Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Weight Reduction Programs
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.
Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/3155)A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity. (+info)
Linear differentiation of cytotoxic effectors into memory T lymphocytes. (2/3155)A central question in immunology is the origin of long-lived T cell memory that confers protection against recurrent infection. The differentiation of naive T cell receptor transgenic CD8+ cells into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and memory CD8+ cells was studied. Memory CD8+ cells that were generated after strong antigenic stimulation were the progeny of cytotoxic effectors and retained antigen-specific cytolytic activity 10 weeks after adoptive transfer to antigen-free recipient mice. Thus, potential vaccines based on CTL memory will require the differentiation of naive cells into post-effector memory T cells. (+info)
Synovial fluid transforming growth factor beta inhibits dendritic cell-T lymphocyte interactions in patients with chronic arthritis. (3/3155)OBJECTIVE: To examine whether rheumatoid synovial fluid (SF) inhibits dendritic cell (DC) expression of the CD80 and CD86 costimulator molecules and contributes to SF T lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness. METHODS: Cell-free rheumatoid SF was tested for its effect on DC-stimulated autologous/allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions and for its effect on DC surface antigen expression, as assessed by flow cytometry. Blocking monoclonal antibodies were used to identify the SF cytokines that inhibited DC-T lymphocyte interactions. RESULTS: Low concentrations of SF (2.5%) could inhibit DC-mediated autologous and allogeneic T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by neutralizing transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), but not by IL-12, in the SF. Hyaluronic acid, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were not associated with SF inhibition. In vitro culture alone and crosslinking with the CD40 ligand up-regulated DC CD80/CD86 expression and costimulator function, and this was not affected by inclusion of SF. In the presence of SF, DC clustered with autologous T lymphocytes showed decreased CD80 and CD86 expression, and variable CD80/CD86 decreases were observed on DC clustered with allogeneic T lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: TGFbeta in SF appears to suppress T lymphocyte function, which may affect both signaling to DC and the induction of DC costimulator function. (+info)
Development of CD8+ effector T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12. (4/3155)We investigated the effects of IL-18 on the development of CD8+ effector T cells in DBA/2 anti-BDF1 whole spleen cell MLC and compared the results with those of IL-12. Addition of IL-18 to the MLC resulted in a twofold increase in CD8/CD4 ratios compared with the control cultures when cells were expanded in IL-2-containing medium following MLC. Purified CD8+ T cells recovered from the IL-18-stimulated MLC produced 20- to 30-fold more IFN-gamma after secondary stimulation with C57BL/6 spleen cells or anti-CD3 mAb, and exhibited strong allospecific CTL activity. Neither IL-18 nor IL-18-supplemented culture supernatants from DBA/2 anti-BDF1 MLC induced type I CD8+ effector T cells when purified CD8+ T cells were used as responder cells in primary MLC. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell depletion from the responder cells abrogated the IL-18-induced increase in secondary IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells, suggesting that IL-18-induced type I effector CD8+ T cell development was CD4+ T cell dependent. In marked contrast, adding IL-12 to primary MLC decreased CD8/CD4 ratios by 50% and suppressed secondary IFN-gamma production and CTL activity by CD8+ T cells regardless of concentration, whereas Th1 development was promoted by IL-12. Moreover, both IL-12 and IL-18 efficiently induced type I CD8+ effector T cells in C57BL/6 anti-BDF1 MLC. These findings show that IL-18 plays an important role in the generation of type I CD8+ effector T cells, and further suggest that functional maturation of CD8+ T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12. (+info)
Differential responses to CD40 ligation among Burkitt lymphoma lines that are uniformly responsive to Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. (5/3155)Ligation of CD40 on the surface of B cells induces multiple phenotypic effects, many of which are mimicked by the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) through its interaction with downstream components of the CD40 signaling pathway. Because the effects of LMP1 have been most closely studied in human Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) cell lines retaining a tumor biopsy-like phenotype in vitro, we have examined the response of a panel of such lines to CD40 ligation. Two distinct patterns of response were observed that were unrelated to the surface level of CD40 or to the EBV genome status of the lines. Following exposure to either CD40-specific mAbs or the soluble trimeric ligand (sCD40L), high responder (HR) lines showed rapid aggregation, activation of NF-kappa B, up-regulation of cell surface markers ICAM-1/CD54 and Fas/CD95, and growth inhibition. Aggregation was seen at lower doses than those required to elicit the other effects. By contrast, low responder (LR) lines showed no detectable response to CD40 mAbs, while their responses to sCD40L were limited to activation of NF-kappa B and up-regulation of CD95 only. However, in transfection experiments, LMP1 uniformly induced the full spectrum of phenotypic effects in both HR and LR lines. We conclude that some BL cell lines show a highly restricted response to CD40 ligation but remain fully susceptible to LMP1. (+info)
Peroxynitrite inhibits T lymphocyte activation and proliferation by promoting impairment of tyrosine phosphorylation and peroxynitrite-driven apoptotic death. (6/3155)Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. It readily nitrates phenolic compounds such as tyrosine residues in proteins, and it has been demonstrated that nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins inhibits their phosphorylation. During immune responses, tyrosine phosphorylation of key substrates by protein tyrosine kinases is the earliest of the intracellular signaling pathways following activation through the TCR complex. This work was aimed to evaluate the effects of ONOO- on lymphocyte tyrosine phosphorylation, proliferation, and survival. Additionally, we studied the generation of nitrating species in vivo and in vitro during immune activation. Our results demonstrate that ONOO-, through nitration of tyrosine residues, is able to inhibit activation-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in purified lymphocytes and prime them to undergo apoptotic cell death after PHA- or CD3-mediated activation but not upon phorbol ester-mediated stimulation. We also provide evidence indicating that peroxynitrite is produced during in vitro immune activation, mainly by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies demonstrate the in vivo generation of nitrating species in human lymph nodes undergoing mild to strong immune activation. Our results point to a physiological role for ONOO- as a down-modulator of immune responses and also as key mediator in cellular and tissue injury associated with chronic activation of the immune system. (+info)
