Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Silver-Russell Syndrome: Genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by low birth weight, postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, bilateral body asymmetry, and clinodactyly of the fifth fingers. Alterations in GENETIC IMPRINTING are involved. Hypomethylation of IGF2/H19 locus near an imprinting center region of chromosome 11p15 plays a role in a subset of Silver-Russell syndrome. Hypermethylation of the same chromosomal region, on the other hand, can cause BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME. Maternal UNIPARENTAL DISOMY for chromosome 7 is known to play a role in its etiology.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple defects characterized primarily by umbilical hernia (HERNIA, UMBILICAL); MACROGLOSSIA; and GIGANTISM; and secondarily by visceromegaly; HYPOGLYCEMIA; and ear abnormalities.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Septo-Optic Dysplasia: A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Craniopharyngioma: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Kallmann Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by hypothalamic GNRH deficiency and OLFACTORY NERVE defects. It is characterized by congenital HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM and ANOSMIA, possibly with additional midline defects. It can be transmitted as an X-linked (GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED), an autosomal dominant, or an autosomal recessive trait.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Hypothalamic Neoplasms: Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Empty Sella Syndrome: A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Tuber Cinereum: Layer of GRAY MATTER in the HYPOTHALAMUS that also forms part of the floor of the THIRD VENTRICLE and merges anteriorly into the infundibulum (see PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Mice, Inbred BALB CInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Inbred C57BLVitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Abnormalities, MultipleMolecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.United StatesReceptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.IgA Deficiency: A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
"Evaluation of adrenal function in patients with growth hormone deficiency and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders: comparison ... Hepatitis Weekley, Autoimmune Diseases, "Cytotoxic Antigen Induces Hypophysitis in Cancer Patients," 2006-1-9; see also, Weston ... between insulin-induced hypoglycemia, low-dose ACTH, standard ACTH and CRH stimulation tests". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 152 (5): 735 ... "Diagnosis of GH deficiency in the transition period: accuracy of insulin tolerance test and insulin-like growth factor-I ...
International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring ... A deficiency of thyroid hormones can reduce basal metabolic rate up to 50%, while in excessive production of thyroid hormones ... Commonly encountered symptoms are abnormal growth of the thyroid gland and disorders in functioning and growth of the organism ... Iodine and stomach cancer. Some researchers have found an epidemiologic correlation between iodine deficiency, iodine-deficient ...
Demand for thyroid hormones is increased during pregnancy which may cause a previously unnoticed thyroid disorder to worsen. ... Risks for the child include miscarriage, growth restriction, growth acceleration, fetal obesity (macrosomia), polyhydramnios ... Cancer Chronic hypertension Cirrhosis Congenital disorders that may be passed on to offspring Heart defects, especially primary ... Both amantadine and rimantadine have been found to be teratogenic and embryotoxic when given at high doses in animal studies. ...
Long-term amenorrhoea leads to an estrogen deficiency which can bring about menopause at an early age. The hormone estrogen ... Reproductive disorders may be the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and most cases are not recognized. For ... Increased testosterone levels cause by amenorrhoea may lead to body hair growth and decreased breast size. Increased levels of ... Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen like the oral contraceptive Micronor, and especially higher-dose ...
... and tumour necrosis factors but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology). Cytokines ... used to treat cancer. Interleukin 11 (IL-11), used to treat thrombocytopenia in cancer patients. Interferon gamma is used to ... This may lead to lower therapeutic doses. Said et al. showed that inflammatory cytokines cause an IL-10-dependent inhibition of ... The IL-2 receptor belongs to this chain, whose γ-chain (common to several other cytokines) deficiency is directly responsible ...
If goitre is caused by iodine deficiency, small doses of iodide in the form of Lugol's Iodine or KI solution are given. If the ... These nodules grow up at varying rates and secrete thyroid hormone autonomously, thereby suppressing TSH-dependent growth and ... 11(2005), 1279-86 Numbers from EUROCARE, from Page 10 in: F. Grünwald; Biersack, H. J.; Grںunwald, F. (2005). Thyroid cancer. ... A goitre, associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, may be present with symptoms of the underlying disorder. For ...
