Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.GlycogenGlucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.GlucosephosphatesGlucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.MethylglucosidesPhlorhizinRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.TriglyceridesPyruvatesCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Deoxy SugarsDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Glycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.XyloseCytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.PhloretinDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLBody Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.United StatesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.GluconatesKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Mannoheptulose: A 7-carbon keto sugar having the mannose configuration.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The system is programmed to provide intravenous dosing of glucose, saline, and insulin, as well as subcutaneous dosing of ... Glucommander's software concept originated from an article published in 1982 by White et al. That article presented a complex ... to a single formula for calculation of intravenous insulin requirements: (blood glucose − 60) × 0.02 = insulin dose/h. ... Once that target blood glucose range has been reached, the system's function is to recommend a titration of insulin, glucose, ...
And please remember, sucrose has approximately twice the molecular weight of glucose, with one mole of glucose weighing 180 g ... Main article: Food sovereignty. One suggested policy framework to resolve access issues is termed food sovereignty-the right of ... If the child is conscious, the initial dose of sugar and water can be given by mouth.[125] If the child is unconscious, give ... Main article: Food security. The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the West, such as nitrogen fertilizers ...
It does this by monitoring continuous glucose monitor (CGM) data, algorithmically determining when insulin doses should occur, ... and has been profiled in various news articles. The OpenAPS software can run on a small computer such as a Raspberry Pi or ... and issuing commands to the insulin pump to deliver these doses. OpenAPS is a subset of a broader "CGM in the Cloud" social ... enabling data retrieval and issuance of insulin-dosing commands to pumps that support it. With this update, the DIYPS system ...
... phenanthrene 1-O-beta-glucose). Highly significant differences and dose-response relationships with regard to cigarettes smoked ... 6 (article) PAH Metabolites in Bile Fluids of Dab (Limanda limanda) and Flounder (Platichthys flesus): Spatial Distribution and ...
Safety (MSDS) data for sucrose Safety (MSDS) data for glucose Walker R, Lupien JR (April 2000). "The safety evaluation of ... Safety (MSDS) data for aflatoxin B1 Los Alamos Science article for Plutonium toxicity Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides ... For disease-causing organisms, there is also a measure known as the median infective dose and dosage. The median infective dose ... In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is ...
Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment. "Vitamin D and Healthy Bones". New York State ... http://www.livestrong.com/article/276201-sardine-benefits/ Retrieved 2012-2-22 Kris-Etherton; Harris, WS; Appel, LJ; American ...
As of January, 2007, no peer reviewed articles were indexed by the National Library of Medicine referencing Candex. E Cabib; R ... 4 capsules equal one daily dose, which may later be reduced. 4 capsules contain: Being classified as a dietary supplement, it ... For example, Invertase catalyzes the conversion of sucrose (common table sugar) into glucose and fructose. Much of the ... To quote one scientific article: "The purified cellulase was devoid of chitinase, pectinase and mannanase activities". Moreover ...
In humans, a dose of 500 mg/kg/day repeated over multiple days caused nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. No evidence shows ... Natamcyin is able to inhibit growth of fungi by inhibiting transport of amino acids and glucose across the plasma membrane. ... The discovery and properties of natamycin were announced in the article, "Pimaricin, a new antifungal antibiotic" in ... In rats, the LD50 is ≥2300 mg/kg, and doses of 500 mg/kg/day over 2 years caused no detectable differences in survival rate, ...
18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose". Journal of Labelled ... A typical dose of FDG used in an oncological scan has an effective radiation dose of 14 mSv.[3] Because the oxygen atom that is ... Main articles: PET-CT and PET-MRI. PET scans are increasingly read alongside CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, with ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ...
18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose". Journal of Labelled ... A typical dose of FDG used in an oncological scan has an effective radiation dose of 7.6 mSv.[4] Because the hydroxyl group ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non- ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ...
... the breaking down of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate and glucose. This is done through its passive influence on glucagon.[ ... Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, Schürmeyer TH (January 2002). "A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for ... see androstadienone article for details and citations). Excessive or problematic drinking has been linked to increased cortisol ... This response allows the liver to take up glucose not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen ...
