The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/3155)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Linear differentiation of cytotoxic effectors into memory T lymphocytes. (2/3155)

A central question in immunology is the origin of long-lived T cell memory that confers protection against recurrent infection. The differentiation of naive T cell receptor transgenic CD8+ cells into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and memory CD8+ cells was studied. Memory CD8+ cells that were generated after strong antigenic stimulation were the progeny of cytotoxic effectors and retained antigen-specific cytolytic activity 10 weeks after adoptive transfer to antigen-free recipient mice. Thus, potential vaccines based on CTL memory will require the differentiation of naive cells into post-effector memory T cells.  (+info)

Synovial fluid transforming growth factor beta inhibits dendritic cell-T lymphocyte interactions in patients with chronic arthritis. (3/3155)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether rheumatoid synovial fluid (SF) inhibits dendritic cell (DC) expression of the CD80 and CD86 costimulator molecules and contributes to SF T lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness. METHODS: Cell-free rheumatoid SF was tested for its effect on DC-stimulated autologous/allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions and for its effect on DC surface antigen expression, as assessed by flow cytometry. Blocking monoclonal antibodies were used to identify the SF cytokines that inhibited DC-T lymphocyte interactions. RESULTS: Low concentrations of SF (2.5%) could inhibit DC-mediated autologous and allogeneic T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by neutralizing transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), but not by IL-12, in the SF. Hyaluronic acid, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were not associated with SF inhibition. In vitro culture alone and crosslinking with the CD40 ligand up-regulated DC CD80/CD86 expression and costimulator function, and this was not affected by inclusion of SF. In the presence of SF, DC clustered with autologous T lymphocytes showed decreased CD80 and CD86 expression, and variable CD80/CD86 decreases were observed on DC clustered with allogeneic T lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: TGFbeta in SF appears to suppress T lymphocyte function, which may affect both signaling to DC and the induction of DC costimulator function.  (+info)

Development of CD8+ effector T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12. (4/3155)

We investigated the effects of IL-18 on the development of CD8+ effector T cells in DBA/2 anti-BDF1 whole spleen cell MLC and compared the results with those of IL-12. Addition of IL-18 to the MLC resulted in a twofold increase in CD8/CD4 ratios compared with the control cultures when cells were expanded in IL-2-containing medium following MLC. Purified CD8+ T cells recovered from the IL-18-stimulated MLC produced 20- to 30-fold more IFN-gamma after secondary stimulation with C57BL/6 spleen cells or anti-CD3 mAb, and exhibited strong allospecific CTL activity. Neither IL-18 nor IL-18-supplemented culture supernatants from DBA/2 anti-BDF1 MLC induced type I CD8+ effector T cells when purified CD8+ T cells were used as responder cells in primary MLC. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell depletion from the responder cells abrogated the IL-18-induced increase in secondary IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells, suggesting that IL-18-induced type I effector CD8+ T cell development was CD4+ T cell dependent. In marked contrast, adding IL-12 to primary MLC decreased CD8/CD4 ratios by 50% and suppressed secondary IFN-gamma production and CTL activity by CD8+ T cells regardless of concentration, whereas Th1 development was promoted by IL-12. Moreover, both IL-12 and IL-18 efficiently induced type I CD8+ effector T cells in C57BL/6 anti-BDF1 MLC. These findings show that IL-18 plays an important role in the generation of type I CD8+ effector T cells, and further suggest that functional maturation of CD8+ T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12.  (+info)

Differential responses to CD40 ligation among Burkitt lymphoma lines that are uniformly responsive to Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. (5/3155)

Ligation of CD40 on the surface of B cells induces multiple phenotypic effects, many of which are mimicked by the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) through its interaction with downstream components of the CD40 signaling pathway. Because the effects of LMP1 have been most closely studied in human Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) cell lines retaining a tumor biopsy-like phenotype in vitro, we have examined the response of a panel of such lines to CD40 ligation. Two distinct patterns of response were observed that were unrelated to the surface level of CD40 or to the EBV genome status of the lines. Following exposure to either CD40-specific mAbs or the soluble trimeric ligand (sCD40L), high responder (HR) lines showed rapid aggregation, activation of NF-kappa B, up-regulation of cell surface markers ICAM-1/CD54 and Fas/CD95, and growth inhibition. Aggregation was seen at lower doses than those required to elicit the other effects. By contrast, low responder (LR) lines showed no detectable response to CD40 mAbs, while their responses to sCD40L were limited to activation of NF-kappa B and up-regulation of CD95 only. However, in transfection experiments, LMP1 uniformly induced the full spectrum of phenotypic effects in both HR and LR lines. We conclude that some BL cell lines show a highly restricted response to CD40 ligation but remain fully susceptible to LMP1.  (+info)

Peroxynitrite inhibits T lymphocyte activation and proliferation by promoting impairment of tyrosine phosphorylation and peroxynitrite-driven apoptotic death. (6/3155)

Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. It readily nitrates phenolic compounds such as tyrosine residues in proteins, and it has been demonstrated that nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins inhibits their phosphorylation. During immune responses, tyrosine phosphorylation of key substrates by protein tyrosine kinases is the earliest of the intracellular signaling pathways following activation through the TCR complex. This work was aimed to evaluate the effects of ONOO- on lymphocyte tyrosine phosphorylation, proliferation, and survival. Additionally, we studied the generation of nitrating species in vivo and in vitro during immune activation. Our results demonstrate that ONOO-, through nitration of tyrosine residues, is able to inhibit activation-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in purified lymphocytes and prime them to undergo apoptotic cell death after PHA- or CD3-mediated activation but not upon phorbol ester-mediated stimulation. We also provide evidence indicating that peroxynitrite is produced during in vitro immune activation, mainly by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies demonstrate the in vivo generation of nitrating species in human lymph nodes undergoing mild to strong immune activation. Our results point to a physiological role for ONOO- as a down-modulator of immune responses and also as key mediator in cellular and tissue injury associated with chronic activation of the immune system.  (+info)

The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/3155)

Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells.  (+info)

