The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
Low dose arsenic poisoning. *Sako disease (Myelodysplastic-cytosis). *Chronic radiation sickness[2] ...
Further information: The dose makes the poison. The lethal dose of different glyphosate-based formulations varies, especially ... Talbot AR, Shiaw MH, Huang JS, Yang SF, Goo TS, Wang SH, Chen CL, Sanford TR (Jan 1991). "Acute poisoning with a glyphosate- ... "Glyphosate poisoning". Toxicological Reviews. 23 (3): 159-67. doi:10.2165/00139709-200423030-00003. PMID 15862083 ...
"Russia shoppers 'poisoned' by gas". BBC News. 26 December 2005. "Scores sickened after release of gas in St. Petersburg store ... It is lethal in large doses. According to officials gas capsules with timers were found in three other Maksidom shops in the ... Around 78 people were given medical care as a result of gas poisoning. Of these, 66 were taken to hospital, but more than 50 ...
High doses can result in coma or death. Symptoms present in 1 to 2 days. Most lead(II) salts have a sweet taste making them a ... Since lead poisoning occurs with the binding of lead(II) to biological systems, research has been done to find ligands that ... Lead thiocyanate can cause lead poisoning if ingested and can adversely react with many substances. It has use in small ... Skin and eye irritant, can induce lead poisoning by ingestion or inhalation. Symptoms include gastrointestinal disorders, ...
"Massive doses of bemegride and amiphenazole in treatment of barbiturate poisoning". British Medical Journal. 1 (5073): 757-8. ... Rowell NR (February 1957). "Treatment of glutethimide poisoning with bemegride and amiphenazole". Lancet. 272 (6965): 407-9. ... as well as poisoning from other sedative drugs[3][4] and treatment of respiratory failure from other causes.[5] It was ... "Barbiturate poisoning treated with amiphenazole and bemegride". British Medical Journal. 2 (5001): 1099-101. doi:10.1136/bmj. ...
Large doses may be required to treat some poisonings. Common side effects include a dry mouth, large pupils, urinary retention ... All doses of atropine appear similarly effective, while higher doses have greater side effects. The lower dose of 0.01% is thus ... For symptomatic bradycardia, the usual dosage is 0.5 to 1 mg IV push, may repeat every 3 to 5 minutes up to a total dose of 3 ... In a developed case of nerve-gas poisoning, maximum atropinization is desirable. Atropine is often used in conjunction with the ...
"Alphabet Soup, or the newer synthetic cannabinoids..." The Dose Makes The Poison Blog. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 18 September ... XLR-11 was found to produce rapid, short-lived hypothermic effects in rats at doses of 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, suggesting that it ...
Cyanide: a poison found in some pesticides and rodenticides. In large doses it can lead to paralysis, convulsions, and ...
In acute poisoning, a single large dose is taken; in chronic poisoning, higher than normal doses are taken over a period of ... Dose-dependent; 2 h to 3 h for low doses (100 mg or less), 15 h to 30 h for large doses.[1]. ... In general, for adults, doses are taken four times a day for fever or arthritis,[82] with doses near the maximal daily dose ... The dose required for benefit appears to depend on a person's weight.[81] For those less than 70 kg low dose is effective for ...
... the dose makes the poison...or the remedy". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 89 (3): 382-93. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.11.005. PMID ... life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning. As with all alcoholic drinks, drinking while ...
Fixed Dose Procedure. H. *Hen's egg test on chorioallantoic membrane. I. *Iron poisoning ...
Successful use of charcoal hemoperfusion has been claimed in patients with severe aconite poisoning. Poisoning may also occur ... Marked symptoms may appear almost immediately, usually not later than one hour, and "with large doses death is almost ... All parts of this plant are extremely toxic, and it has historically been used as a poison on arrows. If not prepared properly ... In severe poisonings pronounced motor weakness occurs and cutaneous sensations of tingling and numbness spread to the limbs. ...
... was commonly used by the ancient Greeks as an arrow poison but can be used for other forms of poisoning. It has been ... Marked symptoms may appear almost immediately, usually not later than one hour, and "with large doses death is almost ... Usually, one man in a kayak armed with a poison-tipped lance would hunt the whale, paralyzing it with the poison and causing it ... As a well-known poison from ancient times, aconite is well-suited for historical fiction. It is the poison used by a murderer ...
Successful use of charcoal hemoperfusion has been claimed in patients with severe aconite poisoning. Poisoning may also occur ... Marked symptoms may appear almost immediately, usually not later than one hour, and "with large doses, death is almost ... A. napellus has a long history of use as a poison, with cases going back thousands of years. During the ancient Roman period of ... In severe poisonings pronounced motor weakness occurs and cutaneous sensations of tingling and numbness spread to the limbs. ...
... is poisoning due to excessive doses of barbiturates. Symptoms typically include difficulty thinking, poor ... The lethal dose varies with a person's tolerance and how the drug is taken. The effects of barbiturates occur via the GABA ... Multiple doses of charcoal may be required. Hemodialysis may occasionally be considered. Urine alkalinisation has not been ... Multiple doses of charcoal may be required. Hemodialysis may occasionally be considered. Urine alkalinisation has not been ...
... a larger or smaller dose would poison him. Sheva realizes that Gionne's syringes are doses of the drug. Chris and Sheva follow ... Valentine radios in, telling Chris and Sheva that Wesker must take precise, regular doses of a virus to maintain his strength ...
At high doses, it causes convulsions similar to strychnine poisoning. The synthetic enantiomer (+)-thebaine does show analgesic ...
However, he is best known for his research into, and championing of, hormesis, which he has called "the fundamental dose- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Begley, Sharon (19 December 2003). "Scientists Revisit Idea That a Little Poison Could ... He is the editor-in-chief of the scientific journal Dose-Response. Calabrese grew up in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. He received ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Drug model may be wrong for low doses". UPI. 27 December 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2015 ...
The police later concluded he had been poisoned with polonium; a small dose of which is lethal. Anatoly Trofimov was ... Litvinenko was admitted to hospital with suspected poisoning on 11 November 2006 after eating at a London restaurant, and died ...
"Novichok: Amesbury poisoning couple 'had high dose'". BBC News. BBC. 9 July 2018. Rayner, Gordon (8 July 2018). "David Davis ... In a joint statement, the leaders of the UK, US, France, and Germany say the ex-spy poisoning was the first offensive use of a ... "Spy poisoning: Russia stockpiling nerve agent, says Johnson". BBC News. 18 March 2018. "Betting machine wagers 'should be cut ... The government calls for an urgent meeting of the UN Security Council to discuss the poisoning of Sergei Skripal and Yulia ...
Higher concentrations may indicate misuse of the drug or poisoning.[10] Chemistry[edit]. Chemically, tetryzoline is a ... Both reached their maximum about 9 h post last dose. These levels correspond to normal ocular use of tetryzoline. ... "US wife accused of 'fatally poisoning husband with eyedrops'". BBC. 4 September 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2018.. ... The 2005 film Wedding Crashers includes the use of eye drops containing tetryzoline to poison a person's drink. ...
In high doses, atropine is a poison. Yet atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "essential drugs list". ... If poisoning causes death, it is lethal poison. Legally, and in hazardous chemical labeling, poisons are especially toxic ... Poison gas[change , change source]. In wars, some countries use poison gases against their enemies. This is called chemical ... Sometimes, poisons have an antidote. The antidote of a poison will slow or reverse its effects. The antidote may itself be a ...
In sufficiently high therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia. Talbutal binds at a distinct binding site associated ... Symptoms of acute barbiturate poisoning include drowsiness, confusion, coma, respiratory depression, hypotension, and shock. ...
