Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Anesthesia, IntratrachealPain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.EthersXenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Ethyl EthersTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
In sufficiently high therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia. Talbutal binds at a distinct binding site associated ...
The typical anesthesia induction dose is 0.35 grams. Loss of consciousness is induced within 30-45 seconds at the typical dose ... Anesthesia awareness occurs when general anesthesia is inadequately maintained, for a number of reasons. Typically, anesthesia ... while a 5 gram dose (14 times the normal dose) is likely to induce unconsciousness in 10 seconds. A full medical dose of ... General anesthesia is not maintained with barbiturate drugs. An induction dose of thiopental wears off after a few minutes ...
The abdomen is prepared and draped and is examined under anesthesia. If a mass is present, the incision is made over the mass; ... a single dose of prophylactic intravenous antibiotics is given immediately before surgery. General anaesthesia is induced, with ...
QT prolongation is a dose-related effect, and it appears that droperidol is not a significant risk in low doses. Dysphoria, ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 79 (5): 983-6. doi:10.1213/00000539-000000000-00000. PMID 7978420. Park CK, Choi HY, Oh IY, Kim MS ( ... It has also been used as an antipsychotic in doses ranging from 5 to 10 mg given as an intramuscular injection, generally in ... The evidence for this is disputed, with 9 reported cases of torsades in 30 years and all of those having received doses in ...
A comparison of dose requirements and side-effects after hip surgery". Anesthesia. 46 (7): 538-40. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1991 ... Because the lethal dose of heroin was viewed as a hundred times greater than its effective dose, heroin was advertised as a ... Heroin was also found to be twice as potent as morphine in surgical anesthesia. Morphine is converted into heroin by a simple ... The great advantage of purified morphine was that a patient could be treated with a known dose-whereas with raw plant material ...
Initial dose is one 100 mg perle (gelcap) by mouth, 3 times a day. Dosage may be increased as necessary, up to a maximum of 600 ... This practice is not recommended, because the oropharyngeal anesthesia may result in pulmonary aspiration. Benzonatate is sold ... It has been used in small doses as a topical anesthetic for mouth or pharyngeal pain. ...
Scopolamine induces respiratory depression at hallucinogenic doses. The combination of anesthesia (in the hospital) and Datura ...
Serious illness has followed ingestion of 7.5 g (0.26 oz). The mean lethal oral dose for an adult is estimated to be about 45 g ... Following chloroform-induced anesthesia, some patients suffered nausea, vomiting, hyperthermia, jaundice, and coma due to ... In Germany, the first comprehensive surveys of the fatality rate during anesthesia were made by Gurlt between 1890 and 1897. In ... The rise of gas anesthesia using nitrous oxide, improved equipment for administering anesthetics and the discovery of ...
Higher doses are used for anesthesia in combination with other drugs such as xylazine, tiletamine and zolazepam. Azaperone is ... The most common use for azaperone is in relatively small doses to reduce aggression in farmed pigs, either to stop them ... Azaperone may cause hypotension and while it has minimal effects on respiration in pigs, high doses in humans can cause ...
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 73 (5). doi:10.1213/00000539-199111000-00019. PMID 1952145. Ebrahim Z (1991). "Multiple dose evaluation ... In human volunteers ocfentanil induces effective analgesia at 1 μg/kg, while in doses up to 3 μg/kg, analgesia and respiratory ... "Comparison of Ocfentanil and Fentanyl as Supplements to General Anesthesia". ... depression occurred in a dose-dependent manner. While a further study suggests that ocfentanil may be as effective as morphine ...
The common premedication dose for atropine is 0.01-0.02 mg/kg. With standard intravenous induction of general anesthesia, the ... Although there is not yet definitive evidence to support this, if proper dosing is used it is safe. The typical dose is 1.5 mg/ ... The procedure is used where general anesthesia must be induced before the patient has had time to fast long enough to empty the ... Anesthesia, Volume 1 (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone. pp. 1414-51. ISBN 978-0-443-07995-5. Warner KJ, Sharar SR ...
