The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Self report questionnaire which yields 16 scores on personality traits, such as reserved vs. outgoing, humble vs. assertive, etc.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A member of the AGARICALES known for edible MUSHROOMS.
A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
A group of peptides characterized by length of 1-2 dozen residues with a high proportion of them being non-proteinogenic, notably alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and isovaline, and have a C-terminal amino alcohol and N terminal alkyl group. They are found in FUNGI and some are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. They form channels or pores in target organisms. The term is a contraction of peptide-Aib-alcohol.
The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Short-lived radioactive decay products of radon that include 216-Po, 214-Pb, 214-Bi, and 214-Po. They have an effective half-life of about 30 minutes and are solids that can deposit on the bronchial airways during inhalation and exhalation. This results in exposure of the respiratory airways to alpha radiation and can lead to diseases of the respiratory system, including lung cancer. (From Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th ed, p740)
Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.

RAD53 regulates DBF4 independently of checkpoint function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (1/4844)

The Cdc7p and Dbf4p proteins form an active kinase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. A genetic screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with cdc7-1 led to the isolation of seven lsd (lethal with seven defect) complementation groups. The lsd7 complementation group contained two temperature-sensitive dbf4 alleles. The lsd1 complementation group contained a new allele of RAD53, which was designated rad53-31. RAD53 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for the activation of DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways, and that is implicated as a positive regulator of S phase. Unlike other RAD53 alleles, we demonstrate that the rad53-31 allele retains an intact checkpoint function. Thus, the checkpoint function and the DNA replication function of RAD53 can be functionally separated. The activation of DNA replication through RAD53 most likely occurs through DBF4. Two-hybrid analysis indicates that the Rad53p protein binds to Dbf4p. Furthermore, the steady-state level of DBF4 message and Dbf4p protein is reduced in several rad53 mutant strains, indicating that RAD53 positively regulates DBF4. These results suggest that two different functions of the cell cycle, initiation of DNA replication and the checkpoint function, can be coordinately regulated through the common intermediate RAD53.  (+info)

Genome reduction in a hemiclonal frog Rana esculenta from radioactively contaminated areas. (2/4844)

A decrease in genome size was found in the hemiclonal hybridogenetic frog Rana esculenta (R. ridibunda x R. lessonae) from areas of radioactive contamination that resulted from the Chernobyl fallout. This genome reduction was of up to 4% and correlated with the background level of gamma-radiation (linear regression corresponded on average to -0.4% per doubling of radiation level). No change in genome size was observed in the coexisting parental species R. lessonae. There was no correlation between genome size and body mass in R. esculenta froglets, which have metamorphosed in the year of the study. The hemiclonal forms may become a suitable object for study on biological significance of individual DNA sequences (and of genome size as a whole) because mutant animals with deletions in a specified genome can arise after a low radiation dose. The proneness to genetic damage makes such forms also a prospective bioindicator of radioactive (and possibly other mutagenic) pollution with the effects of genetic damage conveniently and rapidly monitored by DNA flow cytometry.  (+info)

Loss of normal G1 checkpoint control is an early step in carcinogenesis, independent of p53 status. (3/4844)

Recent studies have described a diminished radiation-induced G1 arrest in some wild-type (wt) p53 human tumor cell lines compared to normal human fibroblasts. However, the significance of this finding was unclear, particularly because tumor cell lines may have accumulated additional genetic changes after long periods in culture. Because malignant transformation of individual cells is thought to be an early step in carcinogenesis, we have used a model system of normal and transformed mouse fibroblast 10T1/2 cell clones to examine whether loss of G1 checkpoint control may be an early event in tumor development and to study the relationships between G1 arrest, radiosensitivity, and genetic alterations. Twelve transformed clones were established from type III foci induced by irradiation of normal 10T1/2 cells and were compared with six clones derived from wt 10T1/2 cells. Three of the transformed clones expressed mutant p53; two of these had the same point mutation at codon 132 (exon 5), and one had a point mutation at codon 135. The remaining transformed and normal clones had wt p53 status. The radiosensitivity of transformed clones, as measured by a clonogenic assay, was similar to that of normal clones; the three clones with mutant p53 did not differ from the others. There was no relationship between G1 arrest and radiosensitivity. Normal 10T1/2 cell clones showed a transient G1 arrest lasting approximately 9 h after 6 Gy of irradiation. This G1 arrest was either absent or markedly reduced in all of the transformed clones, regardless of p53 status. These results suggest that diminished G1 checkpoint control is an early event in the process of carcinogenesis that is associated with the malignant transformation of individual cells and is independent of p53 status.  (+info)

Increased ultraviolet sensitivity and chromosomal instability related to P53 function in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant. (4/4844)

The xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant (XPV) is a form of XP that has normal excision repair but shows defective DNA replication after UV irradiation. In developing various transformed fibroblast cell lines from these patients, we have found that there are significant phenotypic changes in transformed cells that seem to correlate with inactivation of p53. After transformation with SV40, XPV cell lines are only slightly UV sensitive, like their primary counterparts, but their sensitization with caffeine and the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by UV irradiation are greatly enhanced. After transformation by HPV16 E7, which targets the retinoblastoma cell cycle regulatory gene, there is no change in the UV sensitivity of XPV cells; but, when transformed by HPV16 E6 or E6 and E7 combined, there is a large increase in UV sensitivity and in the induction of SCEs. These changes are not associated with any detectable changes in the reactivation of an externally irradiated luciferase expression vector, the excision of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from bulk DNA, or unscheduled DNA synthesis and, therefore, do not involve excision repair. We suggest that if SCEs represent homologous recombination between sister chromatids, then in the absence of p53 function, the DNA chain arrest typical of UV-damaged XPV cells initiates strand exchange during recovery. In untransformed cells with normal p53, the preferred mode of recovery would then be replication bypass. The symptoms of elevated solar carcinogenesis in XPV patients may, therefore, be associated with increased genomic instability in cells of the skin in which p53 is inactivated by UV-induced mutations.  (+info)

Preclinical development of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transfected melanoma cell vaccine using established canine cell lines and normal dogs. (5/4844)

Tumor vaccines and gene therapy have received significant attention as means of increasing cellular and humoral immune responses to cancer. We conducted a pilot study of seven research dogs to determine whether intradermal injection of canine tumor cells transfected via the Accell particle-mediated gene transfer device with the cDNA for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) would generate biologically relevant levels of protein and result in demonstrable histological changes at sites of vaccination. Tumor cell vaccines of 10(7) irradiated canine melanoma cells were nontoxic, safe, and well tolerated. No significant alterations in blood chemistry values or hematological profiles were detected. A histological review of control vaccine sites revealed inflammatory responses predominated by eosinophils, whereas vaccine sites with hGM-CSF-transfected tumor cells had an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of skin biopsies from vaccine sites had local hGM-CSF production (8.68-16.82 ng/site of injection) at 24 hours after injection and detectable levels (0.014-0.081 ng/site) for < or =2 weeks following vaccination. Flow cytometric analysis of hGM-CSF-transfected cells demonstrated < or =25% transfection efficiency, and hGM-CSF levels obtained during time-course assays demonstrated biologically relevant levels for both irradiated and nonirradiated samples. These data demonstrate the in vivo biological activity of irradiated hGM-CSF-transfected canine tumor cells and help provide evidence for a valid translational research model of spontaneous tumors.  (+info)

Radiation induced endothelial cell retraction in vitro: correlation with acute pulmonary edema. (6/4844)

We determined the effects of low dose radiation (<200 cGy) on the cell-cell integrity of confluent monolayers of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC). We observed dose- and time-dependent reversible radiation induced injuries to PMEC monolayers characterized by retraction (loss of cell-cell contact) mediated by cytoskeletal F-actin reorganization. Radiation induced reorganization of F-actin microfilament stress fibers was observed > or =30 minutes post irradiation and correlated positively with loss of cell-cell integrity. Cells of irradiated monolayers recovered to form contact inhibited monolayers > or =24 hours post irradiation; concomitantly, the depolymerized microfilaments organized to their pre-irradiated state as microfilament stress fibers arrayed parallel to the boundaries of adjacent contact-inhibited cells. Previous studies by other investigators have measured slight but significant increases in mouse lung wet weight >1 day post thoracic or whole body radiation (> or =500 cGy). Little or no data is available concerning time intervals <1 day post irradiation, possibly because of the presumption that edema is mediated, at least in part, by endothelial cell death or irreversible loss of barrier permeability functions which may only arise 1 day post irradiation. However, our in vitro data suggest that loss of endothelial barrier function may occur rapidly and at low dose levels (< or =200 cGy). Therefore, we determined radiation effects on lung wet weight and observed significant increases in wet weight (standardized per dry weight or per mouse weight) in < or =5 hours post thoracic exposure to 50 200 cGy x-radiation. We suggest that a single fraction of radiation even at low dose levels used in radiotherapy, may induce pulmonary edema by a reversible loss of endothelial cell-cell integrity and permeability barrier function.  (+info)

In situ repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in human skin exposed to solar simulating radiation. (7/4844)

DNA repair is crucial to the integrity of the human genome. The ultraviolet radiation portion of solar radiation is responsible for the rising incidence of skin cancer, one of the most common types of cancer in humans. We applied a recently developed 32P-postlabeling technique to measure the in situ DNA repair efficiency of solar-simulated radiation induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in the skin of nine healthy volunteers with skin type II. Our results show about 6-fold interindividual variations in the level of DNA damage after exposure to an equal biologic dose - 2 minimal erythema doses. The kinetics of DNA repair indicated a base sequence dependence of the repair process. The DNA repair efficiency showed a 20-fold difference in volunteers. An age-related decrease of DNA repair capacity was observed; however, the data are limited due to a small number of subjects and a narrow age range. The variable response in DNA damage levels and individual differences in DNA repair efficiency suggest a susceptible subgroup of people probably with a higher skin cancer risk.  (+info)

Is arcA3 a possible mediator in the signal transduction pathway during agonist cell cycle arrest by salicylic acid and UV irradiation? (8/4844)

Progression of BY-2 tobacco cells through the cell cycle was followed after treatments with ultra violet (UV) and salicylic acid (SA) used as a potent inhibitor of the octadecanoid pathway which can mediate response to UV irradiation. Cells in S phase were more sensitive than G0/G1 or G2 cells to UV irradiation. Although SA efficiently blocked cells in G0/G1 or G2, it did not block S phase synchronized cells. UV and SA applied simultaneously to cells in G0/G1 delayed the cell cycle progression more than each one separately. Therefore UV irradiation and SA act as agonists to arrest BY-2 cells at cell cycle entry. To further investigate the signalling pathway mediating UV response, we complemented a UV-sensitive Escherichia coli strain with a Nicotiana xanthi cDNA expression library. A cDNA (arcA3) whose coding sequence is identical to the 2,4-D induced arcA cDNA cloned by Ishida et al. (1993) was isolated. We show that arcA3 transcription is induced at cell cycle entry but not directly by the 2,4-D treatment. Moreover, arcA3 transcription is induced prior to the restriction point as shown with the CDK inhibitor roscovitine. The arcA3 transcription level is increased by UV irradiation but prevented by SA. Indeed, addition of SA prior to UV irradiation blocks the induction of arcA3 transcription. This suggests that arcA3 gene is modulated in both UV and SA responses, the SA effect preceding the UV step. Since arcA3 is 67% similar to RACK1 (functional homology), a rat intracellular receptor for protein kinase C, and possesses identical PKC fixation motifs, it is hypothesised that the arcA3 gene is involved in UV and SA cell cycle arrest.  (+info)