Paradoxical preservation of a lipopolysaccharide response in C3H/HeJ macrophages: induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9. (8/3155)

C3H/HeJ mice carry a mutant allele (Lpsd) of a recently identified gene whose normal allele (Lpsn) confers responsiveness to bacterial LPS in C3H/HeN and most other mouse strains. Recently we reported differential display analysis of matched macrophage-derived cell lines from C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice under LPS-free conditions. Of the approximately 12,000 transcripts evaluated, 4 were differentially expressed. One transcript represented secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. In this study, we report another differentially expressed transcript, mouse matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9). Like secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, MMP-9 was expressed constitutively in the Lpsd macrophage cell line and not in the Lpsn cell line. Similarly, two additional macrophage cell lines that respond readily to LPS by producing nitric oxide and TNF expressed no MMP-9 under LPS-free conditions. However, in all four cell lines, LPS induced MMP-9 or augmented its expression. In primary macrophages, concentrations of LPS in the ng/ml range augmented the expression of MMP-9 mRNA. Paradoxically, macrophages from Lpsd mice expressed more MMP-9 transcripts than macrophages from Lpsn mice. In contrast, the induction of TNF in response to LPS was much more pronounced in Lpsn macrophages. The present findings with MMP-9 suggest that homozygosity at Lpsd does not so much prevent a response to LPS as dysregulate it, resulting in the suppression of some LPS signaling pathways and the preservation of others.  (+info)

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A dose-response relationship in radiation refers to the correlation between the amount of radiation exposure (dose) and the biological response or adverse health effects observed in exposed individuals. As the level of radiation dose increases, the severity and frequency of the adverse health effects also tend to increase. This relationship is crucial in understanding the risks associated with various levels of radiation exposure and helps inform radiation protection standards and guidelines.

The effects of ionizing radiation can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which no effect is observed, and above this threshold, the severity of the effect increases with higher doses. Examples include radiation-induced cataracts or radiation dermatitis. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a clear threshold and are based on probability; as the dose increases, so does the likelihood of the adverse health effect occurring, such as an increased risk of cancer.

Understanding the dose-response relationship in radiation exposure is essential for setting limits on occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation, optimizing radiation protection practices, and developing effective medical countermeasures in case of radiation emergencies.

Oxytropis is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, primarily in North America and Asia. Some common names for Oxytropis include locoweeds and wild peas.

In a medical context, Oxytropis species are most well-known for containing toxic alkaloids that can cause serious poisoning in livestock, particularly cattle, sheep, and goats. The toxins, including swainsonine and other indolizidine alkaloids, can affect the nervous system and cause symptoms such as weakness, tremors, blindness, and ultimately death.

While Oxytropis poisoning is not a direct concern for human health, it is important for medical professionals to be aware of its potential impact on animal health in rural and agricultural communities.