"Body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency; effects of low-dose growth hormone replacement ... studied animals with genetic disorders that suppress growth hormone production and secretion and found reduced growth hormone ... Jenkins, P. J.; A. Mukherjee; S. M. Shalet (2006). "Does growth hormone cause cancer?". Clinical Endocrinology. 64 (2): 115-121 ... Savine R, Sönksen P (2000). "Growth hormone - hormone replacement for the somatopause?". Hormone Research. 53 (Suppl 3): 37-41 ...
"Naringenin and 17beta-estradiol coadministration prevents hormone-induced human cancer cell growth". IUBMB Life. 62 (1): 51-60 ... Christian C, von Schoultz B (15 March 1994). Hormone Replacement Therapy: Standardized or Individually Adapted Doses?. CRC ... Sharpe RM, Skakkebaek NE (May 1993). "Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive ... "Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (2): 91-5. ...
It can also be used to treat excessive hair growth in women and as a part of hormone therapy for transgender women. It is taken ... ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1. Blume-Peytavi U, Whiting DA, Trüeb RM (26 June 2008). Hair Growth and Disorders. Springer Science & ... causing deficiency of the 5α-reductase enzyme and male hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which was found to have been the ... which could mask the development of prostate cancer. Although overall incidence of male breast cancer in clinical trials for ...
... folic acid deficiency), drugs (e.g. anticancer drugs, tetracyclines, many hormones, thalidomide), and environmental chemicals ( ... used in a variety of workplaces that are known to cause developmental disorders. Developmental disorders can include a wide ... But it is known have developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small doses. It has been shown to cause ... Exposures to some chemicals during pregnancy can lead to the development of cancer later in the life of the child and are ...
... , in conjunction with growth hormone (GH) and its secretory product insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), is critical ... reduce eumelanin Cancer Support hormone-sensitive breast cancers (see section below) Lung function Promotes lung function by ... Aromatase deficiency is ultimately suspected which is involved in the synthesis of estrogen in humans and has therapeutic ... However the effect of estrogens on cognition is not uniformly favorable and is dependent on the timing of the dose and the type ...
Growth of jaw, brow, chin, nose, and remodeling of facial bone contours, in conjunction with human growth hormone.[21] ... certain forms of breast cancer,[10] and gender dysphoria in transgender men. This is known as hormone replacement therapy (HRT ... "Serum testosterone and urinary excretion of steroid hormone metabolites after administration of a high-dose zinc supplement". ... Horsky J, Presl J (6 December 2012). Ovarian Function and its Disorders: Diagnosis and Therapy. Springer Science & Business ...
... is used as a prescription drug to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In the United States, ... "Risk of cancer in patients treated with human pituitary growth hormone in the UK, 1959-85: a cohort study". Lancet. 360 (9329 ... Higher ("pharmacologic") doses are required to produce significant acceleration of growth in these conditions, producing blood ... known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 (placental growth hormone; growth ...
... commonly characterised by mental deficiency, deafness, squint, disorders of stance and gait and stunted growth due to ... a condition later known to be associated with thyroid hormone deficiency. Diderot, in his 1754 Encyclopédie, described these ... selenium and the development of breast cancer". Cancer Causes and Control (review). 11 (2): 121-127. doi:10.1023/A: ... In case of extremely high single-dose iodine intake, typically a short-term suppression of thyroid function (Wolff-Chaikoff ...
"Growth Hormone Deficiency". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2017.. ... involve giving a dose of an agent that will normally provoke a pituitary to release a burst of growth hormone. An intravenous ... and rates in older children are rising as more children survive childhood cancers which are treated with radiotherapy, although ... "Consensus Guidelines for Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency 2007".. *^ a b c d e "The Use of Growth Hormone Replacement in Adult ...
... prenatal hormone exposure and the effects of hormones, growth factors and xenoestrogens cause fibroid growth. Known risk ... Coexisting disordersEdit. Fibroids that lead to heavy vaginal bleeding lead to anemia and iron deficiency. Due to pressure ... Cabergoline in a moderate and well-tolerated dose has been shown in two studies to shrink fibroids effectively. The mechanism ... A syndrome (Reed's syndrome) that causes uterine leiomyomata along with cutaneous leiomyomata and renal cell cancer has been ...
