A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A malabsorption syndrome that is associated with a blind loop in the upper SMALL INTESTINE that is characterized by the lack of peristaltic movement, stasis of INTESTINAL CONTENTS, and the overgrowth of BACTERIA. Such bacterial overgrowth interferes with BILE SALTS action, FATTY ACIDS processing, MICROVILLI integrity, and the ABSORPTION of nutrients such as VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Serotonin antagonist used against MIGRAINE DISORDERS and vascular headaches.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A synthetic PGE2 analog that has an inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion, a mucoprotective effect, and a postprandial lowering effect on gastrin. It has been shown to be efficient and safe in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers.
A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.
Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain thevetin.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
Caustic extract from the roots of Podophyllum peltatum and P. emodi. It contains PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and its congeners and is very irritating to mucous membranes and skin. Podophyllin is a violent purgative that may cause CNS damage and teratogenesis. It is used as a paint for warts, skin neoplasms, and senile keratoses.
A genus of blind, subterranean MOLE RATS, in the subfamily Spalacidae, family MURIDAE, used as a animal model in neurophysiology. There are at least five different species described, all found in the Ukraine.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)
A partial adrenergic agonist with functional beta 1-receptor specificity and inotropic effect. It is effective in the treatment of acute CARDIAC FAILURE, postmyocardial infarction low-output syndrome, SHOCK, and reducing ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION in the SHY-RAGER SYNDROME.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Intense chronic itching in the anal area.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.
Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Material prepared from plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.
INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A phenoxypropanolamine derivative that is a selective beta-1-adrenergic agonist.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.
Stomatitis caused by Herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A narcotic antagonist with analgesic properties. It is used for the control of moderate to severe pain.
An infant during the first month after birth.
ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.
An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)
Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
An acute or chronic GINGIVITIS characterized by redness and swelling, NECROSIS extending from the interdental papillae along the gingival margins, PAIN; HEMORRHAGE, necrotic odor, and often a pseudomembrane. The condition may extend to the ORAL MUCOSA; TONGUE; PALATE; or PHARYNX. The etiology is somewhat unclear, but may involve a complex of FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM along with spirochetes BORRELIA or TREPONEMA.

Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (1/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue.  (+info)

Symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: double blind controlled study of intermittent treatment with omeprazole or ranitidine. The European Study Group. (2/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To assess intermittent treatment over 12 months in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. DESIGN: Randomised, multicentre, double blind, controlled study. Patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy results or mild erosive changes received omeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients remaining symptomatic had omeprazole 10 mg or ranitidine dose doubled for another 2 weeks while omeprazole 20 mg was continued for 2 weeks. Patients who were symptomatic or mildly symptomatic were followed up for 12 months. Recurrences of moderate or severe heartburn during follow up were treated with the dose which was successful for initial symptom control. SETTING: Hospitals and primary care practices between 1994 and 1996. SUBJECTS: 677 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total time off active treatment, time to failure of intermittent treatment, and outcomes ranked from best to worst. RESULTS: 704 patients were randomised, 677 were eligible for analyses; 318 reached the end of the study with intermittent treatment without recourse to maintenance antisecretory drugs. The median number of days off active treatment during follow up was 142 for the entire study (281 for the 526 patients who reached a treatment related end point). Thus, about half the patients did not require treatment for at least 6 months, and this was similar in all three treatment groups. According to outcome, 378 (72%) patients were in the best outcome ranks (no relapse or one (or more) relapse but in remission until 12 months); 630 (93%) had three or fewer relapses in the intermittent treatment phase. Omeprazole 20 mg provided faster relief of heartburn. The results were similar in patients with erosive and non-erosive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent treatment is effective in managing symptoms of heartburn in half of patients with uncomplicated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. It is simple and applicable in general practice, where most patients are seen.  (+info)

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (3/21739)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency. (4/21739)

The effects of maternal postpartum vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations, modified relative dose-response (MRDR) ratios and breast milk vitamin A concentrations were assessed during a community-based trial in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 1-3 wk postpartum, women were randomly assigned to receive either (1) a single dose of 200,000 international units [60,000 retinol equivalents (RE)] vitamin A followed by daily placebos (n = 74), (2) daily doses of beta-carotene [7.8 mg (1300 RE)] (n = 73) or (3) daily placebos (n = 73) until 9 mo postpartum. Compared to placebos, vitamin A supplementation resulted in lower maternal MRDR ratios (i.e., increased liver stores) and higher milk vitamin A concentrations at 3 mo, but these improvements were not sustained. The beta-carotene supplementation acted more slowly, resulting in milk vitamin A concentrations higher than the placebo group only at 9 mo. Irrespective of treatment group, over 50% of women produced milk with low vitamin A concentrations (/=0. 06. We conclude that while both interventions were beneficial, neither was sufficient to correct the underlying subclinical vitamin A deficiency in these women nor to bring their infants into adequate vitamin A status.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (5/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Dose-loading with hydroxychloroquine improves the rate of response in early, active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind six-week trial with eighteen-week extension. (6/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dose-loading to increase the percentage of responders or rate of response in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two hundred twelve patients with early RA (mean duration 1.5 years) were enrolled in a 24-week trial. Patients were stabilized with 1,000 mg naproxen/day and then began a 6-week, double-blind trial comparing treatment with HCQ at 400 mg/day (n = 71), 800 mg/day (n = 71), and 1,200 mg/day (n = 66), followed by 18 weeks of open-label HCQ treatment at 400 mg/day. RESULTS: All patients had mild, active disease at the time of initiation of HCQ treatment (31-43% rheumatoid factor positive; no previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; mean swollen joint count 8.6-10.4). Based on the Paulus criteria, response during the 6-week double-blind portion of the study was 47.97%, 57.7%, and 63.6% in the 400 mg/day, 800 mg/day, and 1,200 mg/day groups, respectively (P = 0.052). Discontinuations for adverse events were dose related (3 in the 400 mg/day group, 5 in the 800 mg/day group, 6 in the 1,200 mg/day group). Most involved the gastrointestinal (GI) system, with the background naproxen treatment possibly contributing. Ocular abnormalities occurred in 17 of 212 patients (8%) but were not dose related. CONCLUSION: Dose-loading with HCQ increased the degree of response at 6 weeks in this group of patients with early, predominantly seronegative RA. Adverse GI events were dose related, while adverse ocular events were not.  (+info)

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (7/21739)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (8/21739)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

Clinical trial for Warm Antibody Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia , A Phase 3 Multi-Center Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of Fostamatinib Disodium in the Treatment of wAIHA
A Phase 3 Multicenter Multinational Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Patisiran (ALN-TTR02) in Transthyretin (TTR)-Mediated Polyneuropathy (Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy - FAP) (APOLLO)
Tay, H.H., Yap, I., Guan, R., Koh, P.S.S., LaBrooy, S.J., Kang, J.Y. (1988). Twice daily cimetidine in the initial treatment of chronic gastric ulcer - A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Medical Journal of Malaysia 43 (2) : 181-185. [email protected] Repository ...
This is a phase 2 multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. This study is comprised of a single-blind placebo run-in qualifying phase lasting approximately 3 weeks and a double-blind treatment phase lasting 12 weeks. A safety follow-up visit is scheduled for 2 weeks after last dose of study drug.. All participants will undergo 3 visits during a 3 week, run-in phase (Days -21 to Day 1). During the run-in phase, all participants will receive single-blind placebo. Two exercise treadmill tests (ETTs) will be conducted using the modified Bruce Protocol at Day -14 and at Day -7. The results from the Day -7 ETT will be considered as Baseline.. A total of approximately 100 participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive either febuxostat 80 mg once daily (QD) or placebo QD in a double-blind treatment for 12 weeks, and 5 more visits.. All participants will complete the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) and Euroqol 5 dimension (EQ-5D) quality-of-life measurements at Day 1, Week 6 and ...
Background and Significance of the Selected Topic Etoricoxib is a cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2-selective NSAID with a higher COX-1 to COX-2 selectivity ratio than the other COX-2-selective NSAIDs rofecoxib, valdecoxib or celecoxib. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, improvements in tender and swollen joint counts and patient and investigator global assessment of disease activity were significantly greater in etoricoxib than in placebo recipients in two studies. Etoricoxib was also significantly more effective than naproxen in one of these studies. In patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, etoricoxib was significantly more effective than placebo and had similar efficacy to naproxen with regards to improvements in pain and physical function scores and patient global assessment of disease status scores in two studies. Etoricoxib had similar efficacy to diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Single-dose etoricoxib relieved pain in patients with postoperative dental pain in ...
Initial cytoreductive surgery followed by 6 cycles of platinum-taxane based chemotherapy (Cx) remains the standard of care for advanced OC. For those patients for whom complete resection is deemed difficult to achieve, IDS after 3 cycles of NACx and followed by 3 others cycles represents an alternative strategy.. Three antiangiogenic drugs (AAD) have been shown to be active and to prolong progression-free survival (PFS) in first-line treatment of OC after initial debulking surgery: bevacizumab (BEV, GOG218&ICON7), nintedanib (NIN, OVAR12) and pazopanib (PAZ, OVAR16). In the setting of NACx, none of these drugs have been tested in a randomized trial despite the potential ability of AAD to increase Cx activity and complete surgical resection rate. NIN offers the advantage of being able to be safely combined with Cx and to have a short half-life (7-19 hours) allowing a rapid clearance of the drug before IDS. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Subcutaneous interferon beta-1a is an effective treatment for relapsing/remitting MS in terms of relapse rate, defined disability, and all MRI outcome measures in a dose-related manner, and it is well tolerated. Longer-term benefits may become clearer with further follow-up and investigation.
