Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blind Loop Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome that is associated with a blind loop in the upper SMALL INTESTINE that is characterized by the lack of peristaltic movement, stasis of INTESTINAL CONTENTS, and the overgrowth of BACTERIA. Such bacterial overgrowth interferes with BILE SALTS action, FATTY ACIDS processing, MICROVILLI integrity, and the ABSORPTION of nutrients such as VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Pizotyline: Serotonin antagonist used against MIGRAINE DISORDERS and vascular headaches.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Aminosalicylic Acids: A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Enprostil: A synthetic PGE2 analog that has an inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion, a mucoprotective effect, and a postprandial lowering effect on gastrin. It has been shown to be efficient and safe in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers.Cisapride: A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Croup: Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.Sucralfate: A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Inosine Pranobex: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Thevetia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain thevetin.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Trazodone: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Podophyllin: Caustic extract from the roots of Podophyllum peltatum and P. emodi. It contains PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and its congeners and is very irritating to mucous membranes and skin. Podophyllin is a violent purgative that may cause CNS damage and teratogenesis. It is used as a paint for warts, skin neoplasms, and senile keratoses.Spalax: A genus of blind, subterranean MOLE RATS, in the subfamily Spalacidae, family MURIDAE, used as a animal model in neurophysiology. There are at least five different species described, all found in the Ukraine.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Hydroxychloroquine: A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)Prenalterol: A partial adrenergic agonist with functional beta 1-receptor specificity and inotropic effect. It is effective in the treatment of acute CARDIAC FAILURE, postmyocardial infarction low-output syndrome, SHOCK, and reducing ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION in the SHY-RAGER SYNDROME.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Oxandrolone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Pruritus Ani: Intense chronic itching in the anal area.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Celiprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Fissure in Ano: A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.Iodophors: Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hydroxyzine: A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Auranofin: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.Esophagitis, Peptic: INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Xamoterol: A phenoxypropanolamine derivative that is a selective beta-1-adrenergic agonist.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Niridazole: An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Zinc Sulfate: A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Magnetic Field Therapy: The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Aminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Stomatitis, Herpetic: Stomatitis caused by Herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Bromelains: Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Meptazinol: A narcotic antagonist with analgesic properties. It is used for the control of moderate to severe pain.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cryoanesthesia: ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Mesalamine: An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Methenamine: An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Ondansetron: A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsGels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).QuinolinesPromethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (1/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue.  (+info)

Symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: double blind controlled study of intermittent treatment with omeprazole or ranitidine. The European Study Group. (2/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To assess intermittent treatment over 12 months in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. DESIGN: Randomised, multicentre, double blind, controlled study. Patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy results or mild erosive changes received omeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients remaining symptomatic had omeprazole 10 mg or ranitidine dose doubled for another 2 weeks while omeprazole 20 mg was continued for 2 weeks. Patients who were symptomatic or mildly symptomatic were followed up for 12 months. Recurrences of moderate or severe heartburn during follow up were treated with the dose which was successful for initial symptom control. SETTING: Hospitals and primary care practices between 1994 and 1996. SUBJECTS: 677 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total time off active treatment, time to failure of intermittent treatment, and outcomes ranked from best to worst. RESULTS: 704 patients were randomised, 677 were eligible for analyses; 318 reached the end of the study with intermittent treatment without recourse to maintenance antisecretory drugs. The median number of days off active treatment during follow up was 142 for the entire study (281 for the 526 patients who reached a treatment related end point). Thus, about half the patients did not require treatment for at least 6 months, and this was similar in all three treatment groups. According to outcome, 378 (72%) patients were in the best outcome ranks (no relapse or one (or more) relapse but in remission until 12 months); 630 (93%) had three or fewer relapses in the intermittent treatment phase. Omeprazole 20 mg provided faster relief of heartburn. The results were similar in patients with erosive and non-erosive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent treatment is effective in managing symptoms of heartburn in half of patients with uncomplicated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. It is simple and applicable in general practice, where most patients are seen.  (+info)

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (3/21739)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency. (4/21739)

The effects of maternal postpartum vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations, modified relative dose-response (MRDR) ratios and breast milk vitamin A concentrations were assessed during a community-based trial in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 1-3 wk postpartum, women were randomly assigned to receive either (1) a single dose of 200,000 international units [60,000 retinol equivalents (RE)] vitamin A followed by daily placebos (n = 74), (2) daily doses of beta-carotene [7.8 mg (1300 RE)] (n = 73) or (3) daily placebos (n = 73) until 9 mo postpartum. Compared to placebos, vitamin A supplementation resulted in lower maternal MRDR ratios (i.e., increased liver stores) and higher milk vitamin A concentrations at 3 mo, but these improvements were not sustained. The beta-carotene supplementation acted more slowly, resulting in milk vitamin A concentrations higher than the placebo group only at 9 mo. Irrespective of treatment group, over 50% of women produced milk with low vitamin A concentrations (/=0. 06. We conclude that while both interventions were beneficial, neither was sufficient to correct the underlying subclinical vitamin A deficiency in these women nor to bring their infants into adequate vitamin A status.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (5/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Dose-loading with hydroxychloroquine improves the rate of response in early, active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind six-week trial with eighteen-week extension. (6/21739)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dose-loading to increase the percentage of responders or rate of response in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two hundred twelve patients with early RA (mean duration 1.5 years) were enrolled in a 24-week trial. Patients were stabilized with 1,000 mg naproxen/day and then began a 6-week, double-blind trial comparing treatment with HCQ at 400 mg/day (n = 71), 800 mg/day (n = 71), and 1,200 mg/day (n = 66), followed by 18 weeks of open-label HCQ treatment at 400 mg/day. RESULTS: All patients had mild, active disease at the time of initiation of HCQ treatment (31-43% rheumatoid factor positive; no previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; mean swollen joint count 8.6-10.4). Based on the Paulus criteria, response during the 6-week double-blind portion of the study was 47.97%, 57.7%, and 63.6% in the 400 mg/day, 800 mg/day, and 1,200 mg/day groups, respectively (P = 0.052). Discontinuations for adverse events were dose related (3 in the 400 mg/day group, 5 in the 800 mg/day group, 6 in the 1,200 mg/day group). Most involved the gastrointestinal (GI) system, with the background naproxen treatment possibly contributing. Ocular abnormalities occurred in 17 of 212 patients (8%) but were not dose related. CONCLUSION: Dose-loading with HCQ increased the degree of response at 6 weeks in this group of patients with early, predominantly seronegative RA. Adverse GI events were dose related, while adverse ocular events were not.  (+info)

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (7/21739)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (8/21739)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

*Blinded experiment

Double-blind methods came into especial prominence in the mid-20th century. Single-blind describes experiments where ... If both tester and subject are blinded, the trial is called a double-blind experiment. Blind testing is used wherever items are ... double-blind experiments are regarded to achieve a higher standard of scientific rigor than single-blind or non-blind ... Double-blind methods can be applied to any experimental situation in which there is a possibility that the results will be ...

*Audio equipment testing

... but believe there are problems in applying double-blind methods to comparisons of audio devices. They believe that a relaxing ... Objectivists believe that audio components and systems must pass rigorously conducted double-blind tests and meet specified ... Objectivists point out that properly conducted and interpreted double-blind tests fail to support subjectivists' claims of ... that all perceivable differences in audio equipment can be explained scientifically through measurement and double-blind ...

*List of MeSH codes (N05)

... double-blind method MeSH N05.715.360.780.500 --- matched-pair analysis MeSH N05.715.360.780.515 --- meta-analysis MeSH N05.715. ... single-blind method MeSH N05.715.360.825 --- technology assessment, biomedical MeSH N05.715.680 --- peer review, health care. ... monte carlo method MeSH N05.715.360.750.625 --- probability MeSH N05.715.360.750.625.150 --- bayes theorem MeSH N05.715.360.750 ...

*Eyewitness identification

The critics claim that the results cannot be compared because one method was not double-blind while the other was double-blind ... the Illinois study compared the traditional simultaneous method of lineup presentation with the sequential double-blind method ... The traditional method is not conducted double-blind (meaning that the person presenting the lineup does not know which person ... What it does not provide is a clear reason why, because the effect of "double-blind" was not tested for the simultaneous ...

*Comparison of analog and digital recording

... non-blind) tests. Those who employ the double-blind testing method may try to reduce listener stress by allowing a certain ... This type of test is called a double-blind test. This sort of test is often used to evaluate the performance of digital audio ... A double-blind subjective test between high resolution linear PCM (DVD-Audio) and DSD did not reveal a statistically ... There are critics of double-blind tests who see them as not allowing the listener to feel fully relaxed when evaluating the ...

*Maria Spiropulu

For her doctoral thesis, she applied for the first time in hadron colliders a novel double blind analysis method to search for ... Spiropulu, Maria (2000). A blind search for supersymmetry in p(bar)p collisions at sqr(s) = 1.8 TeV using the missing energy ...

*Double-Blind FROG

... is a method for simultaneously measuring two unknown ultrashort laser pulses. Well established ultrafast ... The modification required to turn a Blind PG FROG into Double Blind PG FROG is the addition of a pair of crossed polarizers and ... "Double Blind FROG" (DB FROG) to solve the two-pulse measurement problem. DB FROG is a slightly modified version of Blind FROG ... In Blind FROG (see Blind FROG schematic), the gated pulse 2 is simply dumped after the nonlinear medium. But in DB PG FROG (see ...

*ABX

... may refer to: ABX test, a double-blind testing method commonly used in codec listening tests and in ascertaining high ...

*Transparency (data compression)

To scientifically prove that a compression method is not transparent, double-blind tests may be useful. The ABX method is ... All lossless data compression methods are transparent, by nature. However, a double-blind comparison could still yield claims ... the compression method, bit-rate used, input characteristics, and the listening/viewing conditions and equipment. Despite this ...