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Cardell K, Akerlind B, Sällberg M, Frydén A (August 2008). "Excellent response rate to a double dose of the combined hepatitis ... Most studies do not support a causal relationship between hepatitis B vaccination and demyelinating diseases such as MS. A 2004 ... Hepatitis B vaccines are produced with recombinant DNA techniques and contain immunologic adjuvant. They are available both by ... The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that. This includes ...
... the lack of a dose-response relationship (females fed three times the standard dose showed a decreased number of tumours) and ... and immunologic parameters". Reactions to this review in 2009 and 2010 noted that Dona and Arvanitoyannis had concentrated on ... "FSANZ response to study linking Cry1Ab protein in blood to GM foods". FSANZ. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. ... In response, GeneWatch UK and Greenpeace set up the GM Contamination Register in 2005. During the recall, the United States ...
The relationship with their host is called mutualistic when organisms perform tasks that are known to be useful for the host,: ... Li, Y., Faden, H. S., & Zhu, L. (2020). The response of the gut microbiota to dietary changes in the first two years of life. ... Microbiota include bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, and viruses, and have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal ... Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to ...
The relationship between ADEM and anti-MOG associated encephalomyelitis is currently under research. A new entity called MOGDEM ... Brain inflammation is likely caused by an immune response to the disease rather than neurotropism. CSF analysis was not ... Hemachudha T, Griffin DE, Johnson RT, Giffels JJ (January 1988). "Immunologic studies of patients with chronic encephalitis ... The widely accepted first-line treatment is high doses of intravenous corticosteroids, such as methylprednisolone or ...
A dose of dexamethasone during surgery prevents vomiting in one out of every five children. A dose of dexamethasone may help ... The relationship between childhood tonsillectomy and the development of other cancer types in adulthood remains unclear. For ... Holló, Gábor (15 September 2021). "Tonsillectomy and the incidence of various types of cancer". Immunologic Research. 69 (6): ... attributing their enlargement to infection rather than a physiologic response. Because of the theory of focal infection, many ...
"Endotoxin contamination of ovalbumin suppresses murine immunologic responses and development of airway hyper-reactivity". The ... Humans are much more sensitive to LPS than other animals (e.g., mice). A dose of 1 µg/kg induces shock in humans, but mice will ... molecular relationships of structure to activity and function". FASEB J. 8 (2): 217-25. doi:10.1096/fasebj.8.2.8119492. PMID ... This response activate the TLR4-TRIF-ROS-p38 signaling within the HSCs and through a sustained TLR4 activation can cause a ...
The US swine flu immunization campaign in response to the 1976 swine flu outbreak has become known as "the swine flu fiasco" ... In 1955, in a tragedy known as the Cutter incident, Cutter Laboratories produced 120,000 doses of the Salk polio vaccine that ... Vaccines pose a very small immunologic load compared to the pathogens naturally encountered by a child in a typical year; ... The scientific consensus is that there is no relationship, causal or otherwise, between vaccines and incidence of autism, and ...
The National Institute of Health has recently changed their stance on using low dose aspirin, stating "low-dose aspirin therapy ... They are protected by other means like immunologic tolerance and immunomodulation. Infertility after anti-sperm antibody ... in order that it produces a reliable and consistent immune response in a higher proportion of women. Towards this goal, vaccine ... mother and has been used to map maternal immune development throughout normal pregnancies as well as studying the relationship ...
B cells are involved in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response. Killer T ... Lower doses of anti-inflammatory drugs are often used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such as ... Rus H, Cudrici C, Niculescu F (2005). "The role of the complement system in innate immunity". Immunologic Research. 33 (2): 103 ... Sompayrac 2019, p. 4. Restifo NP, Gattinoni L (October 2013). "Lineage relationship of effector and memory T cells". Current ...
Most children with A-T have difficulty in school because of a delay in response time to visual, verbal or other cues, slurred ... People with A-T who are less than two years old should receive three doses of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar) given ... For everyone long-term peer relationships can be the most rewarding part of life; for those with A-T establishing these ... All individuals with A-T should have at least one comprehensive immunologic evaluation that measures the number and type of ...
In order to understand the links between the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response to help substantiate an ... As of 2021, over 22 million doses of one vaccine with squalene, FLUAD, have been administered with no severe adverse effects ... In 1993, a causal relationship between VAS and administration of aluminium adjuvated rabies and FeLV vaccines was established ... an adjuvant-enhanced innate immune response results in an enhanced adaptive immune response. Specifically, adjuvants may exert ...
After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due to the migration of other ... "the eliciting dose for an allergic reaction in 1% of the population" as the threshold reference dose for certain foods (such as ... Sampson HA, Ho DG (October 1997). "Relationship between food-specific IgE concentrations and the risk of positive food ... Notes Nester EW, Anderson DG, Roberts Jr CE, Nester MT (2009). "Immunologic Disorders". Microbiology: A Human Perspective (6th ...
Immunologic phenomena: glomerulonephritis which allows for blood and albumin to enter the urine, Osler's nodes ("ephemeral ... This combination of damaged valves, bacterial growth, and lack of a strong immune response results in infective endocarditis.[ ... Merkler, Alexander E.; Chu, Stacy Y.; Lerario, Michael P.; Navi, Babak B.; Kamel, Hooman (2015-08-11). "Temporal relationship ... High-dose antibiotics are the cornerstone of treatment for infective endocarditis. These antibiotics are administered by the ...
Low-dose naltrexone is also being studied as of 2023. Rituximab, a drug that depletes B cells, was studied and found to be ... "FDA Response Letter Regarding Approval of Ampligen for ME/CFS". www.fda.gov. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. ... A study analyzing the relationship between diagnostic labels and prognosis found that patients diagnosed with ME had the worst ... clinical and immunologic features". Natural Immunity and Cell Growth Regulation. 6 (3): 116-28. PMID 2442602. Wessely S ( ...
Improved antitumor responses have been seen in mouse and monkey models using T cells in early differentiation stages (such as ... High doses of IL-2 could inhibit tumor growth in mice. 1982, studies demonstrated that intravenous immune lymphocytes could ... Thus Cish represents a new class of T-cell intrinsic immunologic checkpoints with the potential to enhance adoptive ... "Lineage relationship of CD8(+) T cell subsets is revealed by progressive changes in the epigenetic landscape". Cellular & ...
Pranzatelli MR, Tate ED, Travelstead AL, Longee D (January 2005). "Immunologic and clinical responses to rituximab in a child ... Most patients require high doses for months to years before tapering. Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) are often used with ... relationship to MRI findings and anti-neuronal antibodies". J. Pediatr. 139 (4): 552-9. doi:10.1067/mpd.2001.118200. PMID ... response to trazodone". The Journal of Pediatrics. 147 (3): 372-8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.531.9696. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.05.016. ...