High doses of these resulted in several cases of germanium poisonings. "US Patent Application for Esterification catalysts ... Germanium dioxide has low toxicity, but in higher doses it is nephrotoxic. Germanium dioxide is used as a germanium supplement ...
Tylenol's responsible dosing advertising". Public Relations Review. 34 (4): 399-402. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2008.08.004. Burgoon ... Daly, E.M. (2006, July). Jury awards $5M in infant Tylenol poisoning case. Law360. Retrieved from ... articles/7709/jury-awards-5m-in-infant-tylenol-poisoning-case Veil, Shari R; Kent, Michael L (2008). "Issues management and ...
... only the dose makes a thing not poisonous." This is often condensed to: "The dose makes the poison" or in Latin "Sola dosis ... Most chemicals display a classic dose response curve - at a low dose (below a threshold), no effect is observed. Some show a ... These include: LD50 = Median lethal dose, a dose that will kill 50% of an exposed population NOEL = No-Observed-Effect-Level, ... Toxicologists are experts on poisons and poisoning. There is a movement for evidence-based toxicology as part of the larger ...
"Plant poisons: Aesculin". University of Bristol. Retrieved July 17, 2018.. *^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) California Buckeye: ... Aesculin ingestion can produce stomachache, spasms, diarrhea, disorientation and even death at high doses.[citation needed] ...
... even with low therapeutic lithium doses. Lithium toxicity, which is also called lithium overdose and lithium poisoning, is the ... Most side effects of lithium are dose-dependent. The lowest effective dose is used to limit the risk of side effects. The rate ... Doses are adjusted to achieve plasma concentrations of 0.4 to 1.2 mmol Li+ /l (lower end of the range for maintenance therapy ... PMID 12091193.) concluded the higher rate of relapse for the "low" dose was due to abrupt changes in the lithium serum levels[ ...
Incidents of heavy metal poisoning have been attributed to the use of these compounds in the United States.[64][65][66][67][68] ... only that a different version or dose might give different results.[120] Barrett also expressed concern that, just because some ... "Biology-based" as coined by NCCIH may refer to chemicals from a nonbiological source, such as use of the poison lead in ... cyanide poisoning from amygdalin, or the intentional ingestion of hydrogen peroxide) or actively interfere with effective ...
The role of SP in HIV-AIDS has been well-documented.[58] Doses of aprepitant greater than those tested to date are required for ... In line with its role as a first line defense system, SP is released when toxicants or poisons come into contact with a range ...
Alcohol is a depressant, which in low doses causes euphoria, reduces anxiety, and increases sociability. In higher doses, it ... "Wine, women and poison". Marco Polo in China. Routledge. pp. 147-48. ISBN 978-1-134-27542-7. . Retrieved 2016-07-10. The ... Caton, S.J.; Ball, M; Ahern, A; Hetherington, M.M. (2004). "Dose-dependent effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake". ...
Like other cyanides, cyanogen is very toxic, as it readily undergoes reduction to cyanide, which poisons the cytochrome c ... Lethal dose through inhalation typically ranges from 100 to 150 milligrams (1.5 to 2.3 grains). Inhalation of 900 ppm over a ... which led to public fear that the Earth would be poisoned as it passed through the tail. Because of the extremely diffuse ...
... and poisons the central nervous system,[219] which is dangerous as the required dosage of lithium to treat bipolar disorder is ... in daily doses of about 0.5 to 2 grams, although there are side-effects.[219] Excessive ingestion of lithium causes drowsiness ... The median lethal dose (LD50) value for caesium chloride in mice is 2.3 g per kilogram, which is comparable to the LD50 values ... "Low-dose lithium uptake promotes longevity in humans and metazoans". European Journal of Nutrition. 50 (5): 387-9. doi:10.1007 ...
... is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion. Tablets or capsules of activated carbon ... and is particularly ineffective against poisonings of strong acids or alkali, cyanide, iron, lithium, arsenic, methanol, ... freshwater fish and reef tanks to avoid heavy metal poisoning and excess plant/algal growth. ASTM (D2866 Standard Method test) ... medically ineffective if poisoning resulted from ingestion of corrosive agents, boric acid, petroleum products, ...
In 1999, the band released Can't Get There from Here and embarked on a tour with Ratt, Poison, and L.A. Guns. The album ... A Double Dose. *Rock Breakout Years: 1988. *Rock Me: The Best of Great White ...
"Fractional Dose Yellow Fever Vaccine as a Dose-sparing Option for Outbreak Response. WHO Secretariat Information Paper. ... "The mosquito hypothetically considered as an agent in the transmission of yellow fever poison," Archived 2017-02-23 at the ... fractional dosing of the vaccine is being considered as a dose-sparing strategy to maximize limited vaccine supplies.[37] ... Fractional dose yellow fever vaccination refers to administration of a reduced volume of vaccine dose, which has been ...
These leaves are chewed, and act upon the spirits of those using them, much as a strong dose of green tea acts upon us in ... Bentur, Y.; Bloom-Krasik, A.; Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B. (2008). "Illicit cathinone ("Hagigat") poisoning". Clinical Toxicology. ...
The dose over and above the RDA is among the narrowest of the vitamins and minerals. Possible pregnancy, liver disease, high ... In 1913, Antarctic explorers Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were both poisoned (and Mertz died) from eating the livers of ... Medications - at high doses of vitamin A - are often used on long-term basis in numerous preventive and therapeutic medical ... Weiser H, Probst HP, Bachmann H (September 1992). "Vitamin E prevents side effects of high doses of vitamin A in chicks". ...
Higher doses (,450 mg/day) may be more effective in severe depression, while patients treated with a lower dose tend to respond ... "Poisoning and toxicology handbook (4th ed.). Informa Health Care. p. 1331. ISBN 978-1-4200-4479-9. Retrieved 26 May 2009.. ... Moclobemide, even at high doses of 600 mg, does not impair the ability to drive a motor vehicle.[8][63] The tolerability of ... The doses of moclobemide in breast milk are very low (0.06% of moclobemide being recovered in breast milk) and therefore it has ...
On 22 May 2002, Crick, in the presence of over 20 friends and family (but not Nitschke), took a lethal dose of barbiturates, ... gases and poisons. ...
To keep the body open he recommended more calomel or small doses of cream of tartar or other salts. If the pulse was weak and ... Like Rush, he thought poisons had to be "abstracted" in severely debilitated patients. Instead of purges, he used blisters to ...
The microcystins and nodularins poison the liver, and exposure to high doses can cause death. Exposure to low doses in drinking ... Cyanotoxins can also accumulate in other animals such as fish and shellfish, and cause poisonings such as shellfish poisoning. ... Among cyanotoxins are some of the most powerful natural poisons known, including poisons which can cause rapid death by ... a number of sea otters were poisoned by microcystin. Marine bivalves were the likely source of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning ...
In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension, influenza, water poisoning, and certain ... The term "low ceiling diuretic" is used to indicate a diuretic has a rapidly flattening dose effect curve (in contrast to "high ... Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Pedersen AR, Heickendorff L, Andreasen F, Mosekilde L (January 2003). "Dose-effect relations of loop ... but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis. Indapamide was specifically ...
We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four ... "Effects of hypoxia on the brain: neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings following carbon monoxide poisoning and ...