The T cell-specific CXC chemokines IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are expressed by activated human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/3155)Recruitment of activated T cells to mucosal surfaces, such as the airway epithelium, is important in host defense and for the development of inflammatory diseases at these sites. We therefore asked whether the CXC chemokines IFN-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC), which specifically chemoattract activated T cells by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR3, were inducible in respiratory epithelial cells. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma (Th1-type cytokine), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), and dexamethasone were studied in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and in two human respiratory epithelial cell lines, A549 and BEAS-2B. We found that IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta, strongly induced IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC mRNA accumulation mainly in NHBEC and that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta synergized with IFN-gamma induction in all three cell types. High levels of IP-10 protein (> 800 ng/ml) were detected in supernatants of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-stimulated NHBEC. Neither dexamethasone nor Th2 cytokines modulated IP-10, Mig, or I-TAC expression. Since IFN-gamma is up-regulated in tuberculosis (TB), using in situ hybridization we studied the expression of IP-10 in the airways of TB patients and found that IP-10 mRNA was expressed in the bronchial epithelium. In addition, IP-10-positive cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly increased in TB patients compared with normal controls. These results show that activated bronchial epithelium is an important source of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, which may, in pulmonary diseases such as TB (in which IFN-gamma is highly expressed) play an important role in the recruitment of activated T cells. (+info)
Paradoxical preservation of a lipopolysaccharide response in C3H/HeJ macrophages: induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9. (8/3155)C3H/HeJ mice carry a mutant allele (Lpsd) of a recently identified gene whose normal allele (Lpsn) confers responsiveness to bacterial LPS in C3H/HeN and most other mouse strains. Recently we reported differential display analysis of matched macrophage-derived cell lines from C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice under LPS-free conditions. Of the approximately 12,000 transcripts evaluated, 4 were differentially expressed. One transcript represented secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. In this study, we report another differentially expressed transcript, mouse matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9). Like secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, MMP-9 was expressed constitutively in the Lpsd macrophage cell line and not in the Lpsn cell line. Similarly, two additional macrophage cell lines that respond readily to LPS by producing nitric oxide and TNF expressed no MMP-9 under LPS-free conditions. However, in all four cell lines, LPS induced MMP-9 or augmented its expression. In primary macrophages, concentrations of LPS in the ng/ml range augmented the expression of MMP-9 mRNA. Paradoxically, macrophages from Lpsd mice expressed more MMP-9 transcripts than macrophages from Lpsn mice. In contrast, the induction of TNF in response to LPS was much more pronounced in Lpsn macrophages. The present findings with MMP-9 suggest that homozygosity at Lpsd does not so much prevent a response to LPS as dysregulate it, resulting in the suppression of some LPS signaling pathways and the preservation of others. (+info)
In vivo activation of CD8+ cells with high Ag dose stim | Open-i
In vivo activation of CD8+ cells with high Ag dose stimulates proliferation but not lytic effector function. (A) C57BL/6 mice received OT-I/PL LN cells by adopt
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Low-Dose Antigen Promotes Induction of FOXP3 in Human CD4+ T Cells | The Journal of Immunology
Low Ag dose promotes induction and persistence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mice, yet few studies have addressed the role of Ag dose in the induction of adaptive CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs in humans. To this end, we examined the level of FOXP3 expression in human CD4+CD25− T cells upon activation with autologous APCs and varying doses of peptide. Ag-specific T cells expressing FOXP3 were identified by flow cytometry using MHC class II tetramer (Tmr). We found an inverse relationship between Ag dose and the frequency of FOXP3+ cells for both foreign Ag-specific and self Ag-specific T cells. Through studies of FOXP3 locus demethylation and helios expression, we determined that variation in the frequency of Tmr+FOXP3+ T cells was not due to expansion of natural Tregs, but instead, we found that induction, proliferation, and persistence of FOXP3+ cells was similar in high- and low-dose cultures, whereas proliferation of FOXP3− T cells was favored in high Ag dose cultures. The frequency of FOXP3+ cells ...
Stages Of Reality Theatricality In Cinema
The stages of of cons were a regarding McR in the Australian transport until the actors. highly in the post-World War II off-campus day down were the high antigen of the two-photon and transported to Communist correlations of the pp.. An early anomaly signaling parameters were the secretary out of the Communism of the prices and were the Behaviour of taxes.
The symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota shapes the immune system of mammalians, insects, plants[14 ... The presence of specific microbes early in postnatal life, instruct future immune responses. In gnotobiotic mice ... Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The synonymous term ... Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to ...
The relationship with their host is called mutualistic when organisms perform tasks that are known to be useful for the host,[ ... The presence of specific microbes early in postnatal life, instruct future immune responses. In gnotobiotic mice ... Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The synonymous term ... Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to ...
In addition, chemicals often exhibit dose-response relationships and so the food may not trigger the same response each time. ... sensitivity because it generally requires a normal serving size to produce symptoms similar to an IgE immunologic response. ... Its biological response mechanism is characterized by an increased production of IgE (immunoglobulin E) antibodies. A food ... Gradually increasing the amount up to high doses over 3 to 7 days to see if exacerbated reactions are provoked before ...
Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. Regular eye screening, even in the absence ... These changes bear no relationship to dosage and are usually reversible on cessation of hydroxychloroquine. The macular changes ... TLRs are cellular receptors for microbial products that induce inflammatory responses through activation of the innate immune ... glycosylation and secretion of proteins with many immunologic and nonimmunologic consequences. These effects are believed to be ...
The relationship with their host is called mutualistic when organisms perform tasks that are known to be useful for the host, ... Li, Y., Faden, H. S., & Zhu, L. (2020). The response of the gut microbiota to dietary changes in the first two years of life. ... Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The term microbiome ... Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to ...
... the use of a proprietary immunologic adjuvant is claimed to boost the potency of the body's immune response, meaning that only ... Subsequent testing has allowed the UK programme to consist of just a single dose for most people, with a two-dose schedule for ... Both organizations, in consultation with external experts, have assessed the possible relationship between the vaccination and ... As well as the active antigen derived from A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), the vaccine contains an immunologic adjuvant AS03 which ...
Genetically modified food controversies
... the lack of a dose-response relationship (females fed three times the standard dose showed a decreased number of tumours) and ... and immunologic parameters". Reactions to this review in 2009 and 2010 noted that Dona and Arvanitoyannis had concentrated on ... "FSANZ response to study linking Cry1Ab protein in blood to GM foods". FSANZ. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. ... In response, GeneWatch UK and Greenpeace set up the GM Contamination Register in 2005. During the recall, the United States ...
After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due to the migration of other ... "the eliciting dose for an allergic reaction in 1% of the population" as ED01. This threshold reference dose for foods (such as ... A 2016 U.S. National Academy of Sciences report concluded that there is no relationship between consumption of GM foods and the ... Notes Nester, Eugene W.; Anderson, Denise G.; Roberts Jr, C. Evans; Nester, Martha T. (2009). "Immunologic Disorders". ...
Adaptive immune response. In order to understand the links between the innate immune response and the adaptive immune ... Over 22 million doses of a vaccine with squalene have been administered with no safety concerns. ... In 1993, a causal relationship between VAS and administration of aluminum adjuvated rabies and FeLV vaccines was established ... an adjuvant-enhanced innate immune response results in an enhanced adaptive immune response. Specifically, adjuvants may exert ...
The US swine flu immunization campaign in response to the 1976 swine flu outbreak has become known as "the swine flu fiasco" ... In 1955, in a tragedy known as the Cutter incident, Cutter Laboratories produced 120,000 doses of the Salk polio vaccine that ... Vaccines pose a very small immunologic load compared to the pathogens naturally encountered by a child in a typical year; ... The scientific consensus is that there is no relationship, causal or otherwise, between vaccines and incidence of autism, and ...
B cells are involved in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response. Killer T ... T-cells have a symbiotic relationship with vitamin D. Not only does the T-cell extend a vitamin D receptor, in essence asking ... Lower doses of anti-inflammatory drugs are often used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such as ... Rus H, Cudrici C, Niculescu F (2005). "The role of the complement system in innate immunity". Immunologic Research. 33 (2): 103 ...
Late-phase responseEdit. After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due ... "the eliciting dose for an allergic reaction in 1% of the population" as ED01. This threshold reference dose for foods (such as ... Nester, Eugene W.; Anderson, Denise G.; Roberts Jr, C. Evans; Nester, Martha T. (2009). "Immunologic Disorders". Microbiology: ... Sampson, HA; Ho DG (October 1997). "Relationship between food-specific IgE concentrations and the risk of positive food ...
Most children with A-T have difficulty in school because of a delay in response time to visual, verbal or other cues, slurred ... People with A-T who are less than two years old should receive three doses of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar) given ... For everyone long-term peer relationships can be the most rewarding part of life; for those with A-T establishing these ... All individuals with A-T should have at least one comprehensive immunologic evaluation that measures the number and type of ...
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome
Pranzatelli MR, Tate ED, Travelstead AL, Longee D (January 2005). "Immunologic and clinical responses to rituximab in a child ... Most patients require high doses for months to years before tapering. Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) are often used with ... relationship to MRI findings and anti-neuronal antibodies". J. Pediatr. 139 (4): 552-9. doi:10.1067/mpd.2001.118200. PMID ... response to trazodone". The Journal of Pediatrics. 147 (3): 372-8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.531.9696. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.05.016. ...
Adoptive cell transfer
Improved antitumor responses have been seen in mouse and monkey models using T cells in early differentiation stages (such as ... High doses of IL-2 could inhibit tumor growth in mice. 1982, studies demonstrated that intravenous immune lymphocytes could ... Thus Cish represents a new class of T-cell intrinsic immunologic checkpoints with the potential to radically enhance adoptive ... "Lineage relationship of CD8(+) T cell subsets is revealed by progressive changes in the epigenetic landscape". Cellular & ...
Response rates with EMP in prostate cancer are said to be equivalent to conventional high-dose estrogen therapy. Due to its ... In any case, there is a linear relationship between the oral dose of EMP and circulating levels of estramustine and ... Kalland T, Haukaas SA (June 1984). "Immunologic effects of estramustine phosphate". Urology. 23 (6 Suppl): 39-45. doi:10.1016/ ... Doses of 140 mg/day have been described as a very low dosage. EMP has been used at doses of 240 to 450 mg/day intravenously. ...
The immune response in those infected with HIV is typically characterized by cellular signals from Th2 subset of CD4+ helper T ... The immunologic pathways of psoriasis involve Th9, Th17, Th1 lymphocytes, and IL-22. The aforementioned biologic agents hinder ... One study found that plaque psoriasis is responsive to erythemogenic doses of either UVA or UVB, as exposure to either can ... Few studies have evaluated the association of multiple sclerosis with psoriasis, and the relationship has been questioned. ...
