Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Oman: A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)AfghanistanVaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.

*Polio vaccine

... recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American Academy of Pediatrics ... Oral polio vaccine results in vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in about three per million doses. They are generally ... OPV is usually provided in vials containing 10-20 doses of vaccine. A single dose of oral polio vaccine (usually two drops) ... Sabin's oral vaccine using live virus came into commercial use in 1961. Once Sabin's oral vaccine became widely available, it ...

*Vaccine

... "poliovirus vaccine live oral" rather than "oral poliovirus vaccine". The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, ... vaccine. Lower-case 'd' and 'p' denote reduced doses of diphtheria and pertussis used in the adolescent/adult-formulations. The ... By the 1930s there was increasing interest in the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for example. An oral ... Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.[citation needed] Some ...

*Poliomyelitis

Three doses of live-attenuated oral vaccine produce protective antibody to all three poliovirus types in more than 95 percent ... Use of this inactivated poliovirus vaccine and subsequent widespread use of the oral poliovirus vaccine developed by Albert ... "Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American ... it is possible for the polio virus in the oral vaccine to mutate. As a result, persons given the oral polio vaccine can acquire ...

*Albert Sabin

The Sabin vaccine is an oral vaccine containing weakened forms of strains of polio viruses. In 1955, Salk's "killed" vaccine ... While the PHS stalled, the USSR sent millions of doses of the oral vaccine to places with polio epidemics, such as Japan, and ... In the intestines, Sabin had discovered, the poliovirus multiplied and attacked. Thus, the oral vaccine broke the chain of ... The first industrial production and mass use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from Sabin strains was organized by Soviet ...

*OPV AIDS hypothesis

The second vaccine, an oral polio vaccine (OPV), is a live-attenuated vaccine, produced by the passage of the virus through non ... The first polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk, is an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), consisting of a mixture of three ... Hence, OPV not only prevents paralytic poliomyelitis, but also, when given in sufficient doses, can stop a threatening epidemic ... Osterrieth P (May 2004). "Oral polio vaccine: fact versus fiction". Vaccine. 22 (15-16): 1831-1835. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ...

*Poliovirus

The development of the TgPVR mouse has had a profound effect on oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) production. Previously, ... viable progeny could be formed even at UV doses that inactivated the virus in single infections. Poliovirus is structurally ... 2003). "Transgenic mice as an alternative to monkeys for neurovirulence testing of live oral poliovirus vaccine: validation by ... Oral polio vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) strains of the three serotypes of poliovirus. Passaging the virus ...

*Vaccine trial

Vaccines such as the oral polio vaccine have been first tested for adverse effects and immunogenicity in monkeys as well as non ... The vaccination schedule will vary depending on the nature of the drug (i.e. the need for a booster or several doses over the ... The famous Cutter Incident resulted in many recipients of the defective polio virus from the Cutter company contracting a ... A vaccine trial is a clinical trial that aims at establishing the safety and efficacy of a vaccine prior to it being licensed. ...

*Cutter Laboratories

The mistake produced 120,000 doses of polio vaccine that contained live polio virus. Of children who received the vaccine, ... A Dual Trust". The Bancroft Library, University of California/Berkeley, Regional Oral History Office, Transcript 1972-1974. ... and anti-hog cholera serum-and eventually a hog cholera vaccine. The hog cholera vaccine was the first tissue culture vaccine, ... In anticipation of the demand for vaccine, the companies had already produced stocks of the vaccine and these were issued once ...

*Vaccination policy

For example, children may receive the oral polio vaccine in Year One of primary school (about six or seven years of age), the ... all children receive two doses of vaccine with a compliance rate of more than 95%. For TBE, the vaccination rate in 2007 was ... poliovirus, measles/mumps/rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, varicella, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, and rotavirus ... "The French National Debate on Vaccine Safety". The Vaccine Reaction. National Vaccine Information Center. Missing or empty ,url ...

*Contact immunity

The most prominent example of contact immunity was the oral polio vaccine (OPV). This live, attenuated polio vaccine was widely ... in favor of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). The CDC continues to recommend OPV over IPV for global polio eradication ... the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis-affecting 1 child per 2.4 million OPV doses administered-led the Centers ... As the risk of catching polio in the Western Hemisphere diminished, the risk of contact infection with the attenuated polio virus ...

*Rabies

The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure, with additional doses on days 3, 7 and 14 after ... Meltzer MI (October-December 1996). "Assessing the costs and benefits of an oral vaccine for raccoon rabies: a possible model ... polioviruses, and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible, as was evidenced by the ... The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. Less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified ...

*Vaccine controversies

Cutter Laboratories produced 120,000 doses of the Salk polio vaccine that inadvertently contained some live polio virus along ... advised their followers not to have their children vaccinated with oral polio vaccine. The boycott was endorsed by the governor ... when the routine vaccine schedule could contain more than 3,000 antigens (in a single shot of DTP vaccine). The vaccine ... Vaccine. 24 (20): 4321-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.003. PMID 16581162. Hurst L (2009-10-30). "Vaccine phobia runs deep". ...

*Joseph L. Melnick

... as those receiving as many as four doses of the oral polio vaccine alone were still susceptible to polio. On January 2, 1958, ... Higher levels of the polio virus were found in sewage during the summer, at the same time of year that the outbreaks of the ... Research he published in 1960 showed that the form of the attenuated vaccine used in the oral polio vaccine developed by Albert ... He was among the first to discover that the polio virus belonged to a larger class now known as the enteroviruses - a form of ...

*Herpes simplex virus

... poliovirus and herpes simplex virus. When HSV particles are exposed to doses of a DNA damaging agent that would be lethal in ... "NanoBio's Genital Herpes Vaccine Demonstrates Efficacy In Guinea Pigs As Both A Prophylactic And A Therapeutic Vaccine". ... It may also be sexually transmitted, including contact with saliva, such as kissing and mouth-to-genital contact (oral sex). ... "Herpes Vaccine Research". Herpes Vaccine Research. Retrieved 2016-08-02. "Knipe Lab , Harvard Medical School". knipelab.med. ...

*Social history of viruses

In the 1980s, outbreaks in Tanzania and Kenya were controlled by the use of 26 million doses of vaccine, and a recurrence of ... The disease is caused by a virus that is passed from person to person by the faecal-oral route, and naturally infects only ... Mainly poliovirus type 1 infections, 122 occurred in Nigeria, one in Chad, 58 in Pakistan and 37 in Afghanistan. Vaccination ... A vaccine for the papillomaviruses that cause cervical cancer was developed between 2002 and 2006. In 2005, human T ...

*Rotary International

Mulitsch made it possible shipping the first 500,000 doses of antipolio vaccine to the Philippines at the beginning of 1980. ... There are some reservations regarding the adaptation capabilities of the virus in some of the oral vaccines, which have been ... "all wild poliovirus transmission [has been] stopped". In a 2006 speech at the Rotary International Convention, held at the ... As stated by Vaccine Alliance, however, in spite of the limited risk of polio vaccination, it would neither be prudent nor ...

*Booster dose

DTaP is the primary vaccine given against pertussis, and children typically receive five doses before the age of seven. Tdap is ... memory B and T cells produced in response to the vaccine persist only six months after consumption of the oral polio vaccine ( ... "Efficacy of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in India". Science. 345 (6199): 922-925. doi:10.1126/science.1255006. ISSN 0036-8075 ... If anamnestic response is high after receiving a primary vaccine many years ago, there is most likely little to no need for a ...