Due to above-average rates of PPP in individuals experiencing immunologic complications such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA ... The primary pathology is in the placenta, which secretes an anti-angiogenic factor in response to ischaemia, leading to ... As in adults, lithium use with breastfeeding infants requires careful monitoring of the child for serum levels, dose adjustment ... and develop her relationship with the new-born. But there are many risks, and it is essential that she is monitored by a ...
The dose is increased in every treatment to let the skin get used to the light. Increased rates of cancer from treatment appear ... The immune response in those infected with HIV is typically characterized by cellular signals from Th2 subset of CD4+ helper T ... The immunologic pathways of psoriasis involve Th9, Th17, Th1 lymphocytes, and IL-22. The aforementioned biologic agents hinder ... June 2021). "Causal Relationship and Shared Genetic Loci between Psoriasis and Type 2 Diabetes through Trans-Disease Meta- ...
Response rates with EMP in prostate cancer are said to be equivalent to conventional high-dose estrogen therapy. Due to its ... In any case, there is a linear relationship between the oral dose of EMP and circulating levels of estramustine and ... Kalland T, Haukaas SA (June 1984). "Immunologic effects of estramustine phosphate". Urology. 23 (6 Suppl): 39-45. doi:10.1016/ ... Doses of 140 mg/day have been described as a very low dosage. EMP has been used at doses of 240 to 450 mg/day intravenously. ...
It is believed that these events could act as a trigger for an autoimmune response that result in POTS. It has been shown to ... Arnold AC, Okamoto LE, Diedrich A, Paranjape SY, Raj SR, Biaggioni I, Gamboa A (May 2013). "Low-dose propranolol and exercise ... Kohn A, Chang C (June 2020). "The Relationship Between Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hEDS), Postural Orthostatic ... Immunologic Research. 69 (2): 205-211. doi:10.1007/s12026-021-09185-5. PMC 8009458. PMID 33786700. Blitshteyn S, Fedorowski A ( ...
"Biochemical and immunologic effects of rituximab in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and an incomplete response to ... To manage this, doses of vitamin A, D, E, and K are recommended to retain appropriate vitamin levels. Cholestatic liver disease ... However, no relationship was found between NTCP inhibition and DIC risk, possibly because basolateral sodium-independent OATPs ... A complete response is achieved in 25-30% patients, and similar survival as the general population is expected in 2/3 of ...
The evolutionary relationships of the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) shown in the cladogram are based on Inward, ... Its specificity and immunologic profile". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 63 (2): 80-86. doi:10.1016/0091-6749( ... While cockroaches do, indeed, have a much higher radiation resistance than vertebrates, with a lethal dose perhaps six to 15 ... Eggleton, Paul; Beccaloni, George; Inward, Daegan (2007). "Response to Lo et al". Biology Letters. 3 (5): 564-565. doi:10.1098/ ...
... and to identify a safe starting dose and dose escalation, when possible. Animal toxicity studies: Acute toxicity testing, ... Antibodies from different classes also differ in where they are released in the body and at what stage of an immune response. ... Rus H, Cudrici C, Niculescu F (2005). "The role of the complement system in innate immunity". Immunologic Research. 33 (2): 103 ... Woof JM, Russell RW (2011). "Structure and function relationships in IgA". Mucosal Immunology. 4 (6): 590-597. doi:10.1038/mi. ...
2006). "High-dose cyclophosphamide for moderate to severe refractory multiple sclerosis". Arch. Neurol. 63 (10): 1388-93. doi: ... Leptomeningeal enhancement under MRI is common in patients with progressive forms of MS and shows a relationship to subpial ... MRZ-Reaction: A polyspecific antiviral immune response against the viruses of measles, rubella and zoster found in 1992. In ... critical review of clinical and immunologic effects". Mult. Scler. 8 (2): 142-54. doi:10.1191/1352458502ms790oa. PMID 11990872 ...
In the years since, she has examined the body's immune response to the virus. She is the co-inventor on 23 patents and the ... Relationship to Kaposi's sarcoma". The American Journal of Medicine. 73 (2): 171-178. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(82)90174-7. ISSN ... Stahl, R. E.; Friedman-Kien, A.; Dubin, R.; Marmor, M.; Zolla-Pazner, S. (1982-08-01). "Immunologic abnormalities in homosexual ... as post-hoc analysis showed the levels of antibodies waned within 6 months of the last dose of the vaccine. Her findings ...
Two "yes" responses indicate that the respondent should be investigated further. The questionnaire asks the following questions ... A wide range of immunologic defects can result and there may be a generalized skeletal fragility, in addition to a recognized ... Poulos CX, Zack M (November 2004). "Low-dose diazepam primes motivation for alcohol and alcohol-related semantic networks in ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6998-3. Kushner MG, Abrams K, Borchardt C (March 2000). "The relationship between anxiety disorders and alcohol ...
Current consensus favors an excessive immunologic response to a conventional antigen which usually provides future protection. ... If the fever does not respond, an additional dose may be considered. In rare cases, a third dose may be given. IVIG is most ... Relationships between typical and atypical cases of Kawasaki disease". Pathology International. 36 (6): 857-67. doi:10.1111/j. ... Aspirin therapy is started at high doses until the fever subsides, and then is continued at a low dose when the patient returns ...
... but does not hinder the mounting of an adequate immune response to acute immune challenge. These findings indicate th … ... Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Humans * Immunologic Factors / isolation & purification * Immunologic Factors / pharmacology ... Materials and methods: Primary human monocytes were supplemented with either a 0.01mg/ml or 1mg/ml Sceletium extract dose, with ... The acute inflammatory response to LPS stimulation was not negatively affected. Sceletium treatment conferred most significant ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic * Female * Humans * Immunotherapy * Male * Middle Aged * Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic, COVID-19 @font-face{font-family:Roboto;font-style:normal;font-weight:400;src:url(// ... How far apart should the doses of vaccines be? What if I miss my second dose? Can I get two doses from two different ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic; Double-Blind Method; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; Enzyme-Linked ... Env-specific antibody responses were detected in 15 (50%) of 30 vaccine recipients by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in ... RESULTS: The vaccine was well tolerated but was associated with more reactogenicity at the highest dose. At week 4, vaccine ... CONCLUSIONS: A single injection induced HIV-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell, and antibody responses in the ...
DOSE RESPONSE RELAT IMMUNOL. Entry Term(s). Immunologic Dose-Response Relationship Relationship, Immunologic Dose-Response ... Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic Preferred Concept UI. M0006768. Scope Note. A specific immune response elicited by a ... Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic Preferred Term Term UI T013162. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1977) ... Immunologic Dose-Response Relationship Term UI T013160. Date01/26/1993. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ...