"Safety (MSDS) data for glucose" (PDF). utoronto.ca.. *^ Walker R, Lupien JR (April 2000). "The safety evaluation of monosodium ... Original article in Russian. ... Fixed Dose Procedure to estimate LD50. *Median toxic dose (TD50 ... In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is ... For disease-causing organisms, there is also a measure known as the median infective dose and dosage. The median infective dose ...
For example, you could try increasing the dose of the morning insulin injection(s) because of the high blood glucose level in ... Examples of the application of AIDA as an educational tool can be found in various published journal articles, and a full ... The AIDA model contains a single extra-cellular glucose compartment into which glucose enters via both absorption from the ... with a split-evening dose. She wants to start a family, but consistently has had quite high blood glucose levels in the early ...
The other article was written by the editor-in-chief at the time the 1990 article was published, Mary Lee Vance, M.D., and was ... Side-effects of high doses and long-term use[edit]. Some of the side effects reportedly seen in previously healthy mature ... Diabetes and other glucose metabolism imbalances[14]. *Gynecomastia (enlargement of male mammary glands)[14] ... This section has been taken by some, most notably[17][20] the authors of a commentary article published in the Journal of the ...
... such as the glucose breath test and jejunal aspiration the explanations of which are beyond the scope of this current article. ... Chronic or high dose opioid therapy may contribute to BLS by reducing gastric motility. Due to the disruption of digestive ...
The system is programmed to provide intravenous dosing of glucose, saline, and insulin, as well as subcutaneous dosing of ... media.aace.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=4869 https://web.archive.org/web/20110710122628/http://www.diabeteshealth.com/ ... Once that target blood glucose range has been reached, the system's function is to recommend a titration of insulin, glucose, ... Bode has co-authored many publications on the subject of inpatient glucose control and was a co-developer of the Glucommander ...
The microswitches that controlled the machine were not functioning properly, so the doses were incorrect. This went on for just ... More information about the campaign (non-fictional) can be found in an ADWeek article. "Mommy's Bosses". The 4400. "The New ... The promicin-inhibitor "piggybacks on glucose", after entering the brain through facilitated diffusion. It is a binding protein ...
... and future predictions of blood glucose levels, control screens for: insulin pump setup and control, continuous blood glucose ... Example 3 shows that pie charts are a quick way to judge performance of insulin doses throughout the day relative to the goal ... and there is a 2011 review article of the currently available features compared against evidence-based recommendations for ... The blood glucose readings are plotted at their level versus the time of day. Multiple days are plotted on top of each other, ...
This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.. ... SCAD has been associated with a reduced amount of insulin release shown by an oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT. Acyl CoA ... "Flavin adenine dinucleotide status and the effects of high-dose riboflavin treatment in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ... "The minor C-allele of rs2014355 in ACADS is associated with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load". BMC ...
This drives blood glucose levels towards normal. As the blood glucose level approaches normal, the amounts of insulin released ... placebo-controlled studies with single oral doses". Clin Pharmacol Ther. 78 (6): 675-88. doi:10.1016/j.clpt.2005.09.002. PMID ... http://dermatology.cdlib.org/1802/04_csp/09_11-00188/article.html http://www.ehealthme.com/ds/januvia/photosensitivity+reaction ...
"Risk of incident diabetes with intensive-dose compared with moderate-dose statin therapy: a meta-analysis". JAMA. 305 (24): ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... uptake of glucose from the bloodstream in response to the hormone insulin.[85] One way this is thought to occur is by ... Starting dose. 10-20 mg. 20 mg. 10-20 mg. 40 mg. 10 mg; 5 mg if hypothyroid, ,65 yo, Asian. 20 mg ...
"Safety (MSDS) data for glucose" (PDF). utoronto.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-01. Retrieved 2016-12-31.. Cite ... Original article in Russian. ... Fixed Dose Procedure to estimate LD50. *Median toxic dose (TD50 ... In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is ... For disease-causing organisms, there is also a measure known as the median infective dose and dosage. The median infective dose ...
... is a dose of slow-acting insulin or the continuous pumping of a small quantity of fast-acting insulin to cover the glucose ... The article on routes of administration provides more information, as the preceding list of ROAs is not exhaustive. The ... It can also refer to a dose of liquid injected subcutaneously with a hypodermic needle, such as saline solution administered ... bolus is a waxy tissue equivalent material placed on the skin surface to homogenize or modulate the range of the dose from ...
fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl). or. *with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma ... Main article: History of diabetes. Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[21] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 ... Threshold for diagnosis of diabetes is based on the relationship between results of glucose tolerance tests, fasting glucose or ... and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range.[24] Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed ...