Fig 2 Radiation dose-response relation (excess relative risk) for death from heart disease, showing linear and linear-quadratic functions. Shaded area is 95%
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly recognized as late effects of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to quantify the effects of radiation dose to the heart, chemotherapy, and other cardiovascular risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 2,617 5-year HL survivors, treated between 1965 and 1995. Cases were patients diagnosed with CHD as their first cardiovascular event after HL. Detailed treatment information was collected from medical records of 325 cases and 1,204 matched controls. Radiation charts and simulation radiographs were used to estimate in-field heart volume and mean heart dose (MHD). A risk factor questionnaire was sent to patients still alive. RESULTS: The median interval between HL and CHD was 19.0 years. Risk of CHD increased linearly with increasing MHD (excess relative risk [ERR]) per Gray, 7.4%; 95% CI, 3.3% to 14.8%). This
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This book covers the following: INTRODUCTION, GENERAL FRAMEWORK, LITERATURE REVIEW: radiation dose-response models, radiation effects at chromosomal and cellular level, radiosensitivity of the hematopoietic system, mayak product association, previous studies of long term occupational radiation exposure, sex related differences in radiosensitivity; Review of Repeated Measures Analysis Techniques: u
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy are known to have increased risks of heart failure (HF), but a radiation dose-response relationship has not previously been derived. A case-control study, nested in a cohort of 2617 five-year survivors of HL diagnosed before age 51 years during 1965 to 1995, was conducted. Cases (n = 91) had moderate or severe HF as their first cardiovascular diagnosis. Controls (n = 278) were matched to cases on age, sex, and HL diagnosis date. Treatment and follow-up information were abstracted from medical records. Mean heart doses and mean left ventricular doses (MLVD) were estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative computed tomography datasets. Average MLVD was 16.7 Gy for cases and 13.8 Gy for controls (Pdifference = .003). HF rate increased with MLVD: relative to 0 Gy, HF rates following MVLD of 1-15, 16-20, 21-25, and ≥26 Gy were 1.27, 1.65, 3.84, and 4.39, respectively (Ptrend | .001). Anthracycline
In a thoughtful editorial, Yahalom (39) concluded that the results of the international study (16) implied that the smaller radiotherapy fields and lower doses now used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma should eventually result in lower risks of breast cancer. Before the publication of these studies (16, 17), there had been no convincing evidence to suggest that recent treatment modifications for Hodgkin lymphoma might translate into decreased long-term risks of solid tumors. In particular, the shape of the radiation dose-response relation for breast cancer was not clear, especially at large doses, where it had been postulated that cell-killing effects might produce smaller risks (38). Although these investigations (16, 17) imply that radiotherapy dose reduction in Hodgkin lymphoma may result in smaller breast cancer risks, long-term follow-up will be required to determine the degree to which risks can be reduced and the influence of modifying factors.. In the interim, increasing awareness of the large ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Oncology, Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging, ONCOLOGY, RADIOLOGY, NUCLEAR MEDICINE & MEDICAL IMAGING, combined modality radiotherapy, targeted radionuclide therapy, external beam radiotherapy, linear-quadratic model, biologically effective dose, TUMOR VASCULAR-PERMEABILITY, INCOMPLETE-REPAIR MODEL, DOSE-RATE IRRADIATION, CERVICAL SPINAL-CORD, ALPHA/BETA-RATIO, EXPERIMENTAL RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, TARGETED RADIOTHERAPY, CONTROL PROBABILITY, PROSTATE-CANCER, CELL-SURVIVAL ...
The characteristics of EMT6 tumors in young adult (3- to 4-month-old) and aged (20- to 28-month-old) BALB/c KaRw mice were compared. The number of tumor cells implanted s.c. necessary to cause tumors in 50% of the injection sites was lower in aging than in young adult mice (69 and 138 cells for young adult mice versus 8.8 and 16 cells for aging mice in two experiments). The latent period of intradermally implanted tumors was shorter in aging mice than in young animals; however, the growth curves of established tumors were similar. The number and appearance of lung colonies after injection of cells i.v. and the pattern of spontaneous metastases were similar in young and aged animals. The cloning efficiencies (viabilities) of cells suspended from tumors in young adult and aging animals were the same (approximately 30% in both groups). Radiation dose-response curves for the cells of tumors in young and aging mice were different and suggested that the proportion of hypoxic cells was higher in tumors ...
This project is part of the DOE research program on the biological effects of low dose and dose rate ionizing radiation. This DOE program is designed to support and conduct science that can impact the subsequent development of health risk policy for low dose radiation exposures in the US. The overall, long-term goal of this project is to increase understanding of the responses of cells to the low doses of ionizing radiation typically encountered in environmental level exposures. To achieve this objective, we couple use of a unique focused soft X-ray facility for low dose irradiation of individual cells or irradiation of specific subcellular regions of cells with studies of the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in cells. The project includes seven specific goals: (1) Determine the response of individual cells to low doses of ionizing radiation from a focused soft X-ray beam with a 250 nm diameter beam spot. (2) Determine the response of cells to ROS generated by chemical agents in a
We examine the ability of the simple linear-quadratic model under rational expectations to explain dynamic behaviour of aggregate Canadian imports. In contrast to authors of previous studies who examine dynamic behaviour using the LQ model, we estimate the structural parameters using the Euler equation in a limited information framework that does not require an explicit solution for the models control variables in terms of the exogenous forcing variables. In the first stage of our two-step methodology, we find statistically stable long-run elasticities of domestic activity and relative price to be about 1.5 and -0.5 over the sample period of estimation. In the second stage, we use the parameter estimates from the first stage and estimate the Euler equation. These empirical estimates imply that adjustment costs are about 9 to 13 times more important than disequilibrium costs. In sum, we find surprisingly encouraging evidence supporting the view that the LQ model is not inconsistent with the ...
Downloadable! We examine the ability of the simple linear-quadratic model under rational expectations to explain dynamic behaviour of aggregate Canadian imports. In contrast to authors of previous studies who examine dynamic behaviour using the LQ model, we estimate the structural parameters using the Euler equation in a limited information framework that does not require an explicit solution for the models control variables in terms of the exogenous forcing variables. In the first stage of our two-step methodology, we find statistically stable long-run elasticities of domestic activity and relative price to be about 1.5 and -0.5 over the sample period of estimation. In the second stage, we use the parameter estimates from the first stage and estimate the Euler equation. These empirical estimates imply that adjustment costs are about 9 to 13 times more important than disequilibrium costs. In sum, we find surprisingly encouraging evidence supporting the view that the LQ model is not inconsistent with
Given the complexity of the carcinogenic process and the lack of any mechanistic understanding of how ionizing radiation at low-level exposures affects the multistage, multimechanism processes of carcinogenesis, it is imperative that concepts and paradigms be reexamined when extrapolating from high dose to low dose. Any health effect directly linked to low-dose radiation exposure must have molecular/biochemical and biological bases. On the other hand, demonstrating some molecular/biochemical or cellular effect, using surrogate systems for the human being, does not necessarily imply a corresponding health effect. Given the general acceptance of an extrapolated LNT model, our current understanding of carcinogenesis cries out for a resolution of a real problem. How can a low-level acute, or even a chronic, exposure of ionizing radiation bring about all the different mechanisms (mutagenic, cytotoxic, and epigenetic) and genotypic/phenotypic changes needed to convert normal cells to an invasive, malignant
December 20, 2011 - The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) acknowledged in a recent statement that the risks associated with medical imaging and any medical procedure must be balanced with its benefits. Alarmist and sensational speculation about the risk of low-dose radiation exposure may cause patients to refuse these life-saving medical tests. The statement goes on to say:. (AAPM) acknowledges that medical imaging procedures should be appropriate and conducted at the lowest radiation dose consistent with acquisition of the desired information. Discussion of risks related to radiation dose from medical imaging procedures should be accompanied by acknowledgment of the benefits of the procedures. Risks of medical imaging at effective doses below 50 mSv for single procedures or 100 mSv for multiple procedures over short time periods are too low to be detectable and may be nonexistent. Predictions of hypothetical cancer incidence and deaths in patient populations exposed to such ...
Doubly cloned 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma sublines of differing spontaneous metastatic potentials were tested for their response to ionizing radiation in vitro. Cells were irradiated using a 137Cs source, and colony formation was used to measure radiation survival. Heterogeneous responses of the various clones were observed and compared to clonal origin, spontaneous metastatic potential from mammary fat pad sites, and in vitro passage number. Clones MTF4 and MTF7, both derived from the locally growing tumor and possessing intermediate metastatic potentials, exhibited characteristic radiation survival curves (n = 8, Do = 89 rads, and n = 3, Do = 78 rads respectively). Clone MTA, also derived from the locally growing tumor but possessing high metastatic potential, had a more linear dose response to γ-irradiation (n = 1, Do = 143 rads, r = -0.99). Clone MTLn2, a lung metastases-derived clone which possesses a low metastatic potential, also exhibited a linear response (n = 1, Do = 175 rads, ...
Chronic Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation Exposure Induces Premature Senescence in Human Fibroblasts that Correlates with Up Regulation of Proteins Involved in Protection against Oxidative Stress. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
BULGULAR: al mam zda iyonize radyasyon ile mesane damar endotelinde HIF-1α antikoru ile 3. grupta kuvvetli boyanma izlenirken di er gruplar n boyanma iddeti daha az idi. VEGF incelendi inde, 1. ve 4. grupta zay f boyanma izlenirken, 2. grupta orta derecede, 3.grupta ise kuvvetli boyanma izlendi. eIF2, 1. ve 4. grupta kuvvetli boyanma g stermi , 2. ve 3. grupta ise zay f boyanm t . TIA-1 ile yap lan de erlendirmede ise 1. grupta zay f boyanma zellikleri g zlenirken, 2. ve 4. grup orta derecede, 3. grupta ise olduk a kuvvetli boyanma izlendi. al mam zda TSP-1 ile boyanma 1. grup rneklerde olduk a kuvvetli g zlenirken, di er gruplarda boyanma zellikleri olduk a zay f izlendi ...
The hematopoiesis system plays an important part in maintaining the vitality of mammals [1-3]. Functional cells of this system transport oxygen in the blood, provide specific and nonspecific immune...
We and others have shown that low-dose X or gamma irradiation of mice leads to an increase in their survival after a subsequent lethal high-dose irradiation. The greatest increase in radioresistance appears at a fixed window of dose and time, e.g. 8 weeks after 5-10 cGy or 2 weeks after 50 cGy preir …
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere have found a new way to measure radiation damage in materials, quickly, cheaply and continuously, using transient grating spectroscopy.
She should have said, Sure, I have a great idea as to how the flagellum arose, but right now it doesnt involve mutation or natural selection. Here it is: When a species is on the brink of exinction, it sets off a chain reaction in an alternate universe that sends signals of complex specific information into this universe via the 11th dimension. These signals build up in the DNA of the organism to produce, in some cases, a new and functional feature that aids in the species survival. This is how irreducibly complex features arise in organisms. I call my new theory Information Directed Into Obvious Targets theory (IDIOT for short), which posits that the diversity in life cannot have arisen without the injection of information from alternate universes via the 11th dimension. Its about as plausible and testable what you are spouting here, dear Sir.. ...
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Micro-RDC has developed portable radiation effects test structures that scale to new process nodes.These structures will enable the investigation of the effects of radiation on the new technology from the material processing level as well as the circuit level.Fabricating the chosen structures and the refinement of software to extract the model parameters will be completed in this effort.A suite of .... ...
Preparative scale chromatographic separation of open-circular (oc) from supercoiled (sc) plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms has been already established on CIM®
Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation fields are planned so as to reduce side-effects while maximising the dose to site but effects on healthy tissues are inevitable. Radiation causes strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cause malfunction and cell death. Several researchers have highlighted the damaging effects of high dose radiation but still there is a lacuna in identifying damage due to low dose radiation used for diagnostic purposes. Blood is an easy resource to study genotoxicity and to estimate the effects of radiation. The micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration can indicate genetic damage and our present aim was to establish these with lymphocytes in an in vitro model to predict the immediate effects low dose radiation. Blood was collected from healthy individuals and divided into 6 groups with increasing radiation dose i.e., 0Gy, 0.10Gy, 0.25Gy, 0.50Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy. The samples were irradiated in duplicates using a LINAC in the radiation
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate the stability or translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs. Specific miRNAs are required for strict tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression. These miRNAs have roles in many human tumor malignancies and their expression is specifically regulated on each stage of oncogenic process. Therefore, miRNA expression profiling can be used as a new class of biomarker that indicates the development of cancer. Many recent studies indicated that cell exposure to ionizing radiation also induces various physiological responses including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, cell death and differentiation. In addition, some studies suggest that exposure to low dose radiation induces a favorable effect on cells. However, the functions of miRNAs related to the response of irradiated cells have not been well studied, especially after low dose radiation. In this study, expression profiles of miRNAs isolated from irradiated cells at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiation-related new primary solid cancers in the childhood cancer survivor study. T2 - Comparative radiation dose response and modification of treatment effects. AU - Inskip, Peter D.. AU - Sigurdson, Alice J.. AU - Veiga, Lene. AU - Bhatti, Parveen. AU - Ronckers, Cécile. AU - Rajaraman, Preetha. AU - Boukheris, Houda. AU - Stovall, Marilyn. AU - Smith, Susan. AU - Hammond, Sue. AU - Henderson, Tara O.. AU - Watt, Tanya C.. AU - Mertens, Ann C.. AU - Leisenring, Wendy. AU - Stratton, Kayla. AU - Whitton, John. AU - Donaldson, Sarah S.. AU - Armstrong, Gregory T.. AU - Robison, Leslie L.. AU - Neglia, Joseph P.. PY - 2016/3/15. Y1 - 2016/3/15. N2 - Objectives The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose-response ...
Since the 1970s, mammograms have made a huge impact on detecting breast cancer in its earliest stages, when it is most treatable - it remains the best method for early detection today, says Mary Lechner, MD, medical director at Park Nicollet Jane Brattain Breast Center.. During a mammogram, low dose radiation (X-ray) is passed through a compressed breast, source The compression is necessary to provide an accurate picture. Images produced by mammograms can detect a tumor as early as two years before a doctor or patient can feel a lump.. I tell women that yearly mammograms can reassure them that their breasts are normal - and if there is an abnormality, mammograms can detect it early, when there are more treatment options if it proves to be cancer, and survival rates are higher, Dr. Lechner says.. ...
Genomic instability (GI) is a hallmark of tumorigenic progression and is observed as delayed genetic damage in the progeny of irradiated and unirradiated bystander cells. The expression of GI can be influenced by genotype, cell type and radiation quality. While several studies have demonstrated the induction of GI by high and low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, our work on human and mouse primary cell systems has shown LET-dependent differences in the induction and expression of GI. These differences might be attributed to differences in radiation track structure, dose rate, contribution of bystander cells and radiation dose. This paper reviews the role of radiation quality in the induction of GI and describe the possible mechanisms underlining the observed differences between radiation types on its induction. The experimental results presented suggest that dose might be the most significant factor in determining induction of GI after low-LET radiation.
Research, published in PLOS Genetics, reports that low doses of radiation used in medical imaging may lead to mutations in cell cultures.. Prof Geraldine Thomas, Professor of Molecular Pathology, Imperial College London, said:. This is an interesting paper that seeks to investigate the how various types of DNA repair affect random integration of DNA from non-chromosomal sources following a double strand break. This paper should not be taken as evidence that low dose radiation exposure is likely to result in DNA integration when used in diagnostic procedures in vivo, nor should this work be taken for evidence that exposure to low dose radiation results in cancer in man. In terms of the mechanisms by which this might occur it is interesting, but caution should be taken before extrapolating results on cell lines (murine or human) into the likely effects of radiation in vivo in man. Cell lines are produced as a result of clonal selection in vitro - this process results in a change in the genetic ...
Another aspect of our proposal relates to the rate at which cells are exposed to the radiation. A given dose of total radiation can be given over short or long time frames; if that exposure time is short then the rate is higher that if that dose is delivered over longer periods of time. Much of our past data of space radiation effects in the brain have been done under conditions of high dose rate, largely due to a number of practical limitations. In space however, most dose rates are low, and because the response of cells might differ, studies are needed to determine how cells respond to the types of radiation in space when delivered at low dose rates. Our current proposal will compare the types of changes found in neural precursor cells at low dose rate to those changes found previously at high dose rate. Results from these studies will be critical in enhancing our knowledge base of the risks associated with exposure of the brain to the radiation fields in space ...
Purpose: The clinical radiation responses of different organs vary widely and likely depend on the intrinsic radiosensitivities of their different cell populations. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious form of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, and the cells capacity to rejoin radiation-induced DSBs is known to affect their intrinsic radiosensitivity. To date, only little is known about the induction and processing of radiation-induced DSBs in complex normal tissues. Using an in vivo model with repair-proficient mice, the highly sensitive {gamma}H2AX immunofluorescence was established to investigate whether differences in DSB rejoining could account for the substantial differences in clinical radiosensitivity observed among normal tissues. Methods and Materials: After whole body irradiation of C57BL/6 mice (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy), the formation and rejoining of DSBs was analyzed by enumerating {gamma}H2AX foci in various organs representative of both early-responding ...
