Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2: An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 18.104.22.168.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 22.214.171.124.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate: A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 126.96.36.199.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Adrenal Cortex HormonesPrednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fluocinonide: A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of ECZEMA.Mice, Inbred C57BLDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Mice, Inbred BALB CInfusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.TetrahydrocortisolCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Argininosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 188.8.131.52.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Treatments consist of high dose glucocorticoids and low dose radiotherapy. The current hypothesis is that infiltrative ...
Treatment is first with many different high-dose steroids, namely glucocorticoids. Then, if symptoms do not improve additional ... Mycophenolate mofetil and anti-TNF therapies In Takayasu's arteritis it is vital to combine drug treatments often with low-dose ...
... which is not related to dose and has a variable latency period. This type of injury does not have a clear dose-response nor ... Glucocorticoids are so named due to their effect on the carbohydrate mechanism. They promote glycogen storage in the liver. An ... The dose toxic to the liver is quite variable from person to person and is often thought to be lower in chronic alcoholics ... In the past, glucocorticoids in allergic features and ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic cases had been used, but there is no ...
An example is the ability of pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoids to suppress inflammation. At the neurological level, ... A "pharmacologic dose" or "supraphysiological dose" of a hormone is a medical usage referring to an amount of a hormone far ... The effects of pharmacologic doses of hormones may be different from responses to naturally occurring amounts and may be ...
Holte K, Kehlet H (Nov 2002). "Perioperative single-dose glucocorticoid administration: pathophysiologic effects and clinical ... As a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone is an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Dexamethasone is a synthetic pregnane ... Dexamethasone is commonly given as a treatment for croup in children, as a single dose can reduce the swelling of the airway to ... It is useful to counteract allergic anaphylactic shock, if given in high doses. It is present in certain eye drops - ...
Most commonly used treatments include high-dose glucocorticoids, and cyclosporine. In refractory cases treatment regimens are ...
... sometimes with low-dose oral glucocorticoids. If disease remission is observed, regular NSAIDs or glucocorticoid treatment may ...
The glucocorticoid dose is typically started at the low end of physiologic replacement (6-12 mg/m²) but is adjusted throughout ... However, glucocorticoid needs are increased during illness and stress, and missed doses during an illness such as the "flu" (or ... While glucocorticoids are essential for health, dosing is always a matter of approximation. In even mildly excessive amounts, ... Treatment may involve a combination of very low dose glucocorticoid to reduce adrenal androgen production and any of various ...
The addition of the monoclonal antibody mepolizumab may reduce the dose of glucocorticoids. As HES affects many organs at the ... It is treated with glucocorticoids such as prednisone. ...
Large doses of glucocorticoids are the treatment of choice, and are administered until the signs have resolved. In ... If dogs are not treated promptly and with high doses of steroids, severe scarring may occur. If there is evidence of secondary ... As signs resolve following treatment with glucocorticoids, the cause is likely to be an immune disorder. Puppies are first ...
Intravenously administered glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, are the standard of care in acute GvHD and chronic GVHD. The ... Therefore, it is desirable to taper off the post-transplant high-level steroid doses to lower levels, at which point the ... Moroff, G; Leitman, SF; Luban, NL (1997). "Principles of blood irradiation, dose validation, and quality control". Transfusion ... in high doses, this immune-suppression raises the risk of infections and cancer relapse. ...
The dose of glucocorticoid medication may be decreased if response to treatment is good. This medication may be reduced ... After this initial phase, the medication may be reduced in dose or frequency, e.g. every other day, if possible. If the disease ... Methylprednisolone, a glucocorticoid, is often used for pulse therapy; cyclophosphamide is an alternative. This method has been ... Pulsed therapy is an alternative method of administering the medications above, using much higher doses over a short period of ...
It is associated with high doses and long-term use of propofol (> 4 mg/kg/h for more than 24 hours). It occurs more commonly in ... children, and critically ill patients receiving catecholamines and glucocorticoids are at high risk. Treatment is supportive. ... Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of ...
de Quervain's work with glucocorticoids, mainly cortisol, and memory dates back to 1998 after he found that glucocorticoids ... Memory retrieval, especially retrieval of emotional memories, is impaired when healthy subjects are given doses of cortisol. ... Glucocorticoids, however, have not been found to reduce general fear or anxiety in otherwise healthy people. When cortisol was ... Glucocorticoids decrease fear in patients with phobias. When given a dosage of cortisol, patients with social phobia showed ...
"Equivalent doses and relative drug potencies for non-genomic glucocorticoid effects: a novel glucocorticoid hierarchy". Biochem ... Prednylidene is a glucocorticoid for systemic use. Substitution at position 16 also leads to more potent corticosteroids. The ...
To prevent this, the drug is usually prescribed with a tapering dose, including a predosed "dose pack" detailing a specific ... However, glucocorticoids have a wide range of effects, including changes to metabolism and immune responses. The list of ... By this mechanism, glucocorticoids can inhibit leukocyte infiltration at the site of inflammation, interfere with mediators of ... Unbound glucocorticoids cross cell membranes and bind with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic receptors, modifying ...
At high doses, side effects (primarily gastrointestinal upset) limit its usage. At lower doses, which are still effective, it ... Glucocorticoids have been found to be as effective as NSAIDs and may be used if contraindications exist for NSAIDs. They also ... However, a low dose of hydrochlorothiazide does not seem to increase risk. Other medications that increase the risk include ... Canakinumab may result in better outcomes than a low dose of a steroid, but costs five thousand times more. A recombinant ...
Loose DS, Stover EP, Feldman D (July 1983). "Ketoconazole binds to glucocorticoid receptors and exhibits glucocorticoid ... Lower doses of fluconazole and itraconazole are required to kill fungi compared to ketoconazole, as they have been found to ... First, and most notably, high oral doses of ketoconazole (e.g. 400 mg three times per day) block both testicular and adrenal ... This effect is thought to be quite weak however, even with high oral doses of ketoconazole. Ketoconazole, along with miconazole ...