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable ... About 100 million bacteria must typically be ingested to cause cholera in a normal healthy adult.[13] This dose, however, is ... Rice-based solutions are preferred to glucose-based ones due to greater efficiency.[30] In severe cases with significant ... This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable ...
fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl). or. *with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma ... Main article: Genetic causes of type 2 diabetes. Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor ... Threshold for diagnosis of diabetes is based on the relationship between results of glucose tolerance tests, fasting glucose or ... Impaired glucose tolerance. ≥ 7.8. ≥ 140. , 7.0. , 126. 42-46. 6.0-6.4 Diabetes mellitus. ≥ 11.1. ≥ 200. ≥ 7.0. ≥ 126. ≥ 48. ≥ ...
People with diabetes should monitor blood glucose levels daily to reduce the risk for diabetes complications. ... Self-testing of blood glucose with a blood glucose meter is the backbone of diabetes management. ... This means not only more frequent blood glucose testing but also adjusting your diet, exercise, and doses of insulin or oral ... Feature Article. Better Bladder Control. Up to 54% of people with symptoms of bladder control problems havent talked to their ...
The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be ... Improvement of Postprandial Endothelial Function After a Single Dose of Exenatide in Individuals With Impaired Glucose ... Improvement of Postprandial Endothelial Function After a Single Dose of Exenatide in Individuals With Impaired Glucose ... Improvement of Postprandial Endothelial Function After a Single Dose of Exenatide in Individuals With Impaired Glucose ...
... review articles, and clinical studies covering the broad and multidisciplinary field of human nutrition and metabolism. The ... Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, ... A Single Dose of Beetroot Gel Rich in Nitrate Does Not Improve ... "A Single Dose of Beetroot Gel Rich in Nitrate Does Not Improve Performance but Lowers Blood Glucose in Physically Active ... How to Cite this Article. Julia Vasconcellos, Diego Henrique Silvestre, Diego dos Santos Baião, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, ...
Email Article. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes. ... Fasting plasma glucose levels in diabetic subjects at initiation of the graded glucose infusion protocol (9 h after dosing and ... Plasma glucose was measured immediately at bedside with a Beckman glucose analyzer using the glucose oxidase technique. HbA1c ... Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels.. Profiles of plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide during graded glucose ...
Pay Per Article - You may access this article (from the computer you are currently using) for 1 day for US$35.00 ... The dose-response relationship between plasma insulin concentration and total glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and glucose ... The Effect of Graded Doses of Insulin on Total Glucose Uptake, Glucose Oxidation, and Glucose Storage in Man. ... The Effect of Graded Doses of Insulin on Total Glucose Uptake, Glucose Oxidation, and Glucose Storage in Man ...
The dose-response of glucose and sucrose gel have slope-to-intercept ratio of 0.044 and 0.283 respectively. The slope-to-ratio ... When a saccharide is added into the MAGIC gel dosimeter, dose sensitivity is increased. However when urea were added, dose ... 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANIMAL TISSUES; CESIUM 137; DOSEMETERS; GELS; GLUCOSE; HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY; ... Journal Article: SU-E-T-130: Dosimetric Evaluation of Tissue Equivalent Gel Dosimeter Using Saccharide in Radiotherapy System ...
EGP, endogenous glucose production; GIR, glucose infusion rate during the clamp; cEGP, endogenous glucose production during the ... glucose to assess glucose turnover before and after treatment. High-dose aspirin treatment resulted in a approximately 25% ... Mechanism by which high-dose aspirin improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.. Hundal RS1, Petersen KF, Mayerson AB, ... Mechanism by which high-dose aspirin improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes ...
Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is ... All doses of canagliflozin increased the overnight UGlucose-to-UCreatinine ratio (Fig. 1D). The increase in UGlucose-to-U ... dose dependently reduces calculated renal threshold for glucose excretion and increases urinary glucose excretion in healthy ... Partitioning of glucose out of the body through increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE) directly reduces elevated glucose ...