The presentation reviews the modus operandi of the dose modifying drug Pentoxifylline and the dose enhancement factors which can be achieved in different cell types. Preclinical and clinical data show that Pentoxifylline improves the oxygenation of hypoxic tumours and enhances tumour control by irradiation. In vitro experiments demonstrate that Pentoxifylline also operates when oxygen is not limiting and produces dose modifying factors in the region of 1.2 - 2.0. This oxygen independent effect is poorly understood. In p53 mutant cells irradiation induces a G2 block which is abrogated by Pentoxifylline. The enhancement of cell kill observed when Pentoxifylline and irradiation are given together could arise from rapid entry of damaged tumour cells into mitosis and propagation of DNA lesions as the result of curtailment of repair time. Recovery ratios and repair experiments using CFGE after high dose irradiation demonstrate that Pentoxifylline inhibits repair directly and that curtailment of repair ...
Definition of radiation effects in the dictionary. Meaning of radiation effects. What does radiation effects mean? Information and translations of radiation effects in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Cell survival curves (a) and the net micronucleus (MN) frequencies (b) afterin vivoirradiation using neutron beams without the10B-carrier as a function of the p
This is to our knowledge the first study on hippocampal volumes after low dose radiation to the basal part of the adult human brain. Although the dose to the hippocampus could not be calculated directly, the estimates of radiation dose to relevant areas are probably more exact than in any previous study. The small study size is an effect of our ambitions to minimize the influence of confounding factors in an original sample of 101 patients. Moreover, the patient sample is homogeneous in terms of treatment with the exception of two patients who received a higher radiation dose; these were treated separately in the statistical analysis.. Automatic methods for hippocampal volumetry are rapidly gaining acceptance. They have undisputed advantages in terms of cost, inter-rater reliability and comparability between studies. However, for small-scale studies involving only intra-study comparisons, we would argue that manual segmentation is still superior. This is even more so since the issue of ICV ...
The hyper-radiosensitivity phenomenon seems to be most prominent in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, which suggests that actively proliferating cell populations may have increased radiosensitivity to very low radiation doses (28). Recently, Dey et al. (15) showed that low doses of fractionated radiation cause enhanced cell killing in a p53-independent manner in vitro. The concept of low-dose radiation delivered in fractions has been applied in preclinical experiments in which SQ20B cells xenografted into nude mice and treated with LDFRT combined with docetaxel showed complete tumor eradication and durable response in the nude mice xenografts (16). Arnold et al. (29) enrolled 40 patients in a single-arm neo-adjuvant clinical trial in which patients with advanced head and neck cancer were treated successfully (i.e., excellent response rates) with low-dose fractionated radiation combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel before definitive therapy.. Induced radiation resistance (IRR), a radiobiological ...
Background: Although the effects of high dose radiation on human cells and tissues are relatively well defined, there is no consensus regarding the effects of low and very low radiation doses on the organism. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations which are known to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. The induction of secondary cancers is a challenging long-term side effect in oncologic patients treated with radiation. Medical sources of radiation like intensity modulated radiotherapy used in cancer treatment and computed tomography used in diagnostics, deliver very low doses of radiation to large volumes of healthy tissue, which might contribute to increased cancer rates in long surviving patients and in the general population ...
Studies in vitro have suggested that sub-millisecond pulses of radiation produce less genomic instability than continuous prolonged irradiation at the same total dose. In a study reported in Science Translational Medicine, Favaudon and colleagues assessed the effects of ultrahigh dose-rate irradiation (FLASH) in mouse models.. In C57BL/6J mice exposed to short pulses (≤ 500 ms) of radiation at ultrahigh dose rate (FLASH at ≥ 40 Gy/s) or to conventional dose-rate irradiation (≤ 0.03 Gy/s) in single doses, conventional treatment at 15 Gy resulted in lung fibrosis associated with activation of the transforming growth factor-β cascade, whereas no complications were observed after FLASH doses , 20 Gy for , 36 weeks after irradiation.. FLASH irradiation was also not associated with acute radiation-induced apoptosis in normal smooth muscle and epithelial cells; apoptosis could be reinduced by treatment with systemic tumor necrosis factor-α prior to irradiation. FLASH was as effective as ...
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis of lung cancer has barely changed in the last decades, but the prognosis is better when the disease is detected earlier.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression and recovery of the immune response and CFU potential of mice during and after chronic low-dose-rate gamma-irradiation. AU - Hubner, Karl. AU - Gengozian, N.. AU - Gilman, T. A.. PY - 1975/1/1. Y1 - 1975/1/1. N2 - Chronic exposure of mice to 60Co γrays at rates of 1·6 R/hr and 6 R/hr leads to profound immunosuppression, as demonstrated with the Jerne haemolysis-in-agar technique. The immunosuppressive effect is dose-rate dependent. Thus, significant reduction of the number of splenic antibody plaque-forming cells (PFC) to sheep red blood cells is seen after exposure to 1005 R at 1·6 R/hr; at the higher exposure rate of 6 R/hr, PFC suppression is seen after a total dose of only 468 R. Although recovery of the PFC response is possible after accumulated doses of 1005, 1579, and 2138 R at 6 R/hr and 5256 R at 1·6 R/hr, normal immunological capacity had not returned 120 days after irradiation. In contrast the recovery of splenic colony-forming units (CFU), as an ...
serendipitous contamination of 1700 apartments in Taiwan with cobalt-60 (T1/2 = 5.3 y). This experience indicates that chronic exposure of the whole body to low-dose-rate radiation, even accumulated to a high annual dose, may be beneficial to human health. Approximately 10,000 people occupied these buildings and received an average radiation dose of 0.4 Sv, unknowingly, during a 9-20 year period. They did not suffer a higher incidence of cancer mortality, as the LNT theory would predict. On the contrary, the incidence of cancer deaths in this population was greatly reduced-to about 3 per cent of the incidence of spontaneous cancer death in the general Taiwan public. In addition, the incidence of congenital malformations was also reduced - to about 7 per cent of the incidence in the general public. These observations appear to be compatible with the radiation hormesis model. ...
TUESDAY, Sept. 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In what might be a major breakthrough, researchers report that high doses of radiation dramatically prolonged survival in men battling an advanced and aggressive form of prostate cancer.. This particular type of cancer occurs when tumors resurface and spread to a number of areas beyond the prostate among patients who were in remission following radiation, surgery or chemotherapy. Generally, the outlook for the patient at this point is grim, the researchers noted.. But in working with 54 patients, the investigators found that highly targeted stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can block both tumor spread and growth in most patients. Only 19% of 35 treated patients experienced disease progression in the six months after treatment. More than half remained progression-free a full year out.. By comparison, 61% of 19 untreated patients (the observation group) saw their cancer grow. Thats a difference that study author Dr. Ryan Phillips, a ...
Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiation protraction on biologically effective dose (BED) in the case when dose per fraction is significantly greater than the standard dose of 2 Gy.Methods: By using the modified linear-quadratic model with monoexponential repair, the authors investigate the effect of long treatment times combined with dose escalation.Results: The dependences of the protraction factor and the corresponding BED on fraction time were determined for different doses per fraction typical for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In the calculations, the authors consider changes in the BED to the normal tissue under the condition of fixed BED to the target.Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate that simultaneous increase in fraction time and dose per fraction can be beneficial for SRS and SBRT because of the related decrease in BED to normal structures while BED to the target is fixed. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accessory neuropathy after high-dose radiation therapy for tongue-base carcinoma [1]. AU - Mizobuchi, Keiko. AU - Kincaid, John. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1002/mus.10456. DO - 10.1002/mus.10456. M3 - Letter. C2 - 14571473. AN - SCOPUS:0242268481. VL - 28. SP - 650. EP - 651. JO - Muscle and Nerve. JF - Muscle and Nerve. SN - 0148-639X. IS - 5. ER - ...
The generation of humanized mice requires detailed descriptions of the genotype, age, sex, and conditioning regimens. Humanization itself shows animal-to-animal variance as does time following any procedure as well as the sources of the cells. Complicating testing even further are the variances of the microbial pathogens studied, which includes viruses, parasites and bacteria. In the quest to use such animals for biomarker and extended therapeutic studies of microbial susceptibility, graft longevity and anti-viral/microbial drug resistance all become notable considerations (Choudhary et al., 2009; Nischang et al., 2012). If such factors were not complicated enough, hematologic abnormalities and altered body weight seen in humanized mice serve to complicate studies even further. The reduction of body weight by low dose irradiation is linked to reduced bone density but to increased fat tissue proportion. Multiple genetic defects present in NSG mice affects multiple cell/organ functions (Kikutani ...
In the experiment, we used a technique for administering special material (alloxan) and causing diabetes in healthy mice and, by analyzing and comparing the blood glucose level of mice that been irradiated by a low dose of radiation and mice that were not irradiated, we examined whether low dose irradiation controlled the incidence of diabetes ...
Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.. Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is the Department of Energy (DOE) office that collects, preserves, and disseminates DOE-sponsored research and development (R&D) results that are the outcomes of R&D projects or other funded activities at DOE labs and facilities nationwide and grantees at universities and other institutions.. ...
Convert 1 millirem x-radiation to centigrays, mrem X to cGy unit converter with conversion cards, convert between any units of radiation absorbed dose
Radiation, whether ionizing or non-ionizing and whether naturally occurring or emitted by man-made devices, is omnipresent in the environment and has an impact on human life and health. One kind of radiation may alter the effects of other types of radiation. Also, different radiation types may modify effects of various chemicals. The specialty of...
Radiation, whether ionizing or non-ionizing and whether naturally occurring or emitted by man-made devices, is omnipresent in the environment and has an impact on human life and health. One kind of radiation may alter the effects of other types of radiation. Also, different radiation types may modify effects of various chemicals. The specialty of...
RESULTS: Cultures derived from irradiated cells contained significantly more vHMEC, lacking senescence associated beta-galactosidase or p16 expression, than cultures derived from unirradiated cells. As expected, post-stasis vHMEC cultures derived from both unirradiated and irradiated cells exhibited more extensive methylation of the p16 gene than pre-stasis HMEC cultures. However, the extent of methylation of individual CpG sites in vHMEC samples did not correlate with passage number or treatment. Exposure to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation elicited similar increases in the numbers of vHMEC compared to unirradiated controls. Agent-based modeling indicated that radiation-induced premature senescence of normal HMEC most likely accelerated vHMEC outgrowth through alleviation of spatial constraints. Subsequent experiments using defined co-cultures of vHMEC and senescent cells supported this mechanism ...
In addition to the material, the secret of the new radiation detector lies in its really small scale. The nanowire running through the middle of the radiation detector is only about a micrometre long, two hundred nanometres wide and a few tens of nanometres thick, says Roope Kokkoniemi, who studied the bolometer at Aalto University.. A bolometer works by measuring the heating effect of radiation. When a bolometer heats up, its electrical characteristics change, and this can be measured with high precision. The smaller the bolometer, the less radiation is required to heat it.. A small radiation detector has a low heat capacity, so weak radiation provides a stronger signal, Kokkoniemi explains.. Better protection. Quantum computers operate in cryostats, extremely cold super-freezers, in which even the smallest amount of excess radiation causes a lot of disturbance. As nanobolometers are very sensitive, they could conveniently measure the level of excess radiation in the cryostat in order to ...
The new high-resolution CT system with low radiation dose Radiation dose reduction of up to 83% in cardiac scans and 50% across the rest of the body Improved resolution--33% higher than the conventional ...
Powerful Lies - The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster And The Radioactive Effects On Human Health By Richard Wilcox PhD 2-22-13,
In 1926, Herman Muller conducted the famous expetiments of the radiation-induced mutation in Drosphila, which shows a linear increase with the the total dose. Later, Purdom and McSheehy irradiated Drosophila with much lower dose rate to find out if there is a dose-rate dependence in the mutation frequency.(3) Here, we reexamine their date with WAM model and found that the data is reproduced well with our model. We will discuss the possible dose-rate dependence of the radiation-induced mutation frequency in Drosophila ...
The paper presents the design of a discrete linear quadratic gaussian (DLQG) compensator for SSR damping which includes a full order Kalman filter to estimate all the states of the system and a full state feedback regulator. The controller is tested on IEEE First Benchmark model for SSR studies. A discrete linear-time invariant (LTI) model of a thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) in the synchronously rotating DQ reference frame is used in this system in which, the sample invariance is achieved by a simple transformation of the zero sequence variables in the discrete domain. This model of discrete TCSC is then integrated with discretised LTI model of the rest of the system under study. Thyristor firing is based on current synchronised phase-locked loop and the sampling frequency is six times the synchronous frequency. The eigen value analysis is done for this integrated system for different angles of conduction of the thyristor. The modeled system is having 27 state variables including ...
The paper presents the design of a discrete linear quadratic gaussian (DLQG) compensator for SSR damping which includes a full order Kalman filter to estim
This Workshop will be held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy from 11 - 22 May 2020. It assists Ph.D. students and early-career researchers in developing a quantitative understanding of the impact of radiation damage on materials, both for existing fission and proposed fusion reactors. There is an emphasis on the conceptual progression of theoretical and experimental techniques across spatial scales from atomistic descriptions to the macroscopic behaviour of bulk material ...
Luckey hopes to change that viewpoint and argues that more than 3000 scientific papers in the research literature point to low doses of radiation as being beneficial in human health. He points out that, as with many environmental factors, we have evolved to live successfully in the presence of ionising radiations. His own research suggests that radiation exposure can minimise infectious disease, reduce the incidence of cancer in the young, and substantially increase average lifespan.. Studies on the growth, average lifespan, and decreased cancer mortality rates of humans exposed to low-dose irradiation show improved health, explains Luckey. This represents good evidence that we live with a partial radiation deficiency and that greater exposure to radiation would improve our health, a notion supported by 130 on the health of people living in parts of the world with higher background levels of ionising radiation than average.. Luckey suggests that the medical use of small samples of partially ...
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Single imaging treatments dont harm the patient, but the radiation exposure can add up. GE is looking to balance the risk and rewards in imaging tests.
According to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the lethal dose of radiation is in the range of 400 to 450 rem. This level of radiation causes death to around 50 percent of a population...
Mahameru International offer an extensive array of services supported by well-equipped facilities to detect the onset of diseases and to provide medical care in various medical disciplines.
Mahameru International offer an extensive array of services supported by well-equipped facilities to detect the onset of diseases and to provide medical care in various medical disciplines.
Adhesion of leukocytes (big white dots) on the vascular endothelium in blood vessels. From left to right : non-irradiated control ; untreated irradiated skin 60 days after 20 Gy irradiation; irradiated skin treated by injection of bone marrow stem, 60 days after a 20 Gy irradiation. ...
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Punctuation after a set-off equation is helpful and often clarifies the meaning. Display equations are often preceded by punctuation. In the linear quadratic equation model, the survival probability for cells receiving a j increment of radiation, Dj, is as follows: S = exp(−αDj − βDj), where α and β are the parameters of the linear quadratic equation model. Do not use periods after a set-off equation if the equation is preceded by a period. |
Punctuation after a set-off equation is helpful and often clarifies the meaning. Display equations are often preceded by punctuation. In the linear quadratic equation model, the survival probability for cells receiving a j increment of radiation, Dj, is as follows: S = exp(−αDj − βDj), where α and β are the parameters of the linear quadratic equation model. Do not use periods after a set-off equation if the equation is preceded by a period. |
Article Radiation response modification: novel approaches. Current limitations in the application of radiomodifiers refer to significant acute toxicity, intravenous administration for most of them and loss of most antiradiation properties when radiat...
This method consists of a sensitive radiographic film being placed under a specific component i.e. a weld or casting. The Component is then exposed to ionizing radiation either X-Radiation or Gamma Radiation. This radiation will pass through the component and expose the film beneath it, leading to what is known as the latent image on…
We will investigate combined injury by moderate dose radiation in two models in a two- phase study. In the first phase, we will use anonymized surgical samples...
"Dose response relationships for acute ionizing-radiation lethality". Health Physics. 84 (5): 565-575. doi:10.1097/00004032- ... Whole body doses of more than 1,000 rad are almost invariably fatal. Therapeutic doses of radiation therapy are often given and ... The same dose given over a longer period of time is less likely to cause ARS. Dose thresholds are about 50% higher for dose ... A dose of 100 to 200 rad delivered to the entire body in less than a day may cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS), but is ...
"Dose response relationships for acute ionizing-radiation lethality". Health Physics. 84 (5): 565-575. doi:10.1097/00004032- ... Davey, W. P. (1919). "Prolongation of life of Tribolium confusum apparently due to small doses of X-rays" (PDF). Journal of ... Sullivan, R; Grosch, D (1953). "The radiation tolerance of an adult wasp". Nucleotics. 11: 21-23. Grosch, D; Sullivan, R (1956 ... Radiation Research. 1 (3): 294-320. doi:10.2307/3570374. JSTOR 3570374. Heidenthal, G (1945). "The occurrence of X-ray induced ...
Dose fractionation Dose-response relationship Chronic radiation syndrome "Cell Survival Curves" (PDF). Massachusetts Institute ... It depicts the relationship between the fraction of cells retaining their reproductive integrity and the absorbed dose of ... radiation. Conventionally, the surviving fraction is depicted on a logarithmic scale, and is plotted on the y-axis against dose ... Whereas single lethal events lead to an exponent that is linearly related to dose, the survival fraction function for a two- ...