It would takes over 28 times the normal dose to cause toxicity in cats. Such doses, however, can cause low blood pressure, ... though it has no glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid action. Instead, it works by acting on GABAA receptors. It binds to the M3 ... and has a terminal half-life of 25 minutes in dogs and 45 minutes in cats when given at clinical doses (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg ... most notable is its lack of cardiovascular depression at clinical doses, which makes it unique among anesthetics. The most ...
Low dose hydrocortisone is only used if both intravenous fluids and vasopressors are not able to adequately treat septic shock ... Studies do not give a clear picture as to whether and when glucocorticoids should be used. The 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign ... Once daily dosing of aminoglycoside is sufficient to achieve peak plasma concentration for clinical response without kidney ... The method of stopping glucocorticoid drugs is variable, and it is unclear whether they should be slowly decreased or simply ...
Typical medical conditions in which steroid diabetes arises during high-dose glucocorticoid treatment include severe asthma, ... occurring in the context of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. Insulin levels are usually detectable, and sometimes elevated, ... Glucocorticoids oppose insulin action and stimulate gluconeogenesis, especially in the liver, resulting in a net increase in ... The most common glucocorticoids which cause steroid diabetes are prednisolone and dexamethasone given systemically in " ...
Glucocorticoids can be provided at minimal replacement doses because there is no need for suppression of excessive adrenal ... With glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement, these girls will reach the age of puberty. Because the ovaries are ... As with other forms of adrenal insufficiency, extra glucocorticoid is needed for stress coverage. XX females with lipoid CAH ... In some cases, the condition is more mild with signs and symptoms of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid deficiency appearing ...
Following package insert instructions for a single topical dose, as detailed on the package insert, should not lead to any ... Cyclocort is a synthetic corticosteroid created to imitate natural glucocorticoids. In order to do so, amcinonide acts as an ... It acts as both a transcription factor for responses to glucocorticoids and modulator for other transcription factors while ... Amcinonide (trade name Cyclocort) is a topical glucocorticoid used to treat itching, redness and swelling associated with ...
Glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs; however, these drugs can have many undesirable side effects, such as ... Lower doses of anti-inflammatory drugs are often used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such as ... or in larger doses. This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins (which are typically larger ...
Components of an immediate-type allergy (based on the dramatic resumption of axon reflex sweating following glucocorticoid ... treatment). Treatment of AIGA almost always consists of steroid pulse therapy or high-dose oral steroids and is not ... over the entire body Absence of other autonomic dysfunction Elevated serum IgE levels Marked response to glucocorticoids ...
with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) ... glucocorticoids, thiazides, beta blockers, atypical antipsychotics, and statins. Those who have previously had ... systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". BMJ. 354: i3857. doi:10.1136/ ... Doses are then increased to effect (blood sugar levels being well controlled). When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice ...
glucocorticoid. (redirected from Cortisone acetate). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. glu·co·cor·ti·coid. (glo ... Photos: Norditropin NordiFlex(R) 30 mg/3 mL Prefilled Pen Offers Children Needing a Larger Dose of Growth Hormone a Convenient ... glucocorticoid - a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex of animals; affects functioning of gonads and has ... glucocorticoid. (ˌɡluːkəʊˈkɔːtɪˌkɔɪd) n. (Biochemistry) any of a class of corticosteroids that control carbohydrate, protein, ...
... a glucocorticoid used to treat a variety of health issues and as part of a chemotherapy regimen to prevent nausea and vomiting. ... Methylprednisolone sodium succinate is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone produced by the adrenal ... If possible, take the medication when you can be upright (not lying down) for a few hours after the dose. Avoid things that ... Classification: Glucocorticoid About: Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate (SOLU-MEDROL ®) ...
If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses ... a Early initiation of systemic glucocorticoid therapy may be life-saving in pemphigus vulgaris. a Reduce dosage gradually to ... Betamethasone dosing information. Pivovarova, E. M. Direct anti-atherosclerosis-related effects of garlic. NDC 0006-0063-68 ... Clobetasol propionate is a highly potent topical corticosteroid that has been shown to suppress the HPA axis at doses as low as ...
triamcinolone is a steroid classified as a synthetic glucocorticoid. In this video iaposll show you the only medicine that ever ... dose levothyroxine weight ... It is an antiinflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the ... It is an antiinflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Triamcinolone acetonide ...
Low-dose Glucocorticoids Plus Rituximab Versus High-dose Glucocorticoids Plus Rituximab for Remission Induction in ANCA- ... Low-dose glucocorticoids plus rituximab versus high-dose glucocorticoids plus rituximab for remission induction in ANCA- ... showed high-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab had roughly the same efficacy and safety as high-dose glucocorticoid plus IV- ... low-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab or the high-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab groups. Primary endpoint is proportion ...
In this work, we tested steroid dosing in mice and found that a single pulse of glucocorticoid steroids improved sarcolemmal ... Chronic steroid use usually involves once-daily dosing, although weekly dosing in children has been suggested for its reduced ... However, daily dosing activated atrophic pathways, including F-box protein 32 (. Fbxo32. ), which encodes atrogin-1. Conversely ... Glucocorticoid steroids such as prednisone are prescribed for chronic muscle conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, ...