This pivotal study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in transfusion-dependent lower risk myelodysplastic
CNMC0599 A Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Glutamine and Creatine in ...
Duloxetine, 60 mg/day, is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for MDD that reduces painful physical symptoms. These findings suggest that duloxetine may be a first-line treatment for patients with MDD and associated painful physical symptoms.
1. No vaccine has ever been evaluated through a double blind, placebo controlled study to determine if it actually has any preventive or mitigating effect on the disease of interest. A) As you know, being a doctor, double-blind placebo-controlled trials are not the only way to study medicines. B) See above: vaccines are indeed tested through double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Granted, they dont deliberately expose everyone to the pathogen (at least, not any more) as deliberately killing people is frowned upon. Instead, they make sure the vaccine does what it was meant to do: produce the right antibodies.. 2. Epidemiologists can successfully predict pandemics, epidemics and outbreaks of any given disease by tracking vaccination programs: the larger the program, the more widespread the outbreak of the disease.. This is true in certain circumstances, and the reason for this is very interesting. When a disease is endemic, cases are usually (though not always) mild, and nearly everyone gets ...
The HCG Diet Losing weight with the HCG diet has been found to be one of the quickest ways to lose weight without sacrificing your health or metabolism. Some people lose 3-5 pounds per week and even more. Imagine weighing 15 pounds less a month from now!. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
i.e., soft or watery) stools and >200 g of abnormal stool weight over a 24-h period. Subjects discontinued all antidiarrheal agents >24 h before enrollment. Stool samples were studied for routine pathogens. Subjects received 500 mg p.o. of SP-303 or placebo every 6 h for 96 h (4 days). Stool frequency and weights were recorded. Subjects were monitored for symptoms and side effects and were seen 1 wk later in follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 26 subjects received SP-303, and 25 received placebo. There were no significant demographic differences between treatment arms. A total of 41 subjects (80%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 39 subjects (77%) were receiving at least one protease inhibitor. Stool studies revealed no pathogens in 48 of 51 patients (94%). There were no serious adverse events or laboratory abnormalities. The SP-303 treatment group demonstrated a mean reduction from baseline stool weight of 451 g/24 h versus 150 g/24 h with placebo on day 4 of treatment (p = 0.14), and a ...
Open-label placebo is significantly better than no-pill control and is similar to double-blind placebo for improving symptoms among patients with IBS.
A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Double Dummy, Placebo and Active Controlled Crossover Study, to Investigate the 24 Hour FEV1 Profile of a Single Dose of QMF TWISTHALER Device in Adult Patients With Persistent Asthma using fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (250/50 μg b.i.d.) as an active control ...
Background. Thiazolidinediones such as rosiglitazone (RSG) are insulin-sensitizing agents, which may improve inflammation and vascular function, and thus potentially lower cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is growing concern about the adverse cardiovascular effects of RSG in diabetic patients without CKD, and the data in patients with CKD remain conflicting. This study examines the effect of RSG on vascular function in patients with CKD.. Methods. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study comparing RSG 4 mg daily (n = 35) with placebo (n = 35) for 8 weeks was performed in CKD subjects. Primary outcome measures were flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), systemic arterial compliance (SAC) and augmentation index (AIx). Secondary outcomes included glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilatation (GTN-MD), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), lipids, blood pressure, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA), adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and ...
Results of Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial to Assess the Effect of Vitamin B6 on Managing of Nausea and Vomiting In Pediatrics with Acute Gastroenteritis
Clinical trial for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer , Double Blind Placebo Controlled Controlled Study of Adjuvant MEDI4736 In Completely Resected NSCLC
In this Phase II study of patients with RA who had previously failed TNF inhibitor therapy, treatment with OKZ resulted in significantly greater reductions in DAS28(CRP) from baseline levels at Week 12 compared with treatment with PBO. This improvement was demonstrated at all the OKZ doses tested with generally comparable efficacy and across both dosing frequencies, and was statistically significant for all dose group comparisons (60, 120 or 240 mg vs PBO). At low OKZ doses, a posthoc analysis showed greater responses in patients who met the criterion of high CRP at study entry compared to all other patients.. The primary efficacy endpoint was further supported by the secondary efficacy variables. Estimated ACR20 and ACR50 response rates at Week 12 were numerically higher in all OKZ treatment arms than PBO groups, although the study was not powered to show a statistical difference in the ACR response rates. Few patients in any treatment group were ACR70 responders. Comparisons of exploratory ...
AT THE AHA SCIENTIFIC SESSIONS. CHICAGO (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) - Driving LDL cholesterol below 25 mg/dL for a year or more in high-cardiovascular-risk patients using the investigational human monoclonal antibody alirocumab proved well tolerated and displayed a treatment-emergent adverse event profile reassuringly comparable to that of placebo in an interim analysis of the largest double-blind phase III clinical trial to date involving any PCSK9 inhibitor. While this is encouraging preliminary evidence that it may prove safe to pharmacologically maintain unnaturally low LDL concentrations - levels below those seen in newborns - in high-risk patients, Dr. Jennifer G. Robinson nonetheless urged her cardiology colleagues to curb their enthusiasm as she presented an interim analysis of the 2,341-patient ODYSSEY Long Term trial at the American Heart Association scientific sessions. Were all concerned about the long-term safety of very low LDL levels. The fact that there are no signals so far is ...
Galveston, Tex. To the Editor: Dr. Mathews and colleagues request further information about the randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram for treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Randomization was on a 1:1 basis and was stratified by age group. The random assignment list was concealed from the investigators, which is fundamental to the claim that the study was performed under double-blind conditions. The protocol-specified population for all efficacy analyses, defined as the intent-to-treat population, included all patients who received at least one dose of double-blind study medication and had at least one postbaseline efficacy assessment. The analyses we presented in the manuscript were not only conventional in nature; they were, in fact, defined a priori. The justification for defining this population for the efficacy analyses is that the primary analysis was the change from baseline, therefore requiring a postbaseline assessment. Although recently a mixed-model ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) can help to control diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are receiving irinotecan. The safety of this drug will also be studied.
A new double-blind placebo-controlled study failed to find any benefits of hormone replacement use in relation to Alzheimers Disease. Though the results are disappointing, they do not necessarily rule out a role for estrogen in either the treatment or prevention of Alzheimers disease, according to the studys authors. Estrogen may turn out to be beneficial when used in combination with other drugs or it may help stave off the development of Alzheimers when taken before symptoms begin.. In the study, 50 women with Alzheimers were randomly assigned to a daily dose of an estrogen/progestin supplement or placebo. After 12 weeks, women taking hormones did not perform significantly better on tests of memory, concentration and other intellectual skills.. ...
1. Juneja LR, Chu D-C, Okubo T, et al. L-theanine - a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans. Trends Food Sci Technol. 1999;10:199-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(99)00044-8.. 2. Ritsner MS, Miodownik C, Ratner Y, et al. L-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;72(1):34-42. [PMID: 21208586]. 3. Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45. [PMID: 16930802]. 4. Park SK, Jung IC, Lee WK, et al. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Med Food. 2011 Apr;14(4):334-43. [PMID: 21303262]. 5. Cho HS, Kim S, Lee SY, et al. Protective effect of the green tea ...
Six trials investigated the influence of the colour of drug formulation on the specific effect.11 12 13 14 15 16 The methodological quality of these trials, assessed using a previously reported 10 point rating scale,1 was seven points for two trials11 12, six and a half points for one trial,13 and less than five points for three trials.14 15 16 The table with scores and the items of methodological quality are available from AJMdeC and on the BMJs worldwide web page (http://www.bmj.com/bmj/).. All trials had different designs and different outcome measurements, so a meta-analysis was not possible. Overall, the results indicated differences between colours, but a consistent trend could not be detected.. In a double blind crossover study Cattaneo et al gave orange and blue placebos to 120 inpatients awaiting minor surgery who thought that they were receiving tranquillisers.11 In an analysis excluding patients with no preference, they showed that 26 out of 42 men (62%) preferred orange whereas 33 ...
The efficacy of CYMBALTA in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) was established in 1 fixed-dose randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and 2 flexible-dose randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult outpatients between 18 and 83 years of age meeting the DSM-IV criteria for GAD. In 1 flexible-dose study and in the fixed-dose study, the starting dose was 60 mg once daily where down titration to 30 mg once daily was allowed for tolerability reasons before increasing it to 60 mg once daily. Fifteen percent of patients were down titrated. One flexible-dose study had a starting dose of 30 mg once daily for 1 week before increasing it to 60 mg once daily. The 2 flexible-dose studies involved dose titration with CYMBALTA doses ranging from 60 mg once daily to 120 mg once daily (N=168 and N=162) compared to placebo (N=159 and N=161) over a 10-week treatment period. The mean dose for completers at endpoint in the flexible-dose studies was 104.75 mg/day. The ...
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A double-blind placebo-controlled study found that elderly people with hearing loss can triple their understanding of words in noisy situations by training on a custom audiomotor game.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of nimodipine in the treatment of severe diffuse head injury. T2 - A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. AU - Pillai, Shibu V.. AU - Kolluri, V. R S. AU - Mohanty, Aaron. AU - Chandramouli, B. A.. PY - 2003/9. Y1 - 2003/9. N2 - Aims: The aim of this study was to establish whether nimodipine given orally soon after severe diffuse head injury for a period of three weeks improved outcome. Material and methods: The present report analyzes the results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of nimodipine in 97 severe head injury patients (GCS Score ,\=8) treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, NIMHANS, between January 1995 and June 1996. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups which were matched for age, sex, mode of injury, time interval from injury to admission, neurological status and CT scan findings. One group was given nimodipine 30 mg Q6H and the other group was given a placebo. The outcome of these patients at 6 months was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) ed efficacia clinica. Studi in doppio cieco randomizzato a confronto. AU - Fortuna, D.. AU - Zati, A.. AU - Mondardini, P.. AU - Ronconi, L.. AU - Paolini, C.. AU - Bilotta, T. W.. AU - Masotti, L.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background. There are several studies in the literature regarding the clinical efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), however the very few randomized, double blind clinical trials available present contrasting views. The purpose of this trial is to understand whether the efficacy of inefficacy of laser can be correlated to the type and management of the equipment used. Our intention has not been to evaluate the quality of the bibliographical studies and therefore we have not proceeded with methanalytical techniques. Methods. We have only selected randomized, double blind clinical trials in which diode lasers have been used. The data contained in the articles were recorded on an electronic sheet and then analyzed. In order ...