A downward dose adjustment may be necessary with this particular instance of polypharmacy. 6. Severe hypotension was reported ... Even though Isradipine, another Calcium Channel Blocker, has not been used in conjunction with Fentanyl anesthesia in any ... as both agents can cause a dose-dependent PR interval and QRS complex prolongation. 2. Onmel/Sporanox (Itraconazole) exhibits a ... with Duragesic (Fentanyl) anesthesia when it was combined with other Calcium Channel Blockers. ...
Euliano TY, JS (2004). "A brief pharmacology related to anesthesia". Essential anesthesia: from science to practice. Cambridge ... When used for IV sedation, a single dose of propofol typically wears off within minutes. Propofol is versatile; the drug can be ... However, the first execution by administration of a lethal dose of propofol was halted on 11 October 2013 by governor Jay Nixon ... Miller's Anesthesia (8 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014. p. 920. ISBN 9780323280112. Archived from the original on 29 ...
Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1985 Nov;64(11):1101-7. Stambaugh JE Jr, McAdams J. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy and safety ... A double-blind comparison of multiple intramuscular doses of ciramadol, morphine, and placebo for the treatment of ...
It would takes over 28 times the normal dose to cause toxicity in cats. Such doses, however, can cause low blood pressure, ... It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan as an induction agent for anesthesia and as an injectable ... For this reason, it is recommended that animals recovering from anesthesia by alfaxalone stay in a quiet, dark area. The quick ... Alfaxalone should be administered slowly over a period of at least 60 seconds or until anesthesia is induced; as quick ...
Moderate doses (5-10 mg intranasal, or 0.01-0.02 mg/kg intramuscular or intravenous) will produce analgesia and anesthesia. ... High doses may lead to convulsions. The drug is often illegally produced under poorly-controlled conditions; this means that ... However, it is now known that only around 10% of a dose of PCP is removed by the kidneys, which would make increased urinary ... Recreational doses of the drug also occasionally appear to induce a psychotic state that resembles a schizophrenic episode, ...
These include overuse of anticholinesterase drugs, high-dose prednisone, and anesthesia and neuromuscular blockers for ...
... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... Low doses of LA drugs can be sufficient so that muscle weakness does not occur and patients may be mobilized. Some typical uses ... Local anesthesia of body cavities includes intrapleural anesthesia and intra-articular anesthesia. Transincision (or transwound ... Typical operations performed under conduction anesthesia include: Dentistry (surface anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia or ...
They may be signs of allergy or of too much fluid associated with high doses or long infusions. Prostaglandins increase the ... Some inhaled anaesthetics used for general anesthesia, such as cyclopropane and halothane, may reduce the effect of oxytocin ... The contractions should be carefully monitored if oxytocin is given after a prostaglandin dose. Syntometrine may enhance the ...
The usual dose range for induction of anesthesia using thiopental is from 3 to 6 mg/kg; however, there are many factors that ... However, larger or repeated doses can depress the baby. Sodium thiopental is not used to maintain anesthesia in surgical ... "This Month in Anesthesia History: March". Anesthesia History Association. Archived from the original on 2011-05-01. Steinhaus, ... A very large dose is given to ensure rapid loss of consciousness. Although death usually occurs within ten minutes of the ...
Jones, S.G., Kamunde, C., Lemke, K. and Stevens, E.D. (2012). "The dose-response relation for the antinociceptive effect of ... Sneddon, L.U. (2012). "Clinical anesthesia and analgesia in fish". Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine. 21: 32-43. doi:10.1053/j. ... As with the rainbow trout, morphine injected prior to the acid injection attenuates the decrease in activity in a dose- ... Mosley, C.A. (2005). "Anesthesia and analgesia in reptiles". Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine. 14 (4): 243-262. doi: ...