Genotropin (Growth hormone) for growth failure due to an inadequate secretion of endogenous growth hormone. Geodon (ziprasidone ... Hopes for a renewed bid later in the year were dashed when Pfizer signed a major cancer drug deal with Merck KGaA, selling its ... The company has also pledged to provide up to 740 million doses of its anti-pneumococcal vaccine at discounted rates to infants ... Xanax and Xanax XR (alprazolam) for anxiety and panic disorders. In addition to marketing branded pharmaceuticals, Pfizer is ...
... growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and thyroid hormones in lymphocyte development and function: insights from ... Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Immunodeficiency occurs ... "multiple hormone deficiency" theory of aging: is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies?". Annals of ... Lower doses of anti-inflammatory drugs are often used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such as ...
Demand for thyroid hormones is increased during pregnancy which may cause a previously unnoticed thyroid disorder to worsen. ... Risks for the child include miscarriage, growth restriction, growth acceleration, fetal obesity (macrosomia), polyhydramnios ... "Cancer during pregnancy". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck Sharp & Dohme.. *^ Merck. "High blood pressure during ... Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 23 (3): 246-254. doi:10.1097/00042560-200003010-00006. PMID 10839660.. ...
Bovine growth hormone also stimulates liver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). The U.S. Food and Drug ... "Meta-analysis of cohort data produced evidence of a clear dose-response relationship between advanced/aggressive cancer risk ... In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that casomorphin can cause or aggravate autism spectrum disorders,[122][123] and casein- ... When lactose intolerance is due to secondary lactase deficiency, treatment of the underlying disease allows lactase activity to ...
... may stimulate tumor growth in types of cancer that are sensitive to hormones, such as some types of breast, uterine ... Prasterone is a steroid hormone. High doses may cause aggressiveness, irritability, trouble sleeping, and the growth of body or ... As a medication, prasterone may be used to restore or increase DHEA levels in deficiency or old age, for menopausal women as a ... depression or mood disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), or cholesterol problems. Prasterone, also known as androst-5- ...
Hormone-controlled UV-B responses in plants, archived from the original on 8 July 2016. ... Holick, MF (19 July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (3): 266-81. doi:10.1056/ ... "www.cancer.org. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.. ... January 2012). "DNA damage after acute exposure of mice skin to physiological doses of UVB and UVA light". Arch Dermatol Res. ...
There is some concern that this treatment increases the risk of breast cancer. Adding testosterone to hormone therapy has a ... Women who have a functional disorder affecting the reproductive system (e.g., endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, cancer ... Low-dose prescription vaginal estrogen products such as estrogen creams are generally a safe way to use estrogen topically, to ... "deficiency disease" in need of management. In Japanese culture, reporting of vasomotor symptoms has been on the increase, with ...
Hormonal birth control acts by using low doses of hormones to prevent ovulation, and thus prevent pregnancy in sexually active ... This cycle results in the thickening of the lining of the uterus, and the growth of an egg, (which is required for pregnancy). ... Clancy, Kate (27 July 2011). "Iron-deficiency is not something you get just for being a lady". SciAm. Archived from the ... More severe symptoms of anxiety or depression may be signs of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Rarely, in individuals ...
Folate has a dual effect on cancer, protecting against cancer initiation but facilitating progression and growth of ... "Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is the single greatest cause of preventable mental retardation. Severe deficiencies cause ... Holick M.F. (2010). "The Vitamin D Deficiency Pandemic: a Forgotten Hormone Important for Health". Health Reviews. 32: 267-283 ... Retinol, the active form of Vitamin A, is toxic in a much lower dose than other forms, such as beta carotene. Menadione, a ...
Growth hormone deficiency. *Hypoprolactinemia. *ACTH deficiency/Secondary adrenal insufficiency. *GnRH insensitivity. *FSH ... colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis ... Testosterone deficiency is also associated with type 2 diabetes.[48][49] Eating disorders may also interact with type 2 ... and certain cancers such as glucagonomas.[44] Individuals with cancer may be at a higher risk of mortality if they also have ...