*Enzyme potentiated desensitization

placebo: a double-blind trial". Poster presentation. European Congress of Allergy & Clinical Immunology. Brussels, July 1999. ... 57 (Suppl 73): 76-7. doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.57.s73.81.x. Boscolo M. A.; Brivio G. "E.P.D. preventive therapy (McEwen method) ... Med.: 253-6. Di Stanislao C. Di Berardino L., Bianchi I., Bologna G. (1997). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ... A double-blind placebo-controlled trial". J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 6 (4): 248-255. PMID 8844502. Longo G.; PoIi F ...

*Lactalbumin

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 18 EIB-positive subjects (age: 25.2 +/- 9.01 yr; weight: 77.3 ... double-blind controlled study Karelis AD, Messier V, Suppère C et al. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015 May;19(5):531-6. This double- ... Methods: A single site prospective, non-blinded trial. Seven patients with psoriasis were recruited to take a nondenatured ... Methods: A parallel-arm single-blind superiority randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-seven patients were ...

*Objectivity (science)

Methods for avoiding or overcoming such biases include random sampling and double-blind trials.[citation needed] Next to ... Methods for avoiding or overcoming such biases include random sampling and double-blind trials.[citation needed] Another ... are part of a social process whose purpose is to strengthen the objective aspect of the scientific method.[citation needed] A ...

*Online dispute resolution

Double Blind Bidding Double blind bidding is a negotiation method for two parties where the offer and demand are kept hidden ... double blind bidding, which is a method for single monetary issues between two parties, and Visual Blind Bidding, which can be ... In traditional double blind bidding, the offers and demands are kept hidden, whereas with visual blind bidding what is kept ... Visual blind bidding The primary distinction of visual blind bidding is in what is kept hidden from the other parties. ...

*Mesterolone

... a double blind controlled study)". Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 6 (6): 331-7. PMID 6431212. Kövary PM, Lenau H, Niermann H ...

*Scientific method

It could be a classical experiment in a laboratory setting, a double-blind study or an archaeological excavation. Even taking a ... For example, tests of medical treatments are commonly run as double-blind tests. Test personnel, who might unwittingly reveal ... He outlined four methods of settling opinion, ordered from least to most successful: The method of tenacity (policy of sticking ... We beg to differ." The DNA example below is a synopsis of this method The scientific method is the process by which science is ...

*Codec listening test

Most tests take the form of a double-blind comparison. Commonly used methods are known as "ABX" or "ABC/HR" or "MUSHRA". There ... Many double-blind music listening tests have been carried out. The following table lists the results of several listening tests ... Continuous blind listening tests of codecs over the internet. ...

*Diclofensine

"Double-Blind Comparison of Diclofensine with Nomifensine in Outpatients with Dysphoric Mood". Pharmacopsychiatry. 19 (3): 120-3 ... Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 6 (3): 147-51. PMID 6379345. Funke, HJ; Holtmann, W; Ismail, S ... "Therapeutic Efficacy and Tolerance of Diclofensine in Psychoreactive Depression-a Double-Blind Comparison with Placebo". ...

*Psychopharmacology

... double blind studies, and the development of methods for analyzing blood levels with respect to clinical outcome and increased ... The other central method through which drugs act is by affecting communications between cells through hormones. ... A defining feature of this era includes an evolution of research methods, with the establishment of placebo-controlled, ...

*Timeline of the history of scientific method

Double blind experiment 1962 - Meta study of scientific method (Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) 1964 - ... Certain systematic methods of scientific thinking may produce much more rapid progress than others (Science, 16 October 1964, ... 1027 - In The Book of Healing, Avicenna criticizes the Aristotelian method of induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the ... This timeline of the history of scientific method shows an overview of the cultural inventions that have contributed to the ...

*Guaifenesin

The guaifenesin protocol was studied as a method to treat fibromyalgia; a one-year double-blinded study found that the ... Guaifenesin was studied as a method to improve the possibility of conception, by thinning and increasing the stretchability ( ...

*Epistemic feedback

Some methods to compensate for epistemic feedback are to use a "double-blind study" or to conduct secret surveys to quietly ... The concept can also apply to changing the method of observation, rather than affecting the data. For example, if after asking ... Hence, the interplay can alter either the observations, or the method of observation, or both. The effects of epistemic ...

*Pseudobulbar affect

"METHODS: In a 12-week randomized, double-blind trial, ALS and MS patients with clinically significant PBA" were given a twice- ... validation of a measurement scale and a double-blind treatment study". American Journal of Psychiatry. 150 (2): 286-293. doi: ... Validation of a measurement scale and a double-blind treatment study". American Journal of Psychiatry. 150 (2): 286-93. doi: ...

*Henry Cotton (doctor)

Being before even rudimentary scientific methods such as control groups-and by extension, double-blind experiments-existed, ... He could only follow faulty methods to compile data, much of it allowing for projection of anticipated results. He reported ... and that the newer method of treating the insane by the removal of focal infection placed the institution in a unique position ... asked to make presentations about his work and to share information with the others who practiced the same or similar methods. ...

*Structure validation

To avoid bias and wishful thinking, double-blind prediction competitions have been organized, the original example of which ( ... There are several current or proposed methods for making this distinction such as Random Coil Index, but so far the NMR ... Lütteke, Thomas; von der Lieth, Claus W. (2009-01-01). "Data mining the PDB for glyco-related data". Methods in Molecular ... 1995). "A large-scale experiment to assess protein structure prediction methods". Proteins. 23 (3): ii-iv. doi:10.1002/prot. ...

*Vision therapy

... double blind multi-centre trial (high level of reliability) indicates that Orthoptic Vision Therapy is an effective method of ... His method, called the MKH method, is not recognized as an evidence-based approach. Some physicians are skeptical about the ... Vision therapy encompasses a wide variety of non-surgical methods which may be divided into several broad categories: Orthoptic ... Patients who experience eyestrain, "tired" eyes, or diplopia (double vision) while reading or performing other near work, and ...