Cahoon also evaluates the UV radiation dose-response relationship for skin cancer risk by wavelength, age at exposure, and ... Her program focuses on studies of preventable risk factors that modify the relationship between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and ... Her previous work identified a relationship between ambient UV radiation and risk of Kaposi sarcoma, possibly through ... She works to identify medications that modify the relationship between UV radiation and skin cancer risk. ...
... response to low doses of radiation showed a strongly non-linear response of certain cellular repair mechanisms called radiation ... "Dose-effect relationships and estimation of the carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation" (PDF). Academy of ... is a dose-response model used in radiation protection to estimate stochastic health effects such as radiation-induced cancer, ... and that low doses of radiation may not be harmful. A later study in 1955 on mice exposed to low dose of radiation suggest that ...
However his conclusions were that the dose-response relationship was not linear, but supra-linear. Gofman's earliest research ... Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease: Dose-Response Studies with ... 1985 Radiation-Induced Cancer From Low-Dose Exposure: An Independent Analysis 480 pages, 1990 Chernobyl Accident: Radiation ... Reprinted as Chapter 37". In Egan O'Connor (ed.). Radiation-Induced Cancer from Low-Dose Exposure: An Independent Analysis. San ...
... dose-response relationship for any common environmental human carcinogen", according to report by the National Cancer Institute ... "Health Physics and Radiation Protection FAQ About Radiation". Georgetown University Medical Center. Retrieved 15 June 2018.. ... Radiation doses above 4,000 mSv are likely to kill both the mother and the fetus.[26] ... It is also clear that fetal malformations are a greater risk if a woman is exposed to high doses of nuclear-related radiation ...
... although there is not a very clear dose-response relationship to establish clear limits of exposure). The information available ... If radiation, likewise, is received in small doses over long periods of time, the consequences can be equally severe. It is ... Radiation tests in model organisms that determine the effects of high radiation on animals and plants are: Chromosomal ... single doses from 0.25 Sv produce first anomalies in the amount of leukocytes. This effect is accentuated if the absorbed dose ...
21-1. Smith, H. (1983). "Dose-effect relationships for early response to total body irradiation". Journal of the Society for ... The boy's father also received a significant dose of radiation; however, he survived. Five other individuals also received ... 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident Goiânia accident List of civilian radiation accidents Nuclear and radiation ... In March-August 1962, a radiation incident in Mexico City occurred when a ten-year-old boy took home an unprotected industrial ...
136 on the scientific bases for linearity in the dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation". Health Physics. 85 (1): 15 ... A linear dose-response relationship has been observed between x-ray dose and double-strand breaks in DNA in human sperm. ... Ionizing radiation is considered carcinogenic even in very small doses but at the doses used in airport scanners this effect is ... The radiation dose for a six-hour flight is 20 μSv (2 mrem) - 200 to 400 times larger than a backscatter scan. The U.S. Nuclear ...
However, stimuli (such as temperatures or radiation) may also affect physiological processes beyond sensation (and even give ... The dose-response relationship, or exposure-response relationship, describes the magnitude of the response of an organism, as a ... This reflects how dose-response relationships can be used in individuals. In populations, dose-response relationships can ... Dose-response relationships can be described by dose-response curves. This is explained further in the following sections. A ...
... dose-rate in the 59 municipalities in the Fukushima prefecture show statistically significant dose-response relationships. The ... Even in the most severely affected areas, radiation doses never reached more than a quarter of the radiation dose linked to an ... Low doses of radiation may not contribute much to create health effects like cancer, and given that such low doses may never ... Radiation fluctuated widely on the site after the tsunami and often correlated to fires and explosions on site. Radiation dose ...
... radiation dosage MeSH G03.850.810.250.180 - dose-response relationship, radiation MeSH G03.850.810.250.275 - relative ... radiation injuries MeSH G03.850.810.300.360.031 - abnormalities, radiation-induced MeSH G03.850.810.300.360.285 - radiation ... radiation MeSH G03.850.110.285 - accidents, radiation MeSH G03.850.110.320 - accidents, traffic MeSH G03.850.110.500 - drowning ... injuries, experimental MeSH G03.850.810.335 - radiation genetics MeSH G03.850.810.370 - radiation monitoring MeSH G03.850. ...
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation. Because ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun to approve more non-animal methods in response to animal welfare concerns. The ... The square-cube law also complicates the scaling relationships involved. Researchers are shifting away from animal-based LD ... The median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 (lethal ...
... and dose-response relationships of the pollutants. A dose-response relationship is a function of the exposure parameter ... "Solar ultraviolet radiation: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels" (PDF). Environmental ... Exposure distribution and dose-response relationships are combined to yield the study population's health impact distribution, ... and combining these data with relevant dose-response relationships. A reduction of particulate matter levels in the air to ...
Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model for Ionizing Radiation. National Council on Radiation Protection and ... "Dose-effect relationship and estimation of the carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation: The joint report of the ... In toxicology, hormesis is a dose response phenomenon characterized by a low dose stimulation, high dose inhibition, resulting ... of the published articles contained 668 dose-response relationships that met the entry criteria."[31] The idea that low dose ...
The NOAEL level may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship, a fundamental step in most risk ... radiation), at which no such adverse effect is found in exposed test organisms where higher doses or concentrations resulted in ... It either does not provide the effects of drug with respect to duration and dose, or it does not address the interpretation of ... In toxicology it is specifically the highest tested dose or concentration of a substance (i.e. a drug or chemical) or agent (e. ...
Non-targeted effects may lead to a supra-linear dose-response curve at low doses, perhaps reducing the effectiveness of ... However, the risk and detriment of cancer will not be fully characterized until the relationship between radiation quality and ... that are produced by radiation varies little with radiation type: however, for high-LET radiation, a higher fraction of DNA ... Sutherland, B. M. (2000). "Clustered DNA damages induced in isolated DNA and in human cells by low doses of ionizing radiation ...
Weatherall, M; Clay, J; James, K; Perrin, K; Shirtcliffe, P; Beasley, R (September 2009). "Dose-response relationship of ... 13,0 13,1 Lipman RM, Tripathi BJ, Tripathi RC (1988). "Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation". Surv. Ophthalmol ... Ma, L.; Hao, Z.; Liu, R.; Yu, R.; Shi, Q.; Pan, J. (2013). "A dose-response meta-analysis of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin ... Sliney DH (1994). "UV radiation ocular exposure dosimetry". Doc. Ophthalmol. 88 (3-4): 243-54. doi:10.1007/bf01203678. PMID ...
Additionally, there is a dose response relationship between increasing elevation and decreasing obesity prevalence in the ... If radiation were the only way to transfer heat from the ground to space, the greenhouse effect of gases in the atmosphere ... The temperature profile of the atmosphere is a result of an interaction between radiation and convection. Sunlight in the ... a hormone released by kidney in response to hypoxia. However, people living at higher elevations have a statistically ...
... dose-response relationship): Greater exposure should generally lead to greater incidence of the effect. However, in some cases ... including connections between ultraviolet B radiation, vitamin D and cancer, vitamin D and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, ... The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship. ... Since the description of the criteria, many methods to systematically evaluate the evidence supporting a causal relationship ...
... thus omitting a possible spurious relationship. The largest natural contributor to public radiation dose is radon, a naturally ... Dose Response". Dose-Response. 4 (2): 106-18. doi:10.2203/dose-response.05-025.Zdrojewicz. PMC 2477672. PMID 18648641. Mueller ... the most scientifically defensible approximation of low-dose response. However, a strictly linear dose response should not be ... As the low-dose response is unclear, the choice of a model is very controversial. No conclusive statistics being available for ...
... which states that the radiation dose-risk relationship is linear across all doses, so that small doses are still damaging, ... Dose-Response. 8 (2): 125-147. doi:10.2203/dose-response.09-019.Fornalski. PMC 2889508. PMID 20585442. Lubin, Jay H.; Samet, ... "The Effect of Dose Rate on Radiation-Induced Neoplastic TransformationIn Vitroby Low Doses of Low-LET Radiation". Radiation ... Aurengo (2005-03-30). "Dose-effect relationships and estimation of the carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation ...
136 on the scientific bases for linearity in the dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation". Health Physics. 85 (1): 15 ... A very high radiation dose over a short period of time causes radiation sickness, while lower doses can give an increased risk ... The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, and also of effective dose. For X-rays the "equivalent dose" is numerically ... reduces radiation dose and any associated cancer risk. Medical X-rays are a significant source of human-made radiation exposure ...
doi:10.2203/dose-response.06-102.Luckey. PMC 2477686. PMID 18648595. Aurengo, A.; et al. (2005). "Dose effect relationship and ... Yet, as far as we know, no one has yet received a lethal dose of radiation." Responses to Monbiot noted his "false calculation ... Luckey, T.J. (27 September 2006). "Radiation Hormesis: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly". Dose-Response. 4 (3): 189-90. ... all concluded that further research is necessary in understanding the dose-response relationship and the prevalence of incident ...
"Final Report of a Prospective Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Dose-Response Relationship for Postoperative Radiation Therapy ... Other studies, such as MC1273 and DART-HPV have evaluated doses as low as 30-36 Gy. Lowering the radiation dose to 54 Gy was ... Since long term toxicity is associated with radiation dose, determining the efficacy of lower and hence less morbid doses of ... Early Dose-Effect Relationships for the Swallowing Structures". International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. ...
doi:10.2203/dose-response.06-102.Luckey. PMC 2477686. PMID 18648595.. *^ Aurengo, A.; et al. (2005). "Dose-Effect Relationships ... Yet, as far as we know, no one has yet received a lethal dose of radiation."[292][293] Responses to Monbiot noted his "false ... per hour radiation dose observed at Fukushima Daiichi occurred between 1s 3 and 4. This is a high dose-level value, but it is a ... Risks from radiationEdit. Very few cancers would be expected as a result of accumulated radiation exposures,[223][224][225] ...
There is apparently no lower threshold to the dose-response relationship (unlike other heavy metals such as mercury). Reduced ... People can be exposed when working in facilities that produce a variety of lead-containing products; these include radiation ... The single chelation dose could also redistribute the heavy metals to more sensitive areas such as central nervous system ... Needleman HL, Schell A, Bellinger D, Leviton A, Allred EN (January 1990). "The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of ...
Considering the limitations of this dose-response concept, a novel Drug Toxicity Index (DTI) has been proposed recently. DTI ... As already mentioned, radiation can have a toxic effect on organisms. Behavioral toxicity refers to the undesirable effects of ... the effective toxicity is then a combination of both parts of the relationship. In some cases, e.g. cholera, the disease is ... For example, if a dose of a toxic substance is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one-tenth that dose would be ...
Some herbal remedies can cause dangerous interactions with chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, or anesthetics during surgery ... only that a different version or dose might give different results.[120] Barrett also expressed concern that, just because some ... changes in the medical marketplace had influenced the type of response in the journals.[91] Changes included relaxed medical ... therapeutic practice and in their relationship to the medical mainstream.[44] Under a definition of alternative medicine as " ...
In standard external beam radiation therapy, multiple treatments of standard-dose "fractions" of radiation are applied to the ... Personality changes can have damaging effects such as unemployment, unstable relationships, and a lack of control.[14] ... in part by shuttling different compounds around in response to injury or other stimulus. ... Radiation therapyEdit. The goal of radiation therapy is to kill tumor cells while leaving normal brain tissue unharmed. ...
The enzyme, β-galactosidase, is available in tablet form in a variety of doses, in many countries without a prescription. It ... Lactose intolerance is not an allergy, because it is not an immune response, but rather a sensitivity to dairy caused by ... "Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food ... Lactose intolerance is distinct from milk allergy, an immune response to cow's milk proteins. They may be distinguished in ...
... a dose-response meta-analysis". Scientific Reports. 4: 6161. Bibcode:2014NatSR...4E6161L. doi:10.1038/srep06161. PMC 5381428. ... thereby reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.[40][41] Research continues in this field, but a ... The European Food Safety Authority found a cause and effect relationship exists between the dietary intake of vitamin C and ... Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[10] The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.[3] ...
The first strategy has been tested by looking at dose-response anti-tumor effects during autophagy-induced therapies. These ... "A novel response of cancer cells to radiation involves autophagy and formation of acidic vesicles". Cancer Res. 61: 439-44.. ... Morphological and histochemical studies so far did not prove a causative relationship between the autophagic process and cell ... This is directly related to the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as well.[84][87] This data supports the ...
Single-dose therapyEdit. Alternatively, a single-dose therapy is used for instance if there are concerns regarding the ... The exact relationship of these conditions is not well understood.[13] Maternal vitamin D deficiency may affect the baby, ... which is a response by the body to increase serum calcium levels.[16] The body does this by increasing uptake of calcium by the ... Melanin absorbs ultraviolet B radiation from the sun and reduces vitamin D production.[1] Sunscreen can also reduce vitamin D ...
Alpharadin uses bone targeted Radium-223 isotopes to kill cancer cells by alpha radiation.[183][unreliable medical source?] It ... The data on the relationship between diet and prostate cancer is poor.[83] In light of this the rate of prostate cancer is ... failed to induce an anti-proliferative or cytotoxic response in all other types of tumor cells where 5-LOX was in inactive ... the desire to improve outcome of people with CRPC has resulted in the claims of increasing doses further or combination therapy ...
This damage response involves the proteolysis of type XVII collagen by neutrophil elastase in response to the DNA damage in the ... Radiation to the scalp, as when radiotherapy is applied to the head for the treatment of certain cancers there, can cause ... Nnoruka E, Nnoruka N (October 2005). "Hair loss: is there a relationship with hair care practices in Nigeria?". Int J Dermatol ... Joly P (October 2006). "The use of methotrexate alone or in combination with low doses of oral corticosteroids in the treatment ...
It may be caused by the cancer or the effects it has on the body, by the body's response to the cancer, or by the cancer ... People receiving radiation therapy, by contrast, often find their fatigue steadily increases until the end of treatment. ... A relationship between Interleukin 6 and fatigue has been observed in studies, albeit inconsistently. Increased markers of ... Sometimes a change of medication, the dose, or the timing of the medication may result in less fatigue. For example, an ...
Large-scale studies of LTOT in patients with COPD have demonstrated a dose-response relationship between daily hours of oxygen ... Radiation acne. Radiation-induced cancer. Radiation recall reaction. Radiation-induced erythema multiforme. Radiation-induced ... Radiation. Radiation poisoning. Radiation burn. Chronic radiation keratosis. Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption ... Hypoxia in fish - Response of fish to environmental hypoxia, responses of fish to hypoxia ...
Dose response relationship of cell killing by chemotherapeutic drugs on normal and cancer cells. At high doses the percentage ... Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or ... 5-FU dose management results in significantly better response and survival rates versus BSA dosing.[20] ... "Modeling the 5-fluorouracil area under the curve versus dose relationship to develop a pharmacokinetic dosing algorithm for ...
Vieira Dos Santos C, Rey P (July 2006). "Plant thioredoxins are key actors in the oxidative stress response". Trends in Plant ... Oxidation and UV degradation are also frequently linked, mainly because UV radiation creates free radicals by bond breakage. ... very high doses of some antioxidants may have harmful long-term effects. The beta-carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) ... "Dietary glutathione intake in humans and the relationship between intake and plasma total glutathione level". Nutrition and ...
Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Meinert, H.; Nawroth, T.; Risi, S.; Stridde, C. (1995 ... Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response.[7] ... The relationship between virulence versus transmissibility is complex; if a disease is rapidly fatal, the host may die before ... Immunoassays can use the basic antibody - antigen binding as the basis to produce an electro-magnetic or particle radiation ...
Spectral response of two paints and a mirrored surface, in the visible and the infrared. From NASA. ... Although this shows relatively high temperatures, the same relationships hold true for any temperature down to absolute zero. ... Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ... Since any electromagnetic radiation, including thermal radiation, conveys momentum as well as energy, thermal radiation also ...
Dental amalgam is thought to be relatively safe to be used as a restorative material as it is used in low doses. Amalgam vapour ... In response to The Minamata Convention on Mercury, the European Commission has confirmed its position that individual nations ... A combination of mercury and non-ionizing radiation has been suggested as a factor in the recent increase in reported autism ... have been a change in the compositional standard of the alloy due to better understanding of structure-property relationships ...
This relationship is given by Planck's equation E = hν, where E is the energy per photon, ν is the frequency of the photon, and ... An example is visible light emitted from fluorescent paints, in response to ultraviolet (blacklight). Many other fluorescent ... Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ... UV, with X-ray and gamma radiation, are referred to as ionizing radiation due to the ability of photons of this radiation to ...
... and the benefits of low-dose radiation hormesis". Dose Response. 7 (1): 52-89. doi:10.2203/dose-response.08-024.Cuttler. PMC ... is susceptible to noise and other factors which can affect the linearity of the voltage to x-ray intensity relationship.[112] ... with the highest dose CT techniques. In general, the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose ... Radiation dose unitsEdit. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that the ...
However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 ... As with chemotherapy, cancers vary in their response to radiation therapy.[151][152][153] ... Anisimov VN, Sikora E, Pawelec G (August 2009). "Relationships between cancer and aging: a multilevel approach". Biogerontology ... Radiation. Radiation therapy involves the use of ionizing radiation in an attempt to either cure or improve symptoms. It works ...
Radiation[edit]. For the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who are known as the Hibakusha, no ... However, the most common symptom in infants is an inflammatory response that develops during the first three weeks of life.[48] ... Vitamin A, is the sole vitamin which is embryotoxic even in a therapeutic dose, for example in multivitamins, because its ... the relationship between leukemia incidence and exposure to public drinking water". Science of the Total Environment. 300 (1-3 ...