Now, lets state the needed obvious: nothing in this framework mandates double-blind, placebo control group procedure. Indeed, it points to the underlying principle of case-based reliable inference. Where control groups can ethically and effectively be deliberately set up and used, fine. But that is by no means always the case, with Astronomy perhaps the capital example as a sub-discipline that uses case-based observational studies as a part of the hardest of the hard sciences, Physics. There is a reason why we speak of Astronomical OBSERV-atories, not LABOR-atories. (Ditto for Volcanology; and that was the pivot of my public warning here, 25 years ago. Looong story.). In short, we must be humble enough to recognise that we cannot prescribe an investigative panacea.. Linked, we may ask, how does this work?. First, by applying the principle of distinct identity. A is A i/l/o its key characteristics, some in common with near and increasingly distant neighbours, some more specific to its class then ...
The clinical effects of mucolytics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are discussed controversially. Cineole is the main constituent of eucalyptus oil and mainly used in inflammatory airway diseases as a mucolytic agent. We hypothesised that its known mucolytic, bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects as concomitant therapy would reduce the exacerbation rate and show benefits on pulmonary function tests as well as quality of life in patients with COPD. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-center-study we randomly assigned 242 patients with stable COPD to receive 200 mg of cineole or placebo 3 times daily as concomitant therapy for 6 months during winter-time. The frequency, duration and severity of exacerbations were combined as primary outcome measures for testing as multiple criteria. Secondary outcome measures included changes of lung function, respiratory symptoms and quality of life as well as the single parameters of the exacerbations. Baseline
Another well-known aspect of citrulline is the breakdown of citrulline into L-arginine. L-arginine then can be converted into nitric oxide and increase blood flow. In a small study of only 8 men, supplementing with 2 and 15g of citrulline increased arginine levels in the blood, and in a dose dependent manner13.. In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of healthy men, citrulline supplementation did in fact increase serum nitric oxide and decrease a measure of arterial stiffness, indicating possible vasorelaxation14.. Given the large effect of citrulline on cardiovascular parameters and recent evidence from individuals with heart failure, L-citrulline may be an ideal supplement for individuals with cardiovascular problems15. Besides changes in fatigue, soreness, and cardiovascular parameters there may be some positive effect of citrulline supplementation on growth hormone.. In one double-blind placebo-controlled study conducted in 17 young men, 6 grams of citrulline prior to exercise increased ...
Objective: Inflammatory back pain (IBP) in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis (UspA) adversely affects the quality of life. Herein combina..
The trial did not prove clinical efficacy of ISIS-2302 based on the primary endpoint. Positive trends were observed in some of the secondary endpoints.Only 2 of 60 (3.3%) ISIS-2302-treated and no placebo patients reached the primary endpoint. Steroid-free remission at week 26 (secondary endpoint) was reached in 8 of 60 (13.3%) active treatment and 1 of 15 (6.7%) placebo patients. A greater proportion of ISIS-2302-treated than placebo patients achieved a steroid dose ,10 mg/day at weeks 14 and 26 (48.3% vs. 33.3% and 55.0% vs. 40.0%, respectively, and a glucocorticoid dose of 0 mg [prednisone equivalent] at week 26 [23.3% vs. 6.7%, respectively]). Treatment with ISIS-2302 was safe. The most common side effects were injection site reactions in the active treatment group (23% in ISIS-2302-treated patients vs. none in placebo patients). No statistically significant differences in the frequency of side effects were detected between dose groups.A dose-interval, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial ...
Background: Surgical bypass techniques and percutaneous catheter-based interventions may be used to successfully revascularize the limbs of patients with claudication. In many patients, however, the anatomic extent and distribution of arterial occlusion is too severe to permit relief of pain. Limited medical therapy is available for these pts.. Methods: A phase IIa randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of autologous CD34+ stem cell (CD34) therapy was performed in pts with Rutherford class 3 at 3 centers in US. 3 treatment groups: placebo, low (1x10^5 CD34/kg body wt) and high dose (1x10^6 CD34/kg). All pts underwent mobilization with GCSF 5 mcg/kg/day SC for 5 d, followed by apheresis on d5 followed by selection for CD34 with Isolex 300i device. CD34 were injected IM at 8 locations in the ischemic limb. Placebo injections consisted of identical volumes of the diluent only.. Results: A total of 17 pts have been randomized, completed the injection procedure and completed the ...
Forty patients diagnosed as suffering from senile dementia of the Alzheimer type received either 80 mg Ginkgo biloba special extract (GBE)* or matching placebo t.i.d. for three months in a randomized, double blind study of the efficacy and tolerance of GBE. The patients were assessed using a test battery at baseline and at 1, 2 and 3 months. The test battery included the SKT (a brief test of cognitive function, memory and attention), the Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, choice reaction time, saccadic eye movements and EEG. Memory and attention, as measured by the SKT, improved significantly in the active treatment group after one month, as did psychopathology, psychomotor performance, functional dynamics and neurophysiology as measured by the above tests. The drug was well tolerated and no adverse drug reactions were recorded during the trial. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the pharmacological interaction of salmeterol and salbutamol and to derive an estimate of dose equivalence of salmeterol for airway and systemic effects in patients with asthma. DESIGN: Randomised double blind crossover study. SUBJECTS: 12 patients with mild asthma. INTERVENTION: Placebo or salmeterol 50, 100, 200 micrograms given on separate days followed two hours later by inhaled salbutamol in cumulative doses up to 3600 micrograms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), heart rate, plasma potassium concentration, QTc interval, tremor amplitude, and creatine kinase myocardial isoenzyme concentration. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, the mean (95% confidence interval) changes in FEV1 and heart rate after salmeterol 200 micrograms were 0.61 (0.32 to 0.90) l and 7.0 (3.8 to 10.2) beats/min. Adding salbutamol caused a large increase in FEV1 after placebo (0.69 l) with progressively smaller changes after increasing doses of salmeterol (0.19 l
0060] A mixed-effects ANCOVA model with treatment as a fixed effect, center as a random effect, and baseline as a covariate is used to test the primary null hypothesis. The treatment difference in HbA1c change from baseline to week 16 endpoint between WelChol® and placebo is evaluated by the LS mean, standard error, the 2-tailed 95% CI and the 2-sided p-value. The treatment-by-center interaction and treatment-by-covariate interaction is evaluated for the primary efficacy variable at a significance level of 0.10. If a significant treatment-by-center interaction and treatment-by-covariate interaction is suggested by the data, further analyses are implemented to assess the qualitative or quantitative nature of the interaction. The approach used for analysis of the primary efficacy variable is also applied to analysis of the secondary efficacy variables. To further evaluate the efficacy results, change in HbA1c from baseline to week 16 endpoint is summarized by five subgroups of patients: patients ...
Modulation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) expansion by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) might be linked to reducing IL-6 and MMP-9, which may be consequent on reducing plasma cholesterol. Ezetimibe is a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor used in combination with statins. This pilot study compared the biological effects of ezetimibe combination therapy with simvastatin alone on parameters relevant to aneurysm expansion including cytokines and proteolytic enzymes ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alpha-lipoic acid given intravenously, followed by oral treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy [ALADIN] III Study), 509 outpatients were randomly assigned to sequential treatment with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid once daily intravenously for 3 weeks, followed by 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid three times a day orally for 6 months (A-A; n = 167); 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid once daily intravenously for 3 weeks, followed by placebo three times a day orally for 6 months (A-P; n = 174); and placebo once daily intravenously for 3 weeks, followed by placebo three times a day orally for 6 months (P-P; n = 168). Outcome measures included the Total Symptom Score (TSS) for neuropathic symptoms (pain, burning, paresthesias, and numbness) in the feet, and the Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS). Data ...
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, the tolerability of a proprietary larch arabinogalactan preparation (ResistAidTM) was investigated. METHODS: 199 healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 98) or an arabinogalactan preparation (n = 101) over a period of 12 weeks. As safety parameters the total number of adverse events, changes in various biochemical and laboratory parameters as well as the global evaluation of tolerability by investigator and subjects compared to placebo were evaluated. RESULTS: In total 16 adverse events were observed in 16 subjects, with no difference between the arabinogalactan and the placebo group (p = 0.935). There were no differences in the mean changes of the measured biochemical and laboratory parameters. The tolerability of the arabinogalactan extract was rated as
Hoeger K, Davidson K, Kochman L, et al: The impact of metformin, oral contraceptives, and lifestyle modification on polycystic ovary syndrome in obese adolescent women in two randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008(Nov);93(11):4299-306 (PMID 18728175). Sathyapalan T, Kilpatrick ES, Coady AM, Atkin SL: The effect of atorvastatin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009(Jan);94(1):103-8 (PMID 18940877). Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, et al: Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women, N Engl J Med 2009(Feb);360(6):573-87 (PMID 19196674). The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine: Obesity and reproduction: An educational bulletin, Fertil Steril 2008(Nov);90(5 Suppl):S21-9 (PMID 19007633). [Please contact the library and we will be happy to request a copy of this article for you.]. Dovey S, Sneeringer RM, ...