Can combination of glucocorticoids with other immunosoppressive drugs reduce the cumulative dose of glucocorticoids for ... with a cumulative dose of 2.5-7.5 g of methylprednisolone, more commonly 4.5 g . Intravenous glucocorticoids are effective, ... large doses of glucocorticoids are needed, and this may cause severe adverse events, including liver toxicity, hypertension, ... Graves orbitopathy Intravenous glucocorticoids Methotrexate Cyclosporine This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
... between low-dose and high-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab). Participants will be randomised to the "low-dose glucocorticoid ... glucocorticoid plus rituximab had roughly the same efficacy and safety as high-dose glucocorticoid plus IV-cyclophosphamide. In ... Low-dose Glucocorticoid Vasculitis Induction Study Brief description of study. Previous reports suggested conventional ... Thus, the investigators aim to investigate whether rituximab can reduce glucocorticoid dose in induction remission in ANCA- ...
Incidence of infections associated with oral glucocorticoid dose in people diagnosed with polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell ... Incidence of infections associated with oral glucocorticoid dose in people diagnosed with polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell ... Incidence of infections associated with oral glucocorticoid dose in people diagnosed with polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell ... Incidence of infections associated with oral glucocorticoid dose in people diagnosed with polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell ...
Study Comparing Doses Of An Experimental Glucocorticoid Compound To Prednisone And Placebo In Rheumatoid Arthritis. This study ... Study medication will be given for eight weeks followed by a 4 week period during which the dose of study medication will be ... A Phase 2, Randomized, Double Blind Assessment Of Efficacy And Safety Of PF-04171327 (1, 5, 10, 15 Mg Dose, Daily) Compared To ... The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of multiple doses of PF-04171327, an experimental ...
Oral glucocorticoid exposure. For each prescription of oral glucocorticoids, the daily dose was derived from recorded ... When assessing dose response with total cumulative dose, we found evidence of increased risk only for a dose of 7300 mg or ... even for daily doses of less than 5 mg, and the high dose-response estimates in users of non-oral glucocorticoids and ... The median glucocorticoid cumulative dose received during follow-up was 3451.5 (IQR 1606.5-6465.0) mg and in the last year of ...
... asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids but there was limited quadrupling dose of inhaled glucocorticoids ... low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids for 48 weeks and were then randomized to continue to the same dose or a quintupled dose. The ... HealthDay News - Quintupling the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids seems not to be effective for preventing exacerbations among ... and colleagues compared a self-management plan that included a temporary quadrupling in the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids ...
Quadrupling inhaled glucocorticoid dose for deteriorating asthma control reduced severe exacerbations Diego J. Maselli, MD; Jay ... Quadrupling inhaled glucocorticoid dose to abort asthma exacerbations. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:902-10. 29504499 ... Quadrupling inhaled glucocorticoid dose for deteriorating asthma control reduced severe exacerbations. Ann Intern Med. 2018;168 ... Does a self-management plan for deteriorating asthma control that includes quadrupling the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids ( ...
... half the group was given the same dose, and half the group was given a dose 5 times the maintenance dose. The study looked at ... Increasing Dose of Glucocorticoids May Not Benefit Children with Asthma. By Editor ... All of the children used a low dose inhaler - 2 puffs twice daily. This was the standard dose. The children were given (parents ... Increasing Dose of Glucocorticoids May Not Benefit Children with Asthma2018-03-302018-03-28https://ndnr.com/wp-content/uploads/ ...
... on down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA (GR mRNA) and GR density, as well as tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT ... Dose-dependent and repeated-dose effects of methylprednisolone (MPL) ... Dose-dependent and repeated-dose effects of methylprednisolone (MPL) on down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor messenger ... Dose-Dependence and Repeated-Dose Studies for Receptor/Gene-Mediated Pharmacodynamics of Methylprednisolone on Glucocorticoid ...
AB0056 The timing of low dose glucocorticoid therapy administration in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ... AB0056 The timing of low dose glucocorticoid therapy administration in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ... Conclusion Low dose prednisolone therapy in treatment of RA significantly suppresses the activity of disease beginning from the ... Objectives This study was performed to determine the effects of low dose prednisolone in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA ...
Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with high-dose glucocorticoid ... Dose-related patterns of glucocorticoid-induced side effects. Ann Rheum Dis 2009;68:1119-24. ... Safety of low dose glucocorticoid treatment in rheumatoid arthritis: published evidence and prospective trial data. Ann Rheum ... The effect of glucocorticoids on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. The Arthritis and Rheumatism Council Low-Dose ...
The effect of glucocorticoids on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. The Arthritis and Rheumatism Council Low-Dose ... The Arthritis and Rheumatism Council Low-Dose Glucocorticoid Study Group. Br J Rheumatol 1998;37:930-6. ... While high doses are associated with well known adverse effects, in low doses (≤ 10 mg prednisone), adverse effects may be ... Incident Comorbidity Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated or Not with Low-dose Glucocorticoids: A Retrospective ...
Adverse Events During Longterm Low-dose Glucocorticoid Treatment of Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A Retrospective Study. Maurizio ... Adverse Events During Longterm Low-dose Glucocorticoid Treatment of Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A Retrospective Study ... Adverse Events During Longterm Low-dose Glucocorticoid Treatment of Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A Retrospective Study ... Adverse Events During Longterm Low-dose Glucocorticoid Treatment of Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A Retrospective Study ...
The Impact of High-Dose Glucocorticoids on the Outcome of Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitor-Related Thyroid Disorders. Chanjuan Ma, F ... High-dose glucocorticoid (HDG) therapy is routinely recommended for irAEs. However, systematic analysis of the impact of ... The Impact of High-Dose Glucocorticoids on the Outcome of Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitor-Related Thyroid Disorders ... The Impact of High-Dose Glucocorticoids on the Outcome of Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitor-Related Thyroid Disorders ...
Are low doses of oral glucocorticoids as effective as high doses as the sole treatment for canine pemphigus foliaceus? ... Are low doses of oral glucocorticoids as effective as high doses as the sole treatment for canine pemphigus foliaceus? ... The use of oral glucocorticoids at an initial dose of 2 mg/kg/day may prove effective in some cases. In the long term, some ... The prednisolone dose was then tapered to 0.6 mg/kg on alternate days. New lesions appeared after two months, so the dose was ...