*Childbirth

A number of methods can help with pain such as relaxation techniques, opioids, and spinal blocks. Most babies are born head ... The rate of labour induction in the United States is 22%, and has more than doubled from 1990 to 2006. Health conditions that ... Van Lerberghe, W.; De Brouwere, V. (2001). "Of Blind Alleys and Things That Have Worked: History's Lessons on Reducing Maternal ... This method of delivery can take longer to heal from. Each year, complications from pregnancy and childbirth result in about ...
A Phase 3 Multicenter Multinational Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Patisiran (ALN-TTR02) in Transthyretin (TTR)-Mediated Polyneuropathy (Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy - FAP) (APOLLO)
Tay, H.H., Yap, I., Guan, R., Koh, P.S.S., LaBrooy, S.J., Kang, J.Y. (1988). Twice daily cimetidine in the initial treatment of chronic gastric ulcer - A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Medical Journal of Malaysia 43 (2) : 181-185. [email protected] Repository ...
This is a phase 2 multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. This study is comprised of a single-blind placebo run-in qualifying phase lasting approximately 3 weeks and a double-blind treatment phase lasting 12 weeks. A safety follow-up visit is scheduled for 2 weeks after last dose of study drug.. All participants will undergo 3 visits during a 3 week, run-in phase (Days -21 to Day 1). During the run-in phase, all participants will receive single-blind placebo. Two exercise treadmill tests (ETTs) will be conducted using the modified Bruce Protocol at Day -14 and at Day -7. The results from the Day -7 ETT will be considered as Baseline.. A total of approximately 100 participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive either febuxostat 80 mg once daily (QD) or placebo QD in a double-blind treatment for 12 weeks, and 5 more visits.. All participants will complete the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) and Euroqol 5 dimension (EQ-5D) quality-of-life measurements at Day 1, Week 6 and ...
Background and Significance of the Selected Topic Etoricoxib is a cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2-selective NSAID with a higher COX-1 to COX-2 selectivity ratio than the other COX-2-selective NSAIDs rofecoxib, valdecoxib or celecoxib. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, improvements in tender and swollen joint counts and patient and investigator global assessment of disease activity were significantly greater in etoricoxib than in placebo recipients in two studies. Etoricoxib was also significantly more effective than naproxen in one of these studies. In patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, etoricoxib was significantly more effective than placebo and had similar efficacy to naproxen with regards to improvements in pain and physical function scores and patient global assessment of disease status scores in two studies. Etoricoxib had similar efficacy to diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Single-dose etoricoxib relieved pain in patients with postoperative dental pain in ...
Initial cytoreductive surgery followed by 6 cycles of platinum-taxane based chemotherapy (Cx) remains the standard of care for advanced OC. For those patients for whom complete resection is deemed difficult to achieve, IDS after 3 cycles of NACx and followed by 3 others cycles represents an alternative strategy.. Three antiangiogenic drugs (AAD) have been shown to be active and to prolong progression-free survival (PFS) in first-line treatment of OC after initial debulking surgery: bevacizumab (BEV, GOG218&ICON7), nintedanib (NIN, OVAR12) and pazopanib (PAZ, OVAR16). In the setting of NACx, none of these drugs have been tested in a randomized trial despite the potential ability of AAD to increase Cx activity and complete surgical resection rate. NIN offers the advantage of being able to be safely combined with Cx and to have a short half-life (7-19 hours) allowing a rapid clearance of the drug before IDS. ...
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1. No vaccine has ever been evaluated through a double blind, placebo controlled study to determine if it actually has any preventive or mitigating effect on the disease of interest. A) As you know, being a doctor, double-blind placebo-controlled trials are not the only way to study medicines. B) See above: vaccines are indeed tested through double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Granted, they dont deliberately expose everyone to the pathogen (at least, not any more) as deliberately killing people is frowned upon. Instead, they make sure the vaccine does what it was meant to do: produce the right antibodies.. 2. Epidemiologists can successfully predict pandemics, epidemics and outbreaks of any given disease by tracking vaccination programs: the larger the program, the more widespread the outbreak of the disease.. This is true in certain circumstances, and the reason for this is very interesting. When a disease is endemic, cases are usually (though not always) mild, and nearly everyone gets ...
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i.e., soft or watery) stools and >200 g of abnormal stool weight over a 24-h period. Subjects discontinued all antidiarrheal agents >24 h before enrollment. Stool samples were studied for routine pathogens. Subjects received 500 mg p.o. of SP-303 or placebo every 6 h for 96 h (4 days). Stool frequency and weights were recorded. Subjects were monitored for symptoms and side effects and were seen 1 wk later in follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 26 subjects received SP-303, and 25 received placebo. There were no significant demographic differences between treatment arms. A total of 41 subjects (80%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 39 subjects (77%) were receiving at least one protease inhibitor. Stool studies revealed no pathogens in 48 of 51 patients (94%). There were no serious adverse events or laboratory abnormalities. The SP-303 treatment group demonstrated a mean reduction from baseline stool weight of 451 g/24 h versus 150 g/24 h with placebo on day 4 of treatment (p = 0.14), and a ...
A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Double Dummy, Placebo and Active Controlled Crossover Study, to Investigate the 24 Hour FEV1 Profile of a Single Dose of QMF TWISTHALER Device in Adult Patients With Persistent Asthma using fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (250/50 μg b.i.d.) as an active control ...
Background. Thiazolidinediones such as rosiglitazone (RSG) are insulin-sensitizing agents, which may improve inflammation and vascular function, and thus potentially lower cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is growing concern about the adverse cardiovascular effects of RSG in diabetic patients without CKD, and the data in patients with CKD remain conflicting. This study examines the effect of RSG on vascular function in patients with CKD.. Methods. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study comparing RSG 4 mg daily (n = 35) with placebo (n = 35) for 8 weeks was performed in CKD subjects. Primary outcome measures were flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), systemic arterial compliance (SAC) and augmentation index (AIx). Secondary outcomes included glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilatation (GTN-MD), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), lipids, blood pressure, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA), adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and ...
Results of Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial to Assess the Effect of Vitamin B6 on Managing of Nausea and Vomiting In Pediatrics with Acute Gastroenteritis
Furiex Pharmaceuticals has reported top-line results from the phase II trial of the investigational drug PPD-10558 in patients with statin-associated myalgia, or SAM. PPD-10558 did not meet its primary efficacy endpoint in this randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept study. The study enrolled patients with high cholesterol and a prior history of SAM, and evaluated recurrence rates for SAM over a twelve-week treatment period across the following three different treatment regimens: placebo; PPD-10558; and atorvastatin (Lipitor). Patients did not report any significant differences in muscle symptoms, nor did they drop out due to SAM in significantly different percentages, among the three regimens. As expected, however, PPD-10558, a novel statin, did significantly lower LDL-cholesterol compared with placebo, and the compound also had a favorable safety profile.. Furiex acquired an exclusive license rights in 2007 from Ranbaxy Laboratories to develop, manufacture and market its novel statin ...
In this Phase II study of patients with RA who had previously failed TNF inhibitor therapy, treatment with OKZ resulted in significantly greater reductions in DAS28(CRP) from baseline levels at Week 12 compared with treatment with PBO. This improvement was demonstrated at all the OKZ doses tested with generally comparable efficacy and across both dosing frequencies, and was statistically significant for all dose group comparisons (60, 120 or 240 mg vs PBO). At low OKZ doses, a posthoc analysis showed greater responses in patients who met the criterion of high CRP at study entry compared to all other patients.. The primary efficacy endpoint was further supported by the secondary efficacy variables. Estimated ACR20 and ACR50 response rates at Week 12 were numerically higher in all OKZ treatment arms than PBO groups, although the study was not powered to show a statistical difference in the ACR response rates. Few patients in any treatment group were ACR70 responders. Comparisons of exploratory ...
Galveston, Tex. To the Editor: Dr. Mathews and colleagues request further information about the randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram for treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Randomization was on a 1:1 basis and was stratified by age group. The random assignment list was concealed from the investigators, which is fundamental to the claim that the study was performed under double-blind conditions. The protocol-specified population for all efficacy analyses, defined as the "intent-to-treat" population, included all patients who received at least one dose of double-blind study medication and had at least one postbaseline efficacy assessment. The analyses we presented in the manuscript were not only conventional in nature; they were, in fact, defined a priori. The justification for defining this population for the efficacy analyses is that the primary analysis was the change from baseline, therefore requiring a postbaseline assessment. Although recently a mixed-model ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) can help to control diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are receiving irinotecan. The safety of this drug will also be studied.
Several double blind clinical trials have demonstrated that supplementing the diet with 10 to 12 grams of EPA results in significant improvement. The improvement is largely due to the inhibition of the production of inflammatory compounds known as leukotrienes.. ...
A new double-blind placebo-controlled study failed to find any benefits of hormone replacement use in relation to Alzheimers Disease. Though the results are disappointing, they do not necessarily rule out a role for estrogen in either the treatment or prevention of Alzheimers disease, according to the studys authors. Estrogen may turn out to be beneficial when used in combination with other drugs or it may help stave off the development of Alzheimers when taken before symptoms begin.. In the study, 50 women with Alzheimers were randomly assigned to a daily dose of an estrogen/progestin supplement or placebo. After 12 weeks, women taking hormones did not perform significantly better on tests of memory, concentration and other intellectual skills.. ...
...SAN DIEGO Jan. 6 2011 /- Ardea Biosciences Inc. (Nasda...This was a 28-day randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study...,Ardea,Biosciences,Announces,Positive,Top-Line,Results,from,Phase,2b,Combination,Study,of,RDEA594,in,Allopurinol-Refractory,Gout,Patients,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
This trial will investigate the efficacy of indacaterol (200 mcg/day vs 400 mcg/day) versus formoterol [Foradil] in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary
Posted 02/20/2007] Glaxo SmithKline (GSK) notified healthcare professionals of the results of a randomized, double-blind parallel group study [ADOPT] of 4,360 patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus followed for 4-6 years to compare glycemic control with rosiglitazone relative to metformin and glyburide monotherapies. Significantly more female patients who received rosiglitazone experienced fractures of the upper arm, hand, or foot, than did female patients who received either metformin or glyburide. At GSKs request, an independent safety committee reviewed an interim analysis of fractures in another large; ongoing; controlled clinical trial and preliminary analysis was reported as being consistent with the observations from ADOPT. Healthcare professionals should consider the risk of fracture when initiating or treating female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with rosiglitazone ...
A Randomized, Double-blind, Double-dummy, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Different Doses of Indacaterol in Adult Patients With Persistent Asthma, Using Salmeterol as an Active Control ...
difference between treatment and control No statistical difference found for both the primary safety and efficacy end points or in the secondary end points when comparing continuous versus bolus dosing Less total lasix dosed in continuous group Bolus dosing more likely to require a dose increase at 48 hours, but no difference in switch to oral dosing between bolus and continuous dosing No significant difference in the efficacy end point in low vs high dosing- but note a nonsignificant trend toward greater improvement in the high dosing- this coincides with the secondary end points that were significantly better with high dosing-that of fluid loss, weight loss, and relief from dyspnea. No significant difference in low and high dosing in the primary safety end point (overall difference between groups-change in creatinine) though there was a higher proportion of patients who met the prespecified secondary safety end point (rise in creatinine level of more than 0.3mg/dl at any time during the 72 ...
We tried to find any useful and informative data between the two study designs for AA, OLS and RCT, in the treatment of MDD: OLS may have a potential utility to guide the RCT for proving the effect of AA in the treatment of MDD. According to our results, the pooled SMDs for the primary efficacy measure was statistically significant in both study design, showing a significant reduction of depressive symptoms after AA treatment to current antidepressant treatment in OLSs and in RCTs. The effect sizes measured by SMDs between OLS and RCT design was quite similar and adequately correlated, indicating a practical utility of OLS design to move to RCT conduction in the treatment of MDD. When sensitivity analyses show that the overall result and conclusions are not affected by the different decisions that could be made during the review process, the results of the review can be regarded with a higher degree of certainty. Where sensitivity analyses identify particular decisions or missing information ...
Adverse Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Immediate-Release Zolpidem Tartrate: Immediate-release zolpidem tartrate was administered to 3,660 subjects in clinical trials throughout the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Treatment-emergent adverse events associated with clinical trial participation were recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing treatment-emergent adverse events, similar types of untoward events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized event categories and classified utilizing a modified World Health Organization (WHO) dictionary of preferred terms.. The frequencies presented, therefore, represent the proportions of the 3,660 individuals exposed to zolpidem, at all doses, who experienced an event of the type cited on at least one occasion while receiving zolpidem. All reported treatment-emergent adverse events are included, except those already ...