Allen, Robert (2004). Dioxin War: Truth and Lies About a Perfect Poison. London: Pluto Press.. ... the lethality of small doses in animals was alarming. As a result, the CDC immediately set out to locate other possible sites ... a skin condition associated with dioxin poisoning.[12][15] Suspecting that Bliss' oil was the source of their problems, the ... which was a characteristic result of trichlorophenol poisoning.[10] The unexpected death of some of the affected rabbits ...
high doses of isotretinoin beyond the recommended dose of 1mg/kg/day ... Pharmaceutical Services Branch, Guide to poisons and therapeutic goods legislation for medical practitioners and dentists, ... of people showing depression on a dose of 3 mg/kg/day as compared with 3-4% at normal doses.[38] Studies have uncovered several ... The dose may need to be decreased to reduce the severity of these side effects.[33] The skin becomes more fragile-especially to ...
... a dose of intravenous ceftriaxone is often prescribed.[3] Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanate orally for ... the use of vaginal estrogen from pessaries has not been as useful as low dose antibiotics.[54] Antibiotics following short term ... Fosfomycin may be used as a single dose but has been associated with lower rates of efficacy.[42] ...
Poison Paintbrush, Time, June 4, 1928. "That the world may see streaks of light through the long hours of darkness, Orange, N. ... half life of the radon-220 product compared to radon-222 causes the daughter nuclides of radium-228 to deliver a greater dose ... The Radium Girls were female factory workers who contracted radiation poisoning from painting watch dials with self-luminous ... "US Starts Probe of Radium Poison Deaths in Jersey, United States Radium Corporation (1925) - on". ...
They then identified TNF as a mediator of lethal endotoxin poisoning.[19] Kevin J. Tracey and Cerami discovered the key ... was established in which a low dose of E. coli endotoxin was administered to healthy volunteers, who had been randomised to ... reasoned that excessive production of TNF causes malaria disease and endotoxin poisoning.[15][16] ...
... and there are anecdotal reports of psychosis from sleep withdrawal and addiction at higher doses or more frequent dosing ... In Western Australia, MDPV has been banned under the Poisons Act 1964, having been included in Appendix A Schedule 9 of the ... It is supposedly active at 3-5 mg, with typical doses ranging between 5-20 mg. Although there is no experience about the long- ... High doses have been observed to cause intense, prolonged panic attacks in stimulant-intolerant users, ...
This is a radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is divided into large doses. Typical doses vary ... tissue poisons), such as tirapazamine. Newer research approaches are currently being studied, including preclinical and ... Side effects are dose- dependent; for example higher doses of head and neck radiation can be associated with cardiovascular ... It only occurs within the radiation field/s. Hair loss may be permanent with a single dose of 10 Gy, but if the dose is ...
Typical doses of alcohol actually saturate the enzymes' capacity, so that alcohol is removed from the bloodstream at an ... The effect can vary significantly from person to person, but a 100 g dose of fructose has been shown to increase alcohol ...
Dexamethasone (Decadron) is given in low dose at the onset of a general anesthetic as an effective antiemetic. It is also used ... Pae C-U (2006). "Low-dose mirtazapine may be successful treatment option for severe nausea and vomiting". Progress in Neuro- ... Grunberg, S. M. (1 February 2007). "Antiemetic activity of corticosteroids in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: dosing, ...
... "the eliciting dose for an allergic reaction in 1% of the population" as ED01. This threshold reference dose for foods (such as ... A food intolerance and food poisoning are separate conditions, not due to an immune response.[1][4] ... A second dose of epinephrine may be required for severe reactions. The person should then be transported to the emergency room ... 2014). "Allergen reference doses for precautionary labeling (VITAL 2.0): clinical implications". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 133 ...
Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ... Radiation poisoning. *Radiation Protection. *Radiation therapy. *Radioactivity in the life sciences. *Radioactive contamination ...
New bands such as L.A.'s Warrant and acts from the East Coast like Poison and Cinderella became major draws, while Mötley Crüe ... This is what happens when death metal and hardcore, along with healthy doses of other heavy music styles, are so smoothly ... During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe, Poison and Def Leppard. Underground scenes ...
The risks are dose-dependent, and appear to be greatest with high/very high doses via intravenous administration and in the ... She was charged with poisoning the children with salt. One of the children, who was born at 28 weeks gestation with respiratory ... domperidone does not appear to be strongly associated with QT prolongation at oral doses of 20 mg QID in healthy volunteers. ... A single 20 mg oral dose of domperidone has been found to increase mean serum prolactin levels (measured 90 minutes post- ...
New visits to the ER for drug-related poisoning are on the rise, according to research from the American College of Emergency ... Gail Banach, a poison educator at the Upstate New York Poison Center, shares a few safety tips in honor of Poison Prevention ... New visits to the ER for drug-related poisoning are on the rise, according to research from the American College of Emergency ... Not on prescription meds and only take the occasional over-the-counter painkiller? This poisoning can still happen to you. ...
Hoffman is the first guest speaker for Pick Your Poison: Mind-Altering Drugs, Malicious Microbes, and Medications, a course for ... The father of toxicology, Paracelsus (1493-1541), said that everything is a poison-and the dose makes the poison. We need ... The Dose Makes the Poison: A Q&A with Robert Hoffman, MD. by AMNH on 10/30/2013 02:57 pm. ... Learn more about drugs and poisons of all types in a new exhibition, The Power of Poison, opening Saturday, November 16. ...
Hoffman is the first guest speaker for Pick Your Poison: Mind-Altering Drugs, Malicious Microbes, and Medications, a course for ... The father of toxicology, Paracelsus (1493-1541), said that everything is a poison-and the dose makes the poison. We need ... The Dose Makes the Poison: A Q&A with Robert Hoffman, MD by AMNH on Oct 30, 2013 2:57 pm. ... The Dose Makes the Poison: A Q&A with Robert Hoffman, MD main content. ...
Codex is full of smart people, but what it really needs is a healthy dose of common sense and to lose its blinders. ... But at very low doses arsenic actually has a hormetic effect, strengthening the organism to which it has been exposed. The CCCF ... Classified as a human carcinogen, arsenic is particularly nasty at higher doses and inorganic arsenic is far worse than organic ...
Our successful treatment might due to early and enough gastric lavage, superhigh dose of steroids and ambroxol, and early and ... Yuan, F. , Chen, F. , Wang, Y. and Wang, D. (2016) Successful Treatment of a Supralethal Dose Paraquat Poisoning and Follow-Up ... Successful Treatment of a Supralethal Dose Paraquat Poisoning and Follow-Up Report () ... we used large dose of ambroxol (1000 mg/d, which was 30 times to normal dose). The pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat was ...
After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only ... After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only ... As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium ... Essential oil exposures in Australia: analysis of cases reported to the NSW Poisons Information Centre - Lee KA, Harnett JE, ...
... "the dose makes the poison." This has been a central tenant of toxicology and an important concept in human health risk ... Reference Dose (oral exposures). The amount of a substance that one can ingest every day for a lifetime that is not anticipated ... Why is dose-response assessment important? First, it helps us understand what happens in the human body at different levels of ... Internal dose refers to the amount of a chemical that actually gets into a persons body after ingesting or inhaling something ...
... body are made in underground labs and are mixed up with crystal meth and rat poison ... From brewing bootleg batches in baths to killer doses containing rat poison: inside the underground world of steroids. As The ... They could contain anything - from rat poison to brick dust - and if they do actually have steroids in them, it could be in ... body are made in underground labs and are mixed up with crystal meth and rat poison ...
... after a 2 g loading dose, to assess the effectiveness of high dose pralidoxime in organophosphorus poisoned patients. ... Study to Know the Efficacy of Higher Doses of Pralidoxime in Patients of Organophpsphorus Poisoning.. This study has been ... Effectiveness of High Dose Pralidoxime in the Treatment of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning - a Randomised Controlled Trial ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether high doses of pralidoxime(PAM) are effective as compare to lower doses of PAM ...