Dose dependency of iatrogenic glucocorticoid excess and adrenal insufficiency and mortality: a cohort study in England ... Conclusion: We report a high glucocorticoid dose-dependent increased risk of adrenal adverse events and death. The low observed ... 3 more authors) (2019) Dose dependency of iatrogenic glucocorticoid excess and adrenal insufficiency and mortality: a cohort ... However, no population estimates of dose-related risks are available.. Objective: To investigate dose-related risks of adrenal ...
Effects of low-dose glucocorticoid prophylaxis on chronic GVHD and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival after haploidentical ... Effects of low-dose glucocorticoid prophylaxis on chronic GVHD and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival after haploidentical ...
Purpose The target of glucocorticoids: inflammation Glucocorticoids are used to stop the inflammation process. ... Glucocorticoids Definition Glucocorticoids are naturally-produced steroid hormones, or synthetic compounds, that inhibit the ... Depending on the glucocorticoid, the dose may be taken once a day, over the course of several doses spaced evenly throughout ... Glucocorticoids can also be artificially made, and are usually referred to as glucocorticoid drugs. Examples of glucocorticoids ...
Although glucocorticoids have been shown to decrease T4-to-T3 conversion and decrease thyroid hormones by yet undiscovered ... Other glucocorticoids at equipotent doses may also be effective. Intravenous high dose glucocorticoid therapy may be more ... Glucocorticoids. Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. Although glucocorticoids have been shown to decrease T4-to-T3 ... Higher dose of methimazole causes frequent adverse effects in the management of Graves disease in children and adolescents. J ...
HydrocortisoneMethylprednisoloneProduced by the adrenalMedicationReceptorsInhibitionHormonesMineralocorticoidSteroidsAdministration of glucocorticoidsStress-level glucocorticoid administrationChronicSpecific glucocorticoid receptorSuppressAntagonistsAsthma exacerbationsAnti-inflammatory and immunosuppressiveVitroRheumatoidTreatmentSynthetic glucocorticoid receptorCorticosteroneIndicate that glucocorticoidsRheumatic diseasesQuadrupling the dose of inhaledRole of glucocorticoidsRegulateCell proliferationImmunosuppressiveAdrenal glandsParticular glucocorticoidIntracellular glucocorticoidExacerbationsLeucine zipperOsteoporosisModulateFindingsInflammationAccomplished by adrenalHighGlucoseExposureAdverseMetabolic
- Similar to that in our country, some do not have access easily to hydrocortisone or cortisone acetate , and therefore, have to resort to long-acting synthetic glucocorticoids. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications you are taking especially if they are: a glucocorticoid medication such as hydrocortisone or cortisone acetate , thyroid hormone, insulin and/or oral diabetes medicines, drugs metabolized by the liver (for example, corticosteroids, sex steroids, anticonvulsants, cyclosporine), or oral estrogen replacement. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Their shape permits them to move across the membrane that surrounds cells in the body, and to be recognized by molecules inside the cell called glucocorticoid receptors. (encyclopedia.com)
- It was prevented by a blocker of nuclear glucocorticoid receptors, by pertussis toxin, by a phorbol ester, and by dibutyryl cAMP, but was unaffected by an increase in the fuel content of the culture medium. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, LPS-induced interleukin-12 (IL-12) production could be downregulated by all three steroids, indicating that ligation by progesterone of either the glucocorticoid or the progesterone receptors or both could mediate this effect. (nih.gov)
- This would suggest that progesterone-mediated increased susceptibility to T. gondii during pregnancy is more likely to be related to the ability of the hormone to downregulate IL-12 production and a type-1 response utilizing the progesterone as well as the glucocorticoid receptors. (nih.gov)
- Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity , causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors . (wikipedia.org)
- The present study examined whether adrenal steroid receptors in the hippocampus mediate such glucocorticoid effects on spatial memory retrieval. (pnas.org)
- Thus, we suggest that inhibiting glucocorticoid receptors for corticosterone may be a more salient technique when investigating the role of seasonal corticosterone levels. (biologists.org)
- Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. (wikipedia.org)
- They bind to the intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) of inflammatory cells to form a glucocorticoid-GR complex. (health24.com)
- The classic genomic effects are mediated by cytosolic glucocorticoid receptors that can upregulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (transactivation) or repress the translocation of proinflammatory transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). (asnjournals.org)
- The nongenomic effects are probably mediated by membrane glucocorticoid receptors. (asnjournals.org)
- Glucocorticoid receptors are expressed also in podocytes and experimental data suggest that glucocorticoids may protect from podocyte injury. (asnjournals.org)
- These effects depend on the doses of synthetic glucocorticoids and on the density, availability, and affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. (asnjournals.org)
- Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that readily cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors and high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptors ( Reul and de Kloet, 1985 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Immunosuppression by glucocorticoids: Inhibition of NF-κB activity through induction of I κ B α synthesis. (springer.com)
- Glucocorticoids are global in their inhibition of the inflammatory response. (encyclopedia.com)
- Direct glucocorticoid inhibition of insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
- 4. Capillary growth inhibition in cultures treated with all glucocorticoids, except triamcinolone, was associated with an increased transcription of clusterin/apolipoprotein J ( clust/apoJ ), an apoptotic gene. (ingentaconnect.com)
- To investigate whether stimulated monocyte cytokine release and its inhibition by glucocorticoids differs between men and women. (bmj.com)
- Four different glucocorticoids caused a dose-dependent inhibition of apoptosis leading to increased survival of neutrophils. (jimmunol.org)
- When administered without glucocorticoids, abiraterone acetate induces a syndrome of secondary mineralocorticoid excess due to CYP17A1 17Î±-hydroxylase inhibition, consequently decreased glucocorticoid production, and a compensatory increase in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)," wrote study authors led by Gerhardt Attard, MD, PhD, of the University College London Cancer Institute. (cancernetwork.com)
- Therefore, when the glucocorticoids activate lipocortins, they cause the inhibition of PLA2 and subsequent inhibition of arachidonic acid and inhibition of prostaglandin production. (health24.com)
- Further, glucocorticoid receptor inhibition demonstrated partial to complete protection from both iAs- and cadmium-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity in vitro . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Glucocorticoids are naturally-produced steroid hormones, or synthetic compounds, that inhibit the process of inflammation. (encyclopedia.com)