In standard external beam radiation therapy, multiple treatments of standard-dose "fractions" of radiation are applied to the ... Personality changes can have damaging effects such as unemployment, unstable relationships, and a lack of control.[15] ... Loss of chromosome arms 1p and 19q also indicate better response to chemoradiation.[30] ... Radiation therapyEdit. The goal of radiation therapy is to kill tumor cells while leaving normal brain tissue unharmed. ...
Smoking an average of 1.5 packs per day gives a radiation dose of 60-160 mSv/year,[177][178] compared with living near a ... Inhalation of tobacco smoke causes several immediate responses within the heart and blood vessels. Within one minute the heart ... Recent studies have shown a positive relationship between psychological distress and salivary cotinine levels in smoking and ... "Radiation Risks and Realities" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency.. *^ a b "Everyday exposures to radiation" ...
BOLD hemodynamic response[edit]. The change in the MR signal from neuronal activity is called the hemodynamic response (HDR). ... This is useful to plan for surgery and radiation therapy of the brain. Clinicians also use fMRI to anatomically map the brain ... The 'r' values are correlations, with higher positive or negative values indicating a stronger relationship (i.e., a better ... can be used to check how much a drug penetrates the blood-brain barrier and dose vs effect information of the medication.[52] ...
... systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies»։ BMJ 349: g4490։ July 2014։ PMC 4115152։ PMID ... 51,0 51,1 51,2 51,3 51,4 «Chapter 14: Ionizing Radiation»։ Cancer medicine (6th ed.)։ Hamilton, Ont: B.C. Decker։ 2000։ ISBN ... Relationships between cancer and aging: a multilevel approach»։ Biogerontology 10 (4): 323-38։ August 2009։ PMID 19156531։ doi: ... Ultraviolet Radiation Carcinogenesis»։ Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (5th ed.)։ Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker։ 2000։ ISBN 978-1 ...
Usually, toxicity is not observed with high doses of CoQ10. A daily dosage up to 3,600 mg was found to be tolerated by healthy ... Okamoto, T.; Matsuya, T.; Fukunaga, Y.; Kishi, T.; Yamagami, T. (1989). "Human serum ubiquinol-10 levels and relationship to ... "CoQ10 may reduce the effectiveness of chemo and radiation therapy, so most oncologists would recommend avoiding it during ... "Plasma coenzyme Q10 response to oral ingestion of coenzyme Q10 formulations". Mitochondrion. 7 (Suppl.): S78-S88. doi:10.1016/ ...
Weatherall, M; Clay, J; James, K; Perrin, K; Shirtcliffe, P; Beasley, R (September 2009). "Dose-response relationship of ... Lipman RM, Tripathi BJ, Tripathi RC (1988). "Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation". Surv. Ophthalmol. 33 (3): ... Ma, L.; Hao, Z.; Liu, R.; Yu, R.; Shi, Q.; Pan, J. (2013). "A dose-response meta-analysis of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin ... Sliney DH (1994). "UV radiation ocular exposure dosimetry". Doc. Ophthalmol. 88 (3-4): 243-54. doi:10.1007/bf01203678. PMID ...
Microwave radiation from ammonia was observed in several galactic objects including W3(OH), Orion A, W43, W51, and five sources ... Emergency Response to Ammonia Fertilizer Releases (Spills) for the Minnesota Department of ... Others, such as nitrogen-fixing legumes, benefit from symbiotic relationships with rhizobia that create ammonia from ... Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose). 0.015 mL/kg (human, oral) ...
... due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation". Cancer 94 (6): 1867-75. doi:10.1002/cncr.10427. பப்மெட் 11920550. ... 2006). "Vaccination with human tyrosinase DNA induces antibody responses in dogs with advanced melanoma". Cancer Immun. 6: 8. ... Peter S, Beglinger C (2007). "Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: the causal relationship". Digestion 75 (1): 25-35. doi: ...
Host defences involve multiple factors; saliva, epithelium, inflammatory response, immune response and chemical mediators. The ... Doxycycline (100 mg, once/day, with a starting first dose of 200 mg) is the choice of antibiotics for patients allergic to ... Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) Therapy. *Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): This potentially has all ... Schaeken, M. J.; Creugers, T. J.; Van der Hoeven, J. S. (September 1987). "Relationship between dental plaque indices and ...
The grasshopper Melanoplus femur-rubrum was exposed to an acute dose of X-rays during each individual stage of meiosis, and ... In an experiment using radiation hybrid mapping on wheat's (Triticum aestivum L.) 3B chromosome, crossing over and DNA repair ... "The Significance of Responses of the Genome to Challenge", McClintock studied corn to show how corn's genome would change ... This large group of conserved genes between processes supports the theory of a close evolutionary relationship. Furthermore, ...
... a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies of the radiation dose-response relationship.. Berrington de Gonzalez A1, ... from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible ... a systematic review of the epidemiological studies of the radiation dose-response relationship ... a systematic review of the epidemiological studies of the radiation dose-response relationship ...
erikoislääkärikuulustelu Radiobiology Radiotherapy Cell Survival Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Neoplasms e-böcker ...
... grade and dosimetric correlation of Clinical Radiation Induced Pneumonitis (RIP) (≥ grade 2) in lung cancer pa.. ... Prospective Study to Evaluate Clinical Radiation Induced Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients and its Dose Response Relationship ... These include total dose of radiation, dose per fraction, volume of lung irradiated (like volume of the lung exposed to doses ... Prospective Study to Evaluate Clinical Radiation Induced Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients and its Dose Response Relationship ...
"Dose Response Relationships for Chromosome Aberrations Induced by Low Doses of Alpha-particle Radiation." Radiation Protection ... "Dose Response Relationships for Chromosome Aberrations Induced by Low Doses of Alpha-particle Radiation." RADIATION PROTECTION ... Dose response relationships for chromosome aberrations induced by low doses of alpha-particle radiation. RADIATION PROTECTION ... Dose response relationships for chromosome aberrations induced by low doses of alpha-particle radiation. RADIATION PROTECTION ...
LRC exhibited a dose-response relationship and the complete response rate was significantly higher in the high-dose group (p= ... 120 received a radiation dose of , 60 Gy (standard-dose group), while 116 received ≥ 60 Gy (high-dose group). The median doses ... CONCLUSION A higher radiation dose (, 60 Gy) is associated with increased LRC, PFS, and OS in patients with stage II-III ... of radiation in the standard- and high-dose groups were 50.4 and 63 Gy, respectively. Concurrent 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin ...
The linear radiation dose-response relationship identified can be used to predict CHD risk for future HL patients and survivors ... Radiation charts and simulation radiographs were used to estimate in-field heart volume and mean heart dose (MHD). A risk ... and to quantify the effects of radiation dose to the heart, chemotherapy, and other cardiovascular risk factors. PATIENTS AND ... Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation, Female, Heart, Hodgkin Disease, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Netherlands, Radiation ...
Results of search for su:{Dose-response relationship, Radiation.} No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ ...
The dose-response relationship obtained in this report can be used for the prediction of radiation induced secondary breast ... In this work a dose-response relationship for breast cancer is derived based on (i) the analysis of breast cancer induction ... has a maximum at doses of around 20 Gy and drops off only slightly at larger doses. The predicted EAR for breast cancer after ... The risk for breast cancer is according to this model for small doses consistent with the finding of the A-bomb survivors, ...
... dose-response relationship; uranium mining; lung cancer. ... Proceedings of the 6th Conference on radiation hygiene, 1973.. ... ionizing radiation; radioactive substances; radiation protection. Descriptors (secondary). Czechoslovakia; tritium; radon ... Slovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene, Purkyně Medical Research and Postgraduate Institute Press, Hradec Kr ... radiation-induced lung cancer: relation between lung cancer and long-term exposure to radon daughters; determination of the ...
... which adds to the growing confidence in the use of chromosome aberration counting for dose assessment in radiation accidents. ... AFTER a radiation accident in July 1969 we had the opportunity of comparing radiation dose estimates made by biological and ... Dose-response relationship for chromosome aberrations induced by X-rays or 50 MeV protons in human peripheral lymphocytes *S.L ... AFTER a radiation accident in July 1969 we had the opportunity of comparing radiation dose estimates made by biological and ...
The dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation ... A linear no-threshold relationship (LNT) describes well the relation between the dose and the carcinogenic effect in this dose ... relationship to assess the carcinogenic risk of low doses observations made for doses from 0.2 to 5 Sv since for the same dose ... constancy of the probability of mutation (per unit dose) whatever the dose or dose rate, ...
The greatest increase in radioresistance appears at a fixed window of dose and time, e.g. 8 weeks after 5-10 cGy or 2 weeks ... We and others have shown that low-dose X or gamma irradiation of mice leads to an increase in their survival after a subsequent ... Apoptosis / radiation effects* * Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation * Male * Mice * Mice, Inbred BALB C ... Immune effects of low-dose radiation: short-term induction of thymocyte apoptosis and long-term augmentation of T-cell- ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation * Electric Stimulation / methods* * Exocytosis / radiation effects* * ...
Dose-response relationship of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mouse models based on CT-derived parameters / 中华放射肿瘤学杂志 ... Dose-response relationship of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mouse models based o ... Objective To investigate the radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis with a dose-response mouse model, based on the CT image ... The dose-response mouse models with pulmonary fibrosis changes can provide experimental basis for comparative analysis of high- ...
Dose-Response Relationship between Radiation Dose and Loco-regional Control in Patients with Stage II-III Esophageal Cancer ... Dose-Response Relationship between Radiation Dose and Loco-regional Control in Patients wi ... Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Drug Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , ... Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation / Drug Therapy / Chemoradiotherapy Language: English Journal: Cancer Research and ...
... dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse ... dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse ... dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse ... dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse ...
MAT.; A-BOMB SURVIVORS; NEOPLASMS; AGE DEPENDENCE; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; DATA COMPILATION; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS ... The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar ... varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence ... RADIATION EFFECTS; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; 560151* - Radiation Effects on Animals- Man; 560161 - Radionuclide Effects, Kinetics, & ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Informed Consent*. ... Title: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Volume: 54 ISSN: 0360-3016 ISO Abbreviation: Int. J. ... Estimating risks of radiotherapy complications as part of informed consent: the high degree of variability between radiation ... A survey was mailed to Australian radiation oncologists, who were asked to estimate risks of RT complications given 49 clinical ...
We report that exposure of normal human lung fibroblasts to a low dose of alpha particles like those emitted by radon/radon ... Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Fibroblasts / cytology*, metabolism, radiation effects*. Humans. Lung / cytology. ... Cell Division / radiation effects. Cells, Cultured. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclins / metabolism. ... We report that exposure of normal human lung fibroblasts to a low dose of alpha particles like those emitted by radon/radon ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Erythrocytes / drug effects*, radiation effects*. Fibrosarcoma / drug therapy*. Humans. ... Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Radiation Medicine, PO Box 55, 1332 Oslo, Norway. [email protected] ... Keratinocytes / drug effects*, radiation effects*. Light. Photochemotherapy / methods*. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology* ... Cell Survival / drug effects, radiation effects. Cells, Cultured. ...
Stephen Rush currently serves as Clinical Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology at New York University Langone Medical ... Residency in Radiation Oncology at NYU Medical Center. 03. Publications. Publications. Dose-Response Relationships for ... Radiation therapy in cancer patients 80 years of age and older. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. October 2000;23(5):526- ... Main Speciality: Radiation Oncology. Other Interests & Specialties: Gamma Knife radiosurgery, neurosurgery, pituitary tumors, ...
6. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. 7. United States--epidemiology. QZ 200 G612ra 1999] RC268.55 .G628 1999 616.994071-- ... Radiation-Induced Cancer from Low-Dose Exposure: An Independent Analysis. 1990. LCCN 89-62431. *Chernobyl Accident: Radiation ... Radiation from medical procedures in the pathogenesis of cancer and ischemic heart disease: dose-response studies with ... Radiation and Human Health. 1981. LCCN 80-26484. *Xrays: Health Effects of Common Exams. Co-author: Egan OConnor. 1985. LCCN ...
Evidence that Electromagnetic Radiation is Genotoxic: The implications for the epidemiology of cancer and cardiac, neurological ... and dozens of doseresponse relationships. Epidemiological dose-response relationships from RF/MW exposures: Dose-response ... These include many dose-response relationships and extremely low RF/MW exposure levels including cell phone radiation. Multiple ... but computer programmers show a significant dose-response relationship, Figure 59. Figure 59 Dose-response increases in brain ...
Mechanisms and dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease.. Stewart FA. ... Role of TGF Beta and PPAR Alpha Signaling Pathways in Radiation Response of Locally Exposed Heart: Integrated Global ... threshold doses for tissue reactions in a radiation protection context.. Authors on behalf of ICRP, Stewart FA, Akleyev AV, ... Understanding radiation-induced cardiovascular damage and strategies for intervention.. Stewart FA, Seemann I, Hoving S, ...
Brachytherapy; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Electrons; Gamma Rays; Photons; Radiotherapy; Radiotherapy Planning, ... Biophysics; Cell Hypoxia; DNA Damage; Heavy Ion Radiotherapy; Lung Neoplasms; Physics; Prostatic Neoplasms; Radiation Oncology ...
The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) was set up by Congr... ... Read chapter 4 Review of Recent Data on Radiation Epidemiology, Biology, and Dosimetry: ... The dose-response relationship for the induction of tumors by ionizing radiation is generally described as being a LNT response ... However, a positive dose-response relationship was observed between leukemia and cumulative external radiation dose; the ...
  • Dr. Stephen C. Rush entered the academic field when he took a position as an Assistant Professor of Radiology at Cornell University Medical College and currently serves as Clinical Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology at New York University Langone Medical Center . (
  • Machine generated contents note: Section I: For Students of Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Radiation Oncology 1. (
  • Radiation Protection Section II: For Students of Radiation Oncology 18. (
  • Part II consists of 11 chapters of more in-depth material designed primarily for residents in radiation oncology. (
  • However, modern risk-based analysis shows that many errors that occur in radiation oncology are due to failures in workflow. (
  • The cancer risk associated with RT is still an area of controversy in clinical radiation oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. (
  • The study, appearing online in the current issue of theJournal of Clinical Oncology, looked at fairly recent radiation techniques (1970 to 1986), but experts pointed out that these techniques are continually being refined and improved. (
  • It's a very interesting study, [but] radiation techniques have changed dramatically over the last 25 years and a lot of these patients were treated with much older techniques," said Dr. Jay Brooks, chairman of hematology/oncology at Ochsner Health System in Baton Rouge, La. (
  • Study author Maartje J. Hooning, of the department of medical oncology at Erasmus Medical Center Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center in Rotterdam, said that even though "radiation techniques of today will lead to a lower dose to the contralateral breast than the techniques presented in our study, treating clinicians should be aware of the existing dose-response relationship for risk of contralateral breast cancer. (
  • Despite major advances in chemotherapy and radiation for the treatment of head and neck cancers, many patients continue to suffer debilitating side effects that greatly impact their quality of life," said Dwight E. Heron, M.D., study co-author and associate professor of radiation oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and director of radiation oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. (
  • High-dose versus conventional-dose irradiation in cisplatin-based definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis. (
  • Doses close to or slightly higher than, these can be received by workers or by populations in regions of high natural background irradiation. (
  • Only comparisons between geographical regions with high and low natural irradiation and with similar living conditions could provide valuable information for this range of doses and dose rates. (
  • We and others have shown that low-dose X or gamma irradiation of mice leads to an increase in their survival after a subsequent lethal high-dose irradiation. (
  • We show that low-dose irradiation induces thymocyte apoptosis with a maximal level at 6 h postirradiation that returns to background levels after 24 h. (
  • Our results emphasize the existence of a lag time between the time of low-dose irradiation in vivo and the appearance of radioresistance. (
  • Methods Female C57BL6 mice aged 8-10 weeks were randomly divided into 20 Gy or escalated doses of X-ray whole thoracic irradiation ( WTI) groups. (
  • The dose -response mouse models with pulmonary fibrosis changes can provide experimental basis for comparative analysis of high- dose hypofractioned irradiation-and half- lung irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis . (
  • Dose-response relationships are shown at 5, 10, and 30 years after irradiation. (
  • Effect of Low-Dose Irradiation upon T Cell Subsets Involved in the Response of Primed A/J Mice to SaI Cells," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION BIOLOGY 53, No.1: 103-118. (
  • Eyes following plaque irradiation with 50 Gy or more in the center of the optic nerve experienced significant radiation optic neuropathy, other eyes did not. (
  • Shukovsky LJ, Fletcher GH (1972) Retinal and optic nerve complications in a high dose irradiation technique of ethmoid sinus and nasal cavity. (
  • Gain of chromosome band 7q11 in papillary thyroid carcinomas of young patients is associated with exposure to low-dose irradiation. (
  • The first relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma was reported in 1950 after irradiation of the thymus soon after birth ( 1 ). (
  • It has been reasoned that, if there is a hypersensitive phase of the cell cycle, continuous low-dose rate irradiation should be more effective at inducing HRS, because cells would be eliminated as they moved through this phase ( 6 ). (
  • According to tumor regression degree, adjusting the field shape and radiation strength, improve the tumor tissue irradiation dose, decrease peripheral normal tissue affected by radiation, improve local tumor control and prolong the survival time. (
  • However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). (
  • The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. (
  • The responses at very low exposures to low-LET radiation are estimated by extrapolation of data on atomic-bomb survivors over the available low- to moderate-dose range (0.005-2 Sv). (
  • Relating in vitro to in vivo exposures with physiologically-based tissue dosimetry and tissue response models. (
  • The epidemiologic dose/response approach to evaluate workplace exposures in the absence of direct environment measurements is examined in an evaluation of health consequences of ozone (10028156) exposure in flight attendants. (