... to provide recommendations regarding the treatment of hypothalamic-pituitary and growth disorders in childhood cancer survivors ... Prevalence of Low Lean Mass in Patients With Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency With or Without Low-Dose Growth Hormone Therapy ... Guidelines for Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Treatment in Children and Adolescents: Growth Hormone Deficiency ... Guidelines for Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Treatment in Children and Adolescents: Growth Hormone Deficiency ...
Therapy is one of the most common forms of treatment for children and adults who face a deficiency in the growth hormone ... Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy Growth hormone is also known as Somatotropin. It can be injected by the patient ... This hormone is required in fewer doses in men than in women. Many insurance schemes cover the cost of growth hormone ... Those children who have less growth hormone have low risk of cancer. Short men have less risk of prostate cancer and longer ...
As a medication, HGH is legally and primarily used to help those who have HGH deficiencies. Human growth hormone also gained ... Growth disorders. HGH is known to be a useful therapy for children who have unexplained short stature and other markers of ... And because HGH speeds growth of all bodily tissues, there is an alarming risk of quickly metastasizing cancer tumors-which is ... and fat loss in both men and women who have a documented HGH deficiency. More recent investigations suggest that low doses of ...
... is a recombinant human growth hormone product under development for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which is ... OPKO CURNA, LLC (CURNA) is engaged in the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of a range of illnesses, including cancer, ... heart disease, metabolic disorders and a range of genetic anomalies. CURNAs platform technology utilizes a short, single ... and a Phase IIb study is planned to determine the optimal dose to treat patients with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH). ...
... purchase Growth Hormone Injections. Also searched compensatory displacement in insulin secretion at shift a thorough knowledge ... study of two doses of biosynthetic human growth hormone on final height of pubertal children with growth hormone deficiency. ... Specialist for treatment and resolution of the respiratory disorder prior to initiating growth hormone treatment. Nutropin AQ ... buy bacteriostatic water HGH you may need growth hormone injections more often. Research: Cancer gene inhibition shows step ...
Human Growth Hormone Drugs - Global Strategic Business Report report to their offering.... ... High Prevalence of Growth Hormone Deficiency Disorders *Innovations Hold the Key to Market Growth ... Risk of Cancer Necessitates Judicious Use of hGH in Children *Dose Titration ... Evolution of Recombinant Human Growth Hormones (hGH) *List of Select Approved Prescription Daily-dose hGH Products by ...
... and endocrine cells for treating disorders resulting from hormone deficiency , e.g. hypoparathyroidism ... Cancer. In most cases, cancer originates from a single stem cell which proliferates to form a clone of malignant cells. Growth ... Initial doses can be higher, e.g., up to a few hundred ng/ml, without attaining a therapeutic, e.g., immunosuppressive, dose, ... Mood (or Affective) Disorders. Mood disorders are a group of mental disorders such as schizophrenia characterized by extreme ...
Cancer. *Chronic renal failure. *Crohns disease. *Deep vein thrombosis. *Gaucher disease. *Growth hormone deficiency ... And that you have the right dose. They can answer your questions and help you cope with your condition throughout your therapy. ...
immune deficiencies late onset secondary sex chara. growth reduction/ developmental changes poor appetite - pts lose sense of ... thyroid hormone and insulin function regulation of cell growth and fertility Exists as selenomethionine and selenocysteine ... Emetic effect at doses as low as 50 mg. Can reduce Cu absorption (Cu and Zn uptake related) implicated in alzheimers disease ... Bone growth. Binds to proteins. Acts as second messenger Hormone receptor interactions Calmodulin Binding - regulates muscle ...
More than 50% of patients may continue to suffer from endocrine abnormalities, with growth hormone deficiency and growth ... 32, 33, 34] Risks of treatment-related secondary cancers are well described. Larger irradiation volume and dose both adversely ... Many patients with unrecognized CNS GCTs may have had a long history of complications such as movement disorders, enuresis, ... 26] In vitro studies have shown that tumor growth factor beta 1 may initiate the migration of primordial germ cells. [27] ...