- Indeed, the designation glucocorticoid arose from observations that the hormones played a role in the utilization of glucose. (encyclopedia.com)
- Although glucocorticoids have been shown to decrease T4-to-T3 conversion and decrease thyroid hormones by yet undiscovered mechanisms, the adverse effect profile of long-term glucocorticoid therapy makes it unattractive for long-term management of Graves hyperthyroidism. (medscape.com)
- The side effects are the same as the effects of natural glucocorticoid hormones in the body. (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- One of the most frequently prescribed classes of drugs are glucocorticoid hormones. (planetherbs.com)
- Previous studies have indicated that stress-activated glucocorticoid hormones induce temporary memory retrieval impairment. (pnas.org)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
- In technical terms, "corticosteroid" refers to both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (as both are mimics of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex), but is often used as a synonym for "glucocorticoid. (wikipedia.org)
- The name "glucocorticoid" derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Corticosteroid agents mimic the endogenous steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex-mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) and glucocorticoid (cortisol). (aafp.org)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important steroid hormones with widespread activities in metabolism, development, and immune regulation. (rupress.org)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are lipid hormones playing an important role in the regulation of the immune system (for review see reference 6 ). (rupress.org)
- Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which controls circulating levels of glucocorticoid hormones, occurs early in AD, resulting in increased cortisol levels. (jneurosci.org)
- Glucocorticoid hormones potently regulate metabolism and, in rare cases of excess (Cushing syndrome), cause metabolic syndrome ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Autoimmune adrenalitis is a disorder in which the adrenal cortex is destroyed, resulting in the loss of mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid, and adrenal androgen hormone production. (aafp.org)
- Replacement glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid therapy over 7 days appears to be beneficial in such individuals. (biomedsearch.com)
- Some patients with pressor-dependent severe sepsis appear to have relative adrenal insufficiency and benefit from replacement glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
- In this work, we tested steroid dosing in mice and found that a single pulse of glucocorticoid steroids improved sarcolemmal repair through increased expression of annexins A1 and A6, which mediate myofiber repair. (jci.org)
- There is no clear indication from these studies that dogs must be given higher doses of steroids. (bmj.com)
- Rather, glucocorticoids are catabolic steroids, meaning they are designed to break down compounds. (encyclopedia.com)
- To investigate whether a short-term (5 days) systemic glucocorticoid treatment in patients with COPD exacerbation is noninferior to conventional (14 days) treatment in clinical outcome and whether it decreases the exposure to steroids. (nih.gov)
- Glucocorticoids, naturally occurring and synthetic, are adrenocortical steroids that are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. (empr.com)
- Glucocorticoid (GC) steroids are used to treat many chronic conditions ranging from lung disease to autoimmune disorders and muscle disease. (jci.org)
- Pulse dosing of GC steroids improves sarcolemmal repair. (jci.org)
- 1. High-dose systemic or intralesional steroids are the first-line pharmacological treatments for haemangioma. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The variable effects of different glucocorticoids on one or more of these factors may explain the interindividual variation in the in vivo response of haemangioma to the steroids. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Therapeutic effects of steroids can often parallel undesirable side effects, especially when high doses and long-term therapy are required. (aafp.org)
- Technically, the term corticosteroid refers to both steroids, but it is often used as a synonym for glucocorticoids. (health24.com)
- While glucocorticoid drugs are steroids, they are not the same as anabolic steroids, which are sometimes taken to enhance physical performance in athletes, or to help rebuild tissues that have become weak because of serious injury or illness. (health24.com)
- Instead glucocorticoids are catabolic steroids, which break down tissue. (health24.com)
- Steroids are usually given for several days in large doses, either in an emergency room setting 6 , 7 , ambulatory care setting 8 , 9 , or during hospitalization. (ispub.com)
- Studies of acute glucocorticoid effects on distinct memory phases have revealed that a single administration of glucocorticoids enhances the formation of new memories and, additionally, impairs the recall of previously learned information ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
- For example, either systemic or intracerebroventricular administration of glucocorticoids or specific antagonists influences consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial or contextual information ( 4 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
- As noted, acute administration of glucocorticoids also impairs memory retrieval. (pnas.org)
- However, results from these experiments may be confounded because administration of glucocorticoids typically elevates plasma concentrations to maximal or even pharmacological levels (e.g. (biologists.org)
- Furthermore, stress-level glucocorticoid administration to human subjects shortly before retention testing impairs hippocampus-dependent recall of previously learned verbal material ( 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
- Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that stress-level glucocorticoid administration increases Aβ formation by increasing steady-state levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-APP cleaving enzyme. (jneurosci.org)
- Chronic steroid use usually involves once-daily dosing, although weekly dosing in children has been suggested for its reduced side effects on behavior. (jci.org)
- Objective: To investigate dose-related risks of adrenal dysfunction and death in adults with six chronic inflammatory diseases treated with oral glucocorticoids. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Effects of low-dose glucocorticoid prophylaxis on chronic GVHD and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival after haploidentical transplantation: long-term follow-up of a controlled, randomized open-label trial. (stembook.org)
- Glucocorticoids can be prescribed to dampen or stop entirely this chronic inflammatory chain of events. (encyclopedia.com)
- The dose toxic to the liver is quite variable from person to person and is often thought to be lower in chronic alcoholics. (wikipedia.org)
- Short-term vs conventional glucocorticoid therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the REDUCE randomized clinical t. (nih.gov)