In contrast, right midfrontal gyrus connectivity did not differentiate between responders and nonresponders to active medication (duloxetine).. Connectivity with the right parahippocampal gyrus, however, predicted active drug responses after accounting for the placebo response.. By modeling the expected placebo response in subjects receiving active drug treatment, we uncover a placebo-corrected drug response predictive brain signal and show that in some subjects the active drug tends to enhance predicted placebo response, while in others it interferes with it, the researchers write.. Together, these results provide some evidence for clinical placebo being predetermined by brain biology and show that brain imaging may also identify a placebo-corrected prediction of response to active treatment, they add.. Dr. Karin Jensen from Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, told Reuters Health by email, It is fascinating to see studies with more and more detailed knowledge about the neural basis ...
The core study will be considered completed for an individual patient, when he/she completes the Double-blind Treatment Phase. The study as a whole will be considered completed when all randomized patients remaining in the core study have completed the Double-blind Treatment Phase.. Patients who complete the 24-month Double-blind Treatment Phase may be eligible for participation in an extension phase which will be provided as a separate protocol. Patients who do not enter the Extension Phase should return for the Follow-up visit 3 months after the last dose of study drug. The investigator also must provide follow-up medical care for all patients who are prematurely discontinued from the study, or must refer them back to their referring physician for appropriate care.. Enrollment is scheduled to begin the end of June, 2006 and continue until all subjects are enrolled at all sites and continue for 2 yrs beyond that last subject.. Key Inclusion Criteria. ...
Loss of motor function is common after stroke and often leads to significant long-term disability. Stem cells can be mobilised into the circulation using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), an approach that has been found to be effective in experimental stroke. We aim to perform a pilot randomised placebo-controlled dose-escalation trial of G-CSF (1 x 10^5 - 3 x 10^6 µ/kg given once or once daily for 5 days, in dosing blocks: 1 dose or 5 doses 1 x 10^5 µkg - 3 x 10^6 µ/kg, with level of 5 dose blocks depending on single dose data) in patients with motor weakness following ischaemic stroke, investigating its safety, feasibility of administration, tolerability, and effects on stem cell mobilisation, impairment, disability and dependency. The interaction between G-CSF and routine rehabilitation will be examined ...
Health,... HAYWARD Calif. Feb. 10 /- Arete Therapeutics Inc. t... Our AR9281 Phase II clinical trial program breaks new ground in t... The Phase IIa multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study ...,Arete,Therapeutics,Initiates,Phase,IIa,Clinical,Trial,for,AR9281,,a,Novel,s-EH,Inhibitor,to,Treat,Type,2,Diabetes,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase III clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of Fruquintinib plus BSC versus placebo plus BSC in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have progressed after second-line or above standard chemotherapy. After checking eligibility criteria, subjects will be randomized into Fruquintinib plus BSC group (treatment group) or placebo plus BSC group (control group) in a ration of 2:1. Primary Efficacy Endpoint: Overall Survival (OS). Secondary Efficacy Endpoints: Progression free survival (PFS) (According to RECIST Version 1.1), Objective Response Rate (ORR), Disease Control Rate (DCR), . Safety and tolerance will be evaluated by incidence, severity and outcomes of AEs and categorized by severity in accordance with the NCI CTC AE Version 4.0 ...
Section 4.8 (undesirable effects), The following text has been amended The table below reflects data obtained with Reminyl in seven placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trials (N=4457), five open-label clinical trials (N=1454), and from postmarketing spontaneous reports. The most commonly reported adverse drug reactions were nausea (25%) and vomiting (13%). They occurred mainly during titration periods, lasted less than a week in most cases and the majority of patients had one episode. Prescription of anti-emetics and ensuring adequate fluid intake may be useful in these instances. Hypersensitivity was also added as an uncommon side effect under SOC Immune system disorders ...
Background Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active treatment for all subjects. Mainstream schoolchildren aged 9-10 years were randomized 1:1 to receive three Omega 3/6 capsules twice daily or identical placebo. Assessments were made at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome measure was the Logos test battery for evaluating reading abilities. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02557477. Results The study enrolled 154 children (active n = 78; placebo n = 76), of whom 122 completed the first 3 months (active n = 64; placebo n = 58) and 105 completed the whole study (active/active n = 55; placebo/active n = 50). Outcomes were assessed by per protocol (PP) and
van Veldhuisen DJ, Man in t Veld AJ, Dunselman PH; et al. (November 1993). Double-blind placebo-controlled study of ibopamine and digoxin in patients with mild to moderate heart failure: results of the Dutch Ibopamine Multicenter Trial (DIMT). J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 22 (6): 1564-73. doi:10.1016/0735-1097(93)90579-P. PMID 7901256 ...
D. M. Philbin, J. Moss, C. E. Rosow, C. W. Akins, K. Kono, J. J. Savarese, R. C. Schneider, T. R. VerLee, C. W. Emerson; THE USE OF H1and H2HISTAMINE BLOCKERS WITH MORPHINE: A DOUBLE BLIND STUDY. Anesthesiology 1980;53(3 Suppl):S67. Download citation file:. ...
Read more One of those clinical studies taking place in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and USA is a phase III, multicenter, rRandomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in subjects with giant cell arteritis. This trial sponsored by Roche is active and no longer recruiting subjects. Results from this study were presented at the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and Association for Rheumatology Health Professionals (ARHP) Annual Meeting and published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The trial met the primary endpoint with a significant increase in the proportion of patients achieving sustained remission at one year (56% in the weekly treatment group [QW; p , 0.0001] and 53.1% in the bi-weekly treatment group [Q2W; p , 0.0001]) versus 14% in a six-month steroid taper regimen given alone. The secondary endpoint were ...
The involvement of COX activity has been implicated in a number of epithelial cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer, and has been recognized as an important chemoprevention target based on epidemiological and biological data (33, 34, 35) . Efforts to inhibit COX with minimal side effects have led to the development of COX-2-selective inhibitors. COX-1 activity is thought to be essential to maintaining normal organ function, especially in the stomach, where the chronic use of pan-COX inhibitors is associated with a low frequency occurrence of serious gastric hemorrhage. Although a major step in rational drug design, the strategy of narrowing the spectrum of inhibition of COX activity still has been associated with clinically important side effects (22 , 36) . A growing body of evidence suggests that because COX-1 activity also produces prostaglandins as COX-2, it too can contribute to the carcinogenic process (37 , 38) . We explored a different strategy to enhance the therapeutic index for ...
Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 18 EIB-positive subjects (age: 25.2 +/- 9.01 yr; weight: 77.3 ... Methods: A single site prospective, non-blinded trial. Seven patients with psoriasis were recruited to take a nondenatured ... This double-blind randomized controlled study recruited 99 sedentary non-frail elderly subjects aged between 65 and 88 years ... Methods: A parallel-arm single-blind superiority randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-seven patients were ...
Double-blind methods can be applied to any experimental situation in which there is a possibility that the results will be ... Double-blind trials[edit]. "Double blind" redirects here. It is not to be confused with double bind. ... Triple-blind trials[edit]. A triple-blind study is an extension of the double-blind design; the committee monitoring response ... double-blind experiments are regarded to achieve a higher standard of scientific rigor than single-blind or non-blind ...
It could be a classical experiment in a laboratory setting, a double-blind study or an archaeological excavation. Even taking a ... Brody, Baruch A. and Capaldi, Nicholas, Science: Men, Methods, Goals: A Reader: Methods of Physical Science, W.A. Benjamin, ... The DNA example below is a synopsis of this method.. The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out.[22] ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scientific method.. *. Andersen, Anne; Hepburn, Brian. "Scientific Method". In Zalta, ...
Double-blind methods can be applied to any experimental situation in which there is a possibility that the results will be ... Double-blind trials[change , change source]. Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment. It ... Double-blind methods came into especial prominence in the mid-20th century.[5] ... The opposite of a blind trial is an open trial. The terms blind (adjective) or to blind (transitive verb) when used in this ...
Double-blind comparative studies on allylestrenol and chlormadinone acetate. Part II: Self-assessment questionnaire method]" ( ... Clinical effects of allylestrenol on benign prostatic hypertrophy by double-blind method]". Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica ... Double-blind comparative studies on allylestrenol and chlormadinone acetate Part I: Nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring]". ...
placebo: a double-blind trial". Poster Presentation. European Congress of Allergy & Clinical Immunology. Brussels, July 1999. ... 57 (Suppl 73): 76-7. doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.57.s73.81.x. Boscolo M. A.; Brivio G. "E.P.D. preventive therapy (McEwen method) ... Med.: 253-6. Di Stanislao C. Di Berardino L., Bianchi I., Bologna G. (1997). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ... A double-blind placebo-controlled trial". J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 6 (4): 248-255. PMID 8844502. Longo G.; PoIi F ...
To scientifically prove that a compression method is not transparent, double-blind tests may be useful. The ABX method is ... All lossless data compression methods are transparent, by nature. Both the DSC in DisplayPort and the default settings of JPEG ... the compression method, bit-rate used, input characteristics, and the listening/viewing conditions and equipment. Despite this ...
Methods for avoiding or overcoming such biases include random sampling and double-blind trials. However, objectivity in ... The scientific method was argued for by Enlightenment philosopher Francis Bacon, rose to popularity with the discoveries of ... It is often linked to observation as part of the scientific method. It is thus intimately related to the aim of testability and ... are part of a social process whose purpose is to strengthen the objective aspect of the scientific method.[attribution needed] ...
... a double blind controlled study)". Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 6 (6): 331-7. PMID 6431212. Kövary PM, Lenau H, Niermann H ...