*Prion

However, a vaccine developed in mice may provide insight into providing a vaccine to resist prion infections in humans. ... Franco D, Pathak HB, Cameron CE, Rombaut B, Wimmer E, Paul AV (May 2005). "Stimulation of poliovirus synthesis in a HeLa cell- ... Johnson CJ, Pedersen JA, Chappell RJ, McKenzie D, Aiken JM (Jul 2007). "Oral transmissibility of prion disease is enhanced by ... Empirical results of ionizing doses applied to the unknown infectious substance evidenced an infectious particle size too small ...
Data & statistics on Number of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo: Number of children aged 0-59 months*, number receiving oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during National Immunization Days † (NIDs), number of reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and nonpolio AFP rates, by province - Democratic Republic of Congo, 1999, Immune response of age group 1 to 12 months children against oral poliovirus vaccine., Mean changes before and after for all practices for immunizations in 2-year-olds, as measured by the percentage of children who were up to date for each of the immunizations and for the combination of all immunizations. DTP indicates diphtheriatetanus-pertussis; OPV, oral ...
As this eMedTV page explains, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is a rare adverse reaction following vaccination with the live oral polio vaccine. This page describes this condition and explains how the paralysis it causes may be permanent.
As this eMedTV page explains, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is a rare adverse reaction following vaccination with the live oral polio vaccine. This page describes this condition and explains how the paralysis it causes may be permanent.
BIVALENT TYPE 1 & 3 ORAL POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE, ORAL Oral Poliol Vaccines Bivalent type 1 & 3 oral poliomyelitis vaccine I.P. Each bottle contains 2ml (20 doses) Stabilised with 1m mgcl2 Each dose of 2 drops(0.1 ml) contains poliovirus(sabin) Type 1-106CCID50 Type 3-105.8CCID50
Looking for online definition of poliovirus vaccine, live oral in the Medical Dictionary? poliovirus vaccine, live oral explanation free. What is poliovirus vaccine, live oral? Meaning of poliovirus vaccine, live oral medical term. What does poliovirus vaccine, live oral mean?
To compare the immunogenicity of routine versus mass campaign doses of oral poliovirus vaccine OPV, serum neutralizing antibodies were measured in 254 children before and after two mass vaccination campaigns in Jordan. Precampaign seroprevalences to poliovirus types 1,2, and 3 in children who had received three, four, or five routine doses of...
Ousmane M. Diop, PhD1, Cara C. Burns, PhD2, Steven G. Wassilak, MD3, Olen M. Kew, PhD2 (Author affiliations at end of text). In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide (1). One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but then it provides long-term protection against paralytic disease through durable humoral immunity. Rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis can occur among immunologically normal OPV recipients, their contacts, and persons who are immunodeficient. In addition, vaccine-derived ...
Poliovirus infections can be asymptomatic or cause severe paralysis. Why some individuals develop paralytic poliomyelitis is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate if a polymorphism, Ala67Thr, in the poliovirus receptor, which has been found to facilitate increased resistance against poliovirus-induced cell lysis and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of paralytic poliomyelitis, poliovirus receptor genotyping was undertaken among Italian subjects with vaccine-associated (n = 9), or with wild-type paralytic poliomyelitis (n = 6), and control subjects (n = 71), using RFLP-PCR and pyrosequencing. Heterozygous poliovirus receptor Ala67Thr genotype was found in 13.3% of the patients with paresis and in 8.5% of the controls (Odds Ratio = 1.667). The frequency of ...
In their randomised controlled trial, Edwin J Asturias and colleagues (July 9, p 158)1 reported a robust humoral immune response after three doses of bivalent type 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) combined with zero, one, or two doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), confirming that bOPV is highly immunogenic when administered either with or without IPV. In their study, 6-week-old full-term Latin American infants due for their first polio vaccinations were randomly assigned by permuted block randomisation to five schedules.. ...
MONOVALENT TYPE I POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE (ORAL) Oral Poliol Vaccines Monovalent type 1 oral poliomyelitis vaccine I.P. Each bottle contains 2ml (20 doses) Stabilised with 1m mgcl2 Each dose of 2 drops(0.1 ml) contains poliovirus(Sabin) Type 1-106CCID50
How is enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine abbreviated? N-IPV stands for enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine. N-IPV is defined as enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine rarely.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This public information brochure, titled "Important Questions & Answers about Sabin Oral Sundays" provided residents of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County with basic information about the oral polio vaccine, explained where to go to get the vaccine, and encouraged participation in the 1962 "Sabin Oral Sundays" mass immunization program. The brochure is four pages in length and measures 5.5" x 8.5" (13.97 x 21.59 cm). Approximately 1.5 million people received the vaccine by ingesting sugar cubes. Dr. Albert Sabin (1906-1993) was born in Poland and moved to Cincinnati in 1939 to join the faculty of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Sabin developed the oral polio vaccine, which provided stronger immunity and lasted longer than the ...
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by 2000 (1). Since then, substantial progress has been reported by all countries where polio is endemic in implementing the recommended polio eradication strategies (i.e., achieving and maintaining high routine coverage with oral poliovirus vaccine [OPV]; conducting National Immunization Days [NIDs]* to rapidly decrease poliovirus circulation; establishing sensitive surveillance systems for polio cases and poliovirus; and carrying out mopping-up vaccination activities to eliminate the remaining reservoirs of poliovirus transmission) (2,3). Although much progress has been made in many countries, substantial obstacles remain, particularly in 14 priority countries (i.e., global reservoir countries** or countries with ongoing armed ...
Singapore participated in the WHO EPI protocol for rapid assessment of serological response to three doses of standard oral poliovirus vaccine. The 100% seropositive finding of thirty infants below one year old is no proof of seroconversion rate to the Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (TOPV) administered. Investigation of 100 cord blood samples showed that passively transferred maternal poliovirus neutralising antibody cannot be relied upon for protection of infants against poliomyelitis. This paper emphasises the importance of vaccine potency testing and serves as a timely reminder that although the last case of indigenous poliomyelitis was recorded in 1974, non Sabin-like (wild) ...
The polio vaccine has long been one of the most accepted forms of vaccination. Many people who staunchly oppose most vaccines dont always oppose the polio vaccine.. However, a study out of the University of California has many people rethinking their views on the vaccine.. By June of 2017, the number of children paralyzed by mutant strains derived from the polio vaccine was more than those children paralyzed by polio itself. The long-held "conspiracy theory" that polio vaccines cause polio has been suddenly lent a large amount of validity.. By June of 2017, only six cases of normal, or wild, polio had been diagnosed. This means that only six children contracted polio in a typical, normal environment. Counter that with 21 cases of polio derived from the polio vaccine and the ...
John Salamone of Oakton, Va., the father of a 6-year-old boy who developed polio after receiving the oral vaccine, told members of the committee: "When David was immunized in 1990, we simply had no idea that this would happen or that we had choices in the type of polio vaccine he could receive. Obviously, if we could have that fateful day back we would have chosen a safer, just as effective, injectable vaccine.". But some doctors said they feared that the inactivated vaccine would not provide an equal level of protection. Oral polio vaccine is known to give protection against contracting polio through the digestive tract -- something the injections do not provide as effectively, said Dr. Dixie E. Snider, associate director for science of the Federal Centers for Disease ...
Poliovirus Vaccine Options [Article] As a result of the success of immunization, indigenous wild poliomyelitis has disappeared from the United States. Of 142 confirmed cases of paralytic poliomyelitis reported in the United States from 1980 to 1996, 134 were classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Persons with .... ...
Earlier this week it was reported that Nigeria has interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus and is no longer a polio endemic country. Now, in some belated news from the polio eradication front, the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) on Sep. 20 concluded that wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) has been eradicated worldwide. The last detected WPV2 dates to 1999, from Aligarh, northern India.. There are three wild poliovirus serotypes: WPV1, WPV2 and WPV3. WPV3 has not been detected globally since November 2012 (in Nigeria); the only remaining endemic WPV1 strains are now restricted to the two remaining endemic countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan.. This declaration will support the final decision on whether the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine will be made as scheduled in April 2016, ...
DIPHTHERIA TOXOID, TETANUS TOXOID, ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS VACCINE, DTaP; HEPATITIS B VACCINE, RECOMBINANT; INACTIVATED POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, IPV (dif THEER ee uh TOK soid, TET n us TOK soid, ey SEL yuh ler per TUS iss VAK seen, DTaP; hep uh TAHY tis B VAK seen; in ak tuh vey ted poh lee oh vahy ruhs VAK seen, IPV ) is used to prevent infections of diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, and poliovirus.. ...
Poliovirus Vaccine InactivatedIPOL®. IPOL vaccine is indicated for active immunization of infants (as young as 6 weeks of age), children, and adults for the prevention of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus Types 1, 2, and 3.. KINRIX (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) Suspension for Intramuscular InjectionInitial U.S. Approval: 2008. INDICATIONS AND USAGE - A single dose of KINRIX is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis as the fifth dose in the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine series and the fourth dose in the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) series in ...
KINRIX (Tetanus toxoid,Diphtheria toxoid,Pertussis vaccine,Poliovirus vaccine, inactivated) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of two vaccination regimens that employed either GSK Biologicals combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine or DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine. In the two groups, infants received the DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine at 3 and 4 months of age, as the first 2 doses of the primary vaccination course. At 5 months of age, they received either the DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine co-administered with the HBV vaccine or a dose of the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine as a 3rd dose. Infants in the two groups had previously received 2 doses of HBV vaccine at birth and at 1 month of age ...
The development of effective vaccines to prevent paralytic polio was one of the major medical breakthroughs of the 20th century. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative uses two types of vaccine to stop polio transmission - inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV).. If enough people in a community are immunized against polio, the virus will be deprived of susceptible hosts and will die out. High levels of vaccination coverage must be maintained to stop transmission and prevent outbreaks occurring. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is constantly assessing the optimal use of the different types of vaccine to prevent paralytic polio and stop poliovirus transmission in different areas of the world.. ...
43 Peterson et al. VACCINATION-INDUCED POLIOMYELITIS IN IDAHO: PRELIMINARYREPORT OF EXPERIENCE WITH SALK POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE. JAMA. 1955;159(4):241-244. 44 Abraham R, Minor P, Dunn G, Modlin JF, Ogra PL. Shedding of virulent poliovirus revertantsduring immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine after prior immunization with inactivated poliovaccine.J Infect Dis. 1993 Nov;168(5):1105-9.. 45 Carolina Mensi and Fabrizio Pregliasco. Poliomyelitis: Present Epidemiological Situation andVaccination Problems. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1998 May; 5(3): 278-280.. 46 Mensi C, Pregliasco F. Poliomyelitis: present epidemiological situation and vaccination problems.. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1998 May;5(3):278-80.. 47 Schaap GJ, Bijkerk H, Coutinho RA, Kapsenberg JG, van Wezel AL. The spread of wild ...
https://www.hexaresearch.com/research-report/polio-vaccines-market. On the contrary, the oral polio vaccines lead to vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in about three per million doses. It has been observed that the chances for a person to get paralyze after a polio infection are quite few. However, both are generally considered as safe to give at the time of pregnancy and to those who have HIV/AIDS. Recommendations by World Health Organization states that all the children around the world should be vaccinated against polio.. It is said that these two categories of vaccines have contributed largely in eradicating polio from majority of the parts in the world that has in turn decreased the number of cases. Market size on the basis of application spans Pediatric, and Adult. Among both of them, the pediatrics segment is ...