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which red blood cells break down when the body is exposed ... URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. ... Aspirin (high doses). *Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). *Quinidine. *Sulfa drugs *Antibiotics such as quinolones ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which red blood cells break down when the body is exposed ...
In the meanwhile, blood glucose level (BGL) was increased by the treatment of mice with DEHP or ATEC for 5 consecutive days. ... Therefore, although DEHP and ATEC may not be genotoxic, our data should be helpful for persons with the problem in glucose ... Here, we studied whether ATEC might have genotoxic potential and induce glucose tolerance as compared to DEHP. Genotoxicity was ... Then, taken together, our results suggest that ATEC could disrupt glucose metabolism under our experimental conditions. ...
The authors developed a new TXA dosing regimen for cardiac patients with impaired renal function that optimizes maximal ... Journal Article Emergency Cardiac Surgery Following TAVI * 2001/viewarticle/899538. Tight Blood Glucose Control in Cardiac ... Recommended Bolus Loading Dose for High-Risk Group (mg/kg)b Recommended Maintenance Infusion Dose (mg/kg/h)c ... This dosing regimen was generated using a computer-simulated algorithm that was never tested in vivo. This TXA dosing regimen ...
Effect of Single-Dose Dexamethasone on Blood Glucose Concentration in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy. Pasternak, Jeffrey J.; ... Most Popular Articles Cognitive Aids for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroanesthetic Emergencies: Consensus Guidelines on ... A Single Dose of Esmolol Blunts the Increase in Bispectral Index to Tracheal Intubation During Sevoflurane but not Desflurane ... Ultra-low-dose Naloxone as an Adjuvant to Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) With Morphine for Postoperative Pain Relief ...
Individual types of statin may have a different effect on glucose metabolism. Using the repeated nationwide... ... average number of defined daily doses per day for the time period between baseline and serial measurements of fasting glucose ... About this article. CrossMark Cite this article as: Kim, J., Lee, H.S. & Lee, KY. Cardiovasc Diabetol (2018) 17: 155. https:// ... As fasting glucose was measured repeatedly, we constructed a linear mixed-effect model to analyze the change in fasting glucose ...
... on postprandial glucose excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ... Postprandial glucose Premixed insulin Type 2 diabetes mellitus Enhanced content. To view enhanced content for this article go ... The total daily insulin doses as well as the insulin doses at breakfast and dinner were similar for the patients on the LM25 ... PPGE postprandial glucose excursion, LAGE large amplitude of glucose excursion, MAGE mean amplitude of glucose excursion ...
... the mean cumulative dose in patients with hemolysis in the other article was 7.2 mg/kg, and no correlation between dose and ... Abbreviations: Hgb = hemoglobin; LDH = lactate dehydrogenase (in U/L); DAT = direct antiglobulin test; G6PD = glucose-6- ... Day of nadir = days after first dose of artesunate.. † Initial Hgb, for this article only, interpreted from published graphs of ... Articles and cases reported in the literature involving delayed hemolytic anemia after treatment with artesunate, by selected ...
Issue 114 Item 6 How High-Dose Aspirin Improves Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 May 3, 2002 Articles ... May 3, 2002 Articles "For every unit increase in BMI there is a 5% increase in risk of heart failure," that according to the ... May 3, 2002 Articles Acetaminophen may be protective not only in heart disease but in other forms of cardiovascular disease as ... May 3, 2002 Articles According to findings from a large Veterans Affairs cohort study, diabetic patients are at an increased ...
Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin for glucose (blood sugar) to use for fuel. Low insulin ... Dont skip insulin doses (an important factor in prevention).. *Test your glucose levels regularly as recommended by your ... home , diseases, conditions and tests a-z listdiabetic ketoacidosis (causes, symptoms, treatment, complications) article ... This happens while there is plenty of glucose in the bloodstream, but not enough insulin to help convert glucose for use in the ...
Dexamethasone suppression test (both high and low dose) *Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (a special test that measures ACTH ... URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000406.htm Ectopic Cushing syndrome. ... Fasting glucose. *MRI and high resolution CT scans to find the tumor (sometimes nuclear medicine scans may be needed) ...