... nor is there a simple relationship between spectral distribution with possible waveband interactions, total dose, and dose ... Efforts should also be made to gauge the effects of such factors as immunologic surveillance and chemical cocarcinogens on ... that photocarcinogenesis is a dynamic process with no simple relationship existing between erythema and tumorigenic responses, ... total dose, and dose fractionation in a manner simulating solar radiation at various stages of ozone depletion. Measures were ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical; Humans; Immunologic Factors; Multiple Myeloma; Randomized ...
Relationship, Immunologic Dose Response Relationship, Immunologic Dose-Response Relationships, Immunologic Dose-Response ... Dose Response Relationship, Immunologic Dose-Response Relationships, Immunologic Immunologic Dose Response Relationship ... Relationship, Immunologic Dose Response. Relationship, Immunologic Dose-Response. Relationships, Immunologic Dose-Response. ... Dose Response Relationship, Immunologic. Dose-Response Relationships, Immunologic. Immunologic Dose Response Relationship. ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic; Fibrosis; Hypersensitivity / physiopathology; Immunoglobulin E / blood; Inhalation ... MeSH headings : Animals; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Granuloma, Respiratory Tract / chemically induced; Granuloma, ... Atomic layer deposition coating of carbon nanotubes with zinc oxide causes acute phase immune responses in human monocytes in ... Inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes alters the pulmonary allergic response of mice to house dust mite allergen ...
The kinetics of the response in suppressed and non-suppressed mice was the same, indicating that the magnitude of the response ... Prior injection with suppressor factor did not cause suppression of response, while suppressor factor injected at the same time ... Both IgM and IgG responses were approximately equally affected, These suppressor factors were not genetically restricted, as ... Furthermore, xenogeneic human suppressor factors were effective in mice and suppressed the responses as efficiently as ...
Retrospectively, we studied the relationship among anti-PnPs IgG response to 3 doses of Prevenar®13, levels of immune system ... Measurement of anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (anti-PnPs) IgG titers is an important tool in the immunologic ... Response to pneumococcal vaccine is usually measured using the multiserotype enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ... IgG antibody response to pneumococcal-conjugated vaccine (Prevenar®13) in children with immunodeficiency disorders. ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Phylogeny, SARS-CoV-2, Treatment ...
Administration of MVA expressing the SIVgag CTL epitope further boosted these responses, such that 0.8-20.0% of CD3+/CD8alpha+ ... Because epitope-based vaccines offer several potential advantages for inducing strong, multispecific CTL responses, we tested ... specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in six of six Mamu-A*01+ rhesus macaques. Tetramer staining of fresh, unstimulated PBMC ... the ability of an epitope-based DNA prime/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine to induce CTL responses against a ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Encephalitis, Female, Fluorescent Dyes, Fura-2, Humans, Immunologic Factors, Infant, ...
Another possible explanation for our findings could be a dose-response relationship between inflammation and the development of ... Factors like brain-gut axis interactions, immunologic disturbances, oxidative stress, and vagus nerve dysfunction can cause ... One explanation for the inverse relationship found in our study could be a prolonged incubation of both UC and BD development ... Another explanation for the reciprocal relationship between UC and BD could be the use of anti-inflammatory agents in UC ...
Cytotoxicity, Immunologic [G12.287] * Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic [G12.300] * Histamine Release [G12.350] * HIV ...
... may develop a new immunologic response to the pathogen, and, thus, new symptoms may develop in association with the heightened ... Dose: no data Dose: standard effect & effect Dose: standard for Invirase (TM) Dose: no data Dose: Invirase (TM) NFV Fortovase ( ... This relationship was observed over a range of patient baseline characteristics, including pretreatment plasma RNA level, CD4+ ... Dose: standard DLV ,,50% ,, Dose: no data ,, \/ Dose: no data Dose: standard Dose: standard NFV Fortovase (TM) (monitor for 800 ...
Immunologic Response After a Booster Dose. Two clinical trials provided data on the response to a booster dose of JE-VC. In a ... transfer of neutralizing antibodies protected animals against JE virus challenge and established a dose-response relationship ... No data were gathered on seroprotection rates at ,42 days after the second dose, or immunologic response to an additional dose ... response to a booster dose administered ,2 years after the primary JE-VC series, and response to a booster dose in adults aged ...
Journal Article 2010; 31(Suppl 2): 114-119 PubMed PMID: 21187833 Keywords: Animal Feed, Animals, Dose-Response Relationship, ... Journal Article 2012; 33(Suppl 3): 96-106 PubMed PMID: 23353851 Keywords: Adjuvants, Immunologic:pharmacology, Animal Feed, ... Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Fungicides, Industrial:pharmacology, Gills:drug effects, Glutathione:metabolism, Glutathi. ... Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Fisheries:methods, Immune System:drug effects, Oncorhynchus mykiss:blood, Pleurotus:chemistry ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Embryo, Nonmammalian:drug effects, Inactivation, Metabolic:physiology, Lethal Dose 50, ... Journal Article 2012; 33(Suppl 3): 96-106 PubMed PMID: 23353851 Keywords: Adjuvants, Immunologic:pharmacology, Animal Feed, ... Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Embryo, Nonmammalian:drug effects, Female, Herbicides:toxicity, Kidney:drug effects, Male, ... Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Embryo, Nonmammalian:drug effects, Free Radicals:metabolism, Herbicides:toxicity, Lipid ...
In a second prospective study by the same group, a dose-response relationship between early blood transfusion and postinjury ... Most of these reactions derive from an immunologic response against the transfused cellular or plasma components, typically ... What are the immunologic risks and complications of transfusion?. What is the increased risk of multisystem organ failure (MSOF ... At high doses, factor VIIa can directly bind to platelets, activating factor X, and converting prothrombin to thrombin by a ...
In a second prospective study by the same group, a dose-response relationship between early blood transfusion and postinjury ... Most of these reactions derive from an immunologic response against the transfused cellular or plasma components, typically ... What are the immunologic risks and complications of transfusion?. What is the increased risk of multisystem organ failure (MSOF ... At high doses, factor VIIa can directly bind to platelets, activating factor X, and converting prothrombin to thrombin by a ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic. *HIV Seronegativity. *Immune System Processes. *Immunity. *Immunocompetence. * ... The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen. ...
Cytotoxicity, Immunologic [G12.287] * Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic [G12.300] * Histamine Release [G12.350] * HIV ...
Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. ... In adults, B. lactis has most often been taken by mouth alone or together with other probiotics in doses of up to 12.5 billion ... Immunologic effects of yogurt. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:861-72. View abstract. ... Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the ...