Both recovery time of post-exercise muscle oxygenation and muscle strength decline with aging. Although beetroot consumption has been shown to improve muscle oxygenation and exercise performance in adults, these effects in the elderly has not been addressed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a beetroot-based gel (BG) on muscle O2 saturation, blood volume (tHb) and handgrip strength in the elderly in response to handgrip exercise. In a randomized crossover double-blind design, twelve older subjects consumed BG (100 g of beetroot-based gel containing ~ 12 mmol nitrate) or PLA (100 g of nitrate-depleted gel nitrate-depleted ...
California-based Xoma, focused on the discovery and development of therapeutic antibodies, said its phase IIb trial of Xoma 052 in type II diabetes patients did not achieve the primary endpoint of reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin, or HbA1c, after six monthly treatments with XOMA 052 compared to placebo. There were no serious drug-related adverse events.. The randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase IIb trial enrolled 421 patients at multiple sites in the U.S. in 2010. Eligible patients had type II diabetes and were receiving metformin monotherapy, the standard of care for initial treatment of diabetes. Patients were randomized to receive one of four Xoma 052 doses or placebo monthly over six months via subcutaneous administration. The primary endpoint of the study was the change in HbA1c levels from baseline compared to placebo at six months.. Baseline characteristics were similar between the Xoma 052 and placebo groups. At study entry, the mean CRP was 4.8 mg/L and 4.2 mg/L in the ...
Individual symptoms showed a wide range of RR (1.777 to 0.809). The symptom with the highest RR was utricaria (RR= 1.977, 95% CI [1.857, 2.106]). However, the subjective symptom "strange taste" (RR= 1.923, 95%CI [1.720, 2.151]) was the seventh most specific symptom on the list. Certain symptoms, both subjective and objective, showed no significant association with a positive DBPCFC and were thus non-specific. ...
Data to be presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in November will confirm that oral tofacitinib met all primary efficacy endpoints in a phase III study evaluating the
7. The effects of the current treatment paradigm on the developing human fetus are unknown. For this reason, women of child-bearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception: hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation, and 30 days after completion of study drug administration. Should a female become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner is participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately. Men treated or enrolled on this protocol must also agree to use adequate contraception prior to the study, for the duration of study participation, and 30 days after completion of study drug administration.. 8. Adequate neurological function defined as:. ...
I agree that correlation does not imply causation, but this is often assumed. The only way to tell in these cases is to do a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. I read somewhere that Omega-3 does have some benefit for autistic children, but thats probably just because Omega-3 is good for you. Theres no evidence of brain damage or malfunction across the board in autism. In fact, more recent evidence suggests its simply low socio-linguistic intelligence coupled with high visio-spatial intelligence. ...
Hi Hanno. Sorry for slow response. I have been experiencing severe levels of pain and I now have intimate knowledge of every tile in my bathroom. My 6 monthly CT scan was brought forward, by two months, to give myself and my Doctor peace of mind. After waiting 3 and a bit weeks for the results Im delighted to say that Im still cancer free, whoopy. They believe the pain, which is sometimes at similar levels as it was 3 weeks after my nephretomy, may be due to my body adjusting to bits missing inside me and the scar left after the operation. I used to get Doctors, nurses and medical students popping into the ward to have a look at my scar. It was somewhat disturbing/funny to hear them say wow, thats a big scar and come and have a look at Mr whites scar. 42cm (16.5 inches) in length, my 5 year old nephew insisted on measuring it (honestly). I guess my plan to be a swimwear model will have to be rethought.. With regard to the side effects - I have never considred leaving the trial. I was ...
Why is Synapse so sexy?. A recent study found preliminary results that UCSF Synapse Editors are 3.6 units sexier than counterpart non-Editor students. Conducted by an anonymous research team in the Synapse masthead, this was a double blind randomized controlled trial with nearly two score participants, a bakers dozen of whom were randomly assigned the role "UCSF Synapse Editor." While legend has it that selection of candidates for these coveted positions falls under great scrutiny, a new insider source suggests that the Editors were actually chosen by a random process in which "Golden Toothpicks" were inserted into free Synapse Thursday meeting sandwiches in the style of the ploy formerly known as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Critics of this study claim that Synapse editors were unfairly biased to having voracious appetites.. The assessment of attractiveness was conducted in a double blind fashion where sight-impaired members of the community were invited to score participants. We can ...
SAN DIEGO, March 13, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Ceregene, Inc. today announced the completion of enrollment in its double-blind Phase 2 clinical study of
Results-Between October 2005 and January 2010, 515 patients were enrolled at 68 centers in 9 countries. The primary efficacy end point did not reach statistical significance (OR, 1.17; CI, 0.81-1.67; P=0.407). The primary safety end point did not show a difference in serious adverse events (P=0.923). Ninety-day mortality was 11.3% (26/230) in treatment and 16.3% (42/257) in control (P=0.087). Post hoc analyses showed that patients presenting within 5 hours (OR, 3.33; CI, 1.31-8.48), with NIHSS score 8 to 14 (OR, 1.80; CI, 0.99-3.30), or older than age 70 years (OR, 2.02; CI, 1.02-4.03) had better modified Rankin scale score outcomes of 0 to 2; additionally, there were fewer stroke-related deaths in treatment compared to control groups (7.4%=17/230; 14.4%=37/257).. ...
Side Effects are minimal and affects only 5% of users. Most can be managed by adjusting dosing. Discuss with your allergy doctor on how to manage
A novel algorithm for parallel design verification is described. Its data model is that of the data flow computer and is based on the partitioning of the d
The internal validity of double-blinding in randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCT) has become a target of criticism. In several studies, the accuracy of patients and physicians guesses as to the assigned treament was striking.
Compared with placebo, significant mean decreases in the primary variable of LEP PtP-amplitude from UVB-inflamed skin were observed with ABT-102 6 mg (P , 0.001), ABT-102 2 mg (P = 0.002), tramadol 100 mg (P , 0.001), and etoricoxib 90 mg (P = 0.001) over the 8 h period; ABT-102 0.5 mg was similar to placebo. ABT-102 6 mg was superior to active controls over the 8 h period (P , 0.05) whereas ABT-102 2 mg was comparable. Improvements in VAS scores compared with placebo were observed with ABT-102 6 mg (P , 0.001) and ABT-102 2 mg (P = 0.002). ABT-102 average plasma concentrations were 1.3, 4.4 and 9.4 ng ml−1 for the 0.5, 2 and 6 mg doses, respectively. There were no clinically significant safety findings. ...
In this study design, participants are assigned to only 1 treatment group of the study. These trials are generally designed to assess whether 1 or more treatments are superior to the others. Participants and those administering the intervention should all be unaware of which intervention individual participants are receiving (
In this study design, participants are assigned to only 1 treatment group of the study. These trials are generally designed to assess whether 1 or more treatments are superior to the others. Participants and those administering the intervention should all be unaware of which intervention individual participants are receiving (
After 1 week of treatment, heavily treatment-experienced (HTE) patients who received fotemsavir, added to a failing regimen, had a greater reduction in viral load than patients on placebo.
... BARRIE - Anecdotal evidence may not be on a scientific par with a double-blinded clinical trial, but its valuable nonetheless, according to several local physicians and surgeons. Doctors talking to the Advance agree that ...
Hobinizle ilgili bilinmesi gerekenleri öğrenmek mi istiyorsunuz? JBL uzman ekibimiz size düzenli bilgi akışı sağlayacak ve önerilerde bulunacaktır.
Catabasis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:CATB), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, today announced that the Company will present results from the open-label extension of the MoveDMD trial following 24
Breakthrough Therapy Designation is expediting the development and review of drugs that have produced significant treatment effects in early trials.
Results 734 patients were treated in the extension trial (430 continuing nintedanib; 304 initiating nintedanib). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. For patients initiating nintedanib, mean (SD) duration of exposure was 16.0 (7.3) months; for patients continuing nintedanib, mean (SD) duration of exposure in the extension was 17.2 (6.6) months, resulting in a mean (SD) duration of exposure across the parent and extension trial of 29.2 (6.6) months. Among all patients treated in the extension, mean (SD) change in FVC from the start of the extension to week 48 was -87 (240) mL (-1.95 [7.09]% FVC predicted). In total, 92.8% of patients continuing nintedanib and 96.7% initiated on nintedanib had ≥1 adverse event during the extension. The most frequent adverse event was diarrhoea, reported in 63.3% of patients continuing nintedanib and 64.1% of patients initiated on nintedanib. ...
Progressive reduction in proteinuria and stable eGFR observed in open-label treatment period Findings presented at ASN Kidney Week 2017 SAN DIEGO, Nov. 03, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Retrophin, Inc. (Nasdaq:RTRX) today announced new positive da
The best allergy medicine treats inflammation without affecting your adrenal system and target allergies with minimal side effects
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Appt with the pain doc yesterday, getting a full work up as things have deteriorated, but I got a scrip for the new drug nucynta supposed to have minimal side effects. Just started it so will report on it after a few days experience. bill
What are you to do if you operate on the fringes of evidence based treatments for autism? You feel you are at the cutting edge but the medical establishment do not support your theories and treatment protocols? Well, you could go in for double blind placebo controlled studies and publish in peer reviewed journals. After…
Participants that took an active medication regularly were 44% less likely to die during the course of the study than those that took placebos.
A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo and Active Controlled, Dose-Ranging, Multiple-Dose, Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate The LDL-C Lowering Properties of AMG 145, Compared to Placebo and Ezetimibe When Used as Add-on Therapy in Dyslipidemic. ...
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Subgroup Analyses Primary and important secondary efficacy outcomes were consistent across subgroups . A trend toward more pronounced efficacy with vorapaxar
You are currently taking part in the 2011-0857 research study. The purpose of this form is to tell you about new information about the study drug that affects your participation in this study.
Correspondence between breastfeeding while taking keflex data and this simulation indicates that ongoing improvements in modeling show promise for unveiling the underlying mechanisms of demixing and permitting eventual accurate modeling of practical granular processing systems. Arch Intern Med 147 505 Schild H, Berg S, Weber W, Schmied W, SteegmuМller KW (1992) Das Venenaneurysma.
Quantification of mtDNA was performed by QPCR on DNA isolated from plasma at baseline (Before) and exit (After) from the study. MtDNA-74 levels in the placebo group increased marginally over time (p=0.7, ratio t test). In contrast, mtDNA-74 levels in the Lo and Hi treatment groups trended downward, but did not reach significance (p=0.1, ratio t test ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of nimodipine in the treatment of severe diffuse head injury. T2 - A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. AU - Pillai, Shibu V.. AU - Kolluri, V. R S. AU - Mohanty, Aaron. AU - Chandramouli, B. A.. PY - 2003/9. Y1 - 2003/9. N2 - Aims: The aim of this study was to establish whether nimodipine given orally soon after severe diffuse head injury for a period of three weeks improved outcome. Material and methods: The present report analyzes the results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of nimodipine in 97 severe head injury patients (GCS Score ,\=8) treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, NIMHANS, between January 1995 and June 1996. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups which were matched for age, sex, mode of injury, time interval from injury to admission, neurological status and CT scan findings. One group was given nimodipine 30 mg Q6H and the other group was given a placebo. The outcome of these patients at 6 months was ...
Loperamide (R 18 553) was compared with placebo in a double-blind crossover study of 21 patients with chronic diarrhoea caused by ileocolic disease or resection. Eighteen patients completed the trial. At a median daily dose of 6 mg the new antidiarrhoeal preparation was found to be superior to placebo in controlling chronic diarrhoea. The frequency and weight of stools significantly decreased, the stools became more solid, and carmine transit time was prolonged during loperamide therapy. Loperamide was consistently preferred to placebo by the patients. Gastrointestinal side-effects were few and comparable during both treatment periods.. ...
The clinical effects of mucolytics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are discussed controversially. Cineole is the main constituent of eucalyptus oil and mainly used in inflammatory airway diseases as a mucolytic agent. We hypothesised that its known mucolytic, bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects as concomitant therapy would reduce the exacerbation rate and show benefits on pulmonary function tests as well as quality of life in patients with COPD. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-center-study we randomly assigned 242 patients with stable COPD to receive 200 mg of cineole or placebo 3 times daily as concomitant therapy for 6 months during winter-time. The frequency, duration and severity of exacerbations were combined as primary outcome measures for testing as multiple criteria. Secondary outcome measures included changes of lung function, respiratory symptoms and quality of life as well as the single parameters of the exacerbations. Baseline
Olanzapine-fluoxetine combination has shown efficacy in the acute treatment of depressive episodes in patients with bipolar I disorder. The present analyses examined the efficacy and safety of longer term treatment with olanzapine-fluoxetine combination or olanzapine monotherapy in a 6-month open-label extension study.376 patients with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder, depressed, who completed an acute trial entered the open-label study and received 1 week of olanzapine monotherapy (5-20 mg/day). At all subsequent visits, patients could choose between olanzapine monotherapy or olanzapine-fluoxetine combination (6/25, 6/50, or 12/50 mg/day). Three treatment groups were defined retrospectively according to the medication course taken from week 1: olanzapine, olanzapine-fluoxetine combination, or switched. The efficacy measures were the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version, and Young Mania Rating Scale. The study was conducted from July 2000 to May ...