The Dose That Makes the Poison: A Plain Language Guide to Toxicology, written by M. Alice Ottoboni and originally published in ... My hope is that this book will give you the same perspective." - Alice Ottoboni The Dose Makes the Poison: A Plain-Language ... The third edition of The Dose Makes the Poison continues with these themes, but adds to the discussion "drugs, food additives, ... Netter, K.J. "Book Review: The Dose Makes the Poison: A Plain-Language Guide to Toxicology". Toxicology. 290 (2): 359-360. doi: ...
So the dose makes the poison. Ok.. Now, Id like to know why these people eat arsenic. Does it have a real benefit? ... Or, Sometimes Even A Dose Doesnt Make the Poison. Sometime back a hefty comment thread got going on arsenic levels in white ... A Quick Lesson in "The Dose Makes The Poison". January 17, 2014. 17 Comments ... Say the word arsenic and most people think "deadly poison." Arsenic was the poison of choice for murderers up through the ...
... as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. Hence, paraquat poisoning provides ... but such toxicity is observed only after intoxication with high doses. The degree of lung damage seems to be dose-dependent (2 ... Paraquat Poisoning. Marcel Dekker, New York. [ Links ]. 2. Delaval PM & Gillespie DJ (1985). Pulmonary dysfunction during ... Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold order of ...
Norbormide (S-6999) is a new single-dose rat poison that is essentially nontoxic to humans and is odorless. Norbormide appears ... Strychinine is a very old poison and may have been used by Alexander the Greats wife to poison him after he took a homosexual ... Other Poisons No Longer Used. These poisons are more dangerous and not as effective as their readily-available alternatives: ... Warfarin is a modern slow-kill repeat-bait poison and among the safest and most effective rat poisons in common use. Warfarin ...
Poison potency-MLD-minimum lethal dose explanation free. What is Poison potency-MLD-minimum lethal dose? Meaning of Poison ... What does Poison potency-MLD-minimum lethal dose mean? ... Looking for online definition of Poison potency-MLD-minimum ... Poison Sumac. Although poison sumac (Rhus vernix) goes by other names, such as swamp sumac, poison elder, poison ash, poison ... tr.v. poi·soned, poi·soning, poi·sons 1. To kill or harm with poison. ...
... dose pack for poison ivy yesterday. I took 4 of the 6 pills (I forgot the last 2 at bedtime because I fell asleep).what should ... Medrol dose pack poison ivy - I started a medrol (methylprednisolone) ... dose pack is a steroid medication and is set up so you take higher doses of steroids first and then take decreasing doses to ... Could 2 consecutive doses of prednisone (for poison ivy - got it twice) and having a fever from flu cause sperm count to be ...
the human equivalent dose of the 500mg x kg given to the mice was about 3 x 1,000mg per day. mice were on a high-fat high- ... so the 10 patients suffered lactic acidosis not because of the effects of an acute dose of metformin but because of its ...
... "dose makes the poison" model.. "Dose-response curves" show the relationship between the dose of a substance and the harm it may ... "dose makes the poison" framework.. Dose-Response and Daubert In federal court and most state courts, expert testimony is ... "dose makes the poison" concept-a substance only becomes harmful after a certain threshold dose has been administered. For ... Despite the judiciarys general rejection of any models outside of the "dose makes the poison" framework, there is scientific ...
ability to administer a reasonable dose of charcoal (50-100 grams) that will be at least 10-40 times the dose of poison ... The decision whether or not to treat a poisoned patient with SDAC is a clinical one. An important concept hinted at in the ... The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology seems to be publishing a series of articles on basic management of the poisoned ... Must-read: review of single-dose activated charcoal. November 17, 2015, 12:25 am. ...
Dosing: Geriatric. Refer to adult dosing.. Dosing: Pediatric. Lead poisoning: For the treatment of high blood lead levels in ... Oral: 10 mg/kg/dose (or 350 mg/m2/dose) every 8 hours for 5 days followed by 10 mg/kg/dose (or 350 mg/m2/dose) every 12 hours ... 10 mg/kg/dose (or 350 mg/m2/dose) every 8 hours for 5 days, followed by 10 mg/kg/dose (or 350 mg/m2/dose) every 12 hours for 14 ... Dosing: Adult. Lead poisoning (off-label use; Kosnett, 2007): For the treatment of high blood lead levels in adults, chelation ...
The lethal dose of hydrogen cyanide has been estimated to be 100 mg while sodium/potassium cyanides lethal dose has been ... Has it been used as a historical poison?. Because of its ease of use and toxicity, cyanide has appeared throughout history ... Now, lets not confuse this with homicide/murder during Halloween times and then blaming it on the "candy was poisoned" myth. ... The father used the poisoned Halloween candy myth (the legend was around back then too) as cover for his plot to kill the boy ...
All things are poison and nothing is without poison. It is the dose that makes a thing not a poison." A dose has two parts; " ... The one I used often in trying to give people a perspective on "the dose makes the poison," is actually a poison. That nutrient ... The very next post after "The Dose Makes the Poison" is "Lustig, EFSA, Fructose, and Poison." In the latter post, Dr. Ludwig ... The Dose Makes The Poison. Posted on Friday, November 8th, 2013 at 3:41 am.. By Alice and Fred Ottoboni ...
so...there you go ...a dose of poison for ya.... Members Bret Michaels - lead vocals, rhythm guitar, harmonica, percussion ( ... After The poison reunion C.C.soon released his solo album, Samantha 7, and Michaels released the solo/Poison album "Show Me ... Poison promoted themselves up and making the rounds performing in the famous local clubs. During this period, Poisons manager ... "Poison". On 28 January, Rikki Rockett explained.."The Album will be ready for a summer Poison tour. That is the plan, anyway. p ...
"The Dose Makes the Poison". Foxglove and its isolated chemicals are a good example of a fundamental principle in the response ... A common adage in toxicology is "the dose makes the poison." In pharmacology, the measure of a substances margin of safety is ... Higher doses also may result in toxic effects. Quantitative analyses of the dose-response curve measure the relative potencies ... This index is expressed as the ratio of the dose causing harmful effects to the dose causing a therapeutic effect in a specific ...
Thats because the dose makes the poison. Eat or drink too much of nearly anything, and you can die. That applies to everything ... The dose makes the poison Dozens of everyday items, from water (yes, water!) to chocolate can kill you - provided you have ... from apple seeds (which contain the deadly poison cyanide) to chocolate (which packs the toxic chemical theobromine) to water ( ... Thats because the dose makes the poison. ...
... A vehicle of a forensic team of Seoul police on Tuesday sits in front of a cosmetic ... Propofol is a powerful anesthetic and memory loss agent that can be fatal in large doses. It was the drug that killed Michael ... Of them, three first showed signs of blood poisoning from around 8 p.m., and the clinic, after sending the three to hospitals ... Eventually, a total of 20 patients showed signs of blood poisoning and were hospitalized at six different hospitals across ...
Necessary something, poison oak prednisone dose very, presents the pleguem of being the most strong dose in the address and ... improved website that will build up dose and dose prednisone oak poison however the many lacus of keeping the vomiting not in ... Thanks born to poison oak prednisone dose bones who have been using this leukemia for an overall corticosteroids:if of offer ... Analysis is poison oak prednisone dose a buy regular dog that acts as an saline-treated. Stomach of severe growth mechanism ...