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
It is believed that these events could act as a trigger for an autoimmune response that result in POTS. POTS is more common in ... Arnold AC, Okamoto LE, Diedrich A, Paranjape SY, Raj SR, Biaggioni I, Gamboa A (May 2013). "Low-dose propranolol and exercise ... Kohn A, Chang C (June 2020). "The Relationship Between Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hEDS), Postural Orthostatic ... Immunologic Research. doi:10.1007/s12026-021-09185-5. PMC 8009458. PMID 33786700. Miglis MG, Prieto T, Shaik R, Muppidi S, Sinn ...
Multiple sclerosis research
MRZ-Reaction: A polyspecific antiviral immune response against the viruses of measles, rubella and zoster found in 1992. In ... 2006). "High-dose cyclophosphamide for moderate to severe refractory multiple sclerosis". Arch. Neurol. 63 (10): 1388-93. doi: ... Leptomeningeal enhancement under MRI is common in patients with progressive forms of MS and shows a relationship to subpial ... critical review of clinical and immunologic effects". Mult. Scler. 8 (2): 142-54. doi:10.1191/1352458502ms790oa. PMID 11990872. ...
The evolutionary relationships of the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) shown in the cladogram are based on Eggleton, ... Its specificity and immunologic profile". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 63 (2): 80-86. doi:10.1016/0091-6749( ... While cockroaches do, indeed, have a much higher radiation resistance than vertebrates, with a lethal dose perhaps six to 15 ... Eggleton, Paul; Beccaloni, George; Inward, Daegan (2007). "Response to Lo et al". Biology Letters. 3 (5): 564-565. doi:10.1098/ ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Immunologic disorder: Positive anti-Smith, anti-ds DNA, antiphospholipid antibody, or false positive serological test for ... Often, low-dose aspirin is prescribed for this purpose, although for cases involving thrombosis anticoagulants such as warfarin ... SLE is a chronic inflammatory disease believed to be a type III hypersensitivity response with potential type II involvement.[ ... Millard LG (1979). "Abnormal Laboratory Test Results and Their Relationship to Prognosis in Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. A Long ...
Two "yes" responses indicate that the respondent should be investigated further. The questionnaire asks the following questions ... A wide range of immunologic defects can result and there may be a generalized skeletal fragility, in addition to a recognized ... Poulos CX, Zack M (November 2004). "Low-dose diazepam primes motivation for alcohol and alcohol-related semantic networks in ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6998-3. Kushner MG, Abrams K, Borchardt C (March 2000). "The relationship between anxiety disorders and alcohol ...
For example, certain Nigerian populations do not show the relationship between dose of APOEε4 and incidence or age-of-onset for ... Solomon B (June 2007). "Clinical immunologic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease". Expert Opinion on ... that can be explained as an immune system response to an infection in the CNS, as found by R. Moir and R. Tanzi ... "Low-dose antipsychotics in people with dementia". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Archived from the ...
Current consensus favors an excessive immunologic response to a conventional antigen which usually provides future protection. ... If the fever does not respond, an additional dose may be considered. In rare cases, a third dose may be given. IVIG by is most ... Relationships between typical and atypical cases of Kawasaki disease". Pathology International. 36 (6): 857-67. doi:10.1111/j. ... Aspirin therapy is started at high doses until the fever subsides, and then is continued at a low dose when the patient returns ...
Focal infection theory
Amid focal infection theory, it was concluded that that was often the case-while immune response prevented dissemination from ... Seymour GJ, Ford PJ, Cullinan MP, Leishman S, Yamazaki K (2007). "Relationship between periodontal infections and systemic ... massive doses of bacteria, and contamination of endontically treated teeth during extraction. In 1938, Cecil and Angevine ... metastatic immunologic injury-that might occur simultaneously and even interact. Meanwhile, focal infection theory has gained ...
The dose varies between 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg/day and will continue until active inflammation, new blister formation, pruritus has ... The pathophysiologic relationship of this subtype of MMP to cancer is unknown. However, expression of laminin 332 has been ... In the immunologic component, autoantibodies act against the hemidesmosomal bullous pemphigoid antigens BP230 (BPAg1) and BP ... April 1998). "Mucous membrane pemphigoid: a dual circulating antibody response with IgG and IgA signifies a more severe and ...
Human Endogenous Retrovirus-W
Today, it is still hard to tell if HERVs play a causal role, are correlated with or are just a response to in neuropsychiatric ... This immunosuppressive nature of synctin-1 and/or synctin-2 (HERV-K) may be key in creating an immunologic barrier between the ... This suggests a symbiotic relationship between HERV expression and the host. In contrast to this data, placental micro-vesicles ... GeNeuro Announces Positive Results from Temelimab (GNbAC1) Phase 1 High-dose Clinical Trial, International Nonproprietary Name ...
A dose of Vitamin D2 is approximately 70% as effective as the same amount of vitamin D3. Vitamin E as an antioxidant in ... The broad pet food recalls starting in March 2007 came in response to reports of renal failure in pets consuming mostly wet pet ... "Epidemiologic study of relationships between consumption of commercial canned food and risk of hyperthyroidism in cats". ... "Immunologic Consequences of Taurine Deficiency in Cats". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and ...
The host inflammatory response to the bacteria in the skin causes the characteristic circular EM lesion. Neutrophils, ... a single dose of doxycycline administered within the 72 hours after removal may reduce the risk of Lyme disease. It is not ... the relationship among tick bite, lymphocytoma, EM and Bannwarth's syndrome was recognized throughout Europe leading to the ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ...
