenclature Biological classification International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses List of genera of viruses List ... Usutu virus-potential risk of human disease in Europe. Comparative full length genome sequence analysis of Usutu virus isolates ...
This virus founded the family Mimiviridae. In recent years, several new giant viruses have been isolated from different ... Giant virus research is in its initial phase and information that may arise in the coming years may change current conceptions ... other viruses and amoebae. Its genome is circular double-stranded DNA that is hypothetically able to encode 21 proteins, some ... its close association with other small viruses called the Sputnik virus. Sputnik virus was first identified as a satellite ...
genus Lentivirus  Encode reverse transcriptase enzyme which makes a double stranded DNA from the single-stranded RNA genome  ... Satellite viruses - dependent on other viruses for replication - adeno-associated virus - replicate only in cells infected with ... Viral Structure: Covering - CAPSIDCAPSID: The outer protective shell - The most prominent geometric feature - Composed of ... Family Genus Common Name of Genus Members Disease DNA Viruses Herpesviridae Simplexvirus Herpes simplex Cold sores, 1&2 virus ...
The logic of DNA replication in double-stranded DNA viruses: insights from global analysis of viral genomes. Nucleic Acids Res ... virion organization and morphogenesis are similar among viruses in all three genera; all these viruses encode two major capsid ... Molecular biology of fuselloviruses and their satellites. Extremophiles 18:473-489. doi:10.1007/s00792-014-0634-0. ... a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes. Arch Virol ...
This chapter will give an account of the history of the discovery of viruses,… ... Introduction to Viruses Viruses as a concept are just a little younger than bacteria - they were first described only in the ... peculiar property of replicating their genomes via a pathway which goes from single-stranded RNA through double-stranded DNA ( ... a good example is Tobacco necrosis satellite virus (sTNV), which has a small piece of ssRNA which codes only for a capsid ...
Genome-wide analysis of T-DNA integration into the chromosomes of Magnaporthe oryzae. Choi, J., Park, J., Jeon, J., Chi, M. H ... Genetic diversity of Panicum mosaic virus satellite RNAs in St. Augustinegrass. Cabrera, O., Roossinck, M. J. & Scholthof, K. B ... temperature effects on the generation of dimeric viral RNA species derived from the S-RNA of members of the Tospovirus genus. ... Genetic diversity in RNA virus quasispecies is controlled by host-virus interactions. Schneider, W. L. & Roossinck, M. J., 2001 ...
The few members of these viruses are now turning towards anim.. ... Nanoviridae is a family of single stranded DNA viruses which ... Nanoviridae viruses possess small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes, as opposed to the double-stranded genomes of the ... In addition to genomic DNA, satellite-lake DNA are commonly found, usually encoding for Rep proteins. These satellite rep ... The genus Babuvirus includes two species, Banana bunchy top virus and Abaca bunchy top virus, which differ from Nanoviruses ...
Unlike plant viruses, viroids apparently lack mRNA activity and, unlike satellite RNAs and DNAs, do not require a helper virus ... Transgenic potato expressing a double-stranded RNA-specific ribonuclease is resistant to potato spindle tuber viroid. Nature ... DNA microarrays and their potential applications for the detection of plant viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas. J. Plant Path. ... single-stranded, covalently-closed-circular RNA molecules that lack a protective protein capsid (Fig. 2). In 1971, Diener ...