  • The intensity of hematopoiesis inhibition in the period of maximal exposures is determined by the combined influence of the dose rate and cumulative dose. (
  • 5) the cause-specific mortality experience of the workers by degree of occupational exposures using: a) individually measured alpha count activity in urine (resulting from exposure to soluble uranium), b) personal dosimetry for exposure to external (gamma and X ray) ionizing radiation, and c) estimated historical occupational exposures to chemical compounds of uranium, nickel, and fluorine. (
  • Epidemiologic evaluation of the data to detect trends in risk of death after radiation/chemical exposures was performed in nested case control and sub-cohort analyses. (
  • Analyses of possible relationships between cause of death and exposures to fluorine and fluoride compounds, uranium metal, and nickel for the respective sub-cohorts working in departments where airborne concentrations for these agents were measured failed to reveal any dose-response relationships. (
  • Thyroid doses are estimated from all available data about the contamination in France from the Chernobyl fallout/ The risks characterization is carried out by considering various scenarios on the projection of spontaneous incidence rates, the effectiveness of internal exposures compared to exteral ones and the levels of radioactive deposits. (
  • If the risks revealed by this study are confirmed, it could force a lowering of permissible radiation exposures to workers and to the public, thus affecting the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the shipment of nuclear materials by truck and by train, the packaging and burial of nuclear wastes in the ground, exposures allowed during medical procedures, and on and on. (
  • FM radio, radar exposures cause significant and dose response increases in brain cancer, leukaemia and other cancers, and cardiac, neurological and reproductive health effects . (
  • The effects showed a dose-response relationship and occurred well below current limits for technical RF radiation exposures. (
  • The authors pointedly comment that "At present, radiation protection systems are based on a model derived from acute exposures, and assumes that the risk of leukemia per unit dose progressively diminishes at lower doses and dose rates. (
  • SOLO was a five year integrated, multi-disciplinary project to investigate the risks to human health of low and protracted radiation exposures, considering exposures to radionuclides within the body as well as external radiation. (
  • c) by stimulating or activating DNA repair systems following slightly higher doses of about ten mSv. (
  • at slightly higher doses damaging a large number of cells (therefore capable of causing tissue lesions), repair systems are activated. (
  • Therapeutic doses of radiation therapy are often given and tolerated well even at higher doses to treat discrete, well-defined anatomical structures. (
  • The risk is significantly increased for radiation doses to the thyroid of 50-100 mGy, and for higher doses, the risk increases with increasing radiation doses to the thyroid gland ( 5 ). (
  • 50 cGy, which manifests as a significant deviation from the clonogenic survival response predicted by a linear-quadratic fit to higher doses. (
  • 0.5 Gy as a clear deviation from the standard linear-quadratic cell survival response extrapolated from higher doses back to 0 Gy. (
  • It has been demonstrated that a clear dose-response relationship exists for radiotherapy, i.e. higher doses of radiation lead to increased local tumor control. (
  • Animal models used in screening studies should reflect the dose response relationship (DRR), clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of lung injury in humans. (
  • Early hematopoiesis inhibition under chronic radiation exposure in humans. (
  • While LD100 is estimated around 1000 rads for humans, and 56,128 rads (64,000 roentgens) for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a study showed that H. hebetor survived X-ray radiations of 158,080 rads (180,250 R). In this study, irradiated groups even had an increased life span compared to non-irradiated control groups, an effect attributed to the lack of activity of irradiated individuals. (
  • The reason for the debate is that most data on harm from radiation are derived from events in which humans received high doses of radiation in short periods. (
  • Radiation induced death in humans follows a ______, ______ dose-response relationship. (
  • there is a linear dose-response relationship between exposure to ionising radiation and the development of solid cancers in humans. (
  • Second solid cancers after radiation therapy: a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies of the radiation dose-response relationship. (
  • HHS promulgated as regulations in Board on Radiation and Worker Health be sent to the NIOSH Docket Office at 2002, all types of cancers except for CLL III. (
  • The statement of task from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to the committee requests that we assess the most recent scientific information related to radiation exposure and associated cancers to determine whether there is new information that could affect the magnitude of radiation cancer-risk estimates. (
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) are standard therapeutic modalities for patients with cancers, and could induce various tumor cell death modalities, releasing tumor-derived antigens as well as danger signals that could either be captured for triggering anti-tumor immune response. (
  • This work has served to define novel practices in image-guided radiotherapy, as well as investigation of innovative MRI imaging methods for radiation therapy, such as intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for oropharyngeal cancers. (
  • No dose-response relationships were observed for cancers of the stomach, lung, Hodgkin's disease, lymphoreticulosarcoma, and all cancers combined. (
  • Numerous epidemiological cohort studies have demonstrated radiation-related risks of thyroid and breast cancers, leukemia, and other neoplasms. (
  • He says the study is interpreted incorrectly and points out that Japanese children younger than six at the time of the bombings at the end of World War II and exposed to radiation up to 200 mSv showed no significant difference in adult-onset cancers when compared with a control group. (
  • PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To evaluate the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version (v)1.1 overall response rate (ORR) in subsets of patients with advanced rare cancers treated with ipilimumab plus nivolumab combination immunotherapy. (
  • Since then, radiation dose responses to gamma-ray and X-ray radiation in the under-4-Sv range have been established for all solid cancers as a group and for cancers of the breast, thyroid, stomach, colon, liver, lung, bladder, and ovary in particular. (
  • The evidence for a radiation-related risk is also persuasive for cancers of the oral cavity as a group and specifically for the salivary glands . (
  • With an average effective dose of 4.5 mSv per scan, and assuming all excess cancers except for brain cancers are attributable to CT imaging, they suggested "each Sievert of effective dose caused 0.125 cancers by 31 December 2007 in an average follow-up of 9.5 years. (
  • One third of thyroid tumors occurring after radiation exposure are malignant, and most radiation-induced thyroid cancers are papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). (
  • Using this method in the 90s, John Gofman, a prominent expert in the radiation risk, claimed that 75% of breast cancers in the USA were caused by medical X-rays (10). (
  • A TMI Public Health Fund then was established to fund research into radiation heath effects and radiation protection, hiring investigators from Columbia University to see if "risks from specified cancers may have been raised by exposure to radiation emanating from the Three Mile Island Nuclear power plant. (
  • Most other cancers caused by radiation are not that easy to detect above the high background natural rates of cancer. (
  • It is the proverbial needle in a haystack scenario - but in this case the needles (radiation-induced cancer) look the same as the hay (other cancers). (
  • What the report therefore said was that statistical limitations and large uncertainties precluded being able to single out any radiation-induced cancers. (
  • Under current guidelines HHS promulgated as regulations in 2002, all types of cancers except for CLL are treated as being potentially caused by radiation and hence as potentially compensable under EEOICPA. (
  • As the results, we found large deletion of mitochondria DNA and unique SNPs sites in DNA repair related genes including TP53, ATM and MDM2 genes in radiation associated thyroid cancers. (
  • Silicon-based microelectronics break down under exposure to radiation. (
  • it also shows that the risk of cancer increased as the exposure to radiation increased. (
  • Current research is directed on the mechanism of genetic alterations induced by radiation and on a molecular signature that can identify the origin of thyroid carcinoma after a known or suspected exposure to radiation. (
  • This study was initiated to evaluate incidence, grade and dosimetric correlation of Clinical Radiation Induced Pneumonitis (RIP) (≥ grade 2) in lung cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. (
  • The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. (
  • The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) are moving to use tumor incidence, rather than mortality, in their revised cancer risk estimates. (
  • PURPOSE: To study the incidence of various forms of late normal tissue injuries to determine the latency and dose-response relationships. (
  • Exposure of the head and neck to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of thyroid nodules. (
  • Uncetainties to the risk coefficient, the expected spontaneous incidence rates and the thyroid dose are considered. (
  • The data analysis considers the interaction between ionizing radiation and other risk factors, a spontaneous incidence rate projection and a quantification of uncertainties. (
  • This work provides new results showing the importance of the choice of the dose-response relationship, of the consideration of the spontaneous incidence trend and of the quantification of uncertainties in risk assessment. (
  • Thyroid cancer incidence among people living in areas contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident. (
  • They calculated overall cancer incidence was 24 percent greater for people exposed to ionizing radiation during CT imaging than those who were not exposed. (
  • In addition, they observed a dose-response relationship, with the incidence rate ratio (IRR) increasing by 0.16 for each additional CT scan. (
  • As demonstrated for sporadic thyroid carcinomas ( 8 ), the apparent incidence of radiation-induced thyroid cancer is closely related to the modalities and intensity of screening. (
  • Although most studies showed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in patients who were exposed to radiation during childhood and adolescence, it is important to take into account that the extent of this increase could be determined by the screening procedures used to detect thyroid abnormalities. (
  • Results indicated that the severity of side effects, or the grade of oral mucositis, was directly correlated with the volume of the radiation dose administered to the oral cavity, and the researchers defined an ideal dose volume of IMRT at which the incidence of acute oral mucositis was lessened. (
  • A linear-dose response relationship was observed for the incidence of IHD and CeVD in relation to exposure to external radiation but the dose-response for plutonium-239 exposure was more complex. (
  • Analyses of risks of chronic respiratory disease incidence in the MWC recorded significant excess risk in relation to internal plutonium-239 exposure to the lung but no excess risk in relation to external gamma radiation exposure. (
  • In one of the largest cohorts of former flight attendants, an association was observed between higher cosmic radiation exposure, greater number of times zones crossed, and incidence of breast cancer in a sub-group of women (Pinkerton et al. (
  • There seems to be a never-ending cabal of paid industry scientific "consultants" who are more than willing to state the fringe view that low doses of ionising radiation do not cause cancer and, indeed, that low doses are actually good for you and lessen the incidence of cancer. (
  • The researchers found that pa-tients who had undergone PCI had an overall 25% increase in the incidence of cataract surgery, with evidence of a dose-response relationship depending upon the number of PCI procedures. (
  • Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. (
  • In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. (
  • The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques. (
  • Even with loco-regional disease, the prognosis of lung cancer remains poor because of inadequate control at the primary site after radiation therapy as the tolerance of the normal lung tissue, limits the dose that can be delivered [ 3 ]. (
  • PURPOSE The correlation between radiation dose and loco-regional control (LRC) was evaluated in patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). (
  • Impact of heart and lung dose on early survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with chemoradiation. (
  • Standard-dose versus high-dose conformal radiotherapy with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin plus paclitaxel with or without cetuximab for patients with stage IIIA or IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (RTOG 0617): a randomised, two-by-two factorial phase 3 study. (
  • High-dose versus standard-dose radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in stages II-III esophageal cancer. (
  • High-dose definitive concomitant chemoradiotherapy in non-metastatic locally advanced esophageal cancer: toxicity and outcome. (
  • Cancer induction after radiation therapy is known as a severe side effect. (
  • The risk for breast cancer is according to this model for small doses consistent with the finding of the A-bomb survivors, has a maximum at doses of around 20 Gy and drops off only slightly at larger doses. (
  • The model was used to predict the impact of the reduction of radiation volume on breast cancer risk. (
  • The dose-response relationship obtained in this report can be used for the prediction of radiation induced secondary breast cancer of radiotherapy patients. (
  • For this purpose it is not sufficient to apply the results from epidemiological studies on cancer induction from more than 20 years ago to the patient treated today, since radiation therapy changed significantly in the last decades, for instance radiation type, treatment technique, application of treatment, treatment duration and 3D dose distributions. (
  • However, most of the epidemiological studies, which are published in large numbers, don't provide a correlation of cancer induction with dose. (
  • Unfortunately, if a dose correlation is deduced, cancer induction is usually related to the integral dose or average organ dose and thus implies a linear dose-response relationship. (
  • Radiotherapy of patients with Hodgkin's disease is very successful, but women treated with mantle field radiation experience up to a 30-fold increased risks for breast cancer compared with their peers in the general population. (
  • They reconstructed the point doses where the secondary breast cancer was located and performed a case/control study to stratify breast cancer risk as a function of dose. (
  • The goal of this report is the derivation of a dose-response relationship for breast cancer induction based on the analysis of Hodgkin's disease patients by Travis et al [ 8 ] and breast cancer induction from the A-bomb survivors [ 11 ]. (
  • Among these, 120 received a radiation dose of 60 Gy) is associated with increased LRC, PFS, and OS in patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with definitive CRT. (
  • Dr. Rush has authored and co-authored a number of publications and given lectures on brain tumors head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, gynecological malignancies and radiation therapy , specifically in the elderly. (
  • This book, Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease , begins where the previous CNR study ended. (
  • He also found many epidemiological studies showing doseresponse relationships for cancer, cardiac, reproductive and neurological effects, showing a safe level of zero exposure, consistent with EMF/EMR being genotoxic. (
  • Support for the use of the LNT model for estimates of cancer risks posed by low-LET radiation comes from human epidemiologic studies (medical and occupational), experimental-animal tumor studies, and cellular-radiation studies (NCRP, 2001). (
  • In this chapter, we consider and present the evidence from new or updated epidemiologic studies, radiation-biology advances, or dosimetry approaches that could result in significant changes in the risk estimates for human cancer induced by ionizing-radiation exposure. (
  • A NIOSH study of cancer mortality in relation to chronic radiation exposure in a shipyard is summarized to show the concept of cumulative or serially additive doses in the epidemiologic assessment of chronic workplace exposure. (
  • Dose response and latency for radiation-induced fibrosis, edema, and neuropathy in breast cancer patients. (
  • Innate and adaptive immunity plays important roles in the development and progression of cancer and it is becoming apparent that tumors can influence the induction of potentially protective responses in a number of ways. (
  • This article reviews current knowledge relating to the influence of tumors on protective anti-tumor immunity and considers the potential influence that radiation-induced effects might have on the prevalence, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells in patients with cancer. (
  • For many years, the paradigm on which the majority of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer has been based, is that adaptive immune responses to tumors are similar to those that are induced in the generation of immunity to infectious pathogens. (
  • The net result is a complex relationship between tumors and elements of the protective immune system which has profound influences on the progression and treatment of cancer. (
  • Ionizing radiation is a powerful cytotoxic force that can be manipulated to specifically kill cancer cells at target sites. (
  • Over the years, however, we learned that no radiogenetic disturbances were ever found in man, not even among the progeny of Hiroshima and Nagasaki victims, and that radiogenic cancer does not result from direct radiation damage to a single DNA strand (UNSCEAR 2000). (
  • These biomarkers allow to stratify cancer patients for dose adaptation at simulation, and mid-treatment. (
  • A senior academic specialising in cancer research has called for a communication strategy to end the public's exaggerated perception that nuclear radiation is harmful to human health. (
  • Dosimetric impacts of endorectal balloon in CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage prostate cancer. (
  • Reanalysis of data from the other mine indicated that quartz was a possible confounder in the analysis of the relationship between radon and lung cancer. (
  • The main implication of the results is for interpretation of the dose-response curve for radon and lung cancer in underground iron ore miners. (
  • The sequence of experiments is designed to first explore the influence of iron load on the response and demonstrate that HFE knockout mice are more sensitive than the wild type to radiation-induced cancer in one or more of three target tissues (liver, colon and breast). (
  • The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. (
  • Population Heterogeneity Hypothesis on Radiation Induced Cancer," HEALTH PHYSICS 25: 97-104. (
  • The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) based on the induction of dicentrics in any cell type is principally an important information for the increasing application of high-LET radiation in cancer therapy. (
  • Some researchers have suggested that potential risk factors include radiation exposure, 11 - 13 iodine deficiency, 8 , 9 family history of thyroid cancer, and personal history of goiter or thyroid nodule. (
  • Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. (
  • Radiation treatment of patients with primary pediatric malignancies: risk of developing thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy. (
  • Dose-response relationships for radiation-induced thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules: evidence for the prolonged effects of radiation on the thyroid. (
  • Issues and epidemiological evidence regarding radiation-induced thyroid cancer. (
  • In other words, there was an observable relationship between dose (amount of radiation) and response (cancer). (
  • RESTON, Va. - In an article published in the June 2017 issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine , researchers assert that exposure to medical imaging radiation not only doesn't increase an adult person's risk of getting cancer, it doesn't increase a child's risk. (
  • According to the authors, the long-held belief that even low doses of radiation, such as those received in diagnostic imaging, increase cancer risk is based on an inaccurate, 70-year-old hypothesis and leads to unnecessary fear and misdiagnoses. (
  • Siegel says, "low-dose radiation has been shown to stimulate the immune system to reduce cancer rates. (
  • Background: Head and neck cancer patients are in high risk to suffer from malnourishment, a risk that increase in postoperative condition and with the use of enteral nutrition (EN). (