The trial did not prove clinical efficacy of ISIS-2302 based on the primary endpoint. Positive trends were observed in some of the secondary endpoints.Only 2 of 60 (3.3%) ISIS-2302-treated and no placebo patients reached the primary endpoint. Steroid-free remission at week 26 (secondary endpoint) was reached in 8 of 60 (13.3%) active treatment and 1 of 15 (6.7%) placebo patients. A greater proportion of ISIS-2302-treated than placebo patients achieved a steroid dose ,10 mg/day at weeks 14 and 26 (48.3% vs. 33.3% and 55.0% vs. 40.0%, respectively, and a glucocorticoid dose of 0 mg [prednisone equivalent] at week 26 [23.3% vs. 6.7%, respectively]). Treatment with ISIS-2302 was safe. The most common side effects were injection site reactions in the active treatment group (23% in ISIS-2302-treated patients vs. none in placebo patients). No statistically significant differences in the frequency of side effects were detected between dose groups.A dose-interval, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial ...
Background: Surgical bypass techniques and percutaneous catheter-based interventions may be used to successfully revascularize the limbs of patients with claudication. In many patients, however, the anatomic extent and distribution of arterial occlusion is too severe to permit relief of pain. Limited medical therapy is available for these pts.. Methods: A phase IIa randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of autologous CD34+ stem cell (CD34) therapy was performed in pts with Rutherford class 3 at 3 centers in US. 3 treatment groups: placebo, low (1x10^5 CD34/kg body wt) and high dose (1x10^6 CD34/kg). All pts underwent mobilization with GCSF 5 mcg/kg/day SC for 5 d, followed by apheresis on d5 followed by selection for CD34 with Isolex 300i device. CD34 were injected IM at 8 locations in the ischemic limb. Placebo injections consisted of identical volumes of the diluent only.. Results: A total of 17 pts have been randomized, completed the injection procedure and completed the ...
Forty patients diagnosed as suffering from senile dementia of the Alzheimer type received either 80 mg Ginkgo biloba special extract (GBE)* or matching placebo t.i.d. for three months in a randomized, double blind study of the efficacy and tolerance of GBE. The patients were assessed using a test battery at baseline and at 1, 2 and 3 months. The test battery included the SKT (a brief test of cognitive function, memory and attention), the Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, choice reaction time, saccadic eye movements and EEG. Memory and attention, as measured by the SKT, improved significantly in the active treatment group after one month, as did psychopathology, psychomotor performance, functional dynamics and neurophysiology as measured by the above tests. The drug was well tolerated and no adverse drug reactions were recorded during the trial. ...
Results Between December 2006 and December 2008, 114 patients were recruited (age 55.3±7.7 years). The duration and dose of prednisolone received was 62.2±64 months and 6.7±5.9 mg/day, respectively. Baseline vertebral fracture was present in six (5%) patients. In all, 57 patients were allocated to each of the treatment arms. Demographic data, osteoporotic risk factors and BMD at various sites were similar between the two groups of patients. At month 12, a significant gain in the lumbar spine (+1.3±0.4%; p=0.004) and total hip BMD (+1.0±0.4%; p=0.01) was observed in patients treated with raloxifene but a significant decrease in BMD of the lumbar spine (−0.9±0.4%; p=0.045) and hip (−0.8±0.3%; p=0.01) occurred in the placebo group. The femoral neck BMD did not change significantly in favour of raloxifene. Three new fractures developed exclusively in the patients treated with placebo. Bone formation (serum osteocalcin and procollagen type I N-terminal) and resorption (urine ...
0060] A mixed-effects ANCOVA model with treatment as a fixed effect, center as a random effect, and baseline as a covariate is used to test the primary null hypothesis. The treatment difference in HbA1c change from baseline to week 16 endpoint between WelChol® and placebo is evaluated by the LS mean, standard error, the 2-tailed 95% CI and the 2-sided p-value. The treatment-by-center interaction and treatment-by-covariate interaction is evaluated for the primary efficacy variable at a significance level of 0.10. If a significant treatment-by-center interaction and treatment-by-covariate interaction is suggested by the data, further analyses are implemented to assess the qualitative or quantitative nature of the interaction. The approach used for analysis of the primary efficacy variable is also applied to analysis of the secondary efficacy variables. To further evaluate the efficacy results, change in HbA1c from baseline to week 16 endpoint is summarized by five subgroups of patients: patients ...
Modulation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) expansion by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) might be linked to reducing IL-6 and MMP-9, which may be consequent on reducing plasma cholesterol. Ezetimibe is a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor used in combination with statins. This pilot study compared the biological effects of ezetimibe combination therapy with simvastatin alone on parameters relevant to aneurysm expansion including cytokines and proteolytic enzymes ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alpha-lipoic acid given intravenously, followed by oral treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy [ALADIN] III Study), 509 outpatients were randomly assigned to sequential treatment with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid once daily intravenously for 3 weeks, followed by 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid three times a day orally for 6 months (A-A; n = 167); 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid once daily intravenously for 3 weeks, followed by placebo three times a day orally for 6 months (A-P; n = 174); and placebo once daily intravenously for 3 weeks, followed by placebo three times a day orally for 6 months (P-P; n = 168). Outcome measures included the Total Symptom Score (TSS) for neuropathic symptoms (pain, burning, paresthesias, and numbness) in the feet, and the Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS). Data ...
Abstract: Antioxidants have been shown to increase vasodilation, increasing vascular distensibility and decreasing blood pressure (BP) in individuals with elevated BP; therefore an additive effect would be expected when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential additive effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout paired with two weeks of anti-oxidant supplementation on post-exercise BP in middle-aged pre-hypertensives. Methods: 18 middle-aged subjects were randomly assigned to either the supplement or the placebo group in double-blinded fashion. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), Augmentation Index (AIx), central and peripheral pulse wave velocity (cPWV and pPWV, respectively) were assessed pre- and post-exercise prior to and following 2 weeks of supplementation in a double-blind design. Results: Following two weeks of supplementation, there was a significant decrease in SBP (132.2 ± 5.4 ...
Hoeger K, Davidson K, Kochman L, et al: The impact of metformin, oral contraceptives, and lifestyle modification on polycystic ovary syndrome in obese adolescent women in two randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008(Nov);93(11):4299-306 (PMID 18728175). Sathyapalan T, Kilpatrick ES, Coady AM, Atkin SL: The effect of atorvastatin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009(Jan);94(1):103-8 (PMID 18940877). Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, et al: Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women, N Engl J Med 2009(Feb);360(6):573-87 (PMID 19196674). The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine: Obesity and reproduction: An educational bulletin, Fertil Steril 2008(Nov);90(5 Suppl):S21-9 (PMID 19007633). [Please contact the library and we will be happy to request a copy of this article for you.]. Dovey S, Sneeringer RM, ...
DESIGN: Study part 1 was executed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and study part 2 as a longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Forty-one healthy adult volunteers aged 18-24 years were recruited from the student population of th
The core study will be considered completed for an individual patient, when he/she completes the Double-blind Treatment Phase. The study as a whole will be considered completed when all randomized patients remaining in the core study have completed the Double-blind Treatment Phase.. Patients who complete the 24-month Double-blind Treatment Phase may be eligible for participation in an extension phase which will be provided as a separate protocol. Patients who do not enter the Extension Phase should return for the Follow-up visit 3 months after the last dose of study drug. The investigator also must provide follow-up medical care for all patients who are prematurely discontinued from the study, or must refer them back to their referring physician for appropriate care.. Enrollment is scheduled to begin the end of June, 2006 and continue until all subjects are enrolled at all sites and continue for 2 yrs beyond that last subject.. Key Inclusion Criteria. ...
Monotherapy. The efficacy and safety of gemigliptin monotherapy were evaluated in two double-blind placebo controlled studies and one double-blind active-controlled study. A phase II study (study identifier: LG-DPCL002) of gemigliptin was conducted in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design with three doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg qd for the purpose of finding a dose responsiveness and an optimal dose in patients with T2DM. The mean changes of HbA1c at week 12 from the baseline were -0.98%, -0.74%, -0.78% (when adjusted with placebo data, -0.92%, -0.68%, and -0.72%) at 50, 100, and 200 mg, respectively. Among the effective doses obtained from the phase II study in patients with T2DM, the 50 mg dose showed a similar efficacy as the 100 and 200 mg doses, within the maximum safety margin. Similar findings were reported from two phase III studies. Patients were randomized to receive gemigliptin, either a 50 mg qd (n=90) or a placebo (n=92) for 24 weeks (study identifier: ...
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Background Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active treatment for all subjects. Mainstream schoolchildren aged 9-10 years were randomized 1:1 to receive three Omega 3/6 capsules twice daily or identical placebo. Assessments were made at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome measure was the Logos test battery for evaluating reading abilities. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02557477. Results The study enrolled 154 children (active n = 78; placebo n = 76), of whom 122 completed the first 3 months (active n = 64; placebo n = 58) and 105 completed the whole study (active/active n = 55; placebo/active n = 50). Outcomes were assessed by per protocol (PP) and
D. M. Philbin, J. Moss, C. E. Rosow, C. W. Akins, K. Kono, J. J. Savarese, R. C. Schneider, T. R. VerLee, C. W. Emerson; THE USE OF H1and H2HISTAMINE BLOCKERS WITH MORPHINE: A DOUBLE BLIND STUDY. Anesthesiology 1980;53(3 Suppl):S67. Download citation file:. ...
Read more One of those clinical studies taking place in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and USA is a phase III, multicenter, rRandomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in subjects with giant cell arteritis. This trial sponsored by Roche is active and no longer recruiting subjects. Results from this study were presented at the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and Association for Rheumatology Health Professionals (ARHP) Annual Meeting and published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The trial met the primary endpoint with a significant increase in the proportion of patients achieving sustained remission at one year (56% in the weekly treatment group [QW; p , 0.0001] and 53.1% in the bi-weekly treatment group [Q2W; p , 0.0001]) versus 14% in a six-month steroid taper regimen given alone. The secondary endpoint were ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fish oil preparation (MaxEPA) on hemostatic function and fasting lipid and glucose levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) subjects. Eighty NIDDM outpatients aged 55.9 yr (mean SD 11.5 yr) participated in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of MaxEPA capsules (10 g/day) or olive oil (control) treatment over 6 wk. Patients received either MaxEPA or olive oil in addition to preexisting therapy. Metabolic and hemostatic variables were measured before treatment and after 3 and 6 wk. Platelet membrane eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content increased in the treatment group (P , 0.001). MaxEPA supplementation was associated with a significant fall in total triglycerides (P , 0.001) but did not affect total cholesterol (P = 0.7) compared with control treatment. Fasting plasma glucose increased after 3 wk (P = 0.01) but not after 6 wk (P = 0.17) treatment with MaxEPA. Spontaneous platelet aggregation in whole blood fell in the ...
DALLAS and TOKYO, Nov. 19, 2013- Daiichi Sankyos Once-Daily Edoxaban Meets Primary Efficacy Endpoint for Stroke Prevention and Superiority for the Principal Safety Endpoint Compared to Warfarin for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in a Phase 3 Clinical Trial.
A placebo effect represents benefit perceived by a patient or identified by a practitioner arising solely from the appearance that treatment is delivered. The placebo effect does not require that a pill be given. In 1 study, 6,000 psychiatric patients given placebo pills blindly were told that the pills would help determine the effectiveness of subsequent therapy (12). In short order, 51% improved, 12% deteriorated, 37% had no response, and 57% had side effects. Placebo responses predicted therapeutic responses, but none of 78 patient characteristics defined a responder (13).. The placebo effect may be temporary as it is for hypertension (14), lasting weeks or months, or its effect can be longstanding as it can be with syncope (15). The diversity of responses and interventions makes temporal effects difficult to characterize.. Placebo strength varies by the type of intervention. A dose response exists (16). Blue (vs. pink) placebo pills are sedating. Yellow (vs. green) placebo pills are ...
To discover NKs full potential as an anticoagulant, scientist conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled study. The trial was conducted in Japan on 12 healthy male patients. None of the patients were currently eating foods that had a nattokinase ingredients or had any hemoglobin issues. Patients were administered 2000 FUs of NK (as NSK-SD from Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or a placebo and gave blood samples at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. After two weeks, the groups alternated regimens. It was found that a factor in regulating blood clotting (aPTT) was prolonged in hours 2 and 4; anticlotting concentration increased during the same hours. Factors VIII, an essential blood clotting protein, activity declined at 4 and 6 hours following NK intake. However, there was no obvious difference in any other testing in the placebo or NK group before or after distribution.. The researchers believe there could be implications for lessening the risk of thrombosis, when a clot appears in a deep ...
data cut off date, 45% of cabozantinib-treated and 13% of placebo-treated patients were still receiving study treatment. 60% of placebo-treated patients discontinued treatment for progressive disease, compared with 26% of cabozantinib-treated patients. 16% of patients on the cabozantinib arm had discontinued treatment for an AE compared to 8% of patients on the placebo arm. 5% of patients on both arms discontinued for death. 12% of patients on the placebo arm discontinued study treatment because of subject request compared to 4% on the cabozantinib-treated arm. Safety Results The safety analysis included the 323 patients in both arms of the trial who had received at least one dose of study treatment (214 in the cabozantinib arm and 109 in the placebo arm). Consistent with the much longer PFS, the median duration of exposure was twice as long in the cabozantinib arm (6.7 months) versus the placebo arm (3.4 months). Overall AE results for the trial are consistent with a long duration of exposure ...