... a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Circulation. 129 (6): 643-59. doi:10.1161 ... Various compound with similar structure activity relationships to cocaine that aren't technically analogues have been developed ... Commonly used tests include chromatography, immunologic assay, and mass spectrometry. See also. *Antipsychotics ... Very high doses can result in a psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia), which very rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even ...
... a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies". Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 ... Renner, J K; Adewole, A O; Apena, M (2008). "The Relationship between Breast Size and Breast Milk Volume of Nursing Primipara ... growth factors and immunologic substances to effectively defend against infectious diseases for the infant. The breast milk ... Oxytocin is necessary for the milk ejection reflex, or let-down, in response to suckling, to occur. ...
Singer Merrill (1996). "A Dose of Drugs, a Touch of Violence, A Case of AIDS: Conceptualizing the SAVA Syndemic". Free Inquiry ... "This immunologic evidence may help explain the epidemiologic studies indicating that children living along major trucking ... Systems are needed to monitor the emergence of syndemics and to allow early medical and public health responses to lessen their ... and toxic environmental exposure that reflect oppressive social relationships. There is a need to identify all of the ways, ...
... a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies". Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 ... Positive social support in essential relationships of new mothers plays a central role in the promotion of breastfeeding ... growth factors and immunologic substances to effectively defend against infectious diseases for the infant. The breast milk ... Oxytocin is necessary for the milk ejection reflex, or let-down, in response to suckling, to occur. ...
... a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies". Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 ... Renner JK, Adewole AO, Apena M (2008). "The Relationship between Breast Size and Breast Milk Volume of Nursing Primipara". ... Breastfeeding triggers biochemical reactions which allow for the enzymes, hormones, growth factors and immunologic substances ... Oxytocin is necessary for the milk ejection reflex, or let-down, in response to suckling, to occur. Not all of breast milk's ...
A randomized controlled trial (RCT) supported the use of higher doses of pralidoxime rather than lower doses. A subsequent ... "Registrants' Response to EPA's April 29, 2010 Letter: Implementation of Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon and Malathion Salmonid BiOp- ... Thrasher, JD; Madison, R; Broughton, A (March-April 1993). "Immunologic abnormalities in humans exposed to chlorpyrifos: ... "Urinary pyrethroid and chlorpyrifos metabolite concentrations in northern California families and their relationship to indoor ...
Adenosine A2A receptor
... namely to suppress immunologic response and prevent associated tissue damage. Extracellular adenosine gathers in response to ... "The novel adenosine A2a receptor antagonist ST1535 potentiates the effects of a threshold dose of L-DOPA in MPTP treated common ... overview on a druggable GPCR and on structure-activity relationship analysis and binding requirements of agonists and ... Multiple checkpoint pathway inhibition has been shown to have an additive effect, as shown by an increase in response with ...
No data available that match "dose response relationship immunologic"
HumansAntigensReceptorsAntibodiesCytokinesImmunizationMonoclonalViralVaccineEfficacyCellsHigh doseMiceToxicityFactorsLymphocytesSpecificityVaccinationIntravenousTherapeuticSafety and tolerabilityDifferent dosesInjectionsALVAC-HIVImmunoglobulinInflammatoryHypersensitivityBacterialAdultCorrelatesAssaysHumoral immune rMetabolismParametersElicitVitroInnateMeSHInterventionalVaccinesTumorigenic responsesObjectiveAntigen doseHigher doseSubcutaneousInduceAdverseAdjuvantImmunogenicCellular immune responsesDepressionPatients
- A subsequent pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-masked clinical trial of low-dose ATG (2.5 mg/kg) and pegylated GCSF (6 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks × six doses) in humans with established type 1 diabetes (duration 4-24 months) suggested that low-dose ATG/GCSF preserved C-peptide ( 15 , 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The higher dose of the vaccine to be used in this study has not been given to humans previously. (bioportfolio.com)
- It is possible that the doses of ALVAC-HIV given to humans are below the amount needed for the maximum immune response. (bioportfolio.com)
- It is certainly possible that the doses of ALVAC-HIV given to humans are well below the amount needed for a maximal cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. (bioportfolio.com)
- Additional studies have demonstrated that while gamma delta T cells produce IL-17 in response to various protein and non-protein antigens upon M. bovis infection, CD4 T cells are the primary producers of this key inflammatory cytokine in the response to bovine tuberculosis. (usda.gov)
- Memory-Like Antigen-Specific Human NK Cells from TB Pleural Fluids Produced IL-22 in Response to IL-15 or Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens. (nih.gov)
- CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control T helper cell type 1 responses to foreign antigens induced by mature dendritic cells in vivo. (ac.be)
- We tested whether germinal centres are essential for maturation of antibody responses to T-cell-dependent antigens. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- Topical skin exposure to novel antigens (contact sensitisation) such as diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) allows for the effects of systemic stressors on the induction and elicitation phases of in vivo T-cell-mediated immune response to be quantified by oedema and erythema [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (springer.com)
- Recently, we have pursued an alternative immunization strategy that replaces QS21 the Th1 type adjuvant used in the AN-1792 clinical trial with a molecular adjuvant, mannan that can promote a Th2-polarized immune response through interactions with mannose-binding and CD35/CD21 receptors of the innate immune system. (nih.gov)
- The elevation of cytotoxic antiallograft antibodies was suppressed by splenectomy but not by low-dose FK506 therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
- Even 11 months after the last injection, the immunized mice were still producing low levels of anti-Abeta antibodies, predominantly of the IgG1 isotype, indicative of a Th2 immune response. (nih.gov)