These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency ... There are two main thyroid disorders: Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid. The thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, growth and ... Cancer, diabetes, thyroid and neurological disorders, hormonal imbalances, heart disease, arthritis and bone loss osteoporosis ... when the toxic dose overlaps the therapeutic dose meaning there is no safety margin. The recent meeting of the Codex Committee ...
Somatropin is used to treat childrens growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. ... Insulin-specifically glargine-is a long-acting analogue used for basal dosing in type I and type II diabetes. ... Filgrastim is used with certain cancer patients to accelerate recovery from neutropoenia after chemotherapy, allowing higher- ... It is used to treat childrens growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. ...
High Prevalence of Growth Hormone Deficiency Disorders. * Innovations Hold the Key to Market Growth ... Risk of Cancer Necessitates Judicious Use of hGH in Children. *Dose Titration - A Key to Achieve Enhanced Tolerability ... 4. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE: AN OVERVIEW. 5. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY. *NHI Includes JCR Pharmaceuticalss GROWJECT Liquid hGH ... Table 10: The US Historic Review for Human Growth Hormone Drugs Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Million for ...
Adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a multifactorial disorder in which pituitary dysfunction associated with pituitary ... Excessive GH/rhGH also causes a significant increase in the risk of cancer and the recurrance of cancer, and diabetes mellitus ... a dose of 0.4 mg to 0.8 mg of rhGH daily, and for older adults, a dose of 0.2 to 0.4, may be sufficient to treat AGH. These ... ADULT GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY EXPLAINED. Nature and Physiology of Growth Hormone. Classification of Growth Hormone Deficiency ...
... growth hormone deficiency, somatomedin deficiency, burns, infection, other trauma, cancer, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular ... allowing lower doses of GH to be used when compared to the enhancement in growth achieved using an equivalent dose of IGF-1 or ... Method for treating cartilage disorders US6677305B1 (en) 1997-04-04. 2004-01-13. Genentech, Inc.. Insulin-like growth factor ... Specific deficiencies are those associated with infant prematurity, growth hormone deficiency, somatomedin deficiency, burns, ...
Growth hormone therapy often needed into 20s.(Endocrinology, Clinical report) by Internal Medicine News; Health care industry ... Health, general Bone density Health aspects Bone development Bones Density Hormone therapy Dosage and administration ... Growth hormone secretagogues in perspective.. Adult-onset growth hormone deficiency: causes, complications and treatment ... The side effects of growth hormone therapy are usually dose-related and can be alleviated by adjusting the medication. The most ...
... human growth hormone produced by Eli Lilly. It is used to treat growth hormone deficiency and growth disorders. SteroidsFax can ... help you to treat your growth gormone deficiency and improve physical appearance. Buy hgh humatrope 72 ui lily online via our ... or have SHOX deficiency; have idiopathic short stature, which means . Humatrope® and HumatroPen® are registered trademarks ... Hgh Lilly Children who do not make enough growth hormone on their own, have short stature associated with Turner syndrome, ...
Describes how the luteinizing hormone (LH) test is used, when an LH test is ordered, and what the results of an LH test might ... Hormone deficiency *Turner syndrome *Klinefelter syndrome. *Chronic infections *Cancer *Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa) ... This can be due to developmental defects in testicular growth or to testicular injury, as described below. ... a dose of GnRH is given by injection. A subsequent increase in the level of LH indicates that the pituitary responded to the ...
High doses of Riboflavin may also help in the treatment of migranes [10]. Finally, Riboflavin deficiency may be linked to ... Dietary Folate Intake and Incidence of Ovarian Cancer: The Swedish Mammography Cohort. J Natl Cancer Instit. 2004 Mar;96(5):396 ... It is also used in cell growth and the production of fatty acids. Bacteria in the intestines produce a large amount of Biotin. ... Thiamine is involved in the conversion of fatty acids and amino acids into hormones, proteins and enzymes. It is necessary for ...
Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information. ... For treatment of growth hormone deficiency: *Adults- *Nutropin® or Nutropin AQ®: *Non-weight based: At first, the usual dose is ... Prader-Willi syndrome (a genetic disorder), if severely overweight or have severe breathing problems or ... Cancer, active or. *Closed epiphyses (normal bone growth stopped) in children or ...