To take a simple case, we may wish to compare the blood pressures of two groups of 30 patients. If we measured blood pressure on each arm of each patient we could double the number of observations but not the amount of information, as the two pressures from each patient will be very similar. The use of the t test to compare the two sets of 60 observations is invalid. Andersen1 presented data from a randomised double blind crossover trial of ketoprofen and aspirin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. An impressive P value of 0.00000001 was obtained from an analysis of 3944 observations, but these were obtained from only 58 patients. Such errors are not rare. In a review of 196 randomised trials of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents Gøtzsche found that 63% of reports used the wrong units of analysis.2. We previously discussed a similar fallacy arising in the use of correlation coefficients, when multiple observations from each individual produced a spurious increase in the sample size ...
More Information. Recently, Phosphatidylserine has become popular among athletes who hope it can help them build muscle more efficiently. This use is based on weak evidence that PS slows the release of cortisol following heavy exercise. Cortisol is a hormone that causes muscle tissue to break down. For reasons that are unclear, the body produces increased levels of cortisol after heavy exercise. Strength athletes believe that this natural cortisol release works against their efforts to rapidly build muscle mass and hope that PS will help them advance more quickly. However, only two double-blind placebo-controlled studies of PS as a sports supplement have been reported, and neither one found effects on cortisol levels ...
Adverse Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Immediate-Release Zolpidem Tartrate: Immediate-release zolpidem tartrate was administered to 3,660 subjects in clinical trials throughout the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Treatment-emergent adverse events associated with clinical trial participation were recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing treatment-emergent adverse events, similar types of untoward events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized event categories and classified utilizing a modified World Health Organization (WHO) dictionary of preferred terms.. The frequencies presented, therefore, represent the proportions of the 3,660 individuals exposed to zolpidem, at all doses, who experienced an event of the type cited on at least one occasion while receiving zolpidem. All reported treatment-emergent adverse events are included, except those already ...
BACKGROUND: Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. METHODS: Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. RESULTS: In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of
BACKGROUND Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious, debilitating condition that causes significant physical, emotional, and functional impairment. The condition is characterized by destructive weight loss behaviours and a refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height. AN often develops in adolescence and is a predominantly female disorder. Treatment for AN typically involves medical, nutritional and psychological interventions. Pharmacotherapy is also often used; however, the literature on the effectiveness of these drugs in a pediatric population is very limited. Olanzapine, which is an atypical antipsychotic, is becoming more widespread in the treatment of AN. Olanzapine is hypothesized to facilitate weight gain, while decreasing levels of agitation and decreasing resistance to treatment in young women with AN. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial seeks to examine the effectiveness and safety of olanzapine in female youth with AN. METHODS
Read on and youll be able t answer the question "Is too much salt bad for you?" Does Arginine Make You Gain Weight Effects Creatine Side Disruptions in Blood Sugar Levels - Low Blood Sugar/Hypoglycemia: can indicate problems with the liver or kidneys and can lead to Effect of oral l-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: A an erection longer than 4 hours free pills ed samples meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials e) As it helps in vasodilation it also prevents abnormal blood clotting to a significant extent . V-12 by SAN incorporates 4 the same way that N-Acetyl-L-Glutamine is a major improvement over regular glutamine Nitroarginine is a significant advancement past regular l-arginine. Directions For Beverly Int. L arginine for fioids - Gnld Products For Fioid - Buy Fioids Product on Alibaba.. Arginine plays a role in the synthesis of hormones Does Arginine Make You Gain Weight Effects Creatine Side such as insulin and growth hormone and The strain showed a ...
In addition to these two studies, there was also a clinical study conducted in Hong Kong in in 2012 comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children in regards to the flu vaccine. Researchers conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial on children with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Their results were published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases in 2012, and they found that the seasonal trivalent flu vaccine resulted in 5.5 times more incidents of respiratory illness than the placebo group. Read more about the study here ...
The study was a 3x3 factorial design consisting of three drug and three diet groups. For drug therapy, participants received either placebo, diuretic (chlortalidone 25mgqd), or beta blocker (atenolol 50mg qd). For dietary intervention patients received either usual diet (no change), weight loss diet (goal weight reduction of 10% of baseline weight), or low salt/high potassium diet (average sodium 87mmol/day, average potassium 103mmol/day). Drug therapy was administered in a double blind fashion. ...
Individuals with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL; "good") cholesterol and heart disease may benefit from treatment targeted at raising HDL levels. For the 30-month study, 143 retired military personnel with heart disease and low HDL were randomly assigned to a placebo treatment or aggressive HDL-cholesterol-raising therapy with gemfibrozil, niacin, and cholestyramine. The participants also had diet and exercise counseling. The studys findings showed that the participants in the active treatment group had a 20% decrease in total cholesterol, a 36% rise in HDL cholesterol, a 26% reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL; "bad") cholesterol, and a 50% fall in triglycerides, compared with the placebo group. Improvement in the narrowing of the coronary arteries increased by 0.8% in the individuals on active therapy, compared with a decrease of 1.4% in the placebo group. The researchers also determined that significantly more individuals on the placebo therapy than active therapy (26% vs ...
Abstract: A double-blind crossover trial of amantadine vs. placebo was carried out involving 42 patients with Parkinsons disease: 64 per cent of the patients on amantadine experienced subjective improvement compared to 21 per cent on placebo. A comprehensive battery of qualitative and quantitative tests was carried out on each patient on entry to the study, after previous standard treatment was discontinued or reduced to a minimal tolerable dose, while on placebo, and while on amantadine, at 3 week intervals. Almost all relevant symptoms and physical signs improved, and the neurologists judged amantadine superior to placebo in 74 per cent of the patients. Quantitative measurement revealed significant improvement in 10 of 19 tests of simulated activities of daily living, in several tests of strength and station, and in all tests of coordination and gait. When the amantadine scores were compared to the placebo scores, an average improvement of 29 per cent occurred in the simulated activities of ...
Now this strategy is really paying off for the 90 percent of patients who have at least one copy of F508del. According to preliminary data from one Phase 1 and two Phase 2 clinical trials reported by Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc., Boston, on Tuesday, all three of the companys next-gen drug combinations produced striking improvements in lung function among CF patients who have one F508del mutation and one minimal function mutation, a form of the disease that has previously been very difficult to treat. Specifically, after 2 to 4 weeks of treatment with this combination of two correctors and a potentiator, such patients experienced about a 10 percentage point improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), which is a key measure of lung capacity. Though the study was done in a double blind fashion, many participants who had been randomized to receive the active drugs quickly figured out that something very different and wonderful was happening ...
Lerner, Fred N, et. al. A doubleblind comparative study of microstimulation and placebo effect in short term treatment of the chronic back pain patient. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association, 15(11):101-106, 1981. Download article. This was the first published report introducing bioconductive therapy using the Alpha-Stim when it was still a prototype. 40 subjects were selected from the first authors practice, from 19 to 63 years old (mean of 38.3 years), 58% females, with chronic (more than 12 months), persistent back pain with few, if any, remissions. 25 (63%) had low back pain, 15 (37%) had pain above T7, 31 (78%) had headaches, and 26 (65%) had extremity pain. After providing informed consent, they were divided into 2 matched groups based on a 2 week pre-study analyses of hourly 0 - 5 pain evaluation charts: one group received Alpha-Stim stimulation, and the other placebo. The same hourly pain charts were used during the actual 2 week treatment period, 2 weeks after treatment, and ...
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial to examine the effect of Polyphenon E [containing the most important polyphenol, epidgallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in green tea] on endogenous hormone profiles, 111 participants were recruited and randomized into three different experimental arms: 400 mg EGCG daily, 800 mg EGCG daily or placebo for a period of 60 days. Four steroid hormones: androstenedione (Andr), testosterone (T), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2), and two protein hormones: adiponectin (Adip) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), plus two hormone binding proteins: IGF binding protein 3 (IGFbp3) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured at baseline, at end of month-1 and at end of month-2. This study failed to provide confirmatory evidence of lower serum E1 and E2 values due to green tea consumption. The E1 and E2 values declined in the group treated with EGCG but similar declines were also seen in the placebo group. The only treatment effect ...
Objectives: For the purpose of blocking transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from humans to mosquitoes, a single dose of primaquine is recommended by theWHO as an addition to artemisinin combination therapy. Primaquine clears gametocytes but causes dose-dependent haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Evidence is needed to inform the optimal dosing of primaquine for malaria elimination programmes and for the purpose of interrupting the spread of artemisininresistant malaria. This study investigates the efficacy and safety of reducing doses of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in participants with normal G6PD status. Methods and analysis: In this prospective, fourarmed randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded trial, children aged 1-10 years, weighing over 10 kg, with haemoglobin ≥8 g/dl and uncomplicated P falciparum malaria are treated with artemether lumefantrine and randomised to receive a dose of primaquine (0.1, 0.4 or 0.75 mg ...
Objective: To evaluate lisdexamfetamine dimesylate maintenance of efficacy in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).. Method: Adults (aged 18-55 years) who had ADHD meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria, baseline ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult promptstotal scores of ,22, and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) ratings of 1, 2, or 3 were enrolled. After previously receiving commercially available lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (30, 50, or 70 mg/d) for ≥6 months with acceptable tolerability and maintaining response during a 3-week open-label phase at a stable lisdexamfetamine dimesylate dose, the participants entered a 6-week double-blind randomized withdrawal phase on treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (same dose) or placebo. Data were collected from April 2009 to July 2010. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants having symptom relapse (≥50% increase in ADHD-RS-IV score and ≥2 rating-point increase in CGI-S score).. Results: ...
© The Author 2016. Background: The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on human decision-making suggest that serotonin modulates the processing of rewards and punishments. However, few studies have assessed which of the many types of serotonin receptors are responsible. Methods: Using a within-subject, double-blind, sham-controlled design in 26 subjects, we examined whether individual differences in serotonin system gene transcription, measured in peripheral blood, predicted the effect of acute tryptophan depletion on decision-making. Participants performed a task in which they chose between successive pairs of fixed, lower-stakes (control) and variable, higher-stakes (experimental) gambles, each involving wins or losses. In 21 participants, mRNA from 9 serotonin system genes was measured in whole blood prior to acute tryptophan depletion: 5-HT1B, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT3A, 5-HT3E, 5-HT7 (serotonin receptors), 5-HTT (the serotonin transporter), and tryptophan hydroxylase 1. Results: Acute
Symptoms of this condition include a negative emotional response to certain trigger sounds, such as slurping, snoring,yawning, orthroat clearing. Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showed a decrease in the frequency and severity of migraine headaches with fluoxetine therapy. Fluoxetine for migraine prophylaxis: a double-blind trial. A randomized, double-blind crossover trial of fluoxetine and amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Double-blind trial of fluoxetine: chronic daily headache and migraine. Fluoxetine and premature ejaculation: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in smoking cessation treatment including nicotine patch and cognitive-behavioral group therapy. The effect of fluoxetine in patients with pain and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind randomized-controlled study. Certain side effects such as unusual excitement, restlessness, irritability, and ...
In vivo effectiveness of low potency homeopathic remedies containing arnica, marigold, St. Johns wort or comfrey on wound healing has been reported in humans [14, 15]. However, experimental studies were mainly based on animal models [32-34]. The concentrations of homeopathic remedies in the above mentioned studies ranged from 1x, 4x, 12x, 5c, 6c up to 1 M. Homeopathic remedies of Calendula and Hypericum applied were in the range of mother tincture (1x) in a rat model [33], but even Arnica 12x showed positive influence on wound healing in rats [32]. In one trial Arnica 4x (10 pills, 3 times per day) was equivalent to diclofenac (50 mg, 3 times per day) for wound irritation yet, not pain reduction after foot surgery [15]. Patients taking perioperative homeopathic Arnica montana (5c-1 M) exhibited statistically significant less postoperative ecchymosis compared to placebo in a double blind clinical trial [14], but this effect could not be confirmed in a double blind trial conducted by others [17]. ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on enhancement of embryos implantation rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized double-blinded controlled trial. SETTING: Assisted Reproduction Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Egypt. DURATION: From December 1st 2017 to the end of October 2018. SUBJECTS and METHDS: Eighty infertile couples that underwent ICSI procedure were entrapped in this study. Patients were divided into two groups; Group I (Vitamin D group) = 40 patients (received vitamin D supplementation in the form of Vidrop oral drops 600 IU/day starting after ovum pickup) and Group II (placebo group) = 40 patients (received a placebo