Two Chinese-produced vaccines, a Bivalent Oral Poliomyelitis Vaccine (BOPV) and a Hepatitis "A" Vaccine (HAV), have received prequalification by the WHO.. The move indicates that the WHO has given the vaccines its stamp of approval for the safety and efficacy, and UN procuring agencies may now source them.. Mr Fabio Scano, an officer in the WHO Representative Office in China, said: "prequalification of BOPV is very good news for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.. "Following the switch from trivalent OPV to BOPV in 2016, most countries are going to cure polio with the combination of inactivated polio vaccine and BOPV and China will be a sufficient supplier of this essential vaccine.". The country now has four vaccines prequalified by ...
The oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) contains a live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine-virus. When this vaccine is administered, the weakened vaccine-virus replicates in the intestine and enters into the bloodstream, triggering a protective immune response. However, during this replication process, some of the vaccine-virus may genetically mutate from the original attenuated strain and become neurovirulent (able to cause paralysis and circulate in communities). The neurovirulent virus is referred to as vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). This is a very rare event. In the 10 years leading up to 2015 there were around 750 cases of paralysis caused by VDPVs reported worldwide.. There are three recognised categories of ...
The purpose of this booster study is to evaluate, in subjects primed in the primary study 106786, the persistence, at the time of the booster vaccination, of antibodies elicited by the different formulation of DTPa-HBV-IPV/ Hib vaccine (Infanrix Hexa TM). The study will also evaluate the immune response of these subjects to a DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib booster. This protocol posting deals with the objectives and outcome measures of the booster phase. The objectives and outcomes measures of the primary phase are presented in a separate protocol posting (NCT = 00376779 ...
15 December 2009 │ Kabul - A new vaccine against polio will be used for the first time today in polio immunization campaigns in Afghanistan. The bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), recommended by the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication, the global technical advisory body of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative as a critical tool to eradicate polio, can provide the optimal concurrent protection needed by young children against both surviving serotypes (types 1 and 3) of the paralysing virus. This will vastly simplify the logistics of vaccination in the conflict-affected parts of this country. This sub-national immunization campaign, from 15-17 December, will deliver bOPV to 2.8 million children under five in the Southern, South-Eastern and Eastern Regions of Afghanistan.. Of the three wild polioviruses (known as types 1, 2 and 3), type 2 has not been seen ...
Irish Aid is the Governments overseas assistance programme. It is managed by the Development Cooperation Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.. Irish Aid Polio funding has comprised:. €17 million to the World Health Organization Global Polio Eradication Initiative since 2006;. Of this, €12 million was provided during the period 2006-08. A further €5 Million has been provided in support of the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-18). The current €400,000 tranche is the latest release under the 2013-18 commitment.. The WHO announced on 25 September 2015 that polio is no longer endemic in Nigeria, leaving only two countries in the world where polio remains: Afghanistan and Pakistan. For the first time in history, the entire African continent has marked one year without reporting a single child paralyzed by the wild poliovirus.. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is a public-private partnership led by national governments and ...
PRODUCT MONOGRAPH INFANRIX hexa Adsorbed Hib reconstituted with PEDIARIX Combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (recombinant), inactivated poliomyelitis and adsorbed
Epidemiological investigation and specimen collection. Teams of epidemiologists from districts and from the central level investigated each case of acute flaccid paralysis and reviewed clinical records. Vaccination records were reviewed for children who lived in the same household, immediate neighbours, and hospital contacts of cases; people in these groups were given oral poliovirus vaccine. Faecal specimens were collected from children exposed in the hospital to case- patients and from children who lived in the same households as these exposed children.. Serological surveys Between 19 April and 8 May 2001, we sampled 71 children aged 0 83 months who were from minority populations and were hospitalized in any of five district hospitals before the first mass vaccination campaign. We reviewed these childrens vaccination records and collected blood specimens. The Bulgaria National Enterovirus Laboratory ...
Girl taking an oral vaccine. The first mass production and clinical trials of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) made from live attenuated virus were conducted in the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. The success of the Russian clinical trials paved the way for the vaccines key role in the global poliomyelitis eradication campaign. Photographed in 1974 at the Institute of Poliomyelitis and Encephalitic Infections in Moscow, Russia. - Stock Image C024/6641
Nigeria is the only country in Africa that is yet to be certified as polio free. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is the foundation of the polio eradication initiative since it provides information to alert both health managers and clinician that timely actions should be initiated to interrupt transmission of the polio virus. The strategy also provides evidence for the absence of wild poliovirus. This evaluation was performed to assess key quality indicators defined by the polio eradication program and thus to identify gaps to allow planning for corrective measures to achieve a polio-free situation in Bauchi state and in Nigeria at large. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study which involved a desk review of documents to authenticate the correctness and completeness of data, and a review of documented evidence for the quality of AFP surveillance. We interviewed Local Government Authority (LGA) surveillance officers and clinicians from focal and ...
ICD-9 045.03 is acute paralytic poliomyelitis specified as bulbar, poliovirus type iii (04503). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for infectious and parasitic diseases.
Oral polio and rotavirus vaccines are significantly less effective in children living in the developing world. Tropical enteropathy, which is associated with intestinal inflammation, decreased absorption and increased permeability, may contribute substantially to oral vaccine failure in developing country settings. Other possible causes of oral vaccine underperformance include malnutrition, interference with maternal or breastmilk antibodies, changes in gut microbiota, and genetic susceptibility.. Primary Objective: to determine whether tropical enteropathy impairs the efficacy of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in children in Bangladesh.. Secondary Objectives: 1) to determine the impact of an inactivated polio ...
In 2008, Northern Nigeria had the greatest number of confirmed cases of polio in the world and was the source of outbreaks in several West African countries. Elisha P. Renne explores the politics and social dynamics of the Northern Nigerian response to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which has been met with extreme skepticism, subversion, and the refusal of some parents to immunize their children. Renne explains this resistance by situating the eradication effort within the social, political, cultural, and historical context of the experience of polio in Northern Nigeria. Questions of vaccine safety, the ability of the government to provide basic health care, and the role of the international community are factored into this sensitive and complex treatment of the ethics of global polio eradication efforts.. ...
Since its formation almost 30 years ago, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has put millions of skilled health workers on the ground in regions with formerly limited access to health services, reaching an unprecedented number of children.. These workers dont just deliver polio vaccines. They spend over half of their time working to protect children from other dangerous diseases like measles and rotavirus by introducing and bolstering routine immunization programs, according to the GPEI. In fact, GPEIs network of polio staff constitutes the single largest source of support for immunization services in low-income countries.. In India alone, National Immunization Days see 2.5 million vaccinators and 155,000 supervisors working together to deliver a range of lifesaving vaccines to millions of children. The polio program in the northern Indian state of Bihar contributed to the increase of routine immunization coverage from 19% to 67% ...
Background: Considering the current polio situation Pakistan needs vaccine combinations to reach maximum population level immunity. The trial assessed whether inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly boost immunity among children in Pakistan. Methods: A five-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted among children (6-24 months, 5-6 years and 10-11 years). Children were randomized in four intervention arms as per the vaccines they received (bOPV, IPV, bOPV + vitamin A, and bOPV + IPV) and a control arm which did not receive any vaccine. Baseline seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies and serological immune response 28 days after intervention were assessed.Results: The baseline seroprevalence was high for all serotypes and the three age groups [PV1: 97%, 100%, 96%, PV2: 86%, 100%, 99%, ...
Poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 is used in the treatment of .get complete information about poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 at 1mg.com
Developed in collaboration with governmental and non-governmental partners in an effort to improve transparency, accuracy and information sharing. These products are maintained, monitored and updated frequently. Every effort is taken to ensure the accuracy and completeness of all information contained in these documents ...
Why are the Sabin infectious, attenuated poliovirus vaccines still used when they are known to cause vaccine-associated paralysis in a small number of recipients?
Ask questions and get answers about Diphtheria Toxoid/Pertussis, Acellular/Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/Tetanus Toxoid. Our support group helps people share their own experience. 38 news articles.
Background: Supplementary immunization activity (SIA) campaigns provide children with an additional dose of measles vaccine and deliver other interventions, including vitamin A supplements, deworming medications, and oral polio vaccines.. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the full SIA delivery platform in South Africa (SA).. Design: We used an epidemiologic cost model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the 2010 SIA campaign. We used province-level campaign data sourced from the District Health Information System, SA, and from planning records of provincial coordinators of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The data included the number of children immunized with measles and polio vaccines, the number of children given vitamin A supplements and Albendazole tablets, and costs.. Results: The campaign cost $37 million and averted a total of 1,150 deaths (95% ...
A new bivalent poliovirus vaccine, consisting of infectious, attenuated type 1 and type 3 strains, has been deployed in Afghanistan. The use of this vaccin
Prequalification of bOPV is very good news for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative," according to Dr. Fabio Scano, the Officer in Charge of the WHO Representative Office in China. "Following last years switch from trivalent OPV to bOPV, most countries are going to rely on a combination of inactivated polio vaccine and bOPV to complete the eradication of polio, and China will now help ensure a sufficient supply of this essential vaccine," he continued.. Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. Due to a decades-long effort to eradicate polio, the world is on the verge of eradication of this deadly virus.. Hepatitis A is a viral liver disease that is caused by hepatitis A virus that can cause mild to severe illness and very large, explosive outbreaks that can lead to great suffering and substantial economic loss. A safe water supply, food ...
GENEVA, Feb. 8, 2014 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Buoyed by progress made in two of three countries where polio has never been stopped and Indias recent success marking three years polio-free, the Lawrence Ellison Foundation announced a planned gift of US$100 million over five years to support global polio eradication. Roughly $20 million of that contribution was delivered in 2013. The donation will help fund the Global Polio Eradication Initiatives (GPEI) $5.5 billion six-year plan to eradicate polio. The Lawrence Ellison Foundation brings the number of major philanthropies to 10 that have pledged a total of $535 million, in addition to the $1.8 billion commitment announced by Bill Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, during 2013-2018 to support the GPEI strategy. At the Global Vaccine Summit held in Abu Dhabi last April, more than 35 government and private donors, including the Gates Foundation, pledged $4 billion to support the strategy, recognizing the ...
This syndromic reporting strategy, of investigating all AFP cases rather than just "suspected poliomyelitis", serves many purposes. First, AFP surveillance substantially increases the sensitivity of the surveillance system and allows it to detect paralytic poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus transmission in the population. Secondly, AFP surveillance provides objective data with which to monitor the quality of surveillance in anindividual country or large population group. AFP Surveillance also helps to monitor progress in polio eradication when polio exists in a country as well as helps to define when polio is gone from the country or area ...