The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.45 to 1.31 USD a dose. It may colloquially be referred to as "sux". Its ... MH is usually unmasked by anesthesia, or when a family member develops the symptoms. There is no simple, straightforward test ... If unrecognized by a clinician it could lead to awareness if anesthesia is discontinued whilst still paralyzed or hypoxemia ( ... Suxamethonium does not produce unconsciousness or anesthesia, and its effects may cause considerable psychological distress ...
... or anesthesia complications. A single dose of the corticosteroid drug dexamethasone may be given during surgery to prevent post ... A systematic review found that a dose of dexamethasone during surgery can prevent vomiting in one out of every five children ... The procedure can be performed in an office (outpatient) setting under light sedation or local anesthesia. After the treatment ... Recently (January 2011), the FDA reduced the recommended total 24-hour dose because of concern about liver toxicity from the ...
The use of remifentanil has made possible the use of high-dose opioid and low-dose hypnotic anesthesia, due to synergism ... Remifentanil can be administered as part of an anesthesia technique called TIVA (Total Intravenous Anesthesia) using computer ... Intranasal self-administration of remifentanil as the foray into opioid abuse by an anesthesia resident. Anesthesia & Analgesia ... When remifentanil is used together with a hypnotic (i.e. one that produces sleep) it can be used in relative high doses. This ...
Anesthesia and Analgesia 2004; 99: 718-727 P. Kranke, A. M. Morin, N. Roewer, H. Wulf, L. H. Eberhart. The efficacy and safety ... Single-dose parenteral pharmacological interventions for the prevention of postoperative shivering - A quantitative systematic ... Anesthesia and Analgesia 2002; 95: 133-143 A. Schnabel, L. Eberhart, A. Morin, H. van Aken, N. Roewer, P. Kranke. Efficacy and ... Anesthesia and Analgesia 2007; 105: 1592-1597 L. H. J. Eberhart, G. Geldner, P. Kranke, A. M. Morin, A. Schäuffelen, H. Treiber ...
A typical dose of FDG used in an oncological scan has an effective radiation dose of 7.6 mSv.[4] Because the oxygen atom that ... allows animals to be scanned without the confounding effects of anesthesia. PET scanners designed specifically for imaging ... For PET-CT scanning, the radiation exposure may be substantial-around 23-26 mSv (for a 70 kg person-dose is likely to be higher ... The amount of radiation in 18F-FDG is similar to the effective dose of spending one year in the American city of Denver, ...
Antonyms for caudal anesthesia. 2 synonyms for caudal anesthesia: caudal anaesthesia, caudal block. What are synonyms for ... A comparison of two different doses of bupivacaine in caudal anesthesia for neonatal circumcision.. Comparison of postoperative ... Synonyms for caudal anesthesia. regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the caudal end of the spinal ... Comparison of two different doses of dexmedetomidine with bupivacaine in paediatric caudal anesthesia for infraumbilical ...
There are few published data on the use and safety profile of high-dose IN DEX. We selected the dosing protocol for this study ... A potential advantage of using IN DEX for most cases and limiting propofol or general inhalation anesthesia to those who failed ... If the child is not adequately sedated in 30 minutes, a second dose of 25 mg/kg is administered, with a maximum total dose that ... we would expect a single IN DEX dose of 4 μg/kg to be equivalent to intravenous dosing between 1.4 and 3.73 μg/kg, with a peak ...
... and how does pediatric anesthesia differ from adult anesthesia and geriatric anesthesia? What goes into developing an effective ... Medications used for the pediatric patient are drawn up based on their exact kilogram weight and exact dose of emergency ... Intra-operative anesthesia is the anesthesia the patient receives in the OR. When the patient arrives in the OR, the monitors ... Depending on the anesthesia needed either the patient receives regional anesthesia such as a spinal anesthetic or a general ...
Investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital find that the EEG patterns of patients receiving high doses of nitrous oxide ... The identification of this slow-delta pattern as the EEG signature of high-dose nitrous oxide anesthesia fits the theory that ... Study identifies characteristic EEG pattern of high-dose nitrous oxide anesthesia. Massachusetts General Hospital ... The beta and gamma patterns of low-dose nitrous oxide could explain the euphoric effects experienced at the lowest doses, since ...
Multi-dose Acetaminophen for Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Patients ,50 kg will receive 12.5mg/kg to a maximum of 75 mg /per kg/per day as per the label dose with repeat dosing Q4 hours ... dose given preoperatively in the holding area followed by re-dosing every four hours from that point up to a maximum of 4 doses ... dose given preoperatively in the holding area followed by re-dosing every four hours from that point up to a maximum of 4 doses ...
Acute pulmonary edema following naloxone reversal of high-dose morphine anesthesia.. Flacke JW, Flacke WE, Williams GD. ...
Association of Different Doses of Clonidine in Caudal Epidural Anesthesia for Hypospadias Surgery (clonidine). The safety and ... Mauch J, Weiss M. [Pediatric caudal anesthesia: importance and aspects of safety concerns]. Schmerz. 2012 Aug;26(4):443-53; ...
Multi-dose Acetaminophen for Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia ... Multi-dose Acetaminophen for Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia Brief description of study. Study Objective The aim of the ... Patients ,50 kg will receive 12.5mg/kg to a maximum of 75 mg /per kg/per day as per the label dose with repeat dosing Q4 hours ... dose given preoperatively in the holding area followed by re-dosing every four hours from that point up to a maximum of 4 doses ...
Anesthesia with Dexmedetomidine and Low-dose Isoflurane Increases Solute Transport via the Glymphatic Pathway in Rat Brain When ... In the hippocampus, glymphatic clearance was sixfold more efficient during dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane anesthesia ... In the dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane rats, spindle oscillations (9 to 15 Hz) could be observed but not in isoflurane ... Glymphatic transport was enhanced by 32% in rats anesthetized with dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane when compared with ...
The purpose of the present study is to compare two doses of Levobupivacaine for spinal anesthesia at elective cesarean section ... to determine the best dose that can give mother and fetal hemodynamic stability and a fast anesthesia recovery after the ... The two doses of local anesthetic were compared with regard to sensory and motor blockade, the need for supplementation ... Conclusions: The combination of 6 mg of levobupivacaine with 25 μg of fentanyl on spinal anesthesia can be an option for short ...
Optimizing Propofol Dosing for (Preterm) Newborn Infants That Need Endotracheal Intubation ... Clinical trial for Anesthesia Intubation Complication , Other Preterm Infants , Premature Birth of Newborn , Propofol Overdose ... The appropriate doses are re-used in another 5 patients per age group to validate the predetermined doses. Safety is monitored ... Starting dose is dependent on effects of previously included patients. Dose is increased in case of insufficient sedation. ...
... ... there was no significant difference in the dose of propofol required to induce hypnosis or maintain anesthesia. There were no ... midazolam did not reduce the anesthetic dose requirement of propofol in patients undergoing anesthesia with nitrous oxide, nor ... on the doses of propofol required for the induction of hypnosis and the maintenance of propofol/nitrous oxide anesthesia. In ...
The Los Angeles Times is reporting that Michael Jackson was killed by a lethal dose of propofol, the anesthesia at the center ...
Surgery patient overdosed when accidentally given 10x the intended dose of anesthesia - doctors didnt notice anything until it ... Surgery patient overdosed when accidentally given 10x the intended dose of anesthesia - doctors didnt notice anything until it ... Tags: accidental death, Anesthesia, badhealth, badmedicine, badscience, Dangerous Medicine, health care, hospital error, ... www.naturalnews.com/2018-01-30-surgery-patient-overdosed-when-accidentally-given-10x-the-intended-dose-of-anesthesia.html. ...