Published by Taylor & Francis, the articles are selected via a double-blind method, and publications are issued five times a ...
... comparison with dextromethorphan using a double-blind method". The Journal of International Medical Research. 13 (2): 96-101. ...
A 1990 double-blind study[48][49][50] was undertaken in Kassel, Germany, under the direction of the Gesellschaft zur ... This article is about the divination method. For other uses, see Dowsing (disambiguation). ... a b Double-Blind Field Evaluation of the MOLE Programmable Detection System, Sandia National Laboratories Archived November 4, ... A randomized double-blind trial in 2012 was carried out to determine whether homeopaths were able to distinguish between ...
Most tests take the form of a double-blind comparison. Commonly used methods are known as "ABX" or "ABC/HR" or "MUSHRA". There ... Many double-blind music listening tests have been carried out. The following table lists the results of several listening tests ... Continuous blind listening tests of codecs over the internet. ...
The critics claim that the results cannot be compared because one method was not double-blind while the other was double-blind ... The Illinois study compared the traditional simultaneous method of lineup presentation with the sequential double-blind method ... The traditional method is not conducted double-blind (meaning that the person presenting the lineup does not know which person ... What it does not provide is a clear reason why, because the effect of "double-blind" was not tested for the simultaneous ...
... a double-blind comparison with placebo". Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 6 (3): 147-51. PMID ... May 1986). "Double-blind comparison of diclofensine with nomifensine in outpatients with dysphoric mood". Pharmacopsychiatry. ...
... non-blind) tests. Those who employ the double-blind testing method may try to reduce listener stress by allowing a certain ... Critics of double-blind tests see them as not allowing the listener to feel fully relaxed when evaluating the system component ... However, a double-blind subjective test between high resolution linear PCM (DVD-Audio) and DSD did not reveal a statistically ... This type of test is called a double-blind test. This sort of test is often used to evaluate the performance of lossy audio ...
... but believe there are problems in applying double-blind methods to comparisons of audio devices. They believe that a relaxing ... Objectivists believe that audio components and systems must pass rigorously conducted double-blind tests and meet specified ... Objectivists point out that properly conducted and interpreted double-blind tests fail to support subjectivists' claims of ... that all perceivable differences in audio equipment can be explained scientifically through measurement and double-blind ...
For her doctoral thesis, she applied for the first time in hadron colliders a novel double blind analysis method to search for ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Spiropulu, Maria (2000). A blind search for supersymmetry in p(bar)p collisions at sqr( ...
... double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 21 (3): 209-13. doi:10.1358/mf.1999.21.3.534831. PMID ... a double blind randomized study". europeanreview.org. 17 October 2012. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) ...
All randomized double-blind studies, whether finding for or against the solutions, have suffered from small cohort sizes but ... Bach was satisfied with the method, because of its simplicity, and because it involved a process of combination of the four ... Walach H, Rilling C, Engelke U (2001). "Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ... a prospective double blind controlled study". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 9 (6): 395-398. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn. ...
Research into the issue of wrongful convictions have led to the use of methods to avoid wrongful convictions, such as double- ... blind eyewitness identification. Leading causes of wrongful convictions in the United States include snitches and unscientific ... The second method for estimating wrongful convictions involves self-report. Researchers ask prisoners whether they have ever ... There are two main methods for estimating the prevalence of wrongful convictions. The first is the number of exonerations where ...
The guaifenesin protocol was studied as a method to treat fibromyalgia; a one-year double-blind study found that the treatment ... Guaifenesin was studied as a method to improve the possibility of conception, by thinning and increasing the stretchability ( ...
The double-blind ABX method was used to make comparisons between the original and the compressed sound to refine the adjustment ...
... may refer to: ABX test, a double-blind testing method commonly used in codec listening tests and in ascertaining high ...
... a properly conducted double-blind test can prove that a method is not transparent. Blind tests are sometimes used as part of ... ISBN 0-521-42408-9. John Atkinson (2005-07-17). "Blind Tests & Bus Stops". Robert Harley (2008-05-28). "Blind Listening Tests ... He stated: "Blind tests are at the core of the decades' worth of research into loudspeaker design done at Canada's National ... To respond to this issue, researchers began to use blind tests, in which listeners cannot see the components being tested. A ...
... double-blind method MeSH G03.850.520.445.485 - matched-pair analysis MeSH G03.850.520.445.500 - meta-analysis MeSH G03.850. ... single-blind method MeSH G03.850.520.450 - epidemiologic study characteristics MeSH G03.850.520.450.500 - epidemiologic studies ... monte carlo method MeSH G03.850.520.830.600 - probability MeSH G03.850.520.830.600.200 - bayes theorem MeSH G03.850.520.830. ...
... double-blind method MeSH N05.715.360.780.500 - matched-pair analysis MeSH N05.715.360.780.515 - meta-analysis MeSH N05.715. ... single-blind method MeSH N05.715.360.825 - biomedical technology assessment MeSH N05.715.680 - health care peer review The list ... monte carlo method MeSH N05.715.360.750.625 - probability MeSH N05.715.360.750.625.150 - bayes theorem MeSH N05.715.360.750. ...
... double-blind method MeSH E05.318.780.485 - matched-pair analysis MeSH E05.318.780.500 - meta-analysis MeSH E05.318.780.700 - ... single-blind method MeSH E05.320.550.550 - prosthesis coloring MeSH E05.337.250.200 - clinical trials, phase i MeSH E05.337. ... monte carlo method MeSH E05.318.740.600 - probability MeSH E05.318.740.600.200 - bayes theorem MeSH E05.318.740.600.400 - ...
Methods for avoiding or overcoming such biases include random sampling and double-blind trials.[citation needed] ... Methods for avoiding or overcoming such biases include random sampling and double-blind trials.[citation needed] ... are part of a social process whose purpose is to strengthen the objective aspect of the scientific method.[citation needed] ...
A 2001 double-blind study of 799 discharged coronary surgery patients found that "intercessory prayer had no significant effect ... a b "[A]lternative medicine refers to all treatments that have not been proven effective using scientific methods."[10] ... Unlike medicine,[n 4] an alternative product or practice does not originate from using scientific methods, but may instead be ... Methods may incorporate or base themselves on traditional medicine, folk knowledge, spiritual beliefs, ignorance or ...
Double-Blind Clinical Trials". Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. 17 (9): 987-996. PMID 30235387.. ... Researchers are investigating methods to increase the skin's production of retinoic acid to address this deficiency.[10] A ... Dermatologists also recommend a diet low in simple sugars as a method of improving acne.[53] As of 2014, the available evidence ... Light therapy is a treatment method that involves delivering certain specific wavelengths of light to an area of skin affected ...
As Eis is begging for mercy, he suddenly slashes Goku's eyes, blinding him. Goku is able to quickly land a devastating punch, ... Piccolo's plan is to replicate the method that the two Android 17's used to escape from hell. He telepathically communicates ... " / "What a Turnout!! Baby and Son Goku -- Double KO!!". Transcription: "Sōzetsu!! Bebī to Gokū Daburu Keī Ō!!" (Japanese: 壮絶!! ... Goku absorbs more power than even he thought possible, and even though he's still blind, he can perfectly sense the one-star ...
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Annals of Internal Medicine. 138 (9): 697-704. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138 ... Diagnostic method. Based on symptoms, tick exposure, blood tests[3]. Prevention. Prevention of tick bites (clothing the limbs, ... It may also cause intermittent double vision.[30][33] Lyme radiculopathy is an inflammation of spinal nerve roots that often ... Because of their double-membrane envelope, Borrelia bacteria are often mistakenly described as Gram negative despite the ...
More objective testing methods were developed by Dr. Howard Andrew Knox to determine with increased accuracy whether an ... Beyer Blinder Belle; Anderson Notter Finegold (1988). "Historic Structure Report: The Main Building, Ellis Island, Statue of ... As the number of immigrants nearly doubled, from 493,267 in 1902 to 1,004,756 in 1907, the hospitals were still extremely ... Beyer Blinder Belle; Anderson Notter Finegold (1988). "Historic Structure Report: The Main Building, Ellis Island, Statue of ...
1-4 and the double/triple concertos.. *Decca: Philharmonia Orchestra, conducted and played by Vladimir Ashkenazy. Double/triple ... The next concerto, K. 456 in B♭, was for a long time believed to have been written for the blind pianist Maria Theresa von ... 1-4 and the double and triple concertos.. *MD&G: Lausanne Chamber Orchestra, conducted from the keyboard by Christian Zacharias ... 1-4 and the double/triple concertos.. *Classical Express: Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra, conducted by Nicholas McGegan, played ...
This method is called blind-glish or sight-glish, which is a language for the blind, similar to English. For example, babies, ... Cataracts are the leading cause of child and adult blindness that doubles in prevalence with every ten years after the age of ... According to the Gospels, Jesus healed the two blind men of Galilee, the blind man of Bethsaida, the blind man of Jericho and ... The expression "blind leading the blind" refers to incapable people leading other incapable people. Being blind to something ...
Diagnostic method. Lung function tests[4]. Differential diagnosis. Asthma,[3] Asbestosis, Bronchiectasis, Tracheobronchomalacia ... blinded trials". The Journal of International Medical Research. 40 (6): 2051-65. doi:10.1177/030006051204000602. PMID 23321161. ... This is expected to more than double by the year 2030.[21] In Europe, COPD represents 3% of healthcare spending.[9] In the ... A number of methods can determine how much COPD is affecting a given individual.[22] The modified British Medical Research ...
The New York World wrote, "The Lawrence authorities must be blind and the mill owners mad."[28] The New York Tribune called the ... John, The IWW: its History, Structure and Methods. Archived 2011-01-17 at the Wayback Machine Chicago: IWW Publishing Bureau, ... In spite of what Haywood perceived as "treachery" and "double-cross"[44] by the AFL leadership - the ARU members had put their ... At age nine, Haywood injured his right eye while whittling a slingshot with a knife, permanently blinding that eye. He never ...