Growth Hormone deficiency is defined as a peak response to arginine infusion , 1.4 ng/mL. Growth Hormone insufficiency is ... Drug: Recombinant human Growth Hormone 400 micrograms/day SC for 6 months. Dose adjusted based on serum IGF-1 measurements ... A composite outcome statistic takes into account the fact that in a complex disorder such as TBI, there are multiple domains of ... Futility design trials were pioneered in cancer chemotherapy studies, and have recently been used in Phase II clinical trials ...
... the hormone is also given in some bone-destroying cancers, such as myelomas. The same is true for children with growth problems ... they often contain large doses of hormones, mainly testosterone. Widespread praise of large muscles, strength and endurance ... The expected results were also unsuccessful in attempting to administer anabolic steroids to people with appetite disorders who ... But administering it without a reason (congenital or acquired deficiency proven by medical research) has many undesirable ...
Papaya Possess the Potential to Influence Human Growth Hormone. For optimal cell production and cell regeneration, human growth ... If you want lower risk of bone infections that lead to fracture, cancer, and other disorders, a daily diet of papaya including ... The high dose of vitamin K in the body encourages calcium absorption which is good for optimal bone health. (15) ... A deficiency in vitamin K is directly linked with reduced bone health. This caused bone fracture, bone infections, rickets, and ...
... improved therapies that can help most people with anxiety disorders. ... Effective natural cures for anxiety disorders are available, research is yielding new, ... Hormones in Meat. Many brands of meat have been fed hormones to promote fast weight gain and growth. One hormone ... Nutritional deficiencies. Nutritional deficiencies are a common cause of stress and anxiety.. When under stress, the need for ...
... placebo-controlled trial of combined insulin-like growth factor I and low dose growth hormone therapy for wasting associated ... Pollak M: Insulin-like growth factor physiology and cancer risk. Eur J Cancer 36:1224 -1228, 2000. ... Efficacy and safety of sustained-release growth hormone (GH) given once or twice monthly in children with GH deficiency. ... The Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis: Its Manipulation for the Benefit of Growth Disorders in Renal Failure. ...
  • He has to make sure before starting with growth hormone as these have an impact on how the patient's body responds to insulin. (std-gov.org)
  • In this test, insulin is used to lower the blood sugar level which then stimulates the gland to release growth hormone. (std-gov.org)
  • Production, which translates to an equally high production of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (another intracellular signaling hormone). (flagr.com)
  • The first synthetic versions of the medication were and LDL-C concentration decreased, HDL-C concentration increased dosing and education of self-injection Ipamorelin (vial of 30 doses) Supplies: alcohol pads, insulin syringes, sharps container. (flagr.com)
  • Insulin-specifically glargine-is a long-acting analogue used for basal dosing in type I and type II diabetes. (health.gov.au)
  • GH triggers the liver to produce a substanced called "insulin-like growth factor-I IGF-I (formerly somatomedin-C). It is IGF-I that is proximately responsible for commencing the metabolic functions that result in building bone, muscle, and tissue, including linear growth in children. (hgfound.org)
  • C07K14/65 - Insulin-like growth factors (Somatomedins), e.g. (google.com)
  • IGF-1, also known as somatomedin C, is a serum polypeptide which mediates the activity of growth hormones and also possesses insulin-like activity. (google.com)
  • 190, 445-462 'Insulin-like Growth Factors I and II' IGF-1 has known insulin-like potency and stimulation potency of sulphate uptake by cartilage, and it may enhance protein and DNA synthesis in cells. (google.com)
  • Tell your doctor about all of your prescription and over the counter drugs, including cyclosporine, hormone replacement therapy, insulin or other diabetes medications, drugs containing steroids, or drugs for seizures. (bestallcialis.top)
  • Further, the major effector molecule of the somatotropic axis, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) has recently been recognized as an important neurotrophic agent. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Renal failure is associated with dramatic changes in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. (asnjournals.org)
  • Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with many severe metabolic and hormonal derangements, including alterations in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis, which is an important contributor to the growth disorders of renal failure. (asnjournals.org)