Foundations of Regional Anesthesia *Foundations of Regional Anesthesia *Essentials of Regional Anesthesia Anatomy ... Statistics in Small Doses 9 - Does sample size matter?. Statistics in Small Doses ... Next month, statistics in small doses will touch upon those factors that can influence sample size - might their appropriate ...
Foundations of Regional Anesthesia *Foundations of Regional Anesthesia *Essentials of Regional Anesthesia Anatomy ... Statistics in Small Doses 8 - What are the Type I and Type II errors?. Statistics in Small Doses ... Statistics in Small Doses 6 - What are Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests?. Statistics in Small Doses ... Statistics in Small Doses 7 - What are null and alternative hypotheses?. Statistics in Small Doses ...
Concerning the Use and Abuse of Test Doses for Epidural Anesthesia You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected ... Concerning the Use and Abuse of Test Doses for Epidural Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 9 1984, Vol.61, 345. doi: ... DANIEL C. MOORE, MANBIR S. BATRA; Concerning the Use and Abuse of Test Doses for Epidural Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1984;61(3 ...
The effect of addition of different doses of meperidine to intrathecal small dose hypobaric lidocaine for spinal anesthesia for ... The effect of addition of different doses of meperidine to intrathecal small dose hypobaric lidocaine for spinal anesthesia for ... The effect of addition of different doses of meperidine to intrathecal small dose hypobaric lidocaine for spinal anesthesia for ... The effect of addition of different doses of meperidine to intrathecal small dose hypobaric lidocaine for spinal anesthesia for ...
The Dose Response of Fentanyl in Neonatal Anesthesia You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... The Dose Response of Fentanyl in Neonatal Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 3 1987, Vol.66, 433-435. doi: ... Myron Yaster; The Dose Response of Fentanyl in Neonatal Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1987;66(3):433-435. ...
I made this on photoshop right after a dose with Anesthesia. Creativity inspired by dosing. ... Well i made this right after a dose with Anesthesia - the weird thing is that i painted my last trip with Marijuana. I tried ... I made this on photoshop right after a dose with Anesthesia. by JaevL » Fri Jan 26, 2007 7:18 pm ... We lead the industry as a safe and effective method to achieve a simulated experience through the use of binaural audio doses. ...
The frequency distribution of doses for all drugs was determined, and the 4 most common doses representing at least 5% of total ... At the institution lacking the default drug doses, 100% of the 20 most commonly administered doses (representing ≥5% of use for ... The use of default dose buttons does not appear to modify the selection of drug doses in clinical practice. ... the 4 most common doses at the site lacking defaults would be included among the most common doses at the 2 sites with defaults ...
A study of low-dose S-ketamine infusion as "preventive" pain treatment for cesarean section with spinal anesthesia: benefits ... METHODS: Women undergoing elective repeat cesarean section with subarachnoid anesthesia (0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 8-10 mg ...
N ubain (nalbuphine) Routine use: Analgesia during labor, Sedation before surgery, Supplement to balanced anesthesia Safe ... Supplement to balanced anesthesia Safe dose & range: IM, Subcut IV (Adults): Usual dose is 10 mg q 3-6 hr (single dose not to ... Doses of nonopioid agents should not exceed the maximum recommended daily dose ... exceed 20 mg; total daily dose not to exceed 160 mg). Supplement to Balanced Anesthesia IV (Adults): Initial --0.3-3 mg/kg over ...
Purpose: : To compare surgical dose of strabismus surgery using topical anesthesia-adjusted dose in cooperative patients, with ... Dose and Pattern of Strabismus Surgery Under Topical Anesthesia You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... J. Tejedor, C. Ogallar; Dose and Pattern of Strabismus Surgery Under Topical Anesthesia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50( ... Intercept and slope values were significantly different between a dose/surgery linear regression model with topical anesthesia ...
Large-dose propofol (9 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)) was given for only 3 h during surgery and was followed by a small-dose infusion (2.3 mg ... this is the first report of reversible lactic acidosis associated with a short duration of large-dose propofol anesthesia. ... The patient had also received large doses of methylprednisolone. He developed a marked lactic acidosis with mild biological ... In this case report we describe a case of propofol infusion syndrome in an adult after a short-term infusion of large-dose ...