- International guidelines advocate a 7- to 14-day course of systemic glucocorticoid therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (nih.gov)
- 5 The most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases associated with long-term glucocorticoid use are chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. (prnewswire.com)
- Chronic brain glucocorticoid receptor blockade enhances the rise in circadian and stress-induced pituitary-adrenal activity. (semanticscholar.org)
- Glucocorticoids suppress the cell-mediated immunity . (wikipedia.org)
- The first premise is that high-dose CSs suppress the deleterious and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response of severe sepsis. (acpjc.org)
- In addition to interfering with the transcription of enzymes involved in inflammation, glucocorticoids also suppress inflammation by activating enzymes called lipocortins. (health24.com)
- Glucocorticoids are used to suppress many types of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. (health24.com)
- These results may provide a basis of developing improved chemotherapy regimens, including or excluding glucocorticoid receptor agonists/antagonists, for urothelial carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- The effects of the selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists ORG 34850, ORG 34116, and ORG 34517 on the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system were investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
- Quadrupling inhaled glucocorticoid dose to abort asthma exacerbations. (annals.org)
- Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations. (ndnr.com)
- Primary outcome measures were number of asthma exacerbations when the intervention was compared with the same or increased dose of inhaled glucocorticoids. (aappublications.org)
- Glucocorticoids exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities by genomic and nongenomic effects. (asnjournals.org)
- While progesterone downmodulated NO-mediated killing of Leishmania donovani by activated macrophages in vitro, most probably via the glucocorticoid receptor, it had little effect on Toxoplasma gondii growth in these cells. (nih.gov)
- Using the in vitro model developed by us, the present study examined some of the effects of five commonly used glucocorticoids on haemangioma biopsies taken from two patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
- We examined the direct effects of glucocorticoid treatment on neutrophil survival and function in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
- To assess the prevalence of comorbidity in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), treated or not with low-dose glucocorticoids (GC) and who have been followed for at least 10 years. (jrheum.org)
- Glucocorticoids (GC) are often used in addition to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but even 50 years after their introduction there is still debate about their value. (jrheum.org)
- First used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis in 1949, glucocorticoids have become the most widely used treatment for inflammatory disorders. (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- When the first patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was treated with glucocorticoids (GCs) in 1948, the effect was just overwhelming for that time. (vumc.nl)
- At present, growing scientific evidence from the medical literature and expert opinion provides strong consideration for a mandatory role of glucocorticoids (GCs) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (core.ac.uk)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (ovid.com)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a cornerstone in the treatment of rheumatic diseases for many decades. (bmj.com)
- Patients with RA treated with low-dose GC compared to patients never treated with GC show a higher prevalence of fractures, arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and serious infections, especially after 5 years of GC treatment. (jrheum.org)
- This has renewed the debate on the risk/benefit ratio of low-dose GC treatment. (jrheum.org)
- Safety data from randomized controlled clinical trials of low-dose GC treatment for 2 years in RA 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 suggested that GC-induced adverse effects were modest and often not statistically different from those of placebo. (jrheum.org)
- Are low doses of oral glucocorticoids as effective as high doses as the sole treatment for canine pemphigus foliaceus? (bmj.com)
- Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Graves Disease? (medscape.com)
- Even if cyclosporin proves an inappropriate treatment, the research reveals a biochemical pathway that researchers can target to combat glucocorticoid resistance, Monash University researchers Sarah A. Jones, Ph.D., and Eric F. Morand, M.D., Ph.D., wrote in Nature Reviews Rheumatology . (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- But new evidence suggests that the consequences of lupus itself may be made worse by glucocorticoid treatment, which creates a paradox as the acute inflammation of lupus is clearly treatable with these drugs. (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- Are drug interactions a problem with glucocorticoid treatment? (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- You summarize a paper that found high costs associated with glucocorticoid treatment. (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- Duration of treatment ranged from 0-23 wk, with doses ranging from 100-600 mg/d of PTU or 10-60 mg/d of methimazole. (medscape.com)
- In patients presenting to the emergency department with acute exacerbations of COPD, 5-day treatment with systemic glucocorticoids was noninferior to 14-day treatment with regard to reexacerbation within 6 months of follow-up but significantly reduced glucocorticoid exposure. (nih.gov)
- These findings support the use of a 5-day glucocorticoid treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD. (nih.gov)
- Treatment should be titrated to the lowest dose that relieves symptoms. (aafp.org)
- The RITUXILUP trial is ongoing and recruiting patients with Lupus Nephritis to receive treatment with Rituximab and Mycophenolate Mofetil without daily oral glucocorticoids. (rheumreports.com)
- A total of 416 CTD-ILD patients who began glucocorticoid treatment at the discretion of the attending physician, with or without cyclophosphamide, were included in this study. (dovepress.com)
- For more than fifty years, glucocorticoids have remained the main option for pharmacological treatment of DBA. (hindawi.com)
- We further discuss how emerging knowledge regarding the pathological mechanism in DBA and the therapeutic mechanism of glucocorticoids treatment may reveal novel drug targets for DBA treatment. (hindawi.com)
- In immunotherapy, they are used in smaller doses than in the treatment of malignant diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- Investigators discovered several areas of needed clinical practice improvement for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP), a well-known complication where the bones become less dense and more likely to fracture, in people with lupus. (lupus.org)
- The EC approval is based on the positive results of a Phase 3 study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of Prolia compared with risedronate in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment. (prnewswire.com)