My method can be summarised as follows:. 1. Define consciousness. In computing terms this equates to the business requirements ... Whether or not I am in a double-bind in another discussion has no impact here. Or should not! You are seemingly irritated with ... It wouldn't necessarily be conclusive, because the machine might be blind and still conscious, or so attentive to another ( ... No, the approach consistent with the scientific method says: Artificial consciousness is likely to be real consciousness, by ...
... double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial". Circ Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 2 (1): 29-34. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.108.795906. PMID ... This method was to become the method of choice by the mid-1960s. ... Methods of pacingEdit. An ECG in a person with an atrial ...
... double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". The Lancet. Neurology. 16 (7): 505-12. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30115-1. PMID ... Both of these methods are faster and cheaper than traditional methods of genetically engineering mice; they also allow ... There are also new methods of developing animal models, including viral transgenesis, in which viruses are used to deliver ...
... double-blind, placebo-controlled, first-in-human study". Lancet Neurol 11 (7): 597-604. PMID 22677258. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422( ... Methods Mol. Biol. Methods in Molecular Biology 849: 493-506. ISBN 978-1-61779-550-3. PMID 22528111. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779- ... Methods in Molecular Biology 849: 507-527. ISBN 978-1-61779-550-3. PMID 22528112. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-551-0_34.. ... Schmidt SD, Mazzella MJ, Nixon RA, Mathews PM (2012). "Aβ measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Methods Mol. Biol ...
Replicated, double-blind, randomized trials on anesthetized patients have found Hemi-Sync effective as a partial replacement ... "Method of inducing and maintaining various stages of sleep in the human being" US Patent 5213562: "Method of inducing mental, ... a double-blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra-operative nociception control". Anaesthesia. 54 (8): 769-73. doi: ... "Method of and apparatus for inducing desired states of consciousness" Stephen Barling, "Cosmic degrees: Out of body at The ...
CN101627161A «Kubonit glass-fibre paper and its making method» (2010). *№ KR2009127399A «BORON NITRIDE FIBER PAPER AND METHOD ... L. Li, P. S. Lee, C. Yan, T. Zhai, X. Fang, M. Liao, Y. Koide, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «Ultrahigh-Performance Solar-Blind ... ZnO Hollow Spheres with Double-Yolk Egg Structure for High-Performance Photocatalysts and Photodetectors» Adv. Mater. 24 (2012 ... EP2006332A4 «RESIN COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME» (2012). *№ US20110086965A1 «BORON NITRIDE NANOSHEET, METHOD FOR ...
Norma Jennings, played by Peggy Lipton, is the owner of the Double R Diner, where she employs Shelly Johnson, a good friend of ... Harry's passionate love for Josie Packard is such that it blinds him to the fact that she is merely using him, as she has used ... Her movements and clothing are code; this is an FBI method devised by Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole to quickly and covertly ... Double-R Diner owner, lover of Big Ed Hurley, organizer of Meals on Wheels with Laura Peggy Lipton ...
... double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of phenylbutyrate in spinal muscular atrophy". primary. Neurology. 68 (1): 51-5. doi: ... Epigenetic therapy is being investigated as a method of correcting the expression levels of misregulated genes in ... double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine and valproic acid in spinal muscular atrophy". primary. PLOS ...
Food challenges, especially double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges, are the gold standard for diagnosis of food ... Diagnostic method. Based on a medical history, elimination diet, skin prick test, oral food challenge[1][2]. ... The recommended method for diagnosing food allergy is to be assessed by an allergist. The allergist will review the patient's ... Non-IgE-mediated allergies cannot be detected by this method. *Patch testing is used to determine if a specific substance ...
"Chartverfolgung / Blind Guardian / Long play", music line.de, archived from the original on February 23, 2011. ... "Hex: Or Printing in the Infernal Method" Archived September 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Splendid Magazine, September ... as well as Ginger Baker's double bass drumming.[123] Their first two LPs, Fresh Cream (1966) and Disraeli Gears (1967), are ... "ACCEPT's MARK TORNILLO Says Fans Can Expect 'A Little More Diversity' On 'Blind Rage'". BLABBERMOUTH.NET. 2014-04-04. Retrieved ...
In psi literature the use of the free response method is not always divulged to the reader as is done in this instance by Targ ... The results were evaluated by blind judging. A psychologist, either Bonnie Preskari or Carole K. Silfen, was asked to match up ... the frequency of the trace recorder oscillation doubled for about 30 seconds, reportedly a common occurrence due to variations ... Targ and Puthoff were positive "Something was happening, but they are not clear what it is."[31] (This method of selecting a ...
A 2002 meta-analysis that included five double-blind trials examining the short-term (2-8 weeks) effects of a yogurt with ... Methods of treating infectious diseases were needed at that time when antibiotics were not yet available, and Nissle used the E ... a multistrain probiotic preparation significantly reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a double-blind placebo- ...
Wendy Martin, "Visual methods in ageing research." in Julia Twigg and Wendy Martin eds., Routledge Handbook of Cultural ... Double stance time (i.e., time with both feet on the ground) also increases with age. Because of gait change, old people ... Mahzarin R. Banaji and Anthony G. Greenwald, Blind Spot: Hidden Biases of Good People (Random House, 2013), 67. ... "Theory: A conception . . . of something to be done, or of the method of doing it." Oxford English Dictionary Online . December ...
The newly hatched young are vulnerable, blind, and hairless, and are fed by the mother's milk. Although possessing mammary ... The eyes also contain double cones, which most mammals do not have.[44] ... or as a method of regulating humidity and temperature).[59] The male takes no part in caring for its young, and retreats to his ...
Even A Blind Chicken Finds A Kernel of Corn Now And Then: 1990-1994 (1998) ... The caravans that employed this method to exchange silk with other merchants were generally quite large, including from 100 to ... Golden lotus having a quilted backgammon pattern, double-folded, adorned with savage geese pecking at a landscape of flowers ... An illustration of spinning, winding, doubling and throwing machines used in silk textile production in England, 1858. ...
... results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial". Hypertension. 51 (2): 399-405. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.098988 ... Methods in Molecular Biology. Methods in Molecular Biology™. 310: 227-40. doi:10.1007/978-1-59259-948-6_16. ISBN 978-1-58829- ...
... double-blinded and randomized controlled trial." Human reproduction 28(2):306-14 (2013) ... With this method acrosome reaction is skipped. ICSI is used in the 95% of oocytes in the world. ... needs specific methods and skills, not required in the case of ICSI where sperm cell viability can be easily evaluated on the ...
This is why randomized controlled trials are vital in clinical research, especially ones that can be double-blinded and placebo ... "Social Research Methods - Knowledge Base - Random Selection & Assignment".. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit ... Random assignment, blinding, and controlling are key aspects of the design of experiments, because they help ensure that the ... Charles S. Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate ...
... a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study". Eur J Nutr. 54 (3): 391-6. doi:10.1007/s00394-014-0718-8. PMID 24853643.. ... Diagnostic method. measuring the concentration of the calcifediol in the blood. UVB from sunlight is a large source of vitamin ... with this dosage being doubled for premature infants, dark-skinned infants and children, children who reside in areas of ... "Effect of high- versus low-fat meal on serum 25-hydroxyvitaminD levels after a single dose of vitamin D: a single-blind, ...
double rifle: A rifle that has two barrels, usually of the same caliber. The two types of double rifles are over/under ( ... This method is usually used to pre-align the sights, which makes zeroing (zero drop at XX distance) much faster. ... collimator sight: a type of optical "blind" sight that allows the user looking into it to see an illuminated aiming point ... double-barreled shotgun: A shotgun with two barrels, usually of the same gauge or bore. The two types of double-barreled ...
Could the same method be applied to ghost investigation where nether the investigator or the people with them know anything ... The double blind scientific method is where neither the tester or the observer know anything about the items tested and ... The double blind scientific method is where neither the tester or the observer know anything about the items tested and ... Would a double Blind scientific method be useful to determine if Ghosts exist? ...
Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted for a period of 12 months using 1 unit/ml HS and NS 0.9% solution. The ...
... the use of double-blind design in randomized controlled trials, and the importance of the double-blind design in minimizing ... Blinding is used in various study designs but is most often associated with randomized controlled trials. Double-blind designs ... Double-Blind Design , The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation Search form. ... Methods Map Explore the research methods terrain, read definitions of key terminology, and discover content relevant to your ...
Figure 1: Double blind method for quality control testing.. Mean volume of LRPRBCs prepared were 282 ± 1.4 ml whereas the pre ... In this letter we would like to discuss the efficiency of pre-storage leukoreduction at our centre by a double blind method of ... Efficiency of Pre-Storage Leukoreduction of Red Cells: A Double Blind Quality Control Method, Transfusion medicine. Setia ... Our analysis showed the applicability of the double blind method to evaluate the efficiency of the Inline leukoreduction of red ...
double blind method [mh]. *. single blind method [mh]. *. cross-over studies [mh] ... Methods. Study selection. Using an extended version of Phase 1 from the Cochrane search strategy (see box 1),6 we identified ... However, for 32% (90/281) of these responses, we found evidence of outcomes that were mentioned in the methods section but not ... We identified unreported outcomes if they were described in the methods section but not the results section of any publication ...
b) Describe how the double-blind method is used in this trial. [2 marks] ...