Poliomyelitis is a contagious disease which spreads through person to person contact (the virus infects only human) mainly via fecal oral route. The virus affects the young children (mainly children under 5 years of age) and can cause permanent disability. Polio virus has been eradicated from most of countries of the world but still 2 countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan are endemic. Vaccination is the best way to protect people and stop transmission of Poliomyelitis. There are two types of vaccine; inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). ...
Our survey revealed that, among the African countries that conducted AFP surveillance and reported to WHO in 1999, the majority had designated surveillance officers, vehicles, and annual budgets. Moreover, most of the national polio eradication programs combined the surveillance for and response to AFP with other infectious diseases. Our investigation also revealed that certain countries that had prudently added other diseases to their AFP surveillance programs were also able to perform AFP surveillance adequately. However, the survey also indicated that additional staff, funds, and political commitment might be required if infectious disease surveillance and response is to improve in Africa.. AFP surveillance programs have instituted laboratory systems in countries and have formed networks between and within countries and with WHO-AFRO by providing portable computers with modems, telephone/facsimile lines, and electronic mail connections. Our survey results indicated that detection and ...
RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.. Conclusions: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The road to observer status in the world health assembly. T2 - Lessons from Taiwans long journey. AU - Yang, Che Ming. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - Taiwan was not able to attend meetings of the World Health Organization since 1972 because mainland China opposes it joining the WHO, and because legal limitations established by United Nation Resolution 2758 and the World Health Assembly Resolution 25.1 have prevented its participation under any other status. In 1997, Taiwans government decided to return to the international health community by seeking observer status in the WHA. Since then, various strategies to gain observer status, including waging a legal battle for the revision of the International Health Regulations, have been tried to no avail. After the Taiwanese presidency changed hands in 2008, cross-strait relations appeared to improve and diplomatic pressure from mainland China has gradually diminished. Finally in April 2009, the WHO Director General sent an ...
Science, 12 November 1999; Volume 286, pp. 1305-1306. Thanks to immunization, polio like smallpox may soon be eradicated. But did the trials of early polio vaccines trigger AIDS? The central thesis of Edward Hoopers new book, The River, is that they did. Hooper argues that both AIDS viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, first infected humans via contaminated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV). He claims these vaccines were grown in kidney cell cultures derived in the 1950s from chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, respectively, that were infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Although this notion has been explored before, no one previously has researched the history of polio vaccine trials and early AIDS cases so exhaustively. Hooper builds up layer upon layer of circumstantial evidence and plausible conjecture, ...
The Hexavalent Vaccine which provides immunity against six important preventable childhood diseases with a single injection at each visit is being introduced in the National Expanded Programme of Immunisation.
The latest press release below from Italian organization that campaigns on vaccine rights, which has just received a grant from the Italian National Order of Biologists to the fury of GSK funded scientists from Padua University. Now read why. ###...
Via The News International, a December 20 report with more details about the attacks: UN anti-polio drive halted in Pakistan. Excerpt from a long article: The attacks on Wednesday began in Shero Jhangi area on Charsadda Road in the provincial...
EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION (EPI) : Immunization coverage survey = PROGRAMME ÉLARGI DE VACCINATION (PEV) : Enquête sur la couverture ...
Healthy 4-6 y old children from Italy and Sweden immunized with DTPa and inactivated or oral polio vaccines at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age, received 1 dose of combined DTPa-IPV (n = 211) or DTPa+IPV as separate doses (n = 205) in a randomized trial. The pre-booster seroprotection rates were similar in each group and were above 60% against all antigens except diphtheria (31.3% and 37.0%) and PT (21.5% and 25.9%) in the DTPa-IPV and DTPa+IPV groups, respectively. At least 99.5% of subjects had seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria, tetanus and polioviruses and ≥96% showed a vaccine response to each pertussis antigen after vaccination. Post-booster antibody levels increased at least 51-fold for anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus, at least 18-fold for anti-pertussis antibodies and at least 32-fold for antibodies against all 3 ...
In post one of this series on polio, a term was introduced: "Acute Flaccid Paralysis". [1]. Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a term which applies to the exact clinical symptoms you would expect to see from poliovirus infection, but which are not necessarily caused by polioviruses. Paralytic polio is actually considered a sub-category in the broad umbrella of acute flaccid paralysis. See pages 300-312 [1] for a chart and summary of many other causes of AFP, a few of which are: Guillaine-Barre syndrome, Cytomegalovirus polyradiculomyelopathy, Acute transverse myelitis, Lyme borreliosis, nonpolio enterovirus and Toxic myopathies.. For many years the medical profession assumed that when they saw paralysis with a particular cluster of symptoms, it was poliomyelitis. The 1954 Francis Trials of the Salk vaccine [2] triggered a reconsideration of this assumption, and a major change in the diagnostic criteria.. How were ...
22 May 2004 , Geneva - The World Health Organizations first strategy on reproductive health was adopted today by the 57th World Health Assembly (WHA). Reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men.. The strategy targets five priority aspects of reproductive and sexual health: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health.. "Unsafe sex is one of the biggest risks to our health today, largely as a result of acquiring sexually-transmitted infections, such as HIV/AIDS. Reproductive and sexual health touches the lives of everyone, everywhere," says Joy Phumaphi, Assistant Director-General of Family and Community Health at WHO. "It is ...
The United States actress and United Nations Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow today wrapped up her visit to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) with an urgent plea for better polio vaccination campaigns to eradicate the disease that continues to threaten the lives of many children in the poor African country.
Speaking during his visit on an assessment tour of States implementing Save the Childrens programs and interventions, the Country Director for the Nigeria Country Programme, Ben Foot expressed satisfaction and happiness with the work done by the Core Group Partnership Project in Katsina State. The Core Group Partnership project (CGPP) aims to contribute to eradication of Polio in Katsina state & Contribute to Polio Eradication Initiative in Nigeria and also contribute to a reduction in Morbidity and Mortality from Vaccine Preventative Diseases (VPDs). Ben Foot also led the team from Save the Children to immunize children brought to the Outreach sessions held by Save the Children Community volunteers in Rimi LGA.. He expressed satisfaction with the work been done so far and encouraged mothers and care givers to make sure their children receive the appropriate immunization from vaccine preventable diseases in Katsina State.. Also speaking ...
Address by Dr Hussein A. Gezairy Regional Director WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to the Eighth meeting of the regional technical advisory group on poliomyelitis eradication, Eastern Mediterranean Region, Cairo, Egypt, 21-23 October ...
NEW CANAAN, CT- Cancer vaccines present an elusive goal, yet one that is increasingly within reach for biomedical researchers. Their hope is to offer physicians and cancer patients more and better therapy options than radiation and chemotherapy. The advancement of cancer vaccine research, from the bench to clinical trials, was the focus of the Sabin Vaccine Institutes 5th Annual Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy held this past March 5-8 at Walkers Cay in the Bahamas.. According to H.R. Shepherd, chairman of the Sabin Vaccine Institute, this years colloquium generated immense energy toward progress on cancer vaccine research and immunotherapy advances. Dr. Shepherd is a proponent of vaccines as therapeutic agents against many forms of cancer, having been treated ...
In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared smallpox, the first disease in human history, eradicated. Smallpox is the only disease to have been eradicated and only two repositories the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia and Vector in Novosibirsk, Russia maintain live viral strain collections.Wild Polio Virus, was the next scheduled disease to face eradication. Unfortunately, the recent polio outbreak in Syria serves as a reminder that conflict and war severely impact vaccination campaigns and eradication strategies leaving the most vulnerable open to the spread of this horrific disease. While ample polio vaccine exists, other diseases such as smallpox, avian flu, highly pathogenic strains of Category A agents, typically considered suitable for weaponization are not maintained in significant global stockpiles to contain a pandemic outbreak and in some instances not even an epidemic. It takes nearly ten years and around one billion US ...
At least 15 people, mostly security officials, were killed and over 10 others injured in a bomb blast apparently carried out by a suicide bomber outside a polio vaccination centre in Pakistans southwestern city of Quetta, on Wednesday.. "The blast was apparently carried out by a suicide bomber," Balochistan Home Minister Mir Sarfaraz Bugti told media after the blast.. The deceased include 12 policemen, one paramilitary officer and two civilians, a police official said.. Eyewitnesses at the site said they heard firing after a loud blast rocked the area.. The victims have been shifted to Civil Hospital Quetta, where an emergency has been imposed, the Dawn reported.. Police and rescue workers reached the site soon after the blast, while security forces have cordoned off the area.. A three-day anti-polio campaign was launched in Quetta and other districts of Balochistan on Monday. The campaign is to target 2.4 million children under the age of five. Over 55,000 children of Afghan refugees are to be ...
This revision of the General Recommendations on Immunization updates the 1989 statement. Changes in the immunization schedule for infants and children include recommendations that the third dose of oral polio vaccine be administered routinely at 6 months of age rather than at age 15 months and that measles-mumps-rubella vaccine be administered routinely to all children at 12-15 months of age. Other updated or new sections include a) a listing of vaccines and other immunobiologics available in the United States by type and recommended routes, advice on the proper storage and handling of immunobiologics, a section on the recommended routes for administration of vaccines, and discussion of the use of jet injectors; b) revisions in the guidelines for spacing administration of immune globulin preparations and live virus ...
The Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election followed as a result the expiration of the five-year term of the previous legislature elected in Uttar Pradesh, India. The election to the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly was held in seven phases from 8 February through 3 March 2012. Uttar Pradesh has the worlds largest population for a sub-national democracy. The incumbent chief minister Mayawatis Bahujan Samaj Party, which previously won an absolute majority of seats, was defeated by Mulayam Singh Yadavs Samajwadi Party, which gained an absolute majority in the election. Mulayams son and Samajwadi party president Akhilesh Yadav was nominated as chief minister by the party. Uttar Pradesh is the largest province in India in terms of population, but the fourth largest in terms of landmass after the bifurcation to create Uttarakhand. It is also considered politically important because of the number of seats it returns to the Lok Sabha and as including the constituencies of such nationally ...
Sabin Vaccine Institutes Product Development Partnership is highlighted in an article calling for new products to treat neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).. "Product development partnerships (PDPs) represent an attractive alternative for filling that development pipeline. PDPs are non-profit institutions that use industry practices to make diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines for diseases that have low-profit margins such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and NTDs. The Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Childrens Hospital Center for Vaccine Development (Sabin-TCH-BCM) is a unique PDP based at the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine. Although Sabin-TCH-BCM is not making an Ebola vaccine, it has a diverse portfolio of vaccines under development to combat other NTDs, including ...
Poliomyelitis, commonly called polio, is an infectious disease. It is caused by 3 types of poliovirus. Polio is easily spread from person to person. The poliovirus is a virus that causes paralysis. But, most people who are infected with polio have no symptoms and a few have mild symptoms.
Joan L. Headley, Executive Director, PHI. In late 2013, Post-Polio Health International awarded $100,000 to the team of Antonio Toniolo, MD; Andreina Baj, MD; Martina Colombo, PhD - Laboratory of Medical Microbiology and Virology, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria Medical Center, Varese, Italy, to expand its search for poliovirus genome in various populations.. The teams work is enhanced by the expertise of Konstantin Chumakov, PhD, Associate Director for Research, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.. The goals are: 1) to complete the systematic search of poliovirus genomes in the Italian cohort of post-polio syndrome cases, and 2) to verify if poliovirus genomes are also present in aging polio survivors with "stable polio" (those aged ,60 years that have not ...