All things are poisons, for there is nothing without poisonous qualities. It is only the dose which makes a thing poison. ... Back to the dose makes the poison. One of the most important aspects of toxicity is that the size of the organism consuming the ... The dose makes the poison:. *For any particular chemical on this planet, whether naturally occurring or manufactured by humans ... Toxic vaccine chemicals - the dose makes the poison. If you spend any amount of time on the internet researching science and ...
  • Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. (
  • The toxicity values resulting from dose-response assessment are used as part of a larger calculation to estimate risk from exposure to environmental contaminants. (
  • Ottoboni makes a distinction between acute toxicity and chronic toxicity, suggesting ways to assess risk and avoid lethal doses or accidental poisonings. (
  • Median lethal dose, LD50 , measurement of acute toxicity for a given substance. (
  • Besides pulmonary insufficiency, central nervous derangements and hepatic and renal tubular lesions may also be present, but such toxicity is observed only after intoxication with high doses. (
  • Wheat pill is a commonly used pesticide and fumigant, and is banned for sale due to high toxicity and mortality even at lower doses. (
  • Generally, there is a clear transition in the dose from no effect to major effect (whether measuring efficacy or toxicity), there is usually not a point where it magically changes from non-poisonous to poisonous. (
  • Cadmium Toxicity: What Health Effects Are Associated With Acute High-Dose Cadmium Exposure? (
  • Why is N -acetylcysteine (NAC) beneficial in late presentations of acetaminophen toxicity/poisoning? (
  • Toxicity From Repeated Doses of Acetaminophen in Children: Assessment of Causality and Dose in Reported Cases. (
  • What are the initial symptoms of acetaminophen toxicity/poisoning? (
  • Photo (c) fizkes - Getty Images A new study conducted by researchers from ETH Zurich found that poisonings from paracetamol, better known as acetaminophen, are on the rise. (
  • Paracetamol poisoning can cause severe hepatotoxicity owing to a minor but highly reactive metabolite produced by cytochrome P450 enzymes. (
  • Fig 1 Nomograms for the treatment of paracetamol poisoning. (
  • What are paracetamol poisoning antidotes? (
  • Penna A, Buchanan N. Paracetamol poisoning in children and hepatotoxicity. (
  • [4] The current version, the SUSMP 16, is contained in the Poisons Standard March 2018 . (
  • 2018 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 36th Annual Report. (
  • Generally the effects of different doses can be very different at different levels (not only bigger and smaller impacts depending on dose). (
  • Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. (
  • The fundamental tool in toxicology is the dose-response relationship, a statistical measurement that describes the change in effect on an organism caused by different doses of a chemical (anything from drugs to foods to environmental contaminants) after a certain exposure time. (
  • The interesting thing was the change in behavior for different doses of the metals. (
  • And yet there are cases of ingestion into the body of poisons for the destruction of rodents. (
  • Single-dose activated charcoal therapy involves the oral administration or instillation by nasogastric tube of an aqueous preparation of activated charcoal after the ingestion of a poison. (
  • Poisoning has occurred in dogs following ingestion of seedless or seeded grape varieties, commercial or homegrown fruits, red or green grapes/raisins, organic or non-organic fruits, and grape pressings from wineries. (
  • Some dogs appear to tolerate small doses of the fruit without consequence while other dogs may develop poisoning after the ingestion of just a few grapes or raisins. (
  • The most common way that acute poisoning via cadmium ingestion occurs is consumption of acidic food or beverages improperly stored in containers with a cadmium glaze (Lewis 1997). (
  • Acute toxic effects, including fatal systemic poisoning, can result from ingestion. (
  • After exposure, the symptoms of poison ivy dermatitis may develop in a matter of hours, though sometimes they do not appear for several days. (
  • HIET restores cardiac output and ameliorates associated symptoms while conventional therapies such as atropine, glucagon, calcium boluses, and high-dose vasopressors often fail to improve hemodynamic stability in severely poisoned patients. (
  • Atropine reverses muscarinic symptoms ( e.g. , respiratory and gastrointestinal [GI] tract secretions, bradycardia) of OP poisoning for relatively short periods (pharmacologic half-life=70 minutes + 30). (
  • There is moderate evidence for an association between psychiatric symptoms and lead dose but only at high levels of current occupational lead exposure or with cumulative dose in environmentally exposed adults. (
  • if symptoms return, repeat both sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate at one-half the original doses. (
  • Unfortunately, the symptoms of grape or raisin poisoning are non-specific and are similar to kidney failure from many other causes. (
  • Fifty-three percent of those interviewed said they had never received any information about risks posed by the misuse of agrochemicals, and 35 percent reported symptoms of poisoning (of whom 83 percent worked as sprayers in the fields). (
  • Hence, paraquat poisoning provides a suitable model of acute lung injury with alveolar instability that can be easily used in experimental protocols of mechanical ventilation. (
  • In the present study we focused on the dose-response effect of paraquat to determine whether it is possible to obtain pulmonary lesions of increasing severity, and on separating the participation of tissue and alveolar surface tension in the acute lesion. (
  • we speculate that the acute effects of high, recent dose may mask the chronic effects of cumulative dose. (
  • Treatment of acute, life-threatening cyanide poisoning in combination with sodium nitrite. (
  • describe the health effects of acute high-dose cadmium exposure. (
  • Recovery can occur from an acute episode of poisoning with no side effects. (
  • Harmless at low doses, acetaminophen has direct hepatotoxic potential when taken as an overdose and can cause acute liver injury and death from acute liver failure. (
  • Within hours of an acute overdose, the body's cells can be poisoned and their chemical reactions can be affected. (
  • Classified as a human carcinogen, arsenic is particularly nasty at higher doses and inorganic arsenic is far worse than organic arsenic. (
  • But at very low doses arsenic actually has a hormetic effect, strengthening the organism to which it has been exposed. (
  • Say the word arsenic and most people think "deadly poison. (
  • Arsenic was the poison of choice for murderers up through the latter part of the nineteenth century, and it is still used for homicides up to the present time. (
  • While in Styria, Maclagan, along with a Dr. Knappe, watched two arsenic eaters consume what would normally be lethal doses of the chemical. (
  • Arsenic is another very old poison. (
  • Aristotle made reference to the poison "sandarach" (arsenic trisulfide) in the 4th century B.C. Arsenic was commonly sold as "Ratsbane" by the 1500s, and is mentioned by Shakespeare in Henry V, Part II ("I had as lief they would put ratsbane in my mouth as offer to stop it with security. (
  • Often, as the internal dose or exposure level increases, the response or health effect also increases-though there are exceptions to this. (
  • The author, defining toxicology as "the study of adverse systemic effects of chemicals," details factors which toxicologists use to determine the hazards of common chemicals to individuals: dose, duration, and route of exposure (dermal, inhalation, oral). (
  • Relatively low doses of contaminants in water, food, and environment can already have significant chronic effects if there is long-term exposure. (
  • Its use has also proven efficacious in severe Beta Blocker (BB) poisoning, as well as combined exposure to both agents. (
  • To obtain a lethal dose requires repeated exposure to anticoagulants in the body. (
  • Data obtained in 1974 during an epidemiologic evaluation of lead (7439921) exposure in children living near a lead smelter were reexamined to assess dose response relationships between blood lead level and hematocrit. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: At exposure levels encountered after environmental exposure, associations with bio-markers of cumulative dose (mainly lead in tibia) were stronger and more consistent than associations with blood lead levels. (
  • Similarly, in studies of former workers with past occupational lead exposure, associations were also stronger and more consistent with cumulative dose than with recent dose (in blood). (
  • Giving EDTA in the vein or muscle is effective for treating lead poisoning and brain damage caused by lead exposure. (
  • Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China's existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. (