- We are pleased that today's EC approval provides physicians with a new treatment option for bone loss associated with the use of glucocorticoid medications,' said Sean E. Harper , M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. (prnewswire.com)
- As a leader in bone health with more than 20 years of osteoporosis research experience, we believe that Prolia can address a critical treatment need for patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in Europe and globally. (prnewswire.com)
- The EC approval is supported by a Phase 3 randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and efficacy of Prolia compared with risedronate in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment. (prnewswire.com)
- Published reports on low dose glucocorticoid treatment show that few of the commonly held beliefs about their incidence, prevalence, and impact are supported by clear scientific evidence. (uab.edu)
- Safety data from recent randomised controlled clinical trials of low dose glucocorticoid treatment in RA suggest that adverse effects associated with this drug are modest, and often not statistically different from those of placebo. (uab.edu)
- anybody knows about special conditions for high dose glucocorticoid treatment? (protocol-online.org)
- Thus, initial low-dose GC 'bridging' treatment on a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug background should be included in any existing recommendations for RA management, as very recently advocated by the EULAR Task Force 2013 updated guidelines. (core.ac.uk)
- The important role of GC in RA management is also highlighted by a few other recommendations: all of them indicate that GC, especially at low doses and for a short duration, remain an appropriate option in RA treatment. (mjrheum.org)
- 9 However, new data concerning GC safety came from the recently published ESPOIR cohort study, where RA patients with low-dose GC treatment displayed, in a 7-year analysis, approximately the same safety profile as patients without GC. (mjrheum.org)
- Glucocorticoid treatment inhibits apoptosis in human neutrophils. (jimmunol.org)
- These data indicate that glucocorticoids can augment the effector potential of neutrophils by prolonging their survival and functional responsiveness, and such treatment might be detrimental in vivo because of delay in neutrophil apoptosis and in ultimate clearance of them from tissues. (jimmunol.org)
- 1. Experimental glucocorticoid (GC) manipulations can be useful for identifying the mechanisms that drive life history and fitness variation in free-living animals, but predicting the effects of GC treatment can be complicated. (sfu.ca)
- Whereas an excessive use of glucocorticoids can be responsible for severe toxicity, too low a dosage and too short duration of glucocorticoid treatment can result in false steroid resistance. (asnjournals.org)
- Treat with replacement glucocorticoids prior to initiation of SYNTHROID treatment. (nih.gov)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) contribute to the increased incidence of secondary osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, and medications for the prevention and treatment of these complications have been investigated for many years. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been extensively used in the treatment of a variety of diseases, due to their potent anti-inflammatory effects. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Alterations in treatment after preterm birth, particularly glucocorticoid exposure, may help to decrease risk for adverse neurological outcome after preterm birth. (sciencemag.org)
- However, a meta-analysis of high-dose, short-course glucocorticoid treatment involving 1,297 patients with sepsis enrolled in nine trials showed a trend toward harm, and four trials in patients with, or at risk for, ARDS showed no benefit or a greater likelihood of progression to ARDS. (biomedsearch.com)
- CHAPTER VII Glucocorticoid treatment is associated with decreased expression of processed AVP but not of proAVP, neurophysin or oxytocin in the human hypothalamus: Are PC1 and PC2 involved? (uva.nl)
- Treatment with GC is associated with significant dose-dependent side-effects. (ovid.com)
- Furthermore, posttraining intrahippocampal infusions of corticosterone or synthetic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists enhance memory consolidation on a variety of tasks, whereas infusions of a GR antagonist or GR antisense impair memory consolidation ( 10 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
- The GR agonist did not affect circulating corticosterone levels immediately after the probe trial, indicating that RU 28362 infusions did not influence retention by altering glucocorticoid feedback mechanisms. (pnas.org)
- Systemic injections of stress-level doses of corticosterone administered to rats shortly before retention testing impair retrieval in tasks that rely on spatial or contextual information, including water-maze and inhibitory avoidance (ref. 22 and B.R., D.J.-F.d.Q., Gustav Schelling, and J.L.M., unpublished observations). (pnas.org)
- Because glucocorticoids exert permissive effects on food intake, corticosterone may also participate in the regulation of migratory hyperphagia. (biologists.org)
- To examine the role of corticosterone during migration, we induced Gambel's white-crowned sparrows to enter the migratory condition and compared food intake and locomotor activity between controls and birds injected with RU486 - an antagonist to the low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In addition, we investigated effects of RU486 in birds that were subjected to a short-term fast. (biologists.org)
- Effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Org 34850 on fast and delayed feedback of corticosterone release. (semanticscholar.org)
- OBJECTIVES: To describe hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation and the role of glucocorticoids in immune modulation during critical illness, and to review clinical trials of pharmacologic and "replacement"' doses of glucocorticoids in early and late acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. (biomedsearch.com)
- Glucocorticoids transmit molecular information to neurons and glial cells in the CNS and regulate cell function. (jneurosci.org)
- General effects of glucocorticoids support such a prediction: past research has demonstrated that glucocorticoids regulate locomotor activity (e.g. (biologists.org)
- As discussed in more detail below, glucocorticoids function through interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor: up-regulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Glucocorticoids regulate transcription factors (proteins that bind to regulatory regions and control gene expression). (health24.com)
- Thus, glucocorticoid receptor activation resulted in promotion of cell proliferation via inhibiting apoptosis yet repression of cell invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- We found that GM-CSF restored TNF mRNA and protein expression without inducing IL-2 production and T cell proliferation in glucocorticoid-immunosuppressed blood from either healthy donors or liver transplant patients. (jimmunol.org)
- A possible explanation for the lack of GM-CSF to restore T cell proliferation is its enhancement of the release of IL-1βR antagonist, rather than of IL-1β itself, since exogenously added IL-1β induced an IL-2-independent Con A-stimulated proliferation of glucocorticoid-immunosuppressed lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- Natural glucocorticoids are produced in the adrenal glands located immediately above the kidneys (the word adrenal derives from "ad," meaning top of, and "renal," meaning kidney). (encyclopedia.com)