Curtis R. Webb has represented petitioners in the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program since its creation in 1988. He has represented 275 petitioners in Table and Off-Table cases, in cases involving nearly every Table vaccine. He has won compensation for catastrophically injured children injured by the DTP, DTaP, MMR, and Oral Polio vaccines and for seriously injured adults injured by the MMR, Hepatitis B, Influenza, Varicella, and HPV vaccines.. Mr. Webb represented the petitioners in several precedent setting cases, including Koston v. Secy of Health and Human Services, 974 F.2d 157 (Fed. Cir. 1992) and Shyface v. Secy of Health and Human Services, 165 F.3d 1344 (Fed. Cir. 1999). Not all of his noteworthy cases have been victories. He represented Yates Hazlehurst in one of the Omnibus Autism Proceeding cases, Hazlehurst v. Secy of ...
The continued efforts of governments, partners and communities to protect children in the Middle East from polio have been truly remarkable," said Chris Maher, manager of WHOs regional polio eradication group based in Amman. "But we are not out of the woods yet. Polio continues to circulate in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and recently made a comeback in Nigeria, and so long as there is transmission anywhere, children in the Middle East remain at risk," he added. "We cannot afford to be complacent; we must ensure systems are strong enough to keep polio out of the region, until the job is finished in all parts of the world," he said.. "Polio resurged in Syria in 2013 and Iraq in 2014, after 14 years of absence in the Middle East. An 18-month multi-country, multi-partner outbreak response, including more than 50 rounds of polio campaigns, successfully stopped the spread of the virus and again made the Middle East polio-free. It is now essential to strengthen routine immunization in all countries in ...
Afghanistan and Pakistan witnessed a spike in reported polio cases last year, further highlighting what local officials call an imminent threat to the border region between the two countries caused by militant threats and misinformation. … According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria are the only countries in the world where polio has not been eliminated. While WHO is on the verge of declaring Nigeria polio-free, Afghanistan and Pakistan are seeing an uptick in new cases since 2018…" (Mohammad/Habibzada, 1/24).. ...
Upon first discovery in 1796, vaccines were hailed as a game changer in the fight against disease, but in the past 30 years at least, there has been considerable controversy regarding the belief that some vaccines may be linked to other serious diseases and conditions.. In the 1960s, the Sabin live polio vaccine replaced the inactivated Salk vaccine, until some healthy people began contracting polio from the vaccine; use of the live Sabin vaccine was completely suspended in the U.S. in 2000.. In the 1980s, the DPT vaccine (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus), particularly pertussis, was alleged to have caused irreversible brain and neurological damage in some healthy children; the vaccine was replaced in 1996 with one that is ostensibly safer.. ...
Vaccine-associated feline sarcoma: current perspectives Corey F Saba Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Abstract: Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS; also known as vaccine-associated sarcomas) have been recognized for >20 years. Although uncommon, these tumors are iatrogenic, and vaccination against rabies and feline leukemia virus is perhaps the most common inciting cause. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but it is widely accepted that inflammation induced by vaccines or other injections likely plays a critical role in tumor development. Injection site sarcomas are extremely locally invasive. Multimodal therapy, incorporating combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy or immunotherapy, is recommended. However, tumor recurrences are common even with aggressive treatment, and many ...
The RNA genomes of neurovirulent and attenuated type 3 polioviruses have been cloned in E. cola using an efficient RNA.cDNA hybrid technique. The complete nucleotide sequence of the vaccine-associated neurovirulent revertant P3/119 and, in collaboration with others, the attenuated vaccine strain P3/Leon 12 a1b, have been determined. These have been compared with that of the neurovirulent parent strain P3/Leon/3 7. Ten nucleotide sequence differences were observed between the parent P3/Leon/37 and the vaccine P3/Leon 12 a1b, three of which resulted in amino acid substitutions. Between the vaccine and the revertant P3/119, seven nucleotide sequence differences were observed. Three of these resulted in amino acid substitutions. The possible significance of individual nucleotide sequence differences to the attenuation of and reversion to ...
Today, the Sabin Vaccine Institute, in partnership with the George Washington University and the Childrens National Medical Center, began vaccinating participants for a Phase 1 clinical trial of a novel human hookworm vaccine. The trial will investigate the Na-GST-1 antigen developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership to prevent hookworm infections in endemic areas.
Preliminary experiments are presented which indicate that poliomyelitis virus can be inactivated by a certain preparation of aluminum hydroxide. This effect is seen at neutrality and at a pH of 5.5, but not at a pH of 8.8. Monkeys treated by repeated subcutaneous injections of poliomyelitis virus so inactivated evince immunity as shown by resistance to intranasal instillation and intracerebral inoculation as well as by the neutralizing power of their sera. The treatments which give rise to the immunity produce no symptoms of disease.. ...
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in Cuba, and an eradication strategy by zones is planned by the Official Veterinary Service. The aim of this study was to identify high-risk areas of CSF and the risk factors associated with the disease occurrence in the Pinar del Río province, one of the prioritized areas in the eradication strategy. The outbreak occurrence at district level was analyzed through a 7-year period (2009 to 2015). A high-risk cluster (RR = 5.13, 95% CI 3.49-7.56) was detected during the last 2 years of the study period in the eastern half of the province, with 38 out of 97 districts included. The rate of CSF-affected holdings had a significant increase during 2014-2015 and seems to have occurred mainly in the high-risk cluster area. Swine population density by district (heads/km2) and road length (km) by district were associated with the disease outbreak occurrence. These results provide new insights into the knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease in Cuban endemic
The Hamilton Rotary Club will sponsor a Fathers Day Fly-In pancake breakfast Sunday from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. at the Hamilton Airport. There will be helicopter and airplane rides for $40 and $20 respectively, a hot air balloon walk, antique car and fire truck display and Heritage Farm will host an animal zoo. Proceeds from the event will benefit Rotarys worldwide polio eradication efforts and local community organizations. Reestablishing a Historical Memory (published in Nine: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture) will unravel part of the mystery of 1868 womens baseball in Peterboro in her presentation Bloomer Girls: Shattuck will discuss the Peterboro teams and whether women baseball players considered their actions to be part of the broader womens rights movement of the time. If you are interested in learning the masonry trade, the BOCES Consortium of Continuing Education (BOCCE) is offering a 30-hour training class on masonry construction beginning Monday. Students will be introduced
The National Poliovirus Laboratory of Greece was established in 1995. It has been a member of the WHO network of national reference laboratories.It has been responsible for the virological confirmation of the eradication of poliomyelitis in Greece. It is mow over 10 years since the last case of poliomyelitis was detected in Greece. The laboratory results are reported monthly of WHO. The laboratory has been participating in the proficiency testing and laboratory accreditation organized annually by WHO.. Services. Poliovirus isolation and characterization from cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Enterovirus isolation and characterization form clinical specimens. Enterovirus detection by WHO proposed methodology and by molecular methods. Serology for enteroviruses. Isolation and characterization of enteroviruses from environmental samples.. Contact persons:. Andreas Mentis, [email protected] ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 30631958. Arch. Virol. 2019 Mar;164(3):747-755. A variety of viruses can cause acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). However, the causative agent, sometimes, remains undetermined. Metagenomics helps in identifying viruses not diagnosed by conventional methods. Stool samples from AFP (n = 104) and non-AFP (n = 114) cases that tested enterovirus-negative by WHO standard methods were investigated. A metagenomics approach, first used on five pools of four samples each, revealed the presence of adenovirus sequences. Amplification in A549 cells and full-genome sequencing were used for complete virus identification and for designing a PCR assay to screen individual related samples. Metagenomic analysis showed that adenovirus sequences that were closely to the A31 and A61 genotypes were the most abundant. Two out of the corresponding 20 individual samples were found positive by PCR, and isolates were obtained in cell culture. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences ...
Nearly 90 % individuals infected with polio virus shows no symptoms and polio infection becomes Asymptomatic. Only 4 to 8 % of infected with polio virus shows the following symptoms.. Abortive polio : is the mild form of polio infection, and the individuals nervous system is not affected. Polio infected individuals shows mild symptoms such as flu like fever, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, sore throat , etc... Non paralytic Polio : is a serious form of polio infection, leads to aseptic meningitis. The symptoms such as sensitivity to light, heaviness of head are common with this type of polio infection.. Paralytic polio : is a severe debilitating form of polio, leads to paralysis. Only 0.1 to 1.8 % of human are affected with this type polio infection and severe mobility problems and neurological problems are observed.. People with abortive polio and/or non-paralytic polio recovers fast from polio infection. In case of paralytic polio, the polio virus enters blood stream from ...
Physical Chemistry Courses Uttar Pradesh . Physical Chemistry in Uttar Pradesh, Find the right Physical Chemistry in Uttar Pradesh course in the right location on Emagisters fast and effective search engine. Extensive range of course types available, from short courses to postgraduate. Physical Chemistry.
Participants received one single 0.5 mL dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (13vPnC) coadministered with Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (ActHIB) and Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (Recombinant) and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Combined (Pediarix) at 2, 4, 6 months (infant series). Participants received one single 0.5mL dose of 13vPnC coadministered with ActHIB at 12-15 months of age (toddler dose ...
Side-effects are mild and the vaccine is well tolerated by most children. A rise in body temperature may occur in 20% of children, but the mean value of the fever is only 38.0 C. Most temperatures appear 1 day after vaccination and resolve by the 4th day. Other side-effects include conjunctivitis (17,4%), loss of appetite (18,1%), indisposition (8%), rash (6,5%) and malaise (5,7%). Diplovax HDC 4,0 may be administered simultaneously with monovalent or trivalent poliovirus vaccine, mumps vaccine and rubella vaccine. Care must be taken to avoid intravenous administration of the vaccine. Adrenalin should be available for immediate use in the event of an anaphylactic reaction. Caution should be employed in the administration of measles vaccine to children with a history of ...
Past to the Present NPSP created as a WHO-GoI collaboration 57 Surveillance Medial Officers (SMOs) for Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance SMOs AFP surveillance, Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIA) assistance, Research, Routine Immunization (RI) and measles
Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death.. The poliovirus resides only in humans and enters the environment in the feces of someone whos infected. Poliovirus spreads primarily through the fecal-oral route, especially in areas where sanitation is inadequate. Poliovirus can be transmitted through contaminated water and food or through direct contact with someone infected with the virus. Polio is so contagious that anyone living with a recently infected person is likely to become infected too. Although people carrying the poliovirus are most contagious seven to 10 days before and after signs and symptoms appear, they can spread the virus for weeks in their feces.. Youre at greatest risk of polio if you havent been immunized against the disease. In areas with poor ...
To assure that a drug meets standards of identity, strength, quality, and purity before use, the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (Title 21, Part 211.137) sets forth the conditions under which an expiration date must be listed on drug product labels. With few exceptions, companies must list an expiration date on the immediate container and any outer packaging if the date is not legible through the outer packaging. When single-dose containers are packed in individual cartons, the expiration date may appear on the carton instead of the immediate container. Unfortunately, the CFR does not specify how expiration dates must be expressed. Thus, confusion sometimes occurs. For example, one pharmaceutical company listed "JN05"as the expiration date on a suppository package label; but does "JN"mean "January"or "June"? Another company used an atypical abbreviation for April, "AL,"and produced a code which read "AL 05,"meaning "April 2005."Yet another companys poliovirus ...
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites ...
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Oral Poliol Vaccines : BIVALENT TYPE 1 & 3 ORAL POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE, ORALOral Poliol Vaccines : BIVALENT TYPE 1 & 3 ORAL POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE, ORAL