  • It has been suggested that similarity in virion assembly and structure observed for certain viral groups infecting hosts from different domains of life (e.g., bacterial tectiviruses and eukaryotic adenoviruses or prokaryotic Caudovirales and eukaryotic herpesviruses) reflects an evolutionary relationship between these viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Archaea and particularly hyperthermophilic crenarchaea are hosts to many unusual viruses with diverse virion shapes and distinct gene compositions. (asm.org)
  • Archaeal viruses display a rich diversity of virion morphotypes and can be broadly divided into two categories: those that are structurally and genetically related to bacterial or eukaryotic viruses and those that are archaeon specific ( 1 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The virion capsid consists of 180 protein subunits arranged on a T=3 surface lattice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The structure revealed a previously unknown form of virion organization, in which the alpha-helical major capsid protein of SIRV2 wraps around the DNA, making it inaccessible to solvent. (ipfs.io)
  • The virion core consists of a helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structure containing the RNA genome. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • The ssDNA genomes of these genomoviruses, which were amplified, cloned and Sanger sequenced, range in size from 2156 to 2191 nt. (bvsalud.org)
  • This results in homologous recombination if the replicase continues to copy the new strand precisely where it left the old one, and aberrant or nonhomologous recombination if it does not. (biology-online.org)
  • Recombination can occur between satellites and their helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • We then discuss some of the evolutionary implications of virus recombination and some of the constraints that may shape the variety of RNA virus recombination. (biology-online.org)
  • ssRNA genome) generated with a protocol preventing artificial recombination revealed the presence of 1-10 bp microhomology motifs in FHV-FHV chimeras, but very few recombining fragments were in opposite orientations. (g3journal.org)
  • Reciprocally, virus-host recombination may also result in the integration of a piece of the host genome into a viral genome, supporting the idea that viruses may be efficient vectors of horizontal transfer of genetic material between species ( Gilbert and Cordaux 2017 ). (g3journal.org)
  • The present study was initially designed to survey virus-host recombination events between dengue virus (DENV) and Aedes albopictus mosquito cells by high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing. (g3journal.org)
  • We affirm the view posible interacción entre determinados alimentos nábitos y ondas and amino browser for here extreme protein mechanisms which is in the two most record-breaking herbivores but up making through the virus of recombination in those losses. (immobilien-ulm-xxl.de)
  • negative in northern actions of a ebook fundamento de toda doctrina de la ciencia 1794 version numerous environment c-DNA agency effect the nitrogen nivalis barnase legendary RNA coat J. multiple protein set wealth of resistance electric space irradiation RNA-1 and RNA-2 seem effective in recombination pesticides. (be-mindful.de)
  • Viruses were discovered as an excluded entity rather than by being seen or cultured, due to the invention of efficient filters: the fact that cell-free extracts from diseased plants and animals could still cause disease led people to theorise that an unknown infectious agent - a "filterable virus" - was responsible. (rybicki.blog)
  • Again, their "sterile" filtered liquid proved infectious in calves, providing the first proof of viruses infecting animals. (rybicki.blog)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of salmonids and infectious bursal disease virus of poultry are two economically important birnaviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Viruses remained infectious after the purification process. (plos.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope protein is infectious and causes acute resolving or persistent infection in chimpanzees", Pro. (lens.org)
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important member of the Birnaviridae family. (bvsalud.org)
  • The immune response elicited by the oral inoculation of an intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease virus was studied in chickens. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens. (bvsalud.org)
  • The deadly Ebola and Marburg viruses are well known members of this group, along with influenza virus , measles , mumps and rabies . (wikidoc.org)
  • Non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses belonging to the order Mononegavirales are highly diversified eukaryotic viruses including significant human pathogens, such as rabies, measles, Nipah, and Ebola. (frontiersin.org)
  • The arrangement adopted is based largely on features of the genetic material of the satellites. (ictvonline.org)
  • Some animal viruses enter host cell and permanently alter its genetic material resulting in cancer - transformation of the cell. (scribd.com)
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection , but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct but not mutually exclusive types of genetic exchange operate in RNA viruses. (biology-online.org)
  • The relative contributions of distinct evolutionary origins, in particular from nonviral elements, and insufficient sampling to the sparsity of the archaeal virus network remain to be determined by further exploration of the archaeal virosphere. (asm.org)
  • This finding could reflect actual independent origins of the distinct groups of archaeal viruses from different nonviral elements, providing important insights into the emergence and evolution of the archaeal virome. (asm.org)
  • While people were aware of diseases of both humans and animals now known to be caused by viruses many hundreds of years ago, the concept of a virus as a distinct entity dates back only to the very late 1800s. (rybicki.blog)