Double-Blind Method * Energy Intake / drug effects* * Heart Rate / drug effects * Humans ... double-blind study. Treatments were administered as tablets of 500 mg GTE, 400 mg tyrosine, 50 mg caffeine, or placebo, and ... Methods: Twelve healthy, normal weight men (age: 23.7 +/- 2.6 years, mean +/- s.d.) participated in a four-way crossover, ...
Double blind method. Drug evaluation. Female. Gels. HIV infections/prevention and control. Microbicide. Naphthalenesulfonates/ ... An International Multi-centre, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 0.5% ... Vaginal microbicides are being developed in response to the urgent need for an HIV prevention method that women can control. ... Unable or unwilling to provide a reliable method of contact for the field team ...
... double-blinded study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in comparison with conventional radiofrequency ( ... The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in ... In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that unlike CRF, PRF is not an effective method of pain treatment for ...
Pain Measurement/methods. Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control. Prospective Studies. Double-Blind Method. Tibial Fractures/ ... Gourlay GK, Willis RJ, Lamberty J. A double-blind comparison of the efficacy of methadone and morphine in postoperative pain ... Intraoperative Care/methods. Male. Methadone/administration & dosage. Analgesics/therapeutic use. Methadone/therapeutic use. ...
The double-blind test seeks to eliminate two unpopular methods of photo identification. The first is the non-sequential or ... No Cheating Allowed: Prince Georges County Adopts the Double-Blind Method of Eyewitness Photo Identification ... "double-blind" method. The new changes will require police officers to institute two safeguards when showing eyewitnesses a ... Labels: double-blind, eyewitness misidentification, Jennifer Thompson, Manson v. Brathwaite, Neil v. Biggers, photo lineup, ...
Comparative test of the effectiveness of cefoperazone and cefazolin on respiratory tract infection by double blind method. In: ... Comparative test of the effectiveness of cefoperazone and cefazolin on respiratory tract infection by double blind method. ... Comparative test of the effectiveness of cefoperazone and cefazolin on respiratory tract infection by double blind method. / ... T1 - Comparative test of the effectiveness of cefoperazone and cefazolin on respiratory tract infection by double blind method ...
exp double-blind method/. 28. exp single-blind method/. 29. randomized controlled trial.pt.. ... Simplify method for determining infant formula quantities/add flexibility to minimum and maximum ranges. The current method ... Data-Gathering Workshop Methods and Approaches to the Assessment of WIC Food Packages Committee to Review WIC Food Packages ... Methods and Approaches to the Assessment of WIC Food Packages Committee to Review WIC Food Packages: Public Comment Session ...
METHOD: A 38-week, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study; randomisation (2:2:1) to aripiprazole once-monthly ... Aripiprazole once-monthly for treatment of schizophrenia: double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority study.. Fleischhacker WW1, ...
... was evaluated in a controlled multicentric double blind study versus placebo. The population studied was a group of 165 women ... Double-Blind Method * Edema / diagnosis * Edema / drug therapy* * Edema / physiopathology * Edema / psychology ... was evaluated in a controlled multicentric double blind study versus placebo. The population studied was a group of 165 women ... A double evaluation of the symptoms was realized by the patient using a daily rating scale (auto-evaluation), by the ...
METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, two-arm, placebo-controlled study was set in the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, ... Glutathione as an oral whitening agent: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.. Arjinpathana N1, Asawanonda P. ...
A double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an internet-based self-management tool for moderate to ... Rationale and methods of the iFightDepression study: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an ... Rationale and methods of the iFightDepression study: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an ... The main objective of this double-blind, randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of an internet-based self- ...
CONCLUSIONS: The present method is feasible and robust and provides a platform for double-blinded comparison of mean arterial ... Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Method for Double-Blinded Blood Pressure Target Investigation in Intensive Care ... OBJECTIVES: No double-blinded clinical trials have investigated optimal mean arterial pressure targets in the ICU. The aim of ... this study was to develop and validate a method for blinded investigation of mean arterial pressure targets in patients ...
The need for double-blind methods in police lineups. Mano Singham - Published by Mano Singham ... You were banned for your loser methods you used to get your message across. Like your constant asking of an inane, insane, and ...
The need for double-blind methods in police lineups. Mano Singham - Published by Mano Singham ...
Methods. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Patients between 2 and 8 years of age who weighed ,10 kg ...
Double-blind Method. A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of ... Single-blind Method. A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the ... A method to improve fishing selectivity through age targeted fishing using life stage distribution modelling.. 08:00 EDT 2nd ... Home » Topics » Myc the protein encoded by the MYC gene that activates the cell cycle » Research » A method to improve fishing ...
METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII ... Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. ... METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII (0.1 mg/day) versus ... A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid ...
Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy*, physiopathology. Male. Mediterranean Region. Onions / ...
Methods: A total of sixty biopsy confirmed NASH patients were included in a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study ... Double-blind method. Fatty acids omega 3. Liver/pathology, Lipids/blood. Randomized controlled trial. Steatohepatitis. ... Due to the Omega 3 ingestion by the placebo group we decided to not consider the double blind and to perform a new statistic ...
Method of randomisation not stated. Method of concealment of allocation stated. Double-blind. Unclear if other IBS medications ... Method of randomisation stated. Method of concealment of allocation not stated. Double-blind. No other IBS medications allowed. ... Method of randomisation stated. Method of concealment of allocation not stated. Double-blind. Other IBS medications allowed.. ... Method of randomisation stated. Method of concealment of allocation not stated. Double-blind. No other IBS medications allowed. ...
The test was conducted in a double-blind method. I. Before Intake ... A double-blind test was conducted with respect to the VDT workers. The VDT workers were divided into an astaxanthin- ... 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the astaxanthin and/or ester thereof is administered in a food or a drink. 9. A method for ... A double-blind test was conducted for the B and C groups. ... there is almost no preventive method for them. A method of ...
6 double blind method/ (112853). 7 single blind method/ (15532). 8 clinical trial, phase i.pt. (11643). 9 clinical trial, phase ... Health Topics Consumers Products & Tools Research Methods Get Involved Browse Products About News Contact Us Email Updates ... Methods. A. Criteria for Inclusion/Exclusion of Studies in the Review. Below we describe the general criteria used to identify ... We will evaluate methods used to define RLS, assess its severity, and measure treatment benefits and harms. Further, we will ...
Methods. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were children between the ages of 5 and 18 ...
METHODS: The study was randomized and double-blinded. The mothers took 10 mL of cod liver oil or corn oil from week 18 of ... Design: A controlled double-blind trial was performed. Pregnant women (n = 126) in their 20th wk of gestation were invited; 120 ... Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Setting:Outpatient clinic and delivery service at the University of ... METHODS: Healthy mothers with early ultrasound confirmation of dates and singleton pregnancies were enrolled in a double-masked ...
  • OBJECTIVES: No double-blinded clinical trials have investigated optimal mean arterial pressure targets in the ICU. (regionh.dk)
  • Thereafter we 2) verified the method in two randomized, clinical trials, each including 50 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, where the offset of the blood pressure module was blinded to the treating staff. (regionh.dk)
  • Twelve healthy, normal weight men (age: 23.7 +/- 2.6 years, mean +/- s.d.) participated in a four-way crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. (nih.gov)
  • The efficacy of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in treating congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was evaluated in a controlled multicentric double blind study versus placebo. (nih.gov)
  • Glutathione as an oral whitening agent: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (nih.gov)
  • This randomized, double-blind, two-arm, placebo-controlled study was set in the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, a teaching hospital affiliated with a medical school. (nih.gov)
  • Two randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover studies of postmenopausal women were performed. (diva-portal.org)
  • This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial ( N = 32, healthy young adults) assessed the acute mood, neurocognitive and glycaemic effects of three doses (100, 200 400 mg) of Cereboost™ ( P. quinquefolius standardised to 10.65% ginsenosides). (springer.com)
  • Patients were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with a fixed dose of lurasidone 80 mg (N = 90, 75.6% male, mean age = 39.7 years, mean baseline score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale derived from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [BPRSd] = 55.1) or placebo (N = 90, 77.8% male, mean age = 41.9 years, mean BPRSd score = 56.1). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Lurasidone in the treatment of acute schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • METHODS: Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. (herbs.org)
  • Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 300 patients with recent ACS and depression enrolled from May 2007 to March 2013, with follow-up completed in June 2017, at Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea. (pogoe.org)
  • NRPT was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study in a population of 120 healthy adults between the ages of 60 and 80 years. (nature.com)
  • The study consisted of three treatment arms: placebo, recommended dose of NRPT (NRPT 1X), and double dose of NRPT (NRPT 2X). (nature.com)
  • Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) with roasted hazelnuts (140 degrees C, 40 min) were performed in 17 birch pollen allergic patients with DBPCFC-confirmed food allergy to raw hazelnuts. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Roasted hazelnuts--allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pregabalin over 3 months in patients with PTNP, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial evaluated patients with PTNP at 101 centers in 11 countries-the longest, largest such trial. (springer.com)
  • We used a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design in 16 healthy subjects (eight women, eight men) who underwent six 25 h sessions and received placebo, LSD (25, 50, 100, and 200 µg), and 200 µg LSD 1 h after administration of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT 2A ) receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg). (nature.com)
  • The study used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design with six experimental test sessions to investigate the responses to (i) placebo, (ii) 25 µg LSD, (iii) 50 µg LSD, (iv) 100 µg LSD, (v) 200 µg LSD, and (vi) 200 µg LSD 1 h after ketanserin administration (40 mg). (nature.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. (nih.gov)
  • In a random double-blind method, participants also took either Orlistat or a placebo. (upmc.com)
  • METHOD: Double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. (iospress.com)
  • Randomised double blind, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Superior efficacy of St John's wort extract WS 5570 compared to placebo in patients with major depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial [ISRCTN77277298]. (ebscohost.com)
  • Methods: The investigation was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled three-arm study. (scirp.org)
  • This entry describes inconsistencies in blinding terminology, the use of double-blind design in randomized controlled trials, and the importance of the double-blind design in minimizing biases. (sagepub.com)