20 doses) Stabilised with 1m mgcl2 Each dose of 2 drops(0.1 ml) contains poliovirus(sabin) Type 1-106CCID50 Type 3-105.8CCID50 ... ORAL Oral Poliol Vaccines Bivalent type 1 & 3 oral poliomyelitis vaccine I.P. Each bottle contains 2ml ( ... 3 ORAL POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE, ORAL. Bivalent type 1 & 3 oral poliomyelitis vaccine I.P.. Each bottle contains 2ml (20 doses). ... 3 oral poliomyelitis vaccine, ip (bopv 1 & 3).. 2.. Generic name. Bivalent type 1 & 3 oral poliomyelitis vaccine, ip (bopv 1 & ...
more infohttp://vaccinehaffkine.com/products/oral-poliol-vaccinesn/bivalent-type-1-3-oral-poliomyelitis-vaccine,-oral-1-detail.html

Vaccine-Associated Paralytic PoliomyelitisVaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis

... vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is a rare adverse reaction following vaccination with the live oral polio vaccine. ... The risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is not equal for all oral polio vaccine doses in the vaccination series ... Oral Polio Vaccine. Polio Vaccine Side Effects. Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus. Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis ... 5 percent were community acquired (i.e., vaccine virus was recovered but there was no known contact with a vaccine recipient) ...
more infohttp://polio.emedtv.com/polio-vaccine/vaccine-associated-paralytic-poliomyelitis-p2.html

Assessing the Risks for Poliovirus Outbreaks in Polio-Free Countries - Africa, 2012-2013Assessing the Risks for Poliovirus Outbreaks in Polio-Free Countries - Africa, 2012-2013

Abbreviations: OPV3 = ≥3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine; NPAFP = nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis; AFP = acute flaccid ... immunity is assessed by estimates of vaccination coverage by age 12 months with 3 doses of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine ( ... Oral poliovirus dose history among children aged 6-59 months with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP) in countries of the ... Risk tier vaccine history zero doses in children with NPAFP (Low, ,5%; Moderate, 5%-10%; High, ,10%) ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6237a4.htm

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication --- India, 2003Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication --- India, 2003

During 2002, approximately 68% of infants aged ,1 year received ,3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) through routine ... Wild Poliovirus Incidence During 2003, a total of 225 wild poliovirus (WPV) cases were reported§ from India, a substantial ... The outbreak of disease in the south in 2003 was attributable to an increasing proportion of children with ,3 doses of OPV, ... Substantial variations by state were found in routine coverage with 3 doses of OPV (OPV3), ranging from 21% in Bihar to 99% in ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmWr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5311a3.htm

WHO EMRO | Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies among 7-month-old infants after 4 doses of oral polio vaccine in Sistan-va...WHO EMRO | Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies among 7-month-old infants after 4 doses of oral polio vaccine in Sistan-va...

Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies among 7-month-old infants after 4 doses of oral polio vaccine in Sistan-va-Baluchestan ... Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies among 7-month-old infants after 4 doses of oral polio vaccine in Sistan-va-Baluchestan ... Factors affecting the immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine in developing countries: review. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Sep-Oct; ... all infants should have received at least 4 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) (at birth and at 2, 4 and 6 months of ...
more infohttp://www.emro.who.int/emhj-volume-21-2015/volume-21-issue-2/seroprevalence-of-poliovirus-antibodies-among-7-month-old-infants-after-4-doses-of-oral-polio-vaccine-in-sistan-va-baluchestan-islamic-republic-of-iran.html

IAC EXPRESS - Issue #135IAC EXPRESS - Issue #135

Since 1990, reported routine infant vaccination coverage in Chad (e.g., three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine [OPV]) has been ... of hepatitis B vaccine no later than 12 hours of age, even if thimerosal-free vaccine is not available.. The full text of Dr. ... have led to low routine coverage with three doses of OPV and continued widespread transmission of wild poliovirus.. "Chads ... hepatitis B vaccine at birth and no later than two months of age. Hepatitis B vaccine that is thimerosal free is available and ...
more infohttp://www.immunize.org/genr.d/issue135.htm

Prolonged Poliovirus Excretion in an Immunodeficient Person with Vaccine-Associated Paralytic PoliomyelitisProlonged Poliovirus Excretion in an Immunodeficient Person with Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis

... three doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered during 1964-1965 and four doses of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine ... Recently completed molecular studies of poliovirus isolates suggest that viral replication of vaccine-related polioviruses may ... Prolonged Poliovirus Excretion in an Immunodeficient Person with Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis MMWR 46(28);641-643 ... In contrast, each subpopulation differed from wild type 1 poliovirus isolates by 19%-24% of VP1 nucleotides. Polioviruses ...
more infohttps://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0048405/m0048405.asp

Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral Drug Information, ProfessionalPoliovirus Vaccine Live Oral Drug Information, Professional

Includes Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral side effects, interactions and indications. ... Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral Drug Information from Drugs.com. ... Oral, 0.5 mL {23} {24}.. U.S.:. Two doses administered not less ... Oral Dosage Forms. POLIOVIRUS VACCINE LIVE ORAL (ORAL SOLUTION) USP. Usual adult dose. Immunizing agent (active). ... Poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV) contains the live, attenuated polioviruses {01} {23} {24}.. Mechanism of action/Effect:. OPV ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/mmx/poliovirus-vaccine-live-oral.html

Standards for Pediatric Immunization PracticesStandards for Pediatric Immunization Practices

... three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, series-complete immunization ... Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine acellular pertussis vaccine HBV = Hepatitis B vaccine OPV = Oral poliovirus vaccine (*) ... Inactivated poliovirus vaccine pertussis vaccine MMR = Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine DTaP =Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and ... s has been expanded to include three or four doses of Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine and three doses of hepatitis B vaccine ( ...
more infohttps://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/p0000260/p0000260.asp

Epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States one decade afterEpidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States one decade after

... with approximately 1 case occurring per 2.5 million doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) distributed during 1980-1989. Since ... Poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus has been virtually nonexistent in the United States since 1980, and vaccine-associated ... Our findings suggest that adoption of a sequential vaccination schedule (inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by OPV) would ... Overall, 93% of cases in OPV recipients and 76% of vaccine-associated cases have been related to administration of the first or ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/epidemiology-poliomyelitis-united-states-one-decade-after-last-reported-case-i

Poliovirus neutralising antibody in infants and cord blood. | ScholarBank@NUSPoliovirus neutralising antibody in infants and cord blood. | [email protected]

... in the WHO EPI protocol for rapid assessment of serological response to three doses of standard oral poliovirus vaccine. The ... finding of thirty infants below one year old is no proof of seroconversion rate to the Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (TOPV ... Poliovirus neutralising antibody in infants and cord blood.. Authors: Yin-Murphy, M. Tan, K.L. Lim, G.N.. Quek, J.H.. Ishak, B. ... Yin-Murphy, M., Tan, K.L., Lim, G.N., Quek, J.H., Ishak, B., Phoon, M.C. (1993-05). Poliovirus neutralising antibody in infants ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/131287

Number of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo | ZanranNumber of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo | Zanran

... number receiving oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during National Immunization Days † (NIDs), number of reported cases of acute ... oral poliovirus; MMR, measles-mumpsrubella; Hib, Haemophilus influenza type b; HepB, hepatitis B; VZ, varicella zoster vaccine ... Immune response of age group 1 to 12 months children against oral poliovirus vaccine., Mean changes before and after for all ... statistics on Number of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo: Number of children aged 0-59 months*, ...
more infohttp://www.zanran.com/q/Number_of_children_receiving_oral_poliovirus_in_the_Congo

Welcome to CDC stacksWelcome to CDC stacks

3 DPT doses, 3 oral poliovirus vaccine doses, and 1 measles vaccine dose) was Conclusions Survey results highlighted vaccine ... Median coverage across all districts for each of eight vaccine doses (1 Bacille Calmette-Guérin dose, ... Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria ... District-level coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) ranged widely from 1-63%, with all ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/43674

Westfield Public Schools Announce Dates for Kindergarten, First Grade Registration | TAPintoWestfield Public Schools Announce Dates for Kindergarten, First Grade Registration | TAPinto

... or any total of 5 doses. Poliomyelitis vaccine - 3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or enhanced inactivated polio vaccine ... Hepatitis B vaccine - 3 doses or laboratory documentation of immunity.Varicella vaccine - one dose of varicella vaccine on or ... Rubeola (Measles) vaccine - 2 doses given on or after the first birthday separated by at least a month, or laboratory ... Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine (DPT Series) - 4 doses with 1 dose given on or after the fourth birthday, ...
more infohttps://www.tapinto.net/towns/westfield/articles/westfield-public-schools-announce-dates-for-kinde

LITTLE KNOWN FACTS ABOUT POLIOMYELITIS VACCINATIONS by Viera ScheibnerLITTLE KNOWN FACTS ABOUT POLIOMYELITIS VACCINATIONS by Viera Scheibner

... despite an immunisation programme that recently had raised coverage with 3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) among 12- ... oral poliovirus vaccine. produced in Romania was replaced by imported oral vaccine produced by a Western European manufacturer ... Of the 26 patients whose vaccine status was known, 14 had received four doses of OPV, 6 had one or two doses, and 6 no vaccine ... Intramuscular injections within 30 days of immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine - a risk factor for vaccine-associated ...
more infohttp://www.whale.to/vaccine/scheibner.html

Antibody Persistence in Healthy Children After Primary and Booster DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T Vaccine or Control Vaccine - Full Text...Antibody Persistence in Healthy Children After Primary and Booster DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T Vaccine or Control Vaccine - Full Text...

Receipt of primary vaccination with 3 doses of either DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T or CombAct-Hib™ + Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) + ... Participants previously received 3 doses CombAct-Hib™ + Engerix™ B + OPV and a booster dose of CombAct-Hib™ + Oral poliovirus ... Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) + Engerix™ B vaccination at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age and a booster vaccination of DTaP-IPV-Hep B ... Antibody Persistence in Healthy Children After Primary and Booster DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T Vaccine or Control Vaccine. The safety ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01105559

Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China. - PubMed - NCBI

... attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were conducted among children and adults, and 43 million doses of OPV were ... Wild-type poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 14 of 673 contacts of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (2.1%) and from 13 of ... The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a ... We conducted an investigation to guide the response to the outbreak, performed sequence analysis of the poliovirus type 1 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24256377?dopt=Abstract

The REAL History Behind the Polio VaccineThe REAL History Behind the Polio Vaccine

despite an immunisation programme that recently had raised coverage with 3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) among 12- ... Shedding of virulent poliovirus revertantsduring immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine after prior immunization with ... Abraham reported that shedding of virulent poliovirus revertants, during immunization with oral poliovirus vaccines, after ... Oral polio vaccine and human cancer: a reassessment of SV40 as a contaminant basedupon legal documents. Anticancer Res. 2000 ...
more infohttp://healthimpactnews.com/2013/the-real-history-behind-the-polio-vaccine/print/

History and Science Show Vaccines Do Not Prevent DiseaseHistory and Science Show Vaccines Do Not Prevent Disease

In the vaccine debate currently raging in modern society, seldom, if ever, is the basic presupposition that vaccines prevent ... despite an immunisation programme that recently had raised coverage with 3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) among 12- ... Shedding of virulent poliovirus revertantsduring immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine after prior immunization with ... Vaccine-induced enhancement of viral infections.. Vaccine. 2009 Jan 22;27(4):505-12. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.087. Epub ...
more infohttps://healthimpactnews.com/2013/history-and-science-show-vaccines-do-not-prevent-disease/

Vaccines for Children Program, United States, 1997 | ELECTRONIC ARTICLE | PediatricsVaccines for Children Program, United States, 1997 | ELECTRONIC ARTICLE | Pediatrics