- The region of the adrenal glands called the cortex is the site of glucocorticoid manufacture. (encyclopedia.com)
- During times of stress (e.g., illness, invasive surgical procedures), stress-dose glucocorticoids are required because destruction of the adrenal glands prevents an adequate physiologic response. (aafp.org)
- Elevated local tissue glucocorticoid excess, driven by increased levels of the intracellular glucocorticoid regenerating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), particularly in adipose tissue, is implicated in the development of idiopathic metabolic syndrome ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- HealthDay News - Quintupling the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids seems not to be effective for preventing exacerbations among children with asthma, while quadrupling the dose may be beneficial for adolescents and adults, according to two studies published online March 3 in the New England Journal of Medicine . (empr.com)
- Another promising path points to glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein, or GILZ. (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- Here we report that alcohol was able to activate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in the absence of glucocorticoids (GCs) and upregulated glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper ( gilz ), a prominent GC-responsive gene. (frontiersin.org)
- The use of glucocorticoids for medical conditions as diverse as asthma, ulcerative colitis, kidney diseases, and rheumatologic disorders causes not only a variety of metabolic and medical complications, including diabetes and osteoporosis, but also a painful debilitating condition, osteonecrosis, usually affecting the femoral head ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- These findings suggest that intermittent, rather than daily, glucocorticoid steroid regimen promotes sarcolemmal repair and muscle recovery from injury while limiting atrophic remodeling. (jci.org)
- Rheumatology Network spoke with Morand to discuss these major glucocorticoid findings of 2015, and to learn more about what research lies ahead. (rheumatologynetwork.com)
- These findings support that AST protects glucocorticoid-induced cataract in chick embryo. (nih.gov)
- Because the BLA is normally activated by emotionally arousing experiences, these findings are consistent with the emerging view that glucocorticoids may selectively enhance consolidation of emotionally arousing events or material ( 1 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
- These findings suggest that high levels of glucocorticoids, found in AD, are not merely a consequence of the disease process but rather play a central role in the development and progression of AD. (jneurosci.org)
- Glucocorticoids are used to stop the inflammation process. (encyclopedia.com)
- At pharmacologic doses, this agent decreases inflammation by suppressing migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and by reducing capillary permeability. (medscape.com)
- It is well-known and frequently described that these diseases, including RA, are in a kind of "glucocorticoid-deficient state", due to several reasons, such as hereditary GC resistance due to abnormalities of the GC receptor, or inadequate secretion of GC in relation to inflammation. (mjrheum.org)
- Glucocorticoids (both natural and synthetic) inhibit the immune response, thus preventing inflammation from occurring. (health24.com)
- Participants will be randomised to the 'low-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab' or the high-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab' groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Furthermore, the study found that the children in the high-dose group had a decrease in growth rate of a quarter of a centimeter less per year than the other children. (ndnr.com)
- Three groups of male adrenalectomized Wistar rats received MPL by iv injection: low-dose (10 mg/kg at Time 0), high-dose (50 mg/kg at Time 0), and dual-dose (50 mg/kg at Time 0 and 24 hr). (springer.com)
- The low-dose group had 50-60% of the TAT mRNA and TAT induction compared to the high-dose group. (springer.com)
- Conclusion: We report a high glucocorticoid dose-dependent increased risk of adrenal adverse events and death. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Low doses were defined as those less than high doses. (dovepress.com)
- High doses cause pancytopenia and hemorrhagic cystitis . (wikipedia.org)
- The charts of 654 people with lupus were analyzed, and 203 people were identified as high-risk for glucocorticoid (GC) use. (lupus.org)
- The in-hospital mortality was 50%, and all those who died were on high-dose glucocorticoid at the time of PCP diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
- They also interfere with some of the abnormal mechanisms in cancer cells, so they are used in high doses to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Treatments consist of high dose glucocorticoids and low dose radiotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
- In an absence of food, which can be broken down to supply glucose, glucocorticoids act to increase and maintain the normal levels of glucose in the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
- As well, glucocorticoids curb the storage of glucose in cells of the body, which leaves the sugar ready for use. (encyclopedia.com)
- Insulin works reliably, and doses can be rapidly adjusted depending on changes in glucose levels and food intake. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In fact, transactivation increases the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase that are required for gluconeogenesis induced by glucocorticoids. (asnjournals.org)
- Exposure to repeat doses of antenatal betamethasone compared with a single course of glucocorticoids does not alter bone mass in mid-childhood. (portsaidneogrp.com)
- however, glucocorticoid exposure may exceed physiological requirements. (cancernetwork.com)
- Because animals exhibit reduced preterm cerebellar growth after perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids, we sought to determine whether glucocorticoid exposure and other modifiable factors increased the risk for these adverse outcomes in human neonates. (sciencemag.org)
- Glucocorticoid exposure in preterm newborns is associated with impaired cerebellar development, pointing to a modifiable risk factor for improving motor and cognitive outcomes after premature birth. (sciencemag.org)
- Drugs or toxins that have a pharmacological (type A) hepatotoxicity are those that have predictable dose-response curves (higher concentrations cause more liver damage) and well characterized mechanisms of toxicity, such as directly damaging liver tissue or blocking a metabolic process. (wikipedia.org)
- Enhancing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis is probably the best-known metabolic function of glucocorticoids. (wikipedia.org)
- Those doses can be tailored, though, based on adherence or the presence of cardiovascular or metabolic comorbidities. (cancernetwork.com)
- Abnormally elevated intracellular regeneration of glucocorticoids by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in fat or liver may underlie pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome. (diabetesjournals.org)