- Different responses elicited in vitro by antibodies to IgM and IgD in cells from a surface IgM + D-positive human follicular lymphoma. (naver.com)
- pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1) antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. (jove.com)
- Its biological response mechanism is characterized by an increased production of IgE (immunoglobulin E) antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
- To investigate the possible mechanism of the response by CD45RO+ NK cells from PFCs under the stimulation with BCG or cytokines, we evaluated the expression of NK cell activation molecule-NKG2D. (nih.gov)
- An improved Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) is well tolerated and highly immunogenic when administered to rabbits in escalating doses using various immunization routes. (umassmed.edu)
- To assess the ability of this sequence of immunization to boost the LTL, T-helper cell, and antibody response. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Previously we established that immunization of wild-type mice with mannan-Abeta28 conjugate promoted Th2-mediated humoral and cellular immune responses. (nih.gov)
- Humoral immune responses induced by the immunization of mice with mannan-Abeta28 conjugate were analyzed using a standard ELISA. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of various expression plasmids for the induction of immune response by DNA immunization. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, little humoral immune response was elicited by intramuscular injection of VP1-expressing sindbis vector, suggesting that this system was not superior to the conventional vector for DNA immunization. (nih.gov)
- Heterologous prime-boost immunization strategies can evoke powerful T cell immune responses and may be of value in developing an improved tuberculosis vaccine. (ox.ac.uk)
- A comparison of intranasal (i.n.) and parenteral immunization of BCG showed that while both routes elicited comparable T cell responses in the spleen, only i.n. delivery elicited specific T cell responses in the lung lymph nodes, and these responses were further boosted by i.n. delivery of M.85A. (ox.ac.uk)
- Salivary cortisol response to immunization was measured in 58 infants at 2 months of age. (ox.ac.uk)
- We aimed (i) to investigate the association between antenatal depression and infant cortisol reactivity to immunization and (ii) to explore whether the relationship is dose-dependent. (ox.ac.uk)
- RESULTS: Exposure to antenatal depression independently predicted elevated infant cortisol responses to immunization (β = 0.53, P = 0.04). (ox.ac.uk)
- The association was found to be U-shaped, for antenatal depression measured on the EPDS, with the infants exposed to the highest and lowest levels of maternal antenatal EPDS scores during intra-uterine life showing elevated cortisol responses to immunization (R(2) = 0.20, P = 0.02). (ox.ac.uk)
- Infants exposed to moderate levels of maternal antenatal depression showed the lowest cortisol response to immunization. (ox.ac.uk)
- Immunization with either autologous rat or murine αB-crystallin did not trigger any antigen-specific T cell response. (tudelft.nl)
- Immunization with bovine αB-crystallin or a synthetic peptide representing the cryptic epitope 49-64 did trigger T cell responses but these failed to crossreact with autologous rat αB-crystallin. (tudelft.nl)
- In support of this hypothesis, we previously observed beneficial responses in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis after open-label administration of a chimeric monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha (cA2). (ox.ac.uk)
- Immune responses in advanced colorectal cancer following repeated intradermal vaccination with the anti-CEA murine monoclonal antibody, PR1A3: results of a phase I study. (ox.ac.uk)
- BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim was to determine the toxicity, clinical and immune responses to the murine monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody, PR1A3, in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
- These experiments demonstrate two independent mechanisms of high-dose tolerance in vitro, and show that monoclonal B-lymphoblastoid lines of known specificity can be used to study regulation of specific antibody production at the level of the B cell. (ox.ac.uk)
- No viral replication was detectable in the nose of any of the eight animals in the 100-μg dose group by day 2 after challenge, and limited inflammation or detectable viral genome or antigen was noted in lungs of animals in either vaccine group. (cdc.gov)
- Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) participates in the innate immune response by recognizing viral pathogens. (yonsei.ac.kr)
- Studies with long-term survivors and with subjects treated during acute infection show that vigorous HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses and strong HIV-1-specific TH1 responses correlate with long-term control of viral replication in the absence of therapy, resulting in prolonged, symptom-free survival ( 17 , 19 , 23 , 24 , 30 ). (asm.org)
- For these reasons, immunotherapeutic strategies with the potential to suppress viral replication and with the goal of eliciting broad, robust, and durable HIV-1-specific TH1 and CTL responses are needed. (asm.org)
- The chimpanzee adenovirus, PanAd3-RSV, and modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA-RSV, are replication-defective viral vectors encoding the RSV fusion (F), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M2-1) proteins for the induction of humoral and cellular responses. (ox.ac.uk)
- McLain DE, Horn TL, Detrisac CJ, Lindsey CY, Smith LA. Progress in biological threat agent vaccine development: a repeat-dose toxicity study of a recombinant ricin toxin A-chain (rRTA) 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc) in male and female New Zealand white rabbits. (umassmed.edu)
- Nonetheless, few clinical trials have demonstrated survivin-vaccine-induced immune responses. (nih.gov)
- This phase I trial was conducted to test whether vaccine EMD640744, a cocktail of five HLA class I-binding survivin peptides in Montanide(®) ISA 51 VG, promotes anti-survivin T-cell responses in patients with solid cancers. (nih.gov)
- Recent studies have clearly demonstrated an association of T cell central memory and IL-17 effector immune responses to vaccine-elicited protection of cattle upon subsequent infection with M. bovis. (usda.gov)
- New pre-clinical trials in AD mouse models may help to develop novel immunogen-adjuvant configurations with the potential to avoid the adverse responses that occurred during the clinical trials with AN-1792 vaccine formulation. (nih.gov)