3 doses of polio vaccine (oral poliovirus vaccine or inactivated poliovirus vaccine), ≥1 doses of measles-containing vaccine, ... The National Vaccine Advisory Committee. (1991) The measles epidemic: the problems, barriers, and recommendations. JAMA 266: ... 1997) Impact of free vaccine and insurance status on physician referral of children to public health clinics. JAMA 278:996-1000 ... To be considered up to date (4:3:1:3 UTD), a child would have to have received ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP ...
more infohttps://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/104/2/e15

Morbidity and mortalityMorbidity and mortality

Oral poliovirus vaccine is. the predominant form used in the United States. Two. doses of the combined or trivalent vaccine are ... poliovirus vaccine (Salk type) should receive at least. one dose of the trivalent oral vaccine before leaving. the country.. ... doses distributed each year since vaccine licensure in. March 1963 is shown in Table 3.. Table 3- Doses of Live Measles Virus ... vaccine explain, this incrreaso. Tho a\erag numbl)er of. Figure 2. NUMBER OF DOSES OF LIVE MEASLES VIRUS VACCINE DISTRIBUTED ...
more infohttp://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00010654/00011

Elementary Nurse Information - Haddon Heights School DistrictElementary Nurse Information - Haddon Heights School District

Poliomyelitis - a completed series consisting of three (3) doses of live, trivalent, oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), one dose of ... Diphtheria - A minimum of 4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine (DPT) one dose of which is given on or ... Hepatitis B - 3 doses must be given before entrance into Grade K or 1. If the child is not immunized before school starts, dose ... Measles - A second dose of measles vaccine is required before entrance into kindergarten. ...
more infohttp://hhsd.k12.nj.us/cms/One.aspx?portalId=783901&pageId=4011923
  • 1 Nishio O et al (1984) investigated the persistence of neutralizing antibody (NA) against poliovirus after two doses of OPV in 67 children. (who.int)
  • S et al (2004) studied vaccine- induced antibody prevalences in representative samples of 8-9 year- olds as compared to 3-4 year olds (Fortuin M et al, 1995) in The Gambia. (who.int)
  • 88% of 3-4 year- olds and 89% of 8-9 year- olds had detectable antibody levels against poliovirus type 1. (who.int)
  • This paper emphasises the importance of vaccine potency testing and serves as a timely reminder that although the last case of indigenous poliomyelitis was recorded in 1974, non Sabin-like (wild) polioviruses are being isolated from imported cases and foreigners hospitalised in Singapore, and unexpectedly, from the conjunctiva and pharynx of Singaporeans treated for conjunctivitis. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000. (nih.gov)
  • The first (day 11) isolate contained two subpopulations, equally divergent from the Sabin 1 vaccine strain (by 10% of VP1 nucleotides), and differing from each other by 6% of VP1 nucleotides. (cdc.gov)
  • The Sabin vaccine has drawbacks, however: it contains a still-live virus that was mutated long ago so that it is usually too weak to produce disease. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • However, VAPP cases continued occurring with the Sabin vaccine. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • The isolates were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA, for genetic sequencing, and the result showed poliovirus type 2 with 1.6% difference from Sabin strain poliovirus. (cdc.gov)
  • The oral polio vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin and came into commercial use in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently completed molecular studies of poliovirus isolates suggest that viral replication of vaccine-related polioviruses may have persisted for as long as 7 years in a patient with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in whom common variable immunodeficiency syndrome (CVID) previously had been diagnosed. (cdc.gov)
  • IAC EXPRESS EDITOR'S NOTE: Please resume your previous practice of routinely administering the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and no later than two months of age. (immunize.org)
  • Hepatitis B vaccine that is thimerosal free is available and should be used for these newborns according to the "AAP News" article. (immunize.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has approved the first thimerosal-free hepatitis B vaccine, Recombivax HB Pediatric, manufactured by Merck Vaccine Division. (immunize.org)
  • A second preservative-free hepatitis B vaccine made by Smith-Kline Beecham (Engerix-B Pediatric) currently is under evaluation by the FDA. (immunize.org)
  • Additionally, data demonstrate that children who do not receive hepatitis B vaccine at birth are less likely to complete this series of immunizations. (immunize.org)
  • An excellent article titled "Uproar over a little-known preservative, thimerosal, jostles U.S. hepatitis B vaccine policy," appeared in the summer 1999 issue of the "Hepatitis Control Report" (Vol. 4, No. 2). (immunize.org)
  • In addition, the recommended vaccine serie s has been expanded to include three or four doses of Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine and three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (7-10). (cdc.gov)
  • The susceptibility of young adult Americans to vaccine- preventable infections. (who.int)
  • Measles - A second dose of measles vaccine is required before entrance into kindergarten. (nj.us)
  • The Region of the Americas was highest risk for polio and other vaccine-preventable certified as polio-free in 1994 (2). (who.int)
  • Poliovirus type 1 was isolated from each specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, each subpopulation differed from wild type 1 poliovirus isolates by 19%-24% of VP1 nucleotides. (cdc.gov)
  • In countries where poliovirus is still endemic, paralytic disease is most often caused by poliovirus type 1, less frequently by poliovirus type 3, and least frequently by poliovirus type 2 {01} {03} . (drugs.com)
  • These and other findings from national surveillance in countries of the Americas led to the 1994 certification by an international commission that the wild-type poliovirus transmission has been interrupted in the Americas, thus achieving a public health goal established by the Pan American Health Organization in 1985 {02} {05} . (drugs.com)
  • To prevent recurrent importation, the best long-term solution is to eradicate wild-type poliovirus reservoirs in polio-endemic countries that are major exporters of wild-type polioviruses {06} . (drugs.com)
  • Therefore, mass immunization campaigns called NIDs are necessary to stop wild-type poliovirus transmission in these regions {09} {17} . (drugs.com)
  • However, a new outbreak due to type 1 poliovirus in western Uttar Pradesh, following importation of the virus from Bihar state in mid-2008, has highlighted the fragility of progress because of the suboptimal efficacy of oral poliovirus vaccine in this area. (who.int)
  • Importantly, poliovirus type III was the one most implicated. (whale.to)
  • In 2011, an outbreak of infection with imported wild-type poliovirus occurred in the province of Xinjiang. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted an investigation to guide the response to the outbreak, performed sequence analysis of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 to determine the source, and carried out serologic and coverage surveys to assess the risk of viral propagation. (nih.gov)
  • Between July 3 and October 9, 2011, investigators identified 21 cases of infection with wild-type poliovirus and 23 clinically compatible cases in southern Xinjiang. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence analysis implicated an imported wild-type poliovirus that originated in Pakistan as the cause of the outbreak. (nih.gov)
  • 1. There has been more than one type of polio vaccine through its history, due to the fact that earlier versions were found to be ineffective and harmful. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Evolving epidemiology of poliovirus serotype 2 following withdrawal of the type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine. (umn.edu)
  • In 2011, only parts of four countries in the world remain endemic for the disease - the smallest geographic area in history - and case numbers of wild poliovirus type 3 are down to lowest-ever levels. (poliofree.org)
  • cVDPVs differ from the majority of vaccine-related isolates by having genetic properties consistent with prolonged replication or transmission [ 4 ]. (archivesofmedicine.com)
  • Additional doses to complete the series may be given if time permits. (drugs.com)
  • Children and adolescents who did not complete vaccine series: Administer additional doses to complete series. (drugs.com)
  • It can be begun earlier but then additional doses are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 2003, a total of 225 wild poliovirus (WPV) cases were reported § from India, a substantial decrease from the 1,600 cases reported in 2002 ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Use of the minimum age and minimum intervals (4 weeks) during the first 6 months of life should only be done when the vaccine recipient is at risk for imminent exposure to circulating poliovirus (shorter intervals and earlier start dates may lead to lower seroconversion) (CDC/ACIP 2009). (drugs.com)
  • Editorial Note: Although the replication of poliovirus in immunocompetent persons is of limited duration (ranging from several days to 3 months) (1), poliovirus may replicate in immunodeficient persons for considerably longer periods (2). (cdc.gov)
  • It also urged Nigeria to undertake intensified activities to stop rapidly the outbreak of poliomyelitis in the north of the country, and Afghanistan, India and Pakistan to implement large-scale mopping-up activities to interrupt their final chains of poliovirus transmission. (who.int)
  • Although the large outbreak of the disease experienced in 2008 has subsided, monitoring indicates that significant gaps in coverage of these immunization activities persist, with more than 60% of children remaining not fully vaccinated (having received three or fewer doses of oral poliovirus vaccine). (who.int)
  • Immune response of age group 1 to 12 months children against oral poliovirus vaccine. (zanran.com)
  • And the vaccine is risky in children with immune-system problems. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • However, after the immunodeficiencies vaccine-derived poliovirus was identified, isolation of the virus was attempted only from stool samples from children who lived in the same subdistrict as the patient. (cdc.gov)
  • Polioviruses isolated from specimens obtained after day 11 were derived from only one subpopulation. (cdc.gov)
  • By 2001, poliovirus circulation in India had been limited primarily to the two northern states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, with 268 cases reported nationwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Overall, 93% of cases in OPV recipients and 76% of vaccine-associated cases have been related to administration of the first or second dose of OPV. (greenmedinfo.com)