  • In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • The analysis highlights that component exchange has played a far greater role in diversification of begomoviruses than previously suspected, although there are distinct differences in the apparent ability of different groups of viruses to utilize this "sexual" mechanism of genetic exchange. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Taxa in virology are not necessarily monophyletic , as the evolutionary relationships of the various virus groups remain unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigenic shift in in¯uenza A virus is an example of this sort of genetic exchange and serves as a good illustration of the potential evolutionary significance of such events. (biology-online.org)
  • Therefore, to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary relationships between viruses, network analysis methods are more productive than traditional phylogenetic approaches. (asm.org)
  • The study described here was initiated to investigate the relationship between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses with a view to unraveling their evolutionary histories and providing information on the possible origin of the DNA-B component. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We constructed a bipartite network of archaeal viruses that includes two classes of nodes, the genomes and gene families that connect them. (asm.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Danny A. Humphreys-Pereira , Axel A. Elling , Mitochondrial genomes of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. incognita (Nematoda: Tylenchina): Comparative analysis, gene order and phylogenetic relationships with other nematodes. (lucigen.com)
  • Since gene products as well as RNA genomes of these non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses share structural and functional similarities, they are believed to have evolved from a common ancestor. (frontiersin.org)
  • yet how viruses organize their gene network remains an open question. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its genome produces four types of gene products during the gene expression. (biologyreader.com)
  • It is focused that the crop of DNA record-breaking gene world in Europe would lead approximately system man in issues per application by 2,208 malware and occur curl via 5,050 promoter per expression. (be-mindful.de)
  • Here, we examine the genetic structure and relative expression of MeE3L (native and gene-edited mutant), and determine how MeE3L affects geminivirus South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) DNA accumulation. (researchsquare.com)
  • Since then, the technologies behind virus rescue have continually improved leading to a deep understanding of IBDV gene function and tailored vaccine development. (bvsalud.org)
  • The process in which DNA that has been acquired by lateral gene transfer changes in composition (e.g. (evolution-textbook.org)
  • Usutu virus, Italy, West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes in Spain, - Emergence and establishment of Usutu virus infection in wild and captive avian species in and around Zurich, Switzerland-genomic and pathologic comparison to other central European outbreaks. (quoniamdolcesuono.eu)
  • Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae ) have genomes consisting of either one or two genomic components. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Members of the Rudiviridae share structural and genomic characteristics with viruses from the Lipothrixviridae family, which contains enveloped flexible filamentous viruses. (ipfs.io)
  • The order Caudovirales contains three families, the Siphoviridae , Myoviridae , and Podoviridae , and includes both bacterial and archaeal viruses. (asm.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison between MvaT and other bacterial xenogeneic silencers demonstrates how unique solutions have been employed by different bacterial genera in distinguishing foreign DNA from DNA of their own genome. (prolekare.cz)
  • In recent years, there have been several studies analyzing ground water samples showing the presence of adenoviruses with no correlation between the presence of viruses and bacterial indicators (i.e. (waterpathogens.org)
  • The viral DNA was found to be entirely in the A-form, which suggests a common mechanism with bacterial spores for protecting DNA in the most adverse environments. (ipfs.io)
  • Here we present a comprehensive comparative analysis of genomes and proteomes from all currently known taxonomically classified and unclassified, cultivated and uncultivated archaeal viruses. (asm.org)
  • Other classifications are determined by the disease caused by the virus or its morphology, neither of which are satisfactory due to different viruses either causing the same disease or looking very similar. (wikidoc.org)
  • The second virus discovered was what is now known as Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) of farm and other animals, by the German scientists Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch . (rybicki.blog)
  • In 1971, Diener renamed the causal agent of spindle tuber disease Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) to emphasize both its similarities to and differences from conventional viruses (7). (apsnet.org)
  • In the same year Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch passed the first animal virus - agent of foot-and-mouth disease (aphthovirus) - through a similar filter. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Cocal virus (COCV) is one of the causative agents of vesicular stomatitis, presenting clinical signs indistinguishable from those caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Rice stripe virus (RSV) is a persistent-propagative virus transmitted by the small brown planthopper ( Laodelphax striatellus , Fallen) and can cause a severe disease on rice. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the Prunus genus, sharka disease, caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV), first occurred on European plum (Prunus domestica) and then spread over among all species in this genus and thus classified as quarantine pathogen. (bvsalud.org)
  • The adaptation of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to a new vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a major factor contributing to its ongoing re-emergence in a series of large-scale epidemics of arthritic disease in many parts of the world since 2004. (prolekare.cz)
  • The complete mitochondrial genome of Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), the first sequenced representative of the subfamily Aphelenchoidinae. (lucigen.com)