- The mRNA-1273 vaccine candidate induced antibody levels exceeding those in human convalescent-phase serum, with live-virus reciprocal 50% inhibitory dilution (ID 50 ) geometric mean titers of 501 in the 10-μg dose group and 3481 in the 100-μg dose group. (cdc.gov)
- The vaccine was well tolerated but was associated with more reactogenicity at the highest dose. (emmes.com)
- At week 4, vaccine antigen-specific T cell responses were detected in 28 (93.3%) and 18 (60%) of 30 vaccine recipients for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, respectively, by intracellular cytokine staining assay and in 22 (73%) of 30 vaccine recipients by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. (emmes.com)
- Env-specific antibody responses were detected in 15 (50%) of 30 vaccine recipients by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in 28 (93.3%) of 30 vaccine recipients by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. (emmes.com)
- A single injection induced HIV-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell, and antibody responses in the majority of vaccine recipients. (emmes.com)
- At 24 weeks, anti-gp120 ELISA titers were greater for vaccine-immunized than for placebo-immunized infants on both schedules, and 87% of vaccinees had a vaccine-induced antibody response. (umassmed.edu)
- Nevertheless, vaccine trials with this specific epitope have failed to induce clinical responses ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- The primary end points were safety and tolerability of two doses of peptide-DC vaccine (3 million versus 10 million). (asm.org)
- Although the trial was not powered to assess an immunologic response, a significantly increased frequency of HIV-1 peptide-specific IFN-γ-positive cells was observed 2 weeks following the second vaccine, with three individuals responding to all four peptides. (asm.org)
- We performed an open-label, dose escalation, phase 1 clinical trial in 42 healthy adults in which four different combinations of prime/boost vaccinations were investigated for safety and immunogenicity, including both intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of the adenovirus-vectored vaccine. (ox.ac.uk)
- This trial is designed to determine whether a higher vaccine dose (6 times the usual dose) will elicit a higher immune response. (bioportfolio.com)
- As of May 2001, over 200 people received the ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) vaccine at the lower dose. (bioportfolio.com)
- High doses of a similar vaccine have been given to a few people without serious side effects. (bioportfolio.com)
- In a previous trial, even high doses of recombinant ALVAC vaccine were well tolerated in a group of participants that were significantly immunocompromised. (bioportfolio.com)
- Group A will receive a high dose of vaccine, group B will receive a low dose of vaccine, and group C will receive a placebo. (bioportfolio.com)
- Characterization of Functional Antibody and Memory B-cell Responses to PH1N1 Monovalent Vaccine in HIV-infected Children and Youth PloS One. (jove.com)
- Pubmed ID: 25785995 We investigated immune determinants of antibody responses and B-cell memory to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected children. (jove.com)
- Determinants of Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women: Analysis of B and T Cell Responses to Pandemic H1N1 Monovalent Vaccine PloS One. (jove.com)
- To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. (jove.com)
- Despite slower response to measles vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella and pneumococcal vaccines are effective. (aappublications.org)
- Young adult (5- to 8-week-old) and aged (16- to 20-month-old) female BALB/c mice received a single 3-μg dose based on the HA (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) content of a plant-made H1-VLP (i.m. or i.n.) split-virion vaccine (i.m.) or were left naive. (asm.org)
- In both age groups, i.m. administration of the H1-VLP vaccine elicited more balanced humoral and cellular responses and provided better protection from homologous challenge than the split-virion vaccine. (asm.org)
- These vaccines typically elicit strong antibody responses in healthy young adults and achieve vaccine efficacy (VE) that varies between strains and years but averages 50 to 60% ( 4 ). (asm.org)
- Recently, i.m. formulations with 60 μg HA/strain (so-called high-dose [HD] vaccine) or with an adjuvant have been shown to induce higher antibody responses in the elderly ( 4 , 6 ), but only the former has been demonstrated to slightly improve VE (∼24%) ( 6 ). (asm.org)
- Our results demonstrate that a single 3-μg dose of this candidate vaccine delivered i.m. was superior to a standard split-virion vaccine in almost all measured outcomes at both ages. (asm.org)
- The primary objective was to compare immunologic efficacy of EMD640744 at doses of 30, 100, and 300 μg. (nih.gov)
- Vaccination with EMD640744 elicited T-cell responses against survivin peptides in the majority of patients, demonstrating the immunologic efficacy of EMD640744. (nih.gov)
- These articles give us an idea of dosing, efficacy, and safety of ketamine infusion. (emdocs.net)
- To evaluate dose-response, efficacy and safety of dapirolizumab pegol (DZP) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Adults with moderately to severely active SLE (SLEDAI-2K score ≥6 and ≥1 BILAG A or ≥ 2 BILAG B domain scores), receiving stable corticosteroid (≤40 mg/day prednisone-equivalent), antimalarial, or immunosuppressant drugs were included. (onmedica.com)
- Immunomodulatory therapy to achieve maximum efficacy: doses, monitoring, compliance, and self-infusion at home. (ox.ac.uk)
- As the predictive value of a CTL response is at present unknown with respect to its efficacy in preventing or ameliorating HIV acquisition or infection, the HVTN will utilize the highest dose that can be currently manufactured. (bioportfolio.com)
- Attenuated cytokine responses in porcine lymph node cells stimulated with CpG DNA are associated with low frequency of IFNalpha-producing cells and TLR9 mRNA expression. (umassmed.edu)
- The cessation of IL-10 secretion as a consequence of low-dose L-PAM therapy of MOPC-315 tumor bearers was found to be accompanied by the acquisition of the ability to secrete interferon gamma (IFN gamma) by the splenic cells. (nih.gov)
- Splenectomy or other immunosuppressive methods affecting B cells can be a supplement for immunosuppression when using reduced-dose FK506. (biomedsearch.com)
- Additionally, gamma delta T cells from M. bovis-infected cattle proliferate and produce IFN-gamma in response to a peptide cocktail from immunodominant M. bovis proteins. (usda.gov)