Pharmacology and Dosing. Three SGLT2 inhibitors are currently approved by the FDA for treatment of type 2 diabetes, including ... To comment on this article, contact [email protected] Read More On: DIABETES ... Hypoglycemia was rare in both treatment groups.19 In each trial, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose decreased with ... Role of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors. Kathleen A. Lusk, PharmD, BCPS. Assistant Professor, Pharmacy ...
Automatic Insulin Dosing - Intelligent Algorithms for better Glucose Control. Dexcom recently acquired algorithm expert ... Bolus Dosing Skills that you Didnt Learn in the Doctors Office. Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. March 26, 2019 ... Overnight Dosing Success in T1D Children. Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. April 16, 2019 ... Better Insulin Dosing via Machine Learning. Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. March 28, 2019 ...
Victoza is not effective for controlling blood glucose.. *After one week the dose is increased to 1.2 mg daily. ... victoza article Metformin vs. Victoza. *What Is the difference between metformin vs. Victoza? ... The dose can be increased by 500 mg weekly up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg in divided doses. ... The initial dose is 0.6 mg daily for one week.. *The initial dose helps the body to build a tolerance to stomach related side ...
... Sucralose promotes the take up of glucose by cells. ... This article is part of our premium content. You have exceeded your 10 free articles for this month. A subscription is required ... These cells have a glucose transporter (a protein that helps glucose get into a cell) called GLUT4 on their surface and, when ... This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. ...
New studies indicate a potential role for long-term low-dose inhaled nitric oxide therapy in the treatment of late or recurrent ... Maintain glucose and ionized calcium concentrations within reference range. If necessary, support blood pressure using volume ... Most Popular Articles. According to Pediatricians. * Common Chemicals May Play a Role in Childhood Obesity ... Epinephrine infusions may be necessary in severe cases; low-dose epinephrine (, 0.2 mcg/kg/min) may help to promote pulmonary ...
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4173928/. 5mg dose "significantly impaired glucose tolerance" in healthy women. ... Higher doses are fine, mind you. They just may be unnecessary, and the lower doses are better at mimicking the normal ... You probably dont need high doses. Some studies indicate that lower doses (around 0.5 mg) are just as effective as higher ... Ive tried it at a 3 mg dose….Ive even broken the tablets in half.. I dont seem to be able to tolerate it.. I get the ...
Articles include: The changing epidemiology and definition of sepsis; risk stratification and prognosis in sepsis: what have we ... Fluid choice and dose; Beyond the golden hours: caring for the septic patient after the initial resuscitation; Vasopressors ... during sepsis: selection and targets; Dysglycemia and glucose control during sepsis; Cardiac function and dysfunction in sepsis ...
  • One of the better, and more recent ones, was conducted at Princeton University [ 1 ] , and found that rats that were fed HFCS gained fat 300% more quickly than those fed an equal (or slightly larger) dose of fruit-derived sugar. (survivalmonkey.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a double-blinded randomized crossover design, postprandial endothelial function was examined in 28 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance or recent-onset type 2 diabetes after a single injection of exenatide or placebo given just before a high-fat meal. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Impaired glucose tolerance was seen in 25% of obese children between ages 4 and 10 years and in 21% of obese children between ages 11 and 18 years. (jaoa.org)
  • The good news is melatonin is generally regarded as safe in recommended doses for short-term use (three months or less) according to the National Institute of Health (NIH). (selfgrowth.com)
  • Multiple second-line agents are available for optimizing treatment, including sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, insulin, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. (uspharmacist.com)
  • This report reviews the mechanism, rationale, and evidence from clinical trials for combining two of the newer drug classes, namely, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and considers the possible role of such dual therapy in the management of T2DM. (dovepress.com)
  • Everyone can benefit from better glucose management, but it's far more critical for people eating significant amounts of glucose. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Increasing amounts of glucose induced functional acquisition and enhancement of β-cells via activating calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, this new study suggests that, rather than keeping us healthy, artificial sweeteners, especially when consumed in larger doses, could be contributing to the obesity epidemic. (timesofmalta.com)
  • In larger doses, it has generalized effects graduating from euphoria through stupor. (healthy.net)
  • APS decreases high glucose-induced H9C2 cell apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and modulating the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data also demonstrate that high glucose is toxic to IHMGECs, and decreases the cellular content of p-AKT, IGF-1R and SREBP-1. (arvojournals.org)