  • Blinding is used in various study designs but is most often associated with randomized controlled trials. (sagepub.com)
  • Not every phenomena is suitable for a double blind study. (yahoo.com)
  • One of the major reasons research like the old Duke-Rhine telepathy study is flawed is because they didn't follow double-blind procedures. (yahoo.com)
  • For example, neither the researchers nor the participants knowing which item was hidden in the envelope or box might be a double-blind type of study for testing somebody's psychic prediction abilities. (yahoo.com)
  • Double-blind designs are used to minimize participant and researcher biases, which threaten the validity of a research study. (sagepub.com)
  • Due to ambiguity in blinding terminology, researchers are encouraged to specifically report which individuals remain blind in a given study. (sagepub.com)
  • The clinical effectiveness and safety of Cefoperazone (CPZ, T-1551) and Cefazolin (CEZ) were compared in this randomized, double-blind multi-clinical study of 239 patients with respiratory tract infections. (elsevier.com)
  • Aripiprazole once-monthly for treatment of schizophrenia: double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority study. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for blinded investigation of mean arterial pressure targets in patients monitored with arterial catheter in the ICU. (regionh.dk)
  • METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII (0.1 mg/day) versus MTX (10 mg/week) in patients with active RA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is a double blind, prospective randomized study. (hindawi.com)
  • In controlled trials the term blinding, and in particular "double blind," usually refers to keeping study participants, those involved with their management, and those collecting and analysing clinical data unaware of the assigned treatment, so that they should not be influenced by that knowledge. (bmj.com)
  • In many such studies blinding is impossible because exposure can be discovered only by interviewing the study participants, who obviously know whether or not they are a case. (bmj.com)
  • This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out from April 2009 to January 2010 at the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (HC-UFG). (scielo.br)
  • The efficacy and safety of a dietary supplement derived from South American botanicals was compared to glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis subjects in a Mumbai-based multi-center, randomized, double-blind study. (nih.gov)
  • Both drugs impair the hemodynamic profile of central neural blockade but the effects of their combination on arterial pressure and heart rate are not known and were examined in this double-blind prospective randomised study. (ac.be)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -A double-blind study was performed for 3 months. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the end of the study, the blinded subjects will be asked which of the 2 study drugs they prefer, and the extent to which their energy differed between the 2 drugs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Eighty patients admitted to hospital with major depression were randomly allocated to six weeks of treatment with tranylcypromine, amitriptyline, or tranylcypromine and amitriptyline in combination, in a double-blind study. (ebscohost.com)
  • A. Agnoli, G. Bruno and M. Fioravanti, "Therapeutic Approach to Senile Memory Impairment: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial with CDP Choline," Alzheimer's Disease: Proceedings of the 5th Meeting of the International Study Group on the Pharmacology of Memory Disorders Associated with Aging, Birkhauser, Boston, 1989. (scirp.org)
  • A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Blinding patients to the treatment they have received in a controlled trial is particularly important when the response criteria are subjective, such as alleviation of pain, but less important for objective criteria, such as death. (bmj.com)
  • Similarly, medical staff caring for patients in a randomised trial should be blinded to treatment allocation to minimise possible bias in patient management and in assessing disease status. (bmj.com)
  • All the applied methods indicated that roasting of hazelnuts reduces the allergenicity, but since 5/17 birch pollen allergic patients were DBPCFC-positive to the roasted nuts, ingestion of roasted hazelnuts or products containing roasted hazelnuts can not be considered safe for a number of hazelnut allergic consumers. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This was a post hoc analysis of 1,171 patients from the 6-week, randomized, double-blind phases of three studies in adults with MDD and inadequate response to ADTs (NCT01360645, NCT01360632, NCT02196506). (dovepress.com)
  • Blinding can be imposed on researchers, technicians, or subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a single-blind experiment, the individual subjects do not know whether they are so-called "test" subjects or members of an " experimental control " group. (wikipedia.org)
  • All subjects took their blinded supplement daily for eight weeks. (nature.com)
  • Random assignment of test subjects to the experimental and control groups is the key to any double-blind research design. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand fishing with cellular membrane-coated cellulose filter paper: a new method for screening of potential active compounds from natural products. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In studies comparing two active compounds, blinding is possible using the "double dummy" method. (bmj.com)
  • b) Describe how the double-blind method is used in this trial. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The main objective of this double-blind, randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of an internet-based self-management tool iFightDepression for mild to moderate depression as an add-on to treatment as usual TAU versus internet-based psychoeducation plus TAU. (duhnnae.com)
  • A blind or blinded - experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • If both tester and subject are blinded, the trial is called a double-blind experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opposite of a blind trial is an open trial . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a double blind trial neither the patient nor the caregivers are aware of the treatment assignment. (bmj.com)
  • In a double blind trial it is implicit that the assessment of patient outcome is done in ignorance of the treatment received. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: This was a double blinded, randomized controlled trial. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Methods- randomized double-blind clinicai trial (RCT). (usp.br)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This was a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and good clinical practice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was performed. (medworm.com)
  • Methods: a double-blinded crossover trial comparing nebivolol with metoprolol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Double-blind design refers to an experimental methodology with treatment and control groups where neither participants nor researchers, including investigators and outcome assessors alike, know who belongs to the treatment group and who belongs to the control group. (sagepub.com)
  • Single-blind describes experiments where information that could introduce bias or otherwise skew the result is withheld from the participants, but the experimenter will be in full possession of the facts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a double-blind experiment, neither the participants nor the researchers know which participants belong to the control group , and which to the test group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-blind methods can be applied to any experimental situation in which there is a possibility that the results will be affected by conscious/unconscious bias on the part of researchers, participants, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blinding (sometimes called masking) is used to try to eliminate such bias. (bmj.com)
  • Single-blind experimental design is used where the experimenters either must know the full facts (for example, when comparing sham to real surgery) and so the experimenters cannot themselves be blind, or where the experimenters will not introduce further bias and so the experimenters need not be blind. (wikipedia.org)
  • J. J. Secades and J. L. Lorenzo, "Citicoline: Pharmacological and Clinical Review, 2006 Update," Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology, 28 Suppl B, 2006, pp. 1-56. (scirp.org)
  • 2}} . This particular experimental setup has come to be known as Blind FROG due to its mathematical equivalence to blind deconvolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment . (wikipedia.org)
  • Could the same method be applied to ghost investigation where nether the investigator or the people with them know anything about the. (yahoo.com)
  • Single blind trials (where either only the investigator or only the patient is blind to the allocation) are sometimes unavoidable, as are open (non-blind) trials. (bmj.com)
  • The double blind scientific method is where neither the tester or the observer know anything about the items tested and therefore no bias can be introduced to the experiment. (yahoo.com)
  • Double blind studies are great for testing something such as paranormal abilities (e.g., telekinesis, psychic powers, etc. (yahoo.com)
  • Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines. (nih.gov)
  • Ten double-blind, randomized studies from 1991 through 2006 were combined (N = 2122). (psychiatrist.com)
  • A double evaluation of the symptoms was realized by the patient using a daily rating scale (auto-evaluation), by the practitioner during visits at the premenstrual phase before and after the two cycles treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, blind assessment of outcome may be more important than blinding the administration of the treatment, especially when the outcome measure involves subjectivity. (bmj.com)
  • Among these, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration is a commonly used method, which can induce reproducible acute colitis characterized by bloody diarrhea, ulcerations, and leukocyte infiltration ( Perše and Cerar, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The double-blind test seeks to eliminate two unpopular methods of photo identification. (blogspot.com)
  • The relevance of blinding will vary according to circumstances. (bmj.com)
  • Blind experiments are an important tool of the scientific method , in many fields of research- medicine , psychology and the social sciences , natural sciences such as physics and biology , applied sciences such as market research , and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1799, the British chemist Humphry Davy performed another early blind experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first essays advocating a blinded approach to experiments in general came from Claude Bernard in the latter half of the 19th century, who recommended splitting any scientific experiment between the theorist who conceives the experiment and a naive (and preferably uneducated) observer who registers the results without foreknowledge of the theory or hypothesis being tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • A blind or blinded experiment is a test or experiment in where the experimenter does not know which treatment is given to a subject . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaginal microbicides are being developed in response to the urgent need for an HIV prevention method that women can control. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our analysis showed the applicability of the double blind method to evaluate the efficiency of the Inline leukoreduction of red cells. (scitechnol.com)
  • In order to evaluate the efficiency of the filters used a double blinding strategy was adopted. (scitechnol.com)
  • Blinding means more than just keeping the name of the treatment hidden. (bmj.com)
  • 1. A method of treating a failure of accommodation in a subject comprising the step of administering to said subject a pharmacologically effective amount of astaxanthin and/or an ester thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We identified unreported outcomes if they were described in the methods section but not the results section of any publication. (bmj.com)
  • This sort of blinding, better referred to as allocation concealment, will be discussed in a future statistics note. (bmj.com)
  • Explore the research methods terrain, read definitions of key terminology, and discover content relevant to your research methods journey. (sagepub.com)
  • The attosecond-laser-pulse community, however, finds the Blind FROG approach useful due to the specific mathematical form used in the retrieval algorithm in this case. (wikipedia.org)
  • In trials of different styles of patient management, surgical procedures, or alternative therapies, full blinding is often impossible. (bmj.com)
  • Such blind assessment of outcome can often also be achieved in trials which are open (non-blinded). (bmj.com)
  • Blind assessment of outcome is especially useful when this is a risk. (bmj.com)