  • The synthesis and release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary are controlled by the hypothalamic hormones GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), which in turn are regulated by feedback (dashed lines) from blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. (asnjournals.org)
  • However, many hormones affect GH release, including insulin, so the true functions of gut ghrelin remain to be determined. (asnjournals.org)
  • If you reduce the levels of your fat-storing hormone, insulin, you'll likely have an easier time losing excess weight. (dietdoctor.com)
  • The researchers called growth hormone therapy safe in their study with no serious adverse events attributed to it, effects on thyroid or liver function, or persistent elevations in glucose and insulin levels. (medpagetoday.com)
  • These hormones have a very long list of vital effects, including on the immune system, on insulin function and on dietary metabolism. (lourdesnet.org)
  • For example, insulin is a hormone that helps regulate your metabolism and how your body uses food for energy. (healthgrades.com)
  • The optimal dose is equivalent to units of regular insulin. (nrha.org)
  • It causes serious side-effects in some people such as water retention, liver damage, painful joints, etc. another major problem of using this injection is that the body's pituitary gland stops producing their own hormones and then one has to take these injections lifelong. (std-gov.org)
  • To enhance your body's immunity against cancer cells and other infections that could potentially link to cancer, you need a balanced diet of nutritive fruits such as papaya. (jenreviews.com)
  • The sun also adds to the body's daily production of vitamin D, and as little as 10 minutes of exposure is thought to prevent deficiency. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Adrenal hormones help regulate your body's water and salt balance, blood pressure, and stress response. (healthgrades.com)
  • Colostrum is packed with growth factors, including IGF-1, that amplify lean muscle gains and increase the body's ability to burn fat. (bodybuildingpeptides.com.au)
  • This orange-colored tropical fruit is blessed with many healthy and refreshing nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamins, calcium, potassium, and other minerals that help fight cancer, reduce weight, treat cardiovascular diseases, and much more. (jenreviews.com)
  • Primary Care operating segment includes revenues from human pharmaceutical products primarily prescribed by primary-care physicians, and may include products in the therapeutic and disease areas, such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular (excluding pulmonary arterial hypertension), erectile dysfunction, genitourinary, depressive disorder, pain, respiratory and smoking cessation. (instaforex.com)
  • The same is true for children with growth problems. (esof2010.org)
  • In children, this results in growth retardation, which is treated with injections of recombinant human GH (rhGH). (asnjournals.org)
  • In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, which is a softening or weakening of the bones. (mayoclinic.org)
  • AOR's Vitamin D3 for Children is rapidly converted in the body to the active hormone 1,25 dihydrocholecalciferol, and helps in the development and maintenance of bones, the absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus, and is a factor in the maintenance of good health. (vitamart.ca)
  • Evaluation of Teicoplanin Trough Values Following the Recommended Loading Dose in Children with Associated Safety Analysis. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Parents can use this brochure to help their children know more about growth, factors that affect it or interfere with it, and ways to measure it over time. (humatrope.com)
  • The reasons for this are not clear, although it has been established that women who have had children are less likely to develop breast cancer that those who have not. (stress.org)
  • Thyroid hormone important in children for normal skeletal, neural and musculature development. (angelfire.com)
  • Thanks to the assiduousness of talented researchers around the globe, our contemporary understanding of the pharmacology and probably also the physiological regulation of growth hormone secretion, came about after the important discovery that GHRP increased pulsatile GH secretion in not only children, but also within normal younger and older men and women. (bodybuildingpeptides.com.au)
  • Occasionally, the hormone is also given in some bone-destroying cancers, such as myelomas. (esof2010.org)
  • In the kidney, IGF-I increases renal plasma flow and GFR, whereas on bone it acts on the epiphysial plate, which leads to longitudinal bone growth. (asnjournals.org)
  • Small studies find they are effective in boosting libido, energy and well-being in women with androgen deficiencies, as well as providing added protection against bone loss. (healthywomen.org)
  • In the United States today, 10 million individuals already have osteoporosis, and 18 million more have low bone mass, placing them at increased risk for this disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fracture. (nih.gov)