In the assays with tester strain TA100, no consistent dose response relationship was observed, and the ratio of test to control ... IMMUNOLOGIC. Systemic lupus erythematosus.. NERVOUS SYSTEM/PSYCHIATRIC. Dizziness, increase in signs and symptoms of myasthenia ... Doses of 1000 mg/kg/day (142,000 times the systemic exposure following the maximum recommended human ophthalmic dose) were ... satisfactory response to the once-a-day dose is best determined by measuring the intraocular pressure at different times during ...
E4.936.537.500 Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation G1.201.875.740.500 G1.750.740.500 Douglas Pouch A1.47.25.600.225 A1.923. ... Immunologic E1.450.495.505 E1.370.225.812.505 E5.200.812.505 Multilocus Sequence Typing E1.370.225.875.150.125.457.500 Muscle ... Immunologic E1.450.495.620 E1.370.225.812.620 E1.450.620.620 E1.370.225.970.620 E5.200.812.620 E5.200.970.620 Prenalterol D2.33 ... E5.478.583 Immunologic Tests E1.450.495 E1.370.225.812 E5.200.812 Immunomagnetic Separation E5.200.500.363.400 E2.95.437 E5.242 ...
E4.936.537.500 Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation G1.201.875.740.500 G1.750.740.500 Douglas Pouch A1.47.25.600.225 A1.923. ... Immunologic E1.450.495.505 E1.370.225.812.505 E5.200.812.505 Multilocus Sequence Typing E1.370.225.875.150.125.457.500 Muscle ... Immunologic E1.450.495.620 E1.370.225.812.620 E1.450.620.620 E1.370.225.970.620 E5.200.812.620 E5.200.970.620 Prenalterol D2.33 ... E5.478.583 Immunologic Tests E1.450.495 E1.370.225.812 E5.200.812 Immunomagnetic Separation E5.200.500.363.400 E2.95.437 E5.242 ...
  • Bacteremias in the systemic circulation and bacterial byproducts (eg, endotoxins), as well as the resultant proinflammatory cytokines produced in response to those bacteria, may result in a systemic immune response, dyslipidemia, and an increased risk of atherosclerotic lesion formation. (cdeworld.com)
  • Cytokines are communication proteins released by certain white blood cells that transmit information to other cells, promoting the immune response. (livonlabs.com)
  • Efforts should also be made to gauge the effects of such factors as immunologic surveillance and chemical cocarcinogens on ultraviolet photocarcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • KLH-specific suppressor factors produced in vitro efficiently diminished primary and secondary responses to trinitrophenyl keyhole limpet haemocyanin (TNP-KLH) in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Both IgM and IgG responses were approximately equally affected, These suppressor factors were not genetically restricted, as allogeneic suppressor factors worked as efficiently as syngeneic factors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, xenogeneic human suppressor factors were effective in mice and suppressed the responses as efficiently as syngeneic factors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Factors like brain-gut axis interactions, immunologic disturbances, oxidative stress, and vagus nerve dysfunction can cause inflammatory bowel disease and mental disorders. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Initiation of therapy in the asymptomatic person is more complex and involves consideration of multiple virologic, immunologic, and psychosocial factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Arguably the two most prominent factors are genetic variability and immunologic status of the exposed individual. (hindawi.com)
  • An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient. (lookformedical.com)
  • Env-specific antibody responses were detected in 15 (50%) of 30 vaccine recipients by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in 28 (93.3%) of 30 vaccine recipients by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. (emmes.com)
  • A single injection induced HIV-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell, and antibody responses in the majority of vaccine recipients. (emmes.com)
  • Specific suppression of antibody responses in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A relationship between antibody responses to rotavirus vaccination and protection against rotavirus gastro-enteritis has not been. (vaccineriskawareness.com)
  • Pharmacodynamics Immunogenicity: A relationship between antibody responses to rotavirus vaccination and. (vaccineriskawareness.com)
  • Mitochondrial viability, as an indirect measure of cytotoxicity, and cytokine release in response to the treatment intervention were assessed. (nih.gov)
  • It should be evaluated at a patient visit," said M. Elaine Husni, MD, MPH, the vice chair of the department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases and director of the Arthritis Center at the Cleveland Clinic. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Systemic immunologic and inflammatory aspects of allergic rhinitis. (medscape.com)
  • People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to increase when a person takes the medication over five years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • The daily safe maximum dose for eye toxicity can be estimated from a person's height and weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • More commonly, multidrug regimens incorporating drugs with different mechanisms of action and different toxicities are used to increase efficacy, reduce dose-related toxicity, and decrease the probability of drug resistance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • How far apart should the doses of vaccines be? (bvsalud.org)
  • Because epitope-based vaccines offer several potential advantages for inducing strong, multispecific CTL responses, we tested the ability of an epitope-based DNA prime/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine to induce CTL responses against a single SIVgag CTL epitope. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mercury has been added to vaccines to preserve and prevent bacterial contamination of multi-dose shots (1,2). (everlyreport.com)
  • In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service called for mercury to be removed from vaccines because it was found that the amount of mercury in vaccines given to infants exceeded the EPA reference dose or per day exposure threshold for methylmercury. (everlyreport.com)
  • Though the thimerosal content of most vaccines was reduced to "trace amounts" (0.3-1.0mcg mercury per dose) or eliminated after 1999, unfortunately, the total amount of mercury a child from 6 months to 18 years of age will receive through the recommended CDC vaccination schedule, has increased since the AAP called for its removal (6). (everlyreport.com)
  • Current vaccines approved for use in the US which contain mercury are multi-dose influenza vaccines. (everlyreport.com)
  • Regarding mercury content of multidose flu vaccines, per vaccine, a six-month-old will receive 12.5mcg mercury (a half dose) which is over 16x the safe dose per the EPA (see calculations below). (everlyreport.com)
  • Dose-Response Relationship-- The quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a toxicant and the incidence of the adverse effects. (cdc.gov)
  • The most serious adverse effects affect the eye, with dose-related retinopathy as a concern even after hydroxychloroquine use is discontinued. (wikipedia.org)
  • At week 4, vaccine antigen-specific T cell responses were detected in 28 (93.3%) and 18 (60%) of 30 vaccine recipients for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, respectively, by intracellular cytokine staining assay and in 22 (73%) of 30 vaccine recipients by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. (emmes.com)
  • The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Cell-mediated response refers to the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells, and antigen-specific T-lymphocytes that attack anything perceived as a foreign agent. (livonlabs.com)
  • As mentioned in #7, these cells are essential to cell-mediated immune responses, and Vitamin C helps them to multiply in number. (livonlabs.com)
  • These white blood cells make antibodies as part of the antibody-mediated immune response. (livonlabs.com)