  • The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs) were calculated. (
  • The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m 3 and 0.01 mg/m 3 for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. (
  • Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs) should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning. (
  • According to the Food and Drug Administration's National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, there were only 7,710 cases of exposure to plant poisons recorded in 1975. (
  • The severity of mercury poisoning depends on the level of exposure, usually determined by a blood test. (
  • Their behavioral parameters all showed the opposite effect of cadmium exposure, increasing their motility with increasing doses of aluminum. (
  • This allergic reaction is recognized as secondary to exposure to the urushiol oil which is found in poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac. (
  • Thirty seven were given high dose of Magnesium Sulphate (study group) and 34 were given low dose of magnesium sulphate (control group) through intravenous route along with other supportive measures. (
  • One to two milligram (mg) intravenous (IV) doses may be used in place of the 0.5-1.0 mg doses used in treating symptomatic bradycardia associated with heart disease. (
  • A critically ill woman receiving high dose intravenous lorazepam therapy is described. (
  • Intravenous acetaminophen in the United States: iatrogenic dosing errors. (
  • Recent scientific evidence challenges this view, however, and indicates that some substances may be harmful at any level, and some substances' harmful properties may not easily be correlated with the dose level. (
  • For substances following a linear curve, any dose is harmful. (
  • If courts are willing to accept expert evidence that certain substances operate based on a non-threshold model-that is to say, they are either linear or non-monotonic-they may face a new generation of toxic tort suits based on expert testimony that goes beyond the traditional "dose makes the poison" framework. (
  • In other words, if you're speaking about substances in foods or vaccines or anything, the most important principle is that the dose makes the poison (or toxin). (
  • And anticoagulant poisons destroy these substances. (
  • After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. (
  • Rat eradication efforts benefit greatly by periodic switching of poison types, from warfarin (maintain for several months) to zinc phosphate, for example. (
  • Warfarin is a modern slow-kill repeat-bait poison and among the safest and most effective rat poisons in common use. (
  • For Warfarin, the lethal dose (LD50) is 60 mg / kg of body weight, and for Bromadiolone - 300 mg / kg. (
  • We know that safe medicinal doses of the anti-coagulant Warfarin can have side effects in humans including nausea and that the poisons found in Barn Owls are 100 to 1,000 times more acutely toxic than Warfarin. (
  • Unlike small doses, the large doses of fructose in the modern American diet have been shown to be very harmful. (
  • Propofol is a powerful anesthetic and memory loss agent that can be fatal in large doses. (
  • Sign up for Pick Your Poison, a five-week Sackler Brain Bench adult course beginning Monday, November 4. (
  • Clinical experience suggests the utility of succimer in the treatment of symptomatic lead poisoning in adult patients [Kosnett 2007] . (
  • Refer to adult dosing. (
  • The daily dose of this drug should not exceed 4000 mg for an adult, however, whenever there's not a strict medical control of the correct use and dosage, it's easy for this limit to be surpassed. (
  • It means that a substance can produce the harmful effect associated with its toxic properties only if it reaches a susceptible biological system within the body in a high enough concentration (i.e., dose). (
  • A toxic chemical is defined as a poison, which is a substance that destroys life or impairs health. (
  • That applies to everything from apple seeds (which contain the deadly poison cyanide) to chocolate (which packs the toxic chemical theobromine) to water (if you drink roughly 6 liters of water at once, you can develop hyponatremia , a deadly condition in which an excess of water causes your cells to puff up like balloons). (
  • Everything that we consume or breathe is potentially toxic, but what is the most overriding principle must be the dose. (
  • But again, there's a point in between the amount of water in a few glasses and the amount of water to cause water poisoning - that is the toxic dose. (
  • That's why the toxic dose is almost always expressed as mg/kg weight (it also can be expressed in a volume amount for a liquid or gas per kg weight). (
  • A toxic dose may cause minor effects like bleeding or headache, or it could cause something more serious like depression or a cancer - of course, some dose might cause death (like water poisoning can). (
  • For pharmaceuticals and almost any chemical, the dose-response relationship measures two key parameters - first, the proper dose that provides the most efficacy, and second, the dose that induces any toxic effects. (
  • Everything is toxic: the dose determines the (rat) poison. (
  • What is the toxic dose? (
  • The vast majority of rat poisons used these days (such as Neosorexa and Slaymor ) are highly toxic SGARs - 'Second Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides' . (
  • Based on volunteer studies, the administration of activated charcoal may be considered if a patient has ingested a potentially toxic amount of a poison (which is known to be adsorbed to charcoal) up to one hour previously. (
  • The terms 'poison', 'toxic', 'pesticide' and 'herbicide' all imply that because some chemicals may function as toxins in some situations, they are therefore always detrimental to humans. (
  • 4 In Stevens' words, 'Anything in a large enough dose can prove toxic' . (
  • Unfortunately, there is no well-established toxic dose for any of these fruits but two principles seem to prevail: 1) Dogs are more likely to become poisoned if they ingest large amounts of fruit and, 2) there is significant individual sensitivity amongst dogs. (
  • While acetaminophen has few side effects when used in therapeutic doses, recent reports suggest that its standard use can result in severe hypersensitivity reactions including Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). (
  • The injury is due to a direct, toxic effect of the high doses of acetaminophen. (
  • The father of toxicology, Paracelsus (1493-1541), said that everything is a poison-and the dose makes the poison. (
  • We learned about Paracelsus , the 16th century physician-alchemist known as the father of toxicology, and how he coined the phrase "the dose makes the poison. (
  • The Dose That Makes the Poison: A Plain Language Guide to Toxicology, written by M. Alice Ottoboni and originally published in 1984 by Vincente Books, is a non-fiction book to help laypeople understand the environmental, industrial, and personal risks of using chemicals. (
  • Alice Ottoboni The Dose Makes the Poison: A Plain-Language Guide to Toxicology, written by Ottoboni, in its first and second editions, focused mainly on environmental and industrial chemicals. (
  • Though not as detailed, referenced, or annotated as a toxicology textbook, The Dose Makes the Poison: A Plain Language Guide to Toxicology, is recommended by reviewers as a basic guidebook and entry point in learning about the field of toxicology. (
  • Paracelsus "The dose makes the poison" (Latin: dosis sola facit venenum 'only the dose makes the poison') is an adage intended to indicate a basic principle of toxicology. (
  • Hormesis Dose concentration Therapeutic index - parallel idea in contemporary pharmacology Forensic toxicology "Die dritte Defension wegen des Schreibens der neuen Rezepte," Septem Defensiones 1538. (
  • Fructose is a perfect example of a basic tenet of modern toxicology that came from the writings of Paracelsus (1) "What is it that is not poison? (
  • Paracelsus would argue -- real food is food, but processed food is poison. (
  • The degree of lung damage seems to be dose-dependent (2), is enhanced by high oxygen concentrations (3) and persists in spite of lowering paraquat levels by hemoperfusion (1). (
  • Does the Dose Still "Make the Poison" under Daubert? (
  • Does the dose make the poison? (
  • Do Antibiotics Contribute to Mercury Poisoning? (
  • Your daily dose of health info and news. (
  • Daily dose increased my energy levels also my alertness has improved. (
  • Taking daily dose is something that I never miss out on. (
  • After my brother in law passed away from a brain tumor at the young age of 33- I learned from all my research that one of the most potent agents in fighting cancer is tumeric (the main ingredient in daily dose- you can actually see it by the color of the capsule! (
  • I start every day with daily dose- I even open the capsule and have my kids drink it in a tasty tonic every morning. (
  • Daily dose is a definite must! (
  • The studies will provide key data on safety and tolerability after one and multiple doses. (
  • All things are poisons, for there is nothing without poisonous qualities. (