  • This retrospective study found that IN DEX provides effective sedation for ABR examinations, with the benefits of an ability to begin the test sooner and complete the examination with a single dose, in addition to a decreased incidence of hypoxemia. (aappublications.org)
  • 3 In a review of 118 critical adverse sedation events in children, death or severe neurologic injury occurred in 13 of 20 children who received chloral hydrate, including some cases in which standard doses were administered. (aappublications.org)
  • As Assistant Chief CRNA, Dr. Clark provides general, regional, and peripheral anesthesia to pediatric, adult, and obstetrical patients, while also completing administrative duties such as coordinating improvements to policies and procedures, overseeing the tasks of anesthesia staff, and managing continuing education sessions for CRNAs at the Medical Center. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • Caudal anesthesia in the clinical assessment of painful anal lesions. (freethesaurus.com)
  • In 2014, she also took on a clinical position at Somnia Anesthesia Services. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • In addition to her clinical and staff leadership, Dr. Clark has an extensive background in nurse anesthesia education, having served as a Clinical Coordinator during her time at UC Davis Medical Center, as a Clinical Preceptor for Samuel Merritt University CRNA students, and as Assistant Professor and Co-Chairperson for the Admission Committee at Samuel Merritt University's Program of Nurse Anesthesia. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • My first job as a CRNA was at the University of California- Davis Medical Center (UCDMC) in Sacramento, CA. I was the clinical coordinator for the SMU PNA students at UCDMC and became a preceptor to nurse anesthesia students in the operating room (OR). (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • In the IN DEX cohort, the examination could be completed more frequently with a single dose of medication ( P = .002). (aappublications.org)
  • Influence of the injection site (L2/3 or L3/4) and the posture of the vertebral column on selective spinal anesthesia for ambulatory knee arthroscopy. (ssmj.ru)
  • MEASUREMENTS: Rate of success, level and duration of sensory and motor block, time to voiding and ambulation, complications, and quality of anesthesia according to the patient and medical staff, were recorded. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Children in our cohort exposed to anesthesia before age 3 had a higher relative risk of language and abstract reasoning deficits at age 10 than unexposed children. (aappublications.org)
  • This study examines the association between exposure to anesthesia in children under age 3 and deficits at age 10 by using a battery of directly administered neuropsychological assessments, with deficits found in language and abstract reasoning associated with exposure. (aappublications.org)
  • Twenty minutes after starting halothane anesthesia, tramadol (1.0 mg/kg in 0.22 mL/kg of sterile water) was administered epidurally at the lumbo-sacral space. (scribd.com)
  • Statistics in Small Doses 9 - Does sample size matter? (nysora.com)
  • Next month, statistics in small doses will touch upon those factors that can influence sample size - might their appropriate use help your sample size? (nysora.com)
  • Statistics in Small Doses 8 - What are the Type I and Type II errors? (nysora.com)
  • Statistics in Small Doses 7 - What are null and alternative hypotheses? (nysora.com)
  • Statistics in Small Doses 6 - What are Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests? (nysora.com)
  • Acute pulmonary edema following naloxone reversal of high-dose morphine anesthesia. (nih.gov)
  • 5 Due to other pharmacokinetic parameter considerations and the increased risk of adverse effects of hydrophilic opioids (e.g., morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone), it is prudent to start with lower initial doses and titrate slowly to effect. (uspharmacist.com)
  • There are sequential evaluation methods for binary response variables used to determine the concentration or dose associated with the 50% point of the dose-response curve. (scielo.br)
  • BACKGROUND: Experts recommend postpartum oxytocin to prevent uterine atony and hemorrhage, but oxytocin may be associated with dose-dependent adverse effects, and the correct dose of postpartum oxytocin has yet to be determined. (anesthesiaexperts.com)