  • In contrast, other drugs (eg, DNA cross-linkers, also known as alkylating agents) have a linear dose-response relationship, killing more cancer cells at higher doses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Proinflammatory islet antigen reactive CD4 T cells are linked with response to alefacept in type 1 diabetes. (immunetolerance.org)
  • In addition, the observed dose-response relationships and threshold values have been obtained by a wide variety of test methods using different techniques, such as intradermal exposure versus topical or inhalation exposure at the workplace, or using different endpoints, which all appear important for the outcome of the test. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, especially with re- gard to respiratory allergy, standardized and validated dose-response test methods are urgently required in order to be able to recommend safe exposure levels for allergens at the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Cross-sectional Study-- A type of epidemiological study of a group or groups of people that examines the relationship between exposure and outcome to a chemical or to chemicals at one point in time. (cdc.gov)
  • The points in the figures showing no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) reflect the actual doses (levels of exposure) used in the studies. (cdc.gov)
  • intravenous relationship reductase T mucosa: numerous associations for efficacious drugs. (sheppardengineering.com)
  • The dose for RA in combination with methotrexate is two-1,000 mg intravenous infusions separated by 2 weeks (one course) every 24 weeks or based on clinical evaluation, but not sooner than every 16 weeks. (drugs.com)
  • The follow up dose for adult patients with GPA and MPA who have achieved disease control with induction treatment, in combination with glucocorticoids is two 500 mg intravenous infusions separated by two weeks, followed by a 500 mg intravenous infusion every 6 months thereafter based on clinical evaluation ( 2.6 ). (drugs.com)
  • After a 100 mg single intravenous bolus dose, the mean elimination half-life was approximately 11.7 hours in the dog. (drugs.com)
  • Frequent dosing for extended periods may necessitate intravenous implanted access devices. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There isn't any difference in native control or survival between high dose rate brachytherapy in contrast with exterior beam radiation [url=https://samoore.com/products/purchase-cytotec-no-rx/] symptoms 8dpiui cytotec 200 mcg online[/url]. (ehd.org)
  • The findings suggested that photocarcinogenesis is a dynamic process with no simple relationship existing between erythema and tumorigenic responses, nor is there a simple relationship between spectral distribution with possible waveband interactions, total dose, and dose fractionation as they relate to tumor production. (cdc.gov)
  • The dose as a component of Zevalin ® (ibritumomab tiuxetan) Therapeutic Regimen is 250 mg/m 2 ( 2.4 ). (drugs.com)
  • In contrast, auranofin administered to normal rats, in the same dosing regimen, did not affect interleukin production. (aai.org)
  • Infant pain scales is probably not as clinically helpful because the responses could also be dampened or is probably not identifed by caregivers. (ehd.org)
  • Notwithstanding the observation of dose-response relationships and no-effect levels, due to a number of uncertainties, no definite conclusions can be drawn about absolute threshold values for allergens with respect to sensitization of and elicitation reactions in the skin and respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • With respect to the respiratory tract, dose-response rela- tionships and no-effect levels for induction were found in several human as well as animal studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The induction dose for adult patients with active GPA and MPA in combination with glucocorticoids is 375 mg/m 2 once weekly for 4 weeks. (drugs.com)
  • Although the pathogenesis of HIV infection and the general virologic and immunologic principles underlying the use of antiretroviral therapy are similar for all HIV-infected persons, unique therapeutic and management considerations apply to HIV-infected children. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydroxychloroquine has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is little difference between toxic and therapeutic doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response. (lookformedical.com)
  • Several studies have demonstrated that Carprofen has modulatory effects on both humoral and cellular immune responses. (drugs.com)
  • We reviewed university-based outbreaks of meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B and vaccination responses in the United States in the years following serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine availability. (cdc.gov)
  • Although it is difficult to predict outbreak trajectories and evaluate the effects of public health response measures, achieving high MenB vaccination coverage is crucial to help protect at-risk persons during outbreaks of meningococcal disease caused by this serogroup. (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin C supports a healthy immune response achieved with vaccination. (livonlabs.com)
  • In adults, B. lactis has most often been taken by mouth alone or together with other probiotics in doses of up to 12.5 billion colony-forming units (CFUs) daily, for up to 6 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1/2 dose flu shot for children ages 6-35 months contains 12.5mcg mercury. (everlyreport.com)
  • A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell. (nih.gov)
  • Dynamic interactions between microorganism and host have evolved in such a way that while microbial pathogens are the cause of many human infections, a symbiotic relationship is also known to exist. (hindawi.com)
  • A systematic study using Sk-1-hairless-mice was made of the dependence of squamous cell cancer development on ultraviolet (UV) wavelength distribution, total dose, and dose fractionation in a manner simulating solar radiation at various stages of ozone depletion. (cdc.gov)
  • The kinetics of the response in suppressed and non-suppressed mice was the same, indicating that the magnitude of the response was affected and not merely its time course. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Of these, the latter is known to play a variety of roles in viral replication and the assembly of new viral particles, as well as in suppressing cellular immune responses. (news-medical.net)
  • The vaccine was well tolerated but was associated with more reactogenicity at the highest dose. (emmes.com)
  • The observed role of CTL in the containment of AIDS virus replication suggests that an effective HIV vaccine will be required to generate strong CTL responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Children from 6 months to 35 months of age receive a half-dose of the flu vaccine. (everlyreport.com)
  • With respect to the skin, dose- response relationships and no-effect levels were found for both intradermal and topical induc- tion, as well as for intradermal and topical elicitation of allergenic responses in epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Although dose-response relationships for elicitation were found in some epidemiological studies, concentration-response relationships were present only in a limited number of animal studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Benchmark Dose Model-- A statistical dose-response model applied to either experimental toxicological or epidemiological data to calculate a BMD. (cdc.gov)
  • Case-Control Study-- A type of epidemiological study that examines the relationship between a particular outcome (disease or condition) and a variety of potential causative agents (such as toxic chemicals). (cdc.gov)
  • The acute inflammatory response to LPS stimulation was not negatively affected. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokine assessment indicated that Sceletium possesses mild anti-inflammatory properties, but does not hinder the mounting of an adequate immune response to acute immune challenge. (nih.gov)