  • The problem of poisons is considered, and it is concluded that a false dichotomy exists between poisonous and non-poisonous chemicals. (
  • it was only when cocaine was refined and concentrated to high doses that it became addictive and poisonous. (
  • Poison ivy is usually easy to spot, but if you're not paying attention or accidentally brush against a poisonous shrub or sumac (tree), you can get a nasty rash, which can in some cases create oozing blisters. (
  • Since pralidoxime has a high therapeutic index, we then decided to conduct a RCT with still higher doses, i.e. to compare a 1 g infusion every hour (q1h, 24 g/day) with 1g every four hours (q4h, 6 g/day), after a 2 g loading dose, to assess the effectiveness of high dose pralidoxime in organophosphorus poisoned patients. (
  • Even in therapeutic doses, acetaminophen can cause transient serum aminotransferase elevations. (
  • Similar injury can occur with high therapeutic or supratherapeutic doses of acetaminophen given over several days for treatment of pain and not as a purposeful suicidal overdose (Case 3). (
  • The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons ( SUSMP ) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). (
  • Any child where the developmental age is inconsistent with accidental poisoning as non-accidental poisoning should be considered. (
  • 70 mcg/dL or symptomatic lead poisoning should be treated with parenteral agents (AAP, 2005). (
  • poison ivy, oak, and sumac common plants of the genus Rhus that cause allergic skin reactions. (
  • However, many Daubert courts have examined linear monotonic curves-meaning, the harm increases with increasing doses, but the dose need not reach a threshold: harm may occur at the lowest possible dosage level. (
  • Personally, I would say that the focus on immediate rewards - that drug effectiveness increases at higher doses - without understanding long term consequences can cause problems," he said. (
  • If you have blisters from the poison ivy, never break them open since this increases your risk of infection and scarring. (
  • Cumulative lead dose and cognitive function in adults: a review of studies that measured both blood lead and bone lead. (
  • OBJECTIVE: We review empirical evidence for the relations of recent and cumulative lead dose with cognitive function in adults. (
  • Children exposed to the same levels of ethylene dibromide as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and higher minute volume:weight ratios. (
  • Available at . (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether high doses of pralidoxime(PAM) are effective as compare to lower doses of PAM in the management of moderately sever organophosphorus poisoning patients. (
  • The monosaccharide fructose is not known to have any unique role in human biochemistry, but in the small doses of a hundred years ago, it was not known to be harmful. (
  • The poison contained in their leaves, roots, and berries is an oily substance called urushiol. (
  • Any substance can be harmful, but only after a certain threshold dose has been administered, and that dose can vary widely from substance to substance. (
  • Dose-response curves" show the relationship between the dose of a substance and the harm it may cause. (
  • The threshold curve represents the "dose makes the poison" concept-a substance only becomes harmful after a certain threshold dose has been administered. (
  • When ingested with rat poison, the lethal dose for a person will depend on the active substance and health, primarily the liver. (
  • In addition, as a rule, from 0.1 to 2% of the active substance is contained in the finished form of rat poison. (
  • A poison is any substance that produces injury to the body by chemical means. (
  • High-dose Insulin Euglycemic Therapy ( HIET ) is an advanced first-line treatment for life-threatening Calcium Channel Blocker (CCB) overdose. (
  • High-dose insulin appears to improve hemodynamic function and increase response to previously failed therapies in life-threatening CCB overdose. (
  • There are several causes of iron poisoning, including overdose, iron overload, and genetic predisposition. (
  • Immediately start a continuous infusion of insulin at the same dose per hour as was just given in the bolus. (
  • If blood pressure does not improve, re-bolus insulin at a higher dose and raise the insulin infusion rate to match the re-bolus dose. (
  • The optimal dose of insulin in humans for both bolus and infusion has yet to be determined. (
  • Supplemental glucose infusion may be required for up to 24 hours in some instances after discontinuation of high-dose insulin (Engebretsen 2011. (
  • In Russia, lethal cases of poisoning with baits against rodents have not been recorded in recent decades. (
  • The NSW government plans to airdrop poisoned baits to kill predators of native animals, but history suggests it could be the wrong approach. (
  • The NSW government has a plan to airdrop poisoned baits to kill predators of native animals, which are also likely to kill some native animals. (
  • After the summer's devastating bushfires, the New South Wales government announced a plan to airdrop one million poisoned baits in the state's most vulnerable regions over the next year. (
  • Previous efforts have required thousands of poisoned baits being distributed to kill one dingo. (
  • High-dose magnesium sulfate in the treatment of aconite poisoning. (
  • As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. (
  • The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports. (
  • They could contain anything - from rat poison to brick dust - and if they do actually have steroids in them, it could be in such a high dosage they could prove fatal. (
  • Objective: To study the prophylactic effects of High Dose Magnesium Sulphate on Cardiac Arrhythmias, Cardiogenic shock and associated mortality in Cases of Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning. (
  • Conclusion: High dose magnesium sulphate administration was found to be helpful for cardiac arrhythmia and shock but mortality remained unchanged. (
  • Necessary something, poison oak prednisone dose very, presents the pleguem of being the most strong dose in the address and being n't long and perhaps distributed that the polymyositis severe prednisone is the away sure corticosteroids:if of baby of any not high range. (
  • A significant inotropic response should commence in 15 to 30 minutes if the bolus dose of insulin was high enough. (
  • Over the years, research has shown the use of low-dose aspirin in a high-risk population reduces the risk of preeclampsia without causing side effects. (
  • Currently, ACOG recommends considering low-dose aspirin if a patient presents with one high risk factor or more than one moderate risk factor. (
  • Cadmium ingested in high doses irritates the gastric epithelium. (
  • Indeed, in high enough dose, anything can be a poison, and everything can kill you. (
  • The results showed that both G and E had similar potential to cause ammonia poisoning, principally when high doses were administered all at once. (
  • One physician, for example, described a case of a man who consumed a total of 10 grains (at least twice the normal lethal dose) over two days and still appeared to be in good health. (
  • How does this happen, what is the lethal dose and what to do in such situations? (
  • Police believed that Higgs gave her a lethal dose of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. (
  • In soft briquettes - tablets from rats, so popular today, contains 0.005% of the poison. (
  • On that basis, we can conclude that the increased number of poisoning cases is associated with the availability of the 1,000 milligram tablets," said researcher Stefan Weiler. (
  • The strychnine tablets took up to 12 tortuous hours for the poison to deliver its lethal kill. (
  • New formulations of acetaminophen for children make it easier to give the correct dose. (
  • To give the correct dose, you need to know your child's weight. (
  • To do this, scientists calculate how different amounts (exposures or doses) of a chemical can impact health effects (responses) in humans. (
  • Additionally, sometimes we don't have data about effects at doses lower than what might be tested in studies, so we have to mathematically extrapolate to estimate the effects below the observed data. (
  • Such effects, indeed, are so obvious that they re- prednisone pack 5mg directions long term low dose prednisone use in dogs to be married to ^Ir. (
  • The treatment prednisone eye drops weight gain how long do you take prednisone for poison ivy prednisone side effects in toddler prednisone taper for gout prednisone steroid dosage the fibres of the corpora restiforn.ia, as they do in the prednisone sleep side effects have been confided. (
  • Bolus doses up to 10 units/kg and continuous infusions up to 22 units/kg/hour have been administered with positive outcomes and minimal adverse effects (Engebretsen 2011. (
  • The dose is so small and there's really no side effects, so most patients are fine with adding it to their prenatal vitamin. (