Would a double Blind scientific method be useful to determine if Ghosts exist? | Yahoo AnswersWould a double Blind scientific method be useful to determine if Ghosts exist? | Yahoo Answers

Could the same method be applied to ghost investigation where nether the investigator or the people with them know anything ... The double blind scientific method is where neither the tester or the observer know anything about the items tested and ... The double blind scientific method is where neither the tester or the observer know anything about the items tested and ... Would a double Blind scientific method be useful to determine if Ghosts exist? ...
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Criminal Law Practitioner Blog: No Cheating Allowed: Prince Georges County Adopts the Double-Blind Method of Eyewitness Photo...Criminal Law Practitioner Blog: No Cheating Allowed: Prince George's County Adopts the Double-Blind Method of Eyewitness Photo...

The double-blind test seeks to eliminate two unpopular methods of photo identification. The first is the non-sequential or ... No Cheating Allowed: Prince Georges County Adopts the Double-Blind Method of Eyewitness Photo Identification ... "double-blind" method. The new changes will require police officers to institute two safeguards when showing eyewitnesses a ... Labels: double-blind, eyewitness misidentification, Jennifer Thompson, Manson v. Brathwaite, Neil v. Biggers, photo lineup, ...
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Identifying outcome reporting bias in randomised trials on PubMed: review of publications and survey of authors | The BMJIdentifying outcome reporting bias in randomised trials on PubMed: review of publications and survey of authors | The BMJ

double blind method [mh]. *. single blind method [mh]. *. cross-over studies [mh] ... Methods. Study selection. Using an extended version of Phase 1 from the Cochrane search strategy (see box 1),6 we identified ... However, for 32% (90/281) of these responses, we found evidence of outcomes that were mentioned in the methods section but not ... We identified unreported outcomes if they were described in the methods section but not the results section of any publication ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/330/7494/753?ijkey=2af68a8a53eafc33c166075cfb524c8390fd73d0&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Trial to Evaluate PRO 2000/5 Gels for the Prevention of Vaginally Acquired HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTrial to Evaluate PRO 2000/5 Gels for the Prevention of Vaginally Acquired HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Double blind method. Drug evaluation. Female. Gels. HIV infections/prevention and control. Microbicide. Naphthalenesulfonates/ ... An International Multi-centre, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 0.5% ... Vaginal microbicides are being developed in response to the urgent need for an HIV prevention method that women can control. ... Unable or unwilling to provide a reliable method of contact for the field team ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00262106?order=609

Trial to Evaluate PRO 2000/5 Gels for the Prevention of Vaginally Acquired HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTrial to Evaluate PRO 2000/5 Gels for the Prevention of Vaginally Acquired HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Double blind method. Drug evaluation. Female. Gels. HIV infections/prevention and control. Microbicide. Naphthalenesulfonates/ ... An International Multi-centre, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 0.5% ... Vaginal microbicides are being developed in response to the urgent need for an HIV prevention method that women can control. ... Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator). Primary Purpose: Prevention. Official Title:. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00262106?order=36

A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid...A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid...

METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII ... Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. ... METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII (0.1 mg/day) versus ... A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/randomized-double-blind-multicenter-controlled/18576295.html

Changes in chest roentgenogram of sarcoidosis patients during a clinical trial of infliximab therapy: comparison of different...Changes in chest roentgenogram of sarcoidosis patients during a clinical trial of infliximab therapy: comparison of different...

In a double-blind, randomized trial of infliximab for chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis, changes in serial chest roent ... The best method to interpret the chest roentgenogram and its sensitivity to detect effect of treatment for sarcoidosis remains ... Double-Blind Method. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Probability. Radiography, ... In a double-blind, randomized trial of infliximab for chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis, changes in serial chest roentgenograms ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Changes-in-chest-roentgenogram-sarcoidosis/19395578.html

Triple antiplatelet therapy for preventing vascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis | BMC Medicine | Full TextTriple antiplatelet therapy for preventing vascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis | BMC Medicine | Full Text

... double-blind, pilot study. Lancet Neurol. 2008, 7: 494-499. 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70094-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Methods. Ethics. No ethical approval was required for this study.. Search strategy. Completed randomized controlled trials that ... double-blind, multicenter trial. Stroke. 2003, 34: 840-848. 10.1161/01.STR.0000063141.24491.50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar ... double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2004, 364: 331-337. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16721-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-8-36

Treatment of osteoarthritis with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: a randomized controlled trial. | CureHunterTreatment of osteoarthritis with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: a randomized controlled trial. | CureHunter

METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1003 patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed10560596.do

Sucralfate mouthwash for prevention and treatment of 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. ...Sucralfate mouthwash for prevention and treatment of 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. ...

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a sucralfate mouthwash in ... Double-Blind Method. *Female. *Fluorouracil (adverse effects, therapeutic use) *Humans. *Male. *Middle Aged ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed12527953.do

Medical research - ConservapediaMedical research - Conservapedia

Methods. animal testing is necessary clinical trials, inc. double-blind methods Funding. gov funding stymies research free ...
more infohttp://www.conservapedia.com/Medical_research

Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Method for Double-Blinded Blood Pressure Target Investigation in Intensive Care...Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Method for Double-Blinded Blood Pressure Target Investigation in Intensive Care...

CONCLUSIONS: The present method is feasible and robust and provides a platform for double-blinded comparison of mean arterial ... Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Method for Double-Blinded Blood Pressure Target Investigation in Intensive Care ... OBJECTIVES: No double-blinded clinical trials have investigated optimal mean arterial pressure targets in the ICU. The aim of ... this study was to develop and validate a method for blinded investigation of mean arterial pressure targets in patients ...
more infohttps://research.regionh.dk/en/publications/validation-and-clinical-evaluation-of-a-method-for-doubleblinded-blood-pressure-target-investigation-in-intensive-care-medicine

HLWIKI CanadaHLWIKI Canada

DOUBLE BLIND METHOD.sh. * SINGLE-BLIND METHOD.sh. * or/1-6 * ANIMALS.sh. not HUMAN.sh. ... Methods Research Report. Prepared by the Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center under contract 290-2007-100572. AHRQ Publication ... singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj25 (blind$ or mask$)).ti,ab. ...
more infohttp://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/index.php/Filters_%28ie._hedges%29

Medicament for improving the failure of accommodation - Fuji Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.Medicament for improving the failure of accommodation - Fuji Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

The test was conducted in a double-blind method. I. Before Intake ... A double-blind test was conducted with respect to the VDT workers. The VDT workers were divided into an astaxanthin- ... 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the astaxanthin and/or ester thereof is administered in a food or a drink. 9. A method for ... A double-blind test was conducted for the B and C groups. ... there is almost no preventive method for them. A method of ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2005/0171214.html

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

... leading to the difficulty of blind method enforcement. This article described a double-blind method. It could be used in ... and in two phases to achieve double-blind. This method not only guaranteed investigators and subjects to be in blinded ... We describe methods used in the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) of children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II ( ... Methods: Stroke was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a two-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using a ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize?author=Jian+Chen

Sequential changes in VAS pain scores for reparagen (re | Open-iSequential changes in VAS pain scores for reparagen (re | Open-i

... double-blind study.. Methods: Subjects (n = 95) were screened and randomized to receive glucosamine sulfate (n = 47, 1500 mg/ ... double-blind study.. Methods: Subjects (n = 95) were screened and randomized to receive glucosamine sulfate (n = 47, 1500 mg/ ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2131759_1472-6882-7-34-7&req=4

Schematic sites of acupoint-sites injection. These site | Open-iSchematic sites of acupoint-sites injection. These site | Open-i

... double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines ... double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines ... Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in ... Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4663513_toxins-07-04442-g002&req=4

Hemodynamic effects of epinephrine associated to an epidural clonidine-bupivacaine mixture during combined lumbar epidural and...Hemodynamic effects of epinephrine associated to an epidural clonidine-bupivacaine mixture during combined lumbar epidural and...

Double-Blind Method ; Epinephrine/administration & dosage ; Female ; Heart Rate/drug effects ; Humans ; Intervertebral Disk/ ... but the effects of their combination on arterial pressure and heart rate are not known and were examined in this double-blind ...
more infohttp://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/766

HKU Scholars Hub: Therapeutic effects of supervised chlorhexidine mouthrinses on untreated gingivitisHKU Scholars Hub: Therapeutic effects of supervised chlorhexidine mouthrinses on untreated gingivitis

Double-Blind Method. en_HK. dc.subject.mesh. Female. en_HK. dc.subject.mesh. Gingivitis - drug therapy. en_HK. ... By applying a double-blind clinical trial design the participants were divided into two groups (Test and Control) and matched ... By applying a double-blind clinical trial design the participants were divided into two groups (Test and Control) and matched ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/67105

Current evidence for the management of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic literature review for the ASAS/EULAR management...Current evidence for the management of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic literature review for the ASAS/EULAR management...

23 exp Double-Blind Method/ or double blind.mp. or exp Placebos/ (111321) ... Double-blind cross-over comparison of indomethacin, flurbiprofen, and placebo in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis1974;33: ... Dougados M, Caporal R, Doury P, Thiesce A, Pattin S, Laffez B, et al. A double blind crossover placebo controlled trial of ... Carcassi C, La Nasa G, Perpignano G. A 12-week double-blind study of the efficacy, safety and tolerance of pirazolac b.i.d. ...
more infohttps://ard.bmj.com/content/65/4/423?ijkey=30f47731102fe0047a786c90b177ef6f6fd2170e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Current evidence for the management of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic literature review for the ASAS/EULAR management...Current evidence for the management of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic literature review for the ASAS/EULAR management...

23 exp Double-Blind Method/ or double blind.mp. or exp Placebos/ (111321) ... Double-blind cross-over comparison of indomethacin, flurbiprofen, and placebo in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis1974;33: ... Dougados M, Caporal R, Doury P, Thiesce A, Pattin S, Laffez B, et al. A double blind crossover placebo controlled trial of ... Carcassi C, La Nasa G, Perpignano G. A 12-week double-blind study of the efficacy, safety and tolerance of pirazolac b.i.d. ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/65/4/423

Incidence and clinical importance of perioperative histamine release: randomised study of volume loading and antihistamines...Incidence and clinical importance of perioperative histamine release: randomised study of volume loading and antihistamines...

Double-Blind Method. MESH. Female. MESH. Hemodynamics/drug effects. MESH. Histamine/blood. MESH. ... Anaesthetists, observers, and designators were blinded to whether or not the patients had received antihistamines and to which ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/21752/
  • Could the same method be applied to ghost investigation where nether the investigator or the people with them know anything about the. (yahoo.com)
  • In 1799 the British chemist Humphry Davy performed another early blind experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first essays advocating a blinded approach to experiments in general came from Claude Bernard in the latter half of the 19th century, who recommended splitting any scientific experiment between the theorist who conceives the experiment and a naive (and preferably uneducated) observer who registers the results without foreknowledge of the theory or hypothesis being tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A method of treating a failure of accommodation in a subject comprising the step of administering to said subject a pharmacologically effective amount of astaxanthin and/or an ester thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The French Academy of Sciences originated the first recorded blind experiments in 1784: the Academy set up a commission to investigate the claims of animal magnetism proposed by Franz Mesmer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectivists believe that audio components and systems must pass rigorously conducted double-blind tests and meet specified performance requirements in order to validate the claims made by their proponents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectivists point out that properly conducted and interpreted double-blind tests fail to support subjectivists' claims of significant or even subtle sonic differences between devices in cases where measurements predict that there should be no sonic differences in normal music listening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blind experiments are an important tool of the scientific method, in many fields of research - medicine, psychology and the social sciences, natural sciences such as physics and biology, applied sciences such as market research, and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms blind (adjective) or to blind (transitive verb) when used in this sense are figurative extensions of the literal idea of blindfolding someone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explores the pharmacotherapy of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder, restrictied to medications for which there is observational, open-label, or double-blind randomized controlled based evidence. (dmoztools.net)