  • Another explanation for the reciprocal relationship between UC and BD could be the use of anti-inflammatory agents in UC patients. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Effect of GM-CSF on immune, inflammatory, and clinical responses to ragweed in a novel mouse model of mucosal sensitization. (medscape.com)
  • cal to induce skin and/or respiratory allergy at relatively high doses. (cdc.gov)
  • We may also take a look at how fertility therapies are supporting new family relationships and helping those with critical inherited genetic problems to have youngsters [url=https://samoore.com/products/purchase-online-tinidazole/] antibiotic 272 safe tinidazole 1000mg[/url]. (ehd.org)
  • GlaxoSmithKline, https://www.gsk.com ) ( 6 ), became available for outbreak response via a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored expanded access investigational new drug protocol. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, defining the relationship between drug-mediated normalization of aberrant immune parameters and clinical improvement will provide a basis for the elucidation of the mechanism of action of disease-modifying antiarthritic drugs as well as for assessment of clinical efficacy of drug treatment. (aai.org)
  • 1] Siegel B, "Enhanced interferon response to murine leukemia virus by ascorbic acid" Infection and Immunity 1974 10(2):409-410. (livonlabs.com)
  • Hence, susceptibility to infection can be characterized by a construct that involves not only gene expression patterns of the host but also that of the microorganism, both of which continue to adapt in response to external stimuli. (hindawi.com)
  • To better understand the possible relationship between severe infection and poor in-hospital outcomes, researchers from the Internal Medicine, and the Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, Rutgers University, Newark, USA, presented a case series linking barotrauma to COVID-19 in younger patients. (news-medical.net)
  • Sceletium treatment conferred most significant effects at a dose of 0.01mg/ml. (nih.gov)
  • LOAELs or NOAELs should also help in determining whether or not the effects vary with dose and/or duration, and place into perspective the possible significance of these effects to human health. (cdc.gov)
  • He is actively evaluating the immunologic effects of radiation therapy and exploring treatments combining radiation with novel immune oncology agents. (dana-farber.org)
  • The maximum effect usually occurs in one to two hours and significant lowering of intraocular pressure can be maintained for periods as long as 24 hours with a single dose. (nih.gov)
  • The mean peak plasma concentration following morning dosing was 0.46 ng/mL and following afternoon dosing was 0.35 ng/mL. (nih.gov)
  • Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in rats is associated with a number of immunologic abnormalities which include a marked decrease in spleen cell mitogenic responses. (aai.org)
  • Benchmark Dose (BMD)-- Usually defined as the lower confidence limit on the dose that produces a specified magnitude of changes in a specified adverse response. (cdc.gov)
  • A literature study was performed to evaluate dose-response relationships and no-effect levels for sensitization and elicitation in skin- and respiratory allergy. (cdc.gov)
  • Retrospectively, we studied the relationship among anti-PnPs IgG response to 3 doses of Prevenar®13, levels of immune system components, leukocyte populations, and clinical data in children with ID. (bvsalud.org)
  • Vitamin C supports the cell-mediated immune system response. (livonlabs.com)
  • At high doses, DNA cross-linkers damage the bone marrow. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Prior injection with suppressor factor did not cause suppression of response, while suppressor factor injected at the same time as or soon after the antigen did, suggesting that it might act at the effector stage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Viral antigen particles detected by ELISA were found in 50% of stools after the first dose. (vaccineriskawareness.com)
  • Previously untreated follicular, CD20-positive, B-cell NHL in combination with first line chemotherapy and, in patients achieving a complete or partial response to a rituximab product in combination with chemotherapy, as single-agent maintenance therapy. (drugs.com)
  • Antimetabolites such as fluorouracil and methotrexate are cell cycle-specific and have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fortunately, several patterns of disease have been identified, and these can help the clinician determine a possible cause-and-effect relationship with a particular medication or group of medications. (medscape.com)
  • response: Bryant, medication K Lippincotts-Case-Manag. (sheppardengineering.com)
  • Association between radiation dose to organs at risk and acute patient reported outcome during radiation treatment for head and neck cancers. (dana-farber.org)
  • Primary human monocytes were supplemented with either a 0.01mg/ml or 1mg/ml Sceletium extract dose, with or without E. coli LPS stimulation in vitro, for 24h. (nih.gov)
  • Administration of MVA expressing the SIVgag CTL epitope further boosted these responses, such that 0.8-20.0% of CD3+/CD8alpha+ T lymphocytes in fresh, unstimulated PBMC were now Ag specific. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The onset of reduction in intraocular pressure following administration of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution can usually be detected within one-half hour after a single dose. (nih.gov)
  • Mild temperature rise might be transient in nature and can emerge from the body's response to tissue harm [url=https://samoore.com/products/buy-online-sominex-cheap/] insomnia book order 25mg sominex with visa[/url]. (ehd.org)
  • 10%. The BMD is determined by modeling the dose response curve in the region of the dose response relationship where biologically observable data are feasible. (cdc.gov)
  • Injection: 100 mg/10 mL (10 mg/mL) and 500 mg/50 mL (10 mg/mL) solution in single-dose vials ( 3 ). (drugs.com)
  • The mean terminal half-life of Carprofen is approximately 8 hours (range 4.5-9.8 hours) after single oral doses varying from 1-35 mg/kg of body weight. (drugs.com)
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in combination with methotrexate in adult patients with moderately-to severely-active RA who have inadequate response to one or more TNF antagonist therapies ( 1.3 ). (drugs.com)
  • Dose modification or exclusion of certain drugs may be necessary in patients with lung disease (eg, bleomycin), kidney failure (eg, methotrexate), liver dysfunction (eg, taxanes) or heart disease (daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Effect of Varying Doses of UVB and UVA on Mammalian Skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Cancer Effect Level (CEL)-- The lowest dose of chemical in a study, or group of studies, that produces significant increases in the incidence of cancer (or tumors) between the exposed population and its appropriate control. (cdc.gov)
  • Measurement of anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (anti-PnPs) IgG titers is an important tool in the immunologic assessment of patients with suspected immunodeficiency disorders (ID) to reduce the morbi-mortality and minimize severe infections. (bvsalud.org)
  • It adversely affects patients' quality of life by impairing physical and psychological health and social relationships. (psychiatrist.com)
  • One explanation for the inverse relationship found in our study could be a prolonged incubation of both UC and BD development after the onset of inflammation. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Our study findings require further exploration of this relationship. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The WHO Covid-19 Research Database is a resource created in response to the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). (bvsalud.org)