  • WEDNESDAY, Oct. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Young women receiving radiation after having surgery for breast cancer are at increased risk of developing a new tumor in the opposite -- or contralateral -- breast, a new Dutch study suggests. (
  • According to the American Cancer Society, radiation therapy is usually employed to destroy lingering cancer cells after a lumpectomy (also known as breast-conserving surgery), after a mastectomy involving a tumor larger than 5 centimeters in size, or when cancer is found in the lymph nodes. (
  • But there remains the possibility that treatment regimens for the first breast cancer, including chemotherapy and radiation, might also play a part. (
  • Overall, radiation therapy did not significantly increase the risk of a new cancer in the opposite breast. (
  • Women receiving post-lumpectomy radiation before the age of 45 had a 1.5-fold increased risk of contralateral breast cancer when compared with women who had undergone post-mastectomy radiation, according to the study. (
  • Younger women with a strong family history of breast cancer who had also undergone post-lumpectomy radiation had a 3.5-fold increased risk of contralateral breast cancer, the study found. (
  • Now that we know that young patients with affected relatives are at increased risk of contralateral breast cancer following radiation therapy, we should define in more detail the subgroup that is genetically susceptible to radiation-induced breast cancer," Hooning said. (
  • The American Cancer Society has more on radiation therapy for breast cancer. (
  • Radiation patterns from broadcast towers matched with cancer rates in people living in the vicinity of RF (radio frequency) transmitting towers produce consistent significant dose response relationships. (
  • These prove that chronic exposure to very low level RF radiation causes sleep disturbance, melatonin reduction and cancer in many part of the human body. (
  • Radio frequency radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military setting. (
  • Mohamed AS, Hansen C, Weygand J, Ding Y, Frank SJ, Hwang K, Hazle J, Fuller CD , Wang J. Prospective analysis of in vivo landmark point-based MRI geometric distortion in head and neck cancer patients scanned in immobilized radiation treatment position: Results of a prospective quality assurance protocol . (
  • Today, however, the relationship between radiation dose and cancer risk is well characterized and well quantified, and there is clear understanding of the relationship between radiation exposure, which is the energy impinging on an organism, and radiation dose, which is the amount per unit mass absorbed by a selected bit of tissue. (
  • Although cancer death rates among radiologists registered after 1920 was comparable to death rates for practitioners across all fields of medicine, radiologists still exhibited an excess cancer risk, presumably owing to long-term radiation exposure. (
  • Experimental studies of radiation effects such as cell inactivation, mutation , and cancer have taken advantage of the experimenters' ability to regulate, with precision, radiation doses to target cells or tissues. (
  • Leukemia was the first human cancer for which risk was unequivocally demonstrated to increase with dose of ionizing radiation. (
  • The thyroid gland was the first solid cancer site for which radiation dose was strongly implicated as a risk factor, based on the screening of atomic bomb survivors and of patients treated by radiation for diseases of the head and neck. (
  • Internal exposure to radon and its decay products is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer , while bone sarcoma risk is associated with radiation dose from ingested or injected radium . (
  • There is a general tendency, with some exceptions, for dose-specific risk of radiation-related cancer to be inversely associated with exposure age. (
  • Both radiation-related and baseline cancer risk tend to increase with age following exposure, but the age-related increase for radiation-related risk may not be as steep as that for baseline cancer risk. (
  • John D. Mathews, MBBS, MD, PhD, DSc, from University of Melbourne in Australia, and colleagues sought to assess the cancer risk in children and adolescents after exposure to ionizing radiation from CT scans. (
  • The association between radiation exposure and the occurrence of thyroid cancer has been well documented, and the two main risk factors for the development of a thyroid cancer are the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid gland and the age at exposure. (
  • DENVER, Oct. 18 "" Results from a University of Pittsburgh study evaluating intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer determined the ideal doses for lessening treatment side effects. (
  • While these high-energy beams are targeted to the tumor site as precisely as possible, they often inadvertently injure healthy tissue that surrounds the tumor site, limiting the doses of radiation that can be used to effectively destroy cancer cells. (
  • These results are encouraging evidence that head and neck cancer patients can benefit from IMRT at specific doses. (
  • During radiation therapy, high-energy beams are aimed at cancer cells to destroy them by permanently damaging their underlying genetic material. (
  • IMRT can potentially limit the adverse side effects from radiation while increasing the intensity of doses that can be given to effectively destroy cancer cells. (
  • The dose-response and risk estimates for plutoinium-239 induced lung cancer were consistent with comparable risk estimates for external gamma radiation when account is taken of the relative biological effectiveness of alpha particles emitted by plutonium-239. (
  • I agree with Daniel Kopans that the mean lag time for a radiation induced cancer is 8-10 years, but this is precisely what occurs in all countries, after excluding prevalent screening. (
  • Low-Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity Is Associated With p53-Dependent Apoptosis 1 1U.S. Department of Energy, University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory contract W-7405-Eng-48 (K.T. Bogen), National Cancer Institute (Canada) grant 013104 (M. Weinfeld), Alberta Cancer Board Bridge and Pilot grant R-418 (A.D. Murtha), and U.S. Department of Energy Low-Dose Radiation Research Program (K.T. Bogen). (
  • This allows us to better understand the relationship between work and cancer. (
  • CHAPEL HILL, N.C. -- A second look at a landmark study on the 1979 Three Mile Island radiation release has found that people near the nuclear reactor are suffering from extremely high rates of cancer. (
  • The most comprehensive study of nuclear workers by the IARC, involving 600,000 workers exposed to an average cumulative dose of 19mSv, showed a cancer risk consistent with that of the A-bomb survivors. (
  • We analyzed mitochondria DNA and genomic DNA extracted from Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancer tissues to find radiation signatures left in the DNA. (
  • Through this study, we found new findings of radiation associated thyroid cancer and promoted international exchanges regarding scientific research and educations. (
  • Journal Article] Inhibition of ABL tyrosine kinase potentiates radiation-induced terminal growth arrest in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. (
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to quantify the effects of radiation dose to the heart, chemotherapy, and other cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • Recent interim analysis of the HD11 trial of the GHSG: intensification of chemotherapy and reduction of radiation dose in early unfavorable stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • Ten-year results of a German Hodgkin Study Group randomized trial of standard and increased dose BEACOPP chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HD9). (
  • Standard and increased-dose BEACOPP chemotherapy compared with COPP-ABVD for advanced Hodgkin's disease. (
  • Dose escalation of BEACOPP chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's disease in the HD9 trial of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG). (
  • Further chemotherapy versus low-dose involved-field radiotherapy as consolidation of complete remission after six cycles of alternating chemotherapy in patients with advance Hodgkin's disease. (
  • Adult Hodgkin lymphoma treatment depends on the type (classical or nodular lymphocyte predominant) and includes chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. (
  • More than 75% of all newly diagnosed patients with adult HL can be cured with combination chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. (
  • With this study, we sought to discover whether tightly focused radiation beams, such as those provided by IMRT, would make a difference in the severity of side effects associated with treatment and found a distinct dose-response relationship in the oral cavity of patients treated with IMRT in addition to chemotherapy. (
  • To examine the effects of durvalumab on systemic immune response to HPV and tumor associated antigens. (
  • However, women treated with radiation before they turned 45 had a slightly increased risk of a new tumor in the other breast, while women receiving radiation before they were 35 had a 78 percent increased risk. (
  • Unlike standard radiation therapy, IMRT administers a radiation field that consists of several hundred small beams of varying intensities that pass through normal tissue without doing significant damage, but converge to give a precise dose of radiation at the tumor site. (
  • Seminal studies by Joiner and colleagues ( 3 , 4 ) and Wouters and colleagues ( 5 -7 ) revealed that many human tumor cell lines exhibit a low-dose hypersensitivity to radiation (termed HRS for hyperradiosensitivity). (
  • He found that the risk of acoustic neuroma, a benign tumor of the auditory nerve that is well in range of the radiation coming from a phone's antennae, was 50 percent higher in people who reported using cell phones for six years or more. (
  • Moreover, that relationship between the amount of cell phone use and this tumor appeared to follow a dose-response curve. (
  • Conclusions Quantitative CT measurement of lung density and volume are reliable imaging parameters to evaluate the degree of radiation -induced pulmonary fibrosis in mouse models. (
  • We report that exposure of normal human lung fibroblasts to a low dose of alpha particles like those emitted by radon/radon progeny stimulates their proliferation in vitro, and this response also occurs when unirradiated cells are treated with supernatants from alpha-irradiated cells. (
  • Using a gel microdrop/flow cytometry assay to monitor single cell proliferation at early times postirradiation, we examined the response of human A549 lung carcinoma, T98G glioma, and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines exposed to γ radiation doses from 0 to 200 cGy delivered at 0.18 and 22 cGy/min. (
  • Epidemiologic studies of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs and of other populations exposed to radiation medically, occupationally, or accidentally have characterized the long-term health effects of radiation (see Chapter 3 ). (
  • Historic studies examining tissue and cellular responses to RT have predominantly focused on damage caused to proliferating malignant cells leading to their death. (
  • the consequences of the difference on the dose-effect relations for normal tissue injury were studied by comparing different NTCP model/parameters extracted from a review of published studies. (
  • The material absorbing the radiation can be human tissue or silicon microchips or any other medium (for example, air, water, lead shielding, etc. (
  • The Röntgen equivalent physical (rep), introduced by Herbert Parker in 1945, was the absorbed energetic dose to tissue before factoring in relative biological effectiveness. (
  • Chemical factors such as sensitizers, which make the tissue more sensitive to radiation damage, and radioprotectants, which provide some protection from radiation effects. (
  • Generating an optimized radiation treatment plan requires estimation of the risk of radiation induced normal tissue complications and balance it with tumour control. (
  • Thus, compared to a chemical dose to a given tissue, which requires understanding of the pathways by which a given intake of the chemical carcinogen results in absorption of the chemical by the tissue of interest, radiation dose is readily estimated. (
  • 19. The apparatus of claim 18 , wherein the additional radiation sensor is configured to be positioned in tissue adjacent to the device. (
  • 20. The apparatus of claim 18 , wherein the additional radiation sensor is configured to be positioned on the wall of the resected tissue cavity. (
  • Normal tissue toxicity of the brain after therapeutic radiation has been extensively investigated, and a relationship between dose and the development of radiation necrosis has been demonstrated [13-14] . (
  • The Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, Inc. (CNR) is a non-profit educational group organized in 1971 to provide independent analyses of the health effects and sources of ionizing radiation. (
  • Modifiers of radiation effects in the eye. (
  • The same types of studies are used to provide estimates of the effects of dose fractionation and dose protraction (NCRP, 2001). (
  • 1993. Protective effects of chlorogenic acid, curcumin and beta-carotene against gamma-radiation-induced in vivo chromosomal damage. (
  • 1986. Carcinogenic effects of radiation on the human skin. (
  • A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that is less than would be expected if the known effects of the individual substances were added together [compare with additive effect and synergistic effect ]. (
  • His studies include the internal contamination of man and animals with radionuclides, the development of analytical methods for detection of pollutants in the human body and environment, the metabolism of radionuclides, and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (
  • The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has a long history of concern over the effects of ionizing radiation. (
  • The subject of NCRP-136 namely, that there is a linear relationship between radiation dose and biological effects is a central issue in the global radiological protection system. (
  • He notes that 3 major effects cause radiation damage to a macromolecule (such as DNA) in solution in vitro: main-chain scission, cross-linking and point lesions. (
  • Cells can also repair most damage caused by radiation unless the exposure causes too many effects in which case the cell may die or repair itself incorrectly (mutation). (
  • Heritable Effects of Radiation 12. (
  • Effects of Radiation on the Embryo and Fetus 13. (
  • The victims of the atomic bombings either died immediately due to the detonation or later as a result of the acute or delayed effects of ionising radiation . (
  • The mean weighted colon dose (weighting: gamma colon dose + 10*neutron colon dose ) is used by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) as a measure for the radiation exposure of the survivors. (
  • What Knowledge Is Considered Certain Regarding Human Somatic Effects of Ionizing Radiation? (
  • Report prepared by the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. (
  • This report was issued by the Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. (
  • Noncancer radiation risks to cardiologists and medical staff in terms of radiation-induced cataracts and skin injuries for patients appear clear potential consequences of interventional cardiology procedures, while radiation-induced potential risk of developing cardiovascular effects remains less clear. (
  • Children are generally considered to be more vulnerable and, therefore, more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults. (
  • Already cell phone radiation has been shown to significantly increase all these effects. (
  • However, since cell phone radiation has already been shown to reduce melatonin, damage DNA and chromosomes, surveys should look for a very wide range health effects and not be limited to a narrow set. (
  • What is considered Early Effects of Radiation? (
  • Death is the most severe, but in diagnostic radiation today the most worrisome is skin effects. (
  • How have studies been done on the effects of radiation? (
  • Which period does the patient seem free of visible effects and mistakenly thought to be early recovery from a moderate radiation dose. (
  • The thyroid gland is highly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood and adolescence. (
  • We found that if we constrain the dose of IMRT, we reduce the toxic effects of treatment," said Dr. Heron. (
  • The effects of low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation continue to be of interest because of the potential dangers posed by exposure to environmental and occupational sources of radiation ( 1 ) and because of the potential clinical benefits of radioimmunotherapy ( 2 ). (
  • caused no ill effects to the people exposed to the radiation. (
  • In 2006, the US National Academy of Sciences released its Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (VII) report, which focused on the health effects of radiation doses at below 100 millisieverts. (
  • The pro-nuclearists have gone into full-spin-ahead mode, misrepresenting the latest UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) report on Chernobyl. (
  • Intermediate and long-term side effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy for thyriod carcinoma. (
  • 1. On page 45, the report raises questions about whether there is a dose-response relationsnip between tobacco smoke exposure and adverse health effects over the wide range of ETS levels to which nonsmokers are exposed. (
  • This review will focus on immunologic consequences of RT and discuss the therapeutic reprogramming of immune responses in tumors and how it regulates efficacy and durability to RT. (
  • Multiple inflammatory mechanisms control the location of immune responsiveness and serve to direct therapeutic responses to the site of immunological insult. (
  • The prevalence of thyroid nodules within a given population depends on a variety of factors that include age, sex, diet, iodine deficiency, and therapeutic and environmental radiation exposure. (
  • The worldwide population exposure from medical radiation has been shown to increase, and the use of procedures (both diagnostic and therapeutic) with a high radiation dose has been growing steadily [ 2 - 5 ]. (
  • To estimate the relationship between the radiation dose and response to radiation at one year for metastatic lesions arising from differentiated thyroid carcinoma, following a single therapeutic administration of 131-Iodine. (
  • Prolongation of life of Tribolium confusum apparently due to small doses of X-rays" (PDF). (
  • This observable dose-response relationship is important in convincing scientists that the relationship between small doses of radiation and leukemia is most likely one of cause and effect and not pure chance. (
  • Estimation of health risks associated with occupational radiation exposure: addressing measurement error and minimum exposure level detectable. (
  • Benefits include the estimation of dose-response relationships and of the modification of such relationships by individual properties such as sex, age, lifestyle, and genetic inheritance. (
  • The estimation of internal doses to the foetus were improved for plutonium-239 using measurements of urinary excretion in mothers who had been Mayak workers, and their offspring, and for strontium-90 by detailed modelling of data relating to Techa residents. (
  • Chronic radiation damage occurs due to permanent damage to endothelium and Type 1 pneumocytes leading to pulmonary fibrosis and typically manifests 9-12 months after radiation therapy mainly. (
  • NIOSH studies of chronic occupational lead (7439921) exposure are discussed to show the relationship of blood lead concentrations to the occurrence of symptoms and to the prevalence of alterations in hematologic function. (
  • The major goal of this study was to identify and quantitatively describe the association between the characteristics of chronic (low-dose rate) exposure to (low LET) ionizing radiation and cellularity of peripheral blood cell lines. (
  • brain stem centers and radiation-associated nausea and vomiting, swallowing muscles and chronic radiation- associated dysphagia. (
  • Tawn E, Thierens H. Dose response relationships for chromosome aberrations induced by low doses of alpha-particle radiation. (
  • 5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. (
  • Despite recent technological advances in radiation therapy (RT) such as three-dimensional (3D) conformal RT and intensity-modulated RT and even 4D RT (although 4DRT is not being practiced in most of the centres in our country), radiation pneumonitis (RP) remains an important dose-limiting toxicity in thoracic RT [ 2 ]. (
  • Acute RIP usually occurs within 1-8 weeks after radiation therapy [ 5 ]. (
  • External radiation therapy has been an integral part of the armamentarium against primary or metastatic liver tumors. (
  • For therapy relevant doses of 2 Gy (60Co equivalent), the difference in RBE is around 20% only. (
  • 3 It has also been proposed that at least some of the increase may be related to head and neck radiation therapy used to treat benign childhood conditions between 1910 and 1960. (
  • At relapse, 10 of 12 evaluable patients achieved a complete response upon second-line therapy. (
  • This also entails seeking patient-specific information relevant to radiation therapy, such as tumour characteristics, and exploiting the strengths and mitigating the limitations of radiation. (
  • In order to generate a tumour profile that is relevant to radiotherapy, we need to understand radiation therapy, how it is planned, the various forms of deliveries, and their capabilities. (