  • Moving forward, the researchers hope that consumers take these findings seriously, as acetaminophen poisoning can have many serious side effects, including liver failure. (
  • Earlier this year, a landmark paper appeared titled Hormones and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Low-Dose Effects and Nonmonotonic Dose Responses , published in Endocrine Reviews , a journal of the prestigious Endocrine Society. (
  • In this 78-page review, supported by 845 references, twelve leading environmental health researchers challenge the dogma of "the dose makes the poison," noting that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses, and noting that fundamental changes in chemical testing and safety determination are needed to protect human health. (
  • For cadmium, the effects were dose-dependent, with the larvae becoming increasingly lethargic with increasing doses. (
  • Paraquat poisoning (Supralethal dose). (
  • This kind of lesion was probably due to functional abnormalities of the surfactant system, as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. (
  • In the wrong hands, rat poison can not only kill rats and mice -- it can kill birds, small native animals, fish, pets and even humans. (
  • Without meaning to, many parents gave their children the wrong dose because they confused infants' acetaminophen and children's acetaminophen. (
  • The poison specialist calculated the amount of acetaminophen given compared to the child's body weight. (
  • New visits to the ER for drug-related poisoning are on the rise, according to research from the American College of Emergency Physicians and the American Association of Poison Control Centers . (
  • The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) started getting calls about children getting in to the capsules and ABC news did a subsequent story warning parents about the risks. (
  • This current article looking at single-dose activated charcoal (SDAC) is similarly well done, and essential reading. (
  • Position paper: Single-dose activated charcoal. (
  • There are no satisfactorily designed clinical studies assessing benefit from single-dose activated charcoal to guide the use of this therapy. (
  • Single-dose activated charcoal should not be administered routinely in the management of poisoned patients. (
  • A review of the literature since the preparation of the 1997 Single-dose Activated Charcoal Position Statement revealed no new evidence that would require a revision of the conclusions of the Statement. (
  • All things are poison, and nothing is without poison, the dosage alone makes it so a thing is not a poison. (
  • Within five years of the higher dosage pills becoming available to consumers, acetaminophen poisonings increased by 40 percent and have only continued to increase every year since. (
  • Take Tylenol for example, the recommended dosage helps with pains in the body, but if taken in large quantities over a period of time poisons the body causing problems in the stomach. (
  • These elevations are generally asymptomatic and resolve rapidly with stopping therapy or reducing the dosage, and in some instances resolve even with continuation at full dose (Case 1). (
  • The routine use of low-dose aspirin could also reduce rates of other adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and fetal growth restriction, while only costing less than $10 per pregnancy, Sibai said. (
  • Winter poisoning is more effective than summer baiting , and effective use of rodenticides requires acclimating the rats to bait stations and the carrier food source (boiled eggs, corn meal, canary seed, water, etc. (
  • Red squill has a very strong bitter taste and works well for a single time baiting situation, but rats quickly learn to stay away from it after that first dosing. (
  • There are also cases of poisoning when eating shish kebab (presumably from the meat of dead rats and foxes). (
  • The Dose Makes the Poison - or does it? (
  • The third edition of The Dose Makes the Poison continues with these themes, but adds to the discussion "drugs, food additives, cosmetics, vitamins, second hand smoke, lead in toys imported from China, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) cyclooxyogenase (COX) issues, and bisphenyl A found in plastics. (
  • 2, Darmstadt 1965, p. 510 (full text) The Dose Makes the Poison on Chemsafe at Yale Archived 2011-02-02 at the Wayback Machine Nancy Trautmann: The Dose Makes the Poison--Or Does It? (
  • In the legal context, courts traditionally have held to the old adage that "the dose makes the poison. (
  • As courts consider this evidence, they may be swayed to accept evidence that would have otherwise been rejected under the "dose makes the poison" model. (
  • It is the dose that makes a thing not a poison. (
  • But once again, the dose makes the poison. (
  • Back to the dose makes the poison. (
  • Our successful treatment might due to early and enough gastric lavage, superhigh dose of steroids and ambroxol, and early and long process of blood purification. (
  • Most cases of poison ivy improve at least partially within 48 hrs of starting steroids . (
  • How do I relieve the itching I have taken dose packs of steroids. (
  • The steroids conclude that using sort and device very to poison oak prednisone dose treat thyroidectomy grade can decrease the prednisone of taylors and reduce the normal body of side required to achieve and maintain course. (
  • Chronic therapy with acetaminophen in doses of 4 grams daily has been found to lead to transient elevations in serum aminotransferase levels in a proportion of subjects, generally starting after 3 to 7 days, and with peak values rising above 3-fold elevated in 39% of persons. (
  • Early, palsy role, which has been postulated to exert new cases via a shoppers treatment of poison oak prednisone dose proteins associated with the therapy day, mediated spiel… of navythe of a committee of voltaren and eventually to provide a fact for nos signaling institutions. (
  • In condition, after discovery for screening size the site- and medication afraid ideations showed hysterically better withdrawal firm day because of poison oak prednisone dose the time in pain treatment that had occurred with page group. (
  • For illnesses that do not require hospitalization (about 73% of definite-probable OP poisonings reported in California), decontamination of skin may be the principal treatment required. (
  • Almost 700,000 emergency department visits for drug-related poisoning occur per year. (
  • Given a sufficient dose however, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, liver and kidney necrosis, cardiomyopathy, and metabolic acidosis can occur (Newman-Taylor 1998). (
  • Study to Know the Efficacy of Higher Doses of Pralidoxime in Patients of Organophpsphorus Poisoning. (
  • Using higher doses of antibiotics in a bid to tackle the growing problem of drug resistance may end up strengthening certain bacteria. (
  • Using higher doses of antibiotics in a bid to tackle the growing problem of drug resistance may end up strengthening certain bacteria, according to research released on Wednesday that highlights a previously unthought-of risk. (
  • Previous research has shown that inflicting higher antibiotic doses on bacteria can slow its ability to develop resistance, yet little attention has been paid to how those higher doses impact the overall health of microbes. (
  • They found that while higher antibiotic doses slowed the rate at which the bacteria developed resistance, they also gave rise to bacteria with "higher overall fitness" - meaning it had a higher rate of reproduction. (
  • The team behind the research, published in the journal Royal Society Biology Letters, said it showed how higher antibiotic doses presented a "dilemma" and could result in ultimately more-resistant bacteria. (
  • With antibiotic-resistant superbugs predicted to kill more people globally than cancer by mid-century, Lagator said that more research was needed into how higher doses impact the long-term evolution of bacteria. (
  • Even in our fairly simple study, we found that resistance does emerge more slowly at higher doses, but when it does, those strains are in general better off. (
  • Now, experts have found that since consumers in Switzerland have been able to get acetaminophen in higher doses, related poisonings have been steadily increasing. (
  • At higher doses, the animals died. (
  • For aluminum, more larvae hatched when exposed to higher doses. (
  • In higher doses it can paralyze the entire breathing apparatus, and the victim slowly suffocates to death. (
  • Your veterinarian will base a presumptive diagnosis of this poisoning on a history of eating grapes, raisins, currants, or the presence of pieces of grapes or raisins in the dog's vomit. (
  • Infants to 5-years old have the highest rate of unintentional poisoning. (
  • Acetaminophen is a very safe medicine when used in recommended doses to treat pain and fever. (
  • Magnesium Sulphate is a known cardio-protective agent with membrane stabilizing properties and also a known anti-arrhythmic.Several studies conducted in many parts of the world have shown its ability to reduce mortality in wheat pill poisoning provided it is given within 4 hours of ingestion15. (