  • To this end, our research group has been developing of a form of radiation delivery: intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT). (
  • It is a category of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which exploits trading off radiation intensity levels with beam directions. (
  • Radiation Protection Dosimetry 135 (4): 268-271. (
  • The mean cumulative red bone marrow dose (with standard errors), calculated using Techa River Dosimetry System-2000, was 333.6 +/- 4.6 mGy (SD = 259.9 mGy, max = 1151 mGy) to the year 1956. (
  • Radiation Dose-Response Relationship for Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma. (
  • CONCLUSION: The linear radiation dose-response relationship identified can be used to predict CHD risk for future HL patients and survivors. (
  • Current knowledge on the health risks of ionising radiation is mainly based on observations of the survivors of atomic bombings, especially on the results from the so-called Life Span Study, an epidemiological cohort study on atomic bomb survivors. (
  • The number of survivors exposed to ionising radiation was estimated to about 280,000 people in a census conducted by the Japanese government. (
  • Unlike the Japanese bomb survivors' study, it actually observes risks at low dose rates rather than extrapolating them from high levels. (
  • Journal Article] radiation dose-response relationships for thyroid nodules and autoimmune thyroid diseases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors 55-58 years after radiation exposure. (
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was mailed to Australian radiation oncologists, who were asked to estimate risks of RT complications given 49 clinical scenarios. (
  • RT is not always used alone and clinical translation of radiation therapies that incorporate immunotherapy must take into account their interaction with surgery or the multitude of chemotherapies. (
  • Research efforts in the Fuller Lab have resulted in several contributions to science, specifically in the fields of image registration, segmentation, quality assurance, radiation planning margin assessment for radiotherapy planning purposes, radiotherapy-associated toxicity, patterns of failures, and clinical outcomes assessment, as well as imaging biomarker development. (
  • Clinical Response of Normal Tissues 21. (
  • In: Rubin PH, Casarett GW (eds) Clinical radiation pathology. (
  • Exposure to environmental radiation and the application of new clinical modalities, such as radioimmunotherapy, have heightened the need to understand cellular responses to low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation. (
  • Prospective randomized clinical trial to evaluate the optimal dose od 131 I for remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyriod carcinoma. (
  • Slovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene, Purkyně Medical Research and Postgraduate Institute Press, Hradec Kr lov , Czechoslovakia, 1973. (
  • Also debunking false claims about radiation, and nuclear power. (
  • His research areas include nuclear radiation and medical physics, radiobiology, radiotherapy, and radiation protection. (
  • Thomas said the real "problem" with radiation was that the public debate fails to separate the peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy. (
  • And there is a big perception that individual dose from nuclear accidents is much higher than it actually is. (
  • The myth behind public perception of radiation has been made worse by erroneous data about deaths following nuclear power plant accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima, she said. (
  • Radiation-hardened components designed for military or nuclear applications can survive up to 100 Mrad (1 MGy). (
  • Doses and Risks in Diagnostic Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Cardiology, and Nuclear Medicine 17. (
  • Part I contains 17 chapters and represents both a general introduction to radiation biology and a complete self-contained course in the subject, suitable for residents in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. (
  • The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980's by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. (
  • Medical exposure from X-rays and nuclear medicine is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure, representing a mean effective dose of 1.0-3.0 mSv per head per year [ 1 ]. (
  • Nuclear medicine and CT radiation doses are low, and Siegel cites studies that show "initial radiation-induced damage is generally repaired or eliminated in a matter of hours by the body's adaptive responses. (
  • Health risks from radiation of nuclear power plants cannot be excluded. (
  • For the conditions of this accident a reasonable agreement was obtained between the two methods, which adds to the growing confidence in the use of chromosome aberration counting for dose assessment in radiation accidents. (
  • The assessment of carcinogenic risks associated with doses of ionizing radiation from 0.2 Sv to 5 Sv is based on numerous epidemiological data. (
  • Cox Regression Analysis in Presence of Collinearity: An application to Assessment of Health Risks Associated with Occupational Radiation Exposure. (
  • Risk assessment of ionizing radiation. (
  • The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. (
  • The work provides an adaptation of the classical risk assessment method integrating each of its step such as a discussion about the choice of the dose-response relationship. (
  • PMID 18971951 -- "Criteria for diagnosis, staging, risk stratification and response assessment of multiple myeloma. (
  • The prevalence rate of thyroid nodules in radiation-exposed patients increases significantly, ie, 16-31% relative to the general population. (
  • 1995. Advisory committee on human radiation experiments. (
  • The modulation of the cell defense mechanisms according to the dose, dose rate, the type and number of lesions, the physiological condition of the cell, and the number of affected cells explains the large variations in radiosensitivity (variations in cell mortality or the probability of mutations per unit dose) depending on the dose and the dose rate that have been observed. (
  • Like the increased intracellular ROS bystander effect, this "decreased TP53/CDKN1A response" can be mimicked in otherwise untreated cells by the addition of low concentrations of TGF-beta1. (
  • Radiation has the potential to damage rapidly dividing cells. (
  • Physical factors of the radiation interacting with the cells such as LET and Dose rate. (
  • The influence of reference radiation photon energy on high-LET RBE: comparison of human peripheral lymphocytes and human-hamster hybrid AL cells. (
  • Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation. (
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. (
  • Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. (
  • Dataset is obtained from qPCR results in isolated white blood cells exposed to α-particle and X-ray radiation. (
  • The assumption ignores evidence-supported adaptive responses that either repair mutations through enhanced repair enzymes or remove the unrepaired cells by apoptosis [death of cells as part of normal growth] or, most importantly, the immune system. (
  • Personal dosemeter data for Mayak workers and dose estimates for Techa residents based on location were compared for validation with results obtained using EPR measurements on teeth and FISH chromosome aberration techniques on cultured white blood cells. (
  • Furthermore, the low-dose hypersensitivity and Annexin V binding to irradiated A549 and T98G cells were eliminated by treating the cells with pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53. (
  • Earlier models for IRR, on the other hand, assumed that the population of cells is uniformly hypersensitive to start with and becomes resistant as a function of dose due to some protective mechanism, such as induction of DNA repair ( 11 ) or down-regulation of programmed cell death ( 6 ). (
  • To date, however, the mode of death for those cells that die at the low doses has still not been ascertained. (
  • We recently reported on the application of a gel microdrop (GMD) protocol ( 16 , 17 ) to a low-dose radiation response of human A549 cells ( 18 ). (
  • Radiation carcinogenesis. (
  • Radiation, carcinogenesis and DNA alterations. (
  • This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. (
  • AFTER a radiation accident in July 1969 we had the opportunity of comparing radiation dose estimates made by biological and physical methods. (
  • These methods have been a source of considerable progress by showing that depending on the dose and the dose rate not the same genes are transcribed. (
  • Methods for estimating occupational radiation doses subject to minimum detection levels. (
  • Dose reduction in cardiothoracic CT: review of currently available methods. (
  • Therefore, interventional cardiologists must have a thorough knowledge of consequences of exposure to patients and personnel to ionizing radiation and methods of reducing staff and patient radiation exposure. (
  • The greatest increase in radioresistance appears at a fixed window of dose and time, e.g. 8 weeks after 5-10 cGy or 2 weeks after 50 cGy preirradiation. (
  • It is accompanied by an increase in radioresistance at doses between ∼50 and 100 cGy (termed IRR for increased radioresistance). (
  • We cannot truly optimize radiotherapy without following patients and reviewing their outcome for disease and toxicity free survival, and provide feedback to whether the theoretical "optimal" radiation treatment plan was indeed so in practice. (
  • Siegel adds, "Supportively, the French Academy of Sciences reported that these data provide evidence for protective adaptive responses and no valid evidence for harm below 100 mGy. (
  • A dose of 100 to 200 rad delivered to the entire body in less than a day may cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS), but is usually not fatal. (
  • Acute Radiation Syndrome 9. (
  • What is acute radiation syndrome? (
  • What are the three syndromes of acute radiation syndrome? (
  • Mortality and Radiation Dose, 1950-1966" ( TR-11-70 ). (
  • Mortality and Radiation Dose, 1950-1974" (RERF TR-1-77 ). (
  • These analyses showed good statistical evidence for an association between external radiation exposure and morbidity but not mortality, an observation requiring further investigation. (
  • Recent works suggest that there is a threshold of damage under which low doses and dose rates do not activate intracellular signalling and repair systems, a situation leading to cell death. (
  • If the radiation damage is sufficient to change or delete a purine or pyrimidine base, a point lesion may occur. (
  • In simplest terms, radiation damage has 2 end results. (
  • And, most troubling, he found that laboratory studies looking at the ability of radiation from a phone's antenna to cause functional genetic damage were definitely positive, and were following a dose-response curve. (
  • The authors noted that in the past decade, procedures for complex cardiac conditions have become lengthier, and multiple procedures have become more common, resulting in higher cumula-tive radiation doses and increased risks for radiation damage. (
  • Report on search for human radiation experiment records, 1944-1994 (volume 1). (
  • In most power plant scenarios, where the radiation environment is dominated by X- or gamma rays applied uniformly to the whole body, 1 rad of absorbed dose gives 1 rem of effective dose. (
  • The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. (
  • The term of « low dose » was used even though the amount of radiation absorbed in one second is more than one million times the amount a human cell gets in the same time from natural background. (
  • This study is designed to use a slightly different form of radioactive iodine (called 124-I) which can precisely predict the amount of radiation that each metastatic lesion will receive. (
  • Kellner U, Bornfeld N, Foerster MH (1993) Radiation induced optic neuropathy following brachytherapy of uveal melanomas. (
  • It follows the format of the Syllabus in Radiation Biology prepared by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and its content reflects the questions appearing in recent years in the written examination for diagnostic radiology residents given by the American Board of Radiology. (
  • A Basic Problem of Microdosimetry and Interpretation," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION BIOLOGY 47: 731-744. (
  • The dose recalculation at the brachial plexus where the axillary and supraclavicular beams overlapped was performed in the early 1970s and expressed in cumulative radiation effect (CRE) units. (
  • Nearly 75% of the ORNL workers had cumulative radiation doses of less than one rem total exposure throughout their employment. (
  • August 15, 1989: "Radiation Study Based in Chernobyl Area. (
  • However, in its recent report (No. 136), 'Evaluation of the Linear No-Threshold Response Model for Ionizing Radiation' (NCRP 2001), the high scientific standards and impartiality of the NCRP have melted into thin air, sacrificed to defend an obsolete and untenable linearity paradigm. (
  • The received dose has now been converted to biologic effective dose(3) units, and from that into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions to plot the dose-response relationships. (
  • In other situations, the effective dose in rem might be thirty times higher or thousands of times lower than the absorbed dose in rad. (
  • Although interventional cardiac procedures account for 12% of all radiological examinations, they are responsible for delivering the highest radiation dose (up to 50% of the total collective effective dose) [ 6 ]. (
  • Epidemiological studies have been carried out to determine the possible carcinogenic risk of doses lower than 100 mSv, and they have not been able to detect statistically significant risks even on large cohorts or populations. (
  • They show that cell phone radiation mimics the biological and epidemiological studies for EMR over the past 4 decades. (
  • The reliability of risk estimates obtained from epidemiological studies is dependent on the quality of radiation dose information for the members of the cohorts being studied. (
  • Such processes may account for cell hyperplastic responses in the conducting airways of the lower respiratory track that occur after inhalation exposure to radon/ radon progeny, as well as, perhaps, other ROS-associated environmental stresses. (
  • however, both larger doses and volumes may result in higher toxicity [13-15] . (
  • Time, Dose, and Fractionation in Radiotherapy 24. (
  • Although this is, in part at least, the case, a fundamental difference is that responses induced by infectious pathogens are driven by exogenous ("foreign") proteins/molecules, whereas those to tumors must be induced by endogenous ("self") proteins. (
  • The host remains in a state of controlled immune activity, regulating the initiation and termination of immune responses to prevent widespread pathology is exploited by tumors to overcome the immunogenicity caused by their antigenicity and aggressive growth. (
  • Currently, radiation may be directly targeted at liver tumors with the radioembolization technique. (
  • Eight cycles of escalated-dose BEACOPP compared with four cycles of escalated-dose BEACOPP followed by four cycles of baseline-dose BEACOPP with or without radiotherapy in patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: final analysis of the HD12 trial of the German Hodgkin Study Group. (
  • Although the risk/benefit ratio is of interest to every radiation safety worker and every prospective patient, it is of particular concern to female patients who are of childbearing age. (
  • In the past, radiographers could be confident, and their patients assured, that the benefits of examinations performed within the context of well-established radiation safety measures (ie, proper shielding, employment of the 10-day role and use of the as low as reasonably achievable [ALARA] concept) outweighed the risks. (
  • Thus, radiation exposure is a significant concern for interventional cardiologists and patients due to the increasing workloads and the complexity of procedures over the last decade [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Patients undergoing interventional procedures in cardiology face radiation exposure in the order of a thousand or more times than that involved in conventional radiography [ 9 ]. (
  • Evaluation and followup of radiation doses received by the medical staff and patients should be considered an important part of quality assurance programmes for interventional cardiology procedures. (
  • In 2005, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Foundation proposed the interventional cardiology guidelines which emphasized that physicians are responsible for minimizing the radiation injury hazard to their patients, professional staff, and themselves [ 10 ]. (
  • Patients were treated from April 2002 through September 2004 and were evaluated for grade level of oral mucositis, or inflammation, based on the volume of IMRT dose administered. (
  • It relies on CT (computed tomography) data from patients that is processed and analyzed by a complex computer system to produce the ideal radiation dose distribution for that patient. (
  • Post-surgical ablation of thyroid remnants with high-dose (131)I in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (
  • If 124-I can accurately predict which patients will not respond to 131-I treatments we can then avoid exposing those patients to unnecessary radiation. (
  • For the rest of the patients we can custom tailor the 131-I dose to destroy the metastatic lesions. (
  • Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. (
  • To provide insights into various modifying influences on risk, seven major studies with organ doses to individual subjects were evaluated. (
  • Strength of evidence for public health has a classical hierarchy that has dose-response relationship at the top and biological mechanism at the bottom, Hill (1965). (
  • Radiation Dosage" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). (
  • In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv). (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Radiation Dosage" by people in this website by year, and whether "Radiation Dosage" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Radiation Dosage" by people in Profiles. (
  • Wing has quarreled with an assumption regarding the dosage of radiation the populate sustained. (
  • For effective immunity, it is therefore necessary to overcome the well-developed capacity of the immune system to regulate responses to self-antigens and tissues. (
  • Dose-Response Relationships for Model Normal Tissues 20. (
  • The overall optimization question is "what dose to which volume" to both the surrounding normal tissues and the tumour. (
  • Analyses of possible relationships between cause of death and external radiation produced the same results as those resulting from the analysis performed upon the full cohort. (
  • The analyses of possible relationships between cause of death and internal radiation exposure produced essentially the same results observed in the total cohort and for external radiation. (
  • Two eminent experts, Zbigniew Jaworowski and Michael Waligórski, discuss the deliberate misrepresentations, omissions, and bias in a report by the U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection, at the expense of the general welfare. (
  • To further characterize the low-dose hypersensitivity, we examined the influence of low-dose radiation on cell cycle status and apoptosis by assays for active caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine translocation (Annexin V binding). (
  • Our data therefore suggest that low-dose hypersensitivity is associated with p53-dependent apoptosis. (
  • It is highly unlikely that putative carcinogenic risks could be estimated or even established for such doses through case-control studies or the follow-up of cohorts. (
  • The reliability of the murine models is demonstrated by the reproducibility of the dose-response and consistency of disease presentation across studies.Health Phys. (
  • Dr Cherry was surprised to find many studies showing that electromagnetic radiation is genotoxic, including several isothermal studies and several with dose-response relationships. (
  • Multiple studies confirm and strengthen the cause and effect relationship. (
  • This study evaluates the dose response-relationship in a Swedish iron ore mine for which two earlier studies had reached different risk estimates. (
  • Over forty cell phone radiation studies are cited here. (
  • Fifth, it finds radiogenic leukemia risks decline linearly with dose, contradicting earlier studies suggesting a lower, linear-quadratic relationship. (
  • Hundreds of studies, including the 1986 Report of the Surgeon General, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking, document the relationship between ETS and health outcomes. (
  • This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of concerns about noncancer risks of radiation exposure in interventional cardiology. (
  • Risk of Radiation at Low Dose Rates," LANCET 1981, 1: 430-433. (
  • Unfortunately, in the public mind, those cannot be separated, but we do have a general acceptance of medical radiation exposure," she said. (
  • however, the largest contributor to this trend is medical radiation exposure. (
  • Mathews et al estimated approximate risks during the follow-up period per unit dose. (
  • Every year thousands of American women undergo diagnostic radiology, procedures, exposing a large percentage of them to ionizing radiation. (
  • Doses received within the diagnostic radiology range are of minimal consequence with respect to a woman's ability to conceive. (