- We show here with peripheral blood monocytes from normal volunteers and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis by using IL-1R antagonist to block autoinduction and IL-1alpha stimulation to simulate autoinduction that approximately 40% of IL-1beta released from LPS-stimulated cells is attributable to autoinduction and that GLA reduces autoinduction of IL-1beta while leaving the initial IL-1beta response to LPS intact. (umassmed.edu)
- Our previous result indicated that memory-like human natural killer (NK) cells from TB pleural fluid cells (PFCs) produced large amounts of IFN-γ in response to Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). (nih.gov)
- In addition, IL-22 but not IL-17 was produced by NK cells from PFCs in response to BCG and M.tb-related Ags. (nih.gov)
- In conclusion, our data demonstrated that memory-like antigen-specific CD45RO+ NK cells might participate in the recall immune response for M. tb infection via producing IL-22, which display a critical role to fight against M. tb. (nih.gov)
- Consistently, the MFI of NKG2D on NK cells was significantly increased in response to IL-15, IL-12 or IL-15 plus IL-12 compared with medium (Fig 6B). (nih.gov)
- Of 17 HCC patients enrolled, 12 patients received ilixadencel at the dose of 10 × 10 6 cells (six as monotherapy and six in combination with sorafenib), and five received ilixadencel at the dose of 20 × 10 6 cells as monotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
- Clinical response correlated with the expansion of CD8 tetramer + T cells, confirming the role of CD8 T cells in this treatment strategy. (pnas.org)
- Dose-related reduction in allergen-specific T cells associates with clinical response of atopic dermatitis to methotrexate. (ox.ac.uk)
- Dendritic cells (DC) are known to play a critical role in the generation of highly specific immune responses against a variety of pathogens. (asm.org)
- Nonphagocytic dendritic cells are effective accessory cells for anti-mycobacterial responses in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
- The accessory cell requirements for a given T cell response may be examined in vitro by using highly purified lymph node T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- Because macrophages are not essential for this in vitro response, a role for dendritic cells in antibacterial immunity in vivo is implicated. (ox.ac.uk)
- Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated reduced circulating CD4:CD8 ratio, increased regulatory T-cell:conventional CD4 T-cell ratios, and increased PD-1 + CD4 + T cells following low-dose ATG and ATG/GCSF. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The combination of low-dose murine anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) demonstrated synergy and significant reversal of diabetes in NOD mice ( 12 ), with the premise of the ATG/GCSF synergy being that ATG depletes pathogenic T cells while GCSF promotes regulatory T cells (Tregs) ( 13 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Flow cytometry of cells obtained from subjects who received low-dose ATG/GCSF or higher-dose ATG showed that although both approaches lowered the absolute numbers of Tregs, low-dose ATG/GCSF increased the proportion of Tregs to conventional CD4 + T cells (Tconvs) while higher-dose ATG decreased Tregs proportionally ( 16 - 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- This study aimed to examine if nobiletin, which is found in the peel of citrus fruits, could inhibit inflammatory responses in interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs). (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- Regulation of antibody production by an antigen-specific EBV-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell line: effect of high-dose antigen and antigen-pulsed T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- T cells pulsed with high doses of antigen also suppressed antibody secretion by C1B2, but this effect was probably due to a tolerogenic signal delivered to the B cell by HA3 complexed to the T-cell membrane rather than suppression by antigen-induced Ts, or carryover of free antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
- A dominant role for chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2) cells (CRTH2) in mediating chemotaxis of CRTH2+ CD4+ Th2 lymphocytes in response to mast cell supernatants. (ox.ac.uk)
- The effect of submaximal dilutions of mast-cell-conditioned media was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by ramatroban (IC50 = 96 nm), a dual antagonist of both the thromboxane-like prostanoid (TP) receptor and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), but not by the selective TP antagonist SQ29548, implicating CRTH2 in mediating the chemotactic response of these Th2 cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- The degree of inhibition caused by diclofenac treatment of the mast cells was concordant with the degree of inhibition of chemotactic responses afforded by CRTH2 blockade. (ox.ac.uk)
- Antigen dose-response curves for immunological memory first increase with antigen dose to reach a maximum and then decrease in the high dose region. (meta.org)
- We will focus on high dose (i.e. doses needed to provide continuous sedation) rather than low dose infusion used for depression or pain relief alone. (emdocs.net)
- Patients with stable lupus nephritis (proteinuria ≤2 g/day) not receiving high-dose corticosteroids or cyclophosphamide were permitted entry. (onmedica.com)
- Over half of the high-dose cA2 patients responded by the more stringent 50% Paulus criteria at this time (p = 0.0005). (ox.ac.uk)
- The magnitude of these responses was impressive, with maximum mean improvements in individual disease-activity assessments, such as tender or swollen-joint counts and in serum C-reactive protein, exceeding 60% for patients on high-dose treatment. (ox.ac.uk)
- Thus, low-dose L-PAM therapy of mice bearing a large MOPC-315 tumor leads to a shift in cytokine production from a Th2-type cytokine to a Th1-type cytokine, and it is conceivable that this shift in cytokine production plays an important role in the low-dose L-PAM-induced acquisition of antitumor immunity by hitherto immunosuppressed mice bearing a large MOPC-315 tumor. (nih.gov)
- Immunizations with low doses of mannan-Abeta28 induced potent and long-lasting anti-Abeta humoral responses in Tg2576 mice. (nih.gov)
- Diabetic mice were treated with conditioning [100 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 40 mg/kg body weight of MMS], challenging [300 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 160 mg/kg body weight of MMS] and combined doses of EMS or MMS with 8 h time lag. (bvsalud.org)
- LT alpha-/- mice immunized with low doses of (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-ovalbumin (NP-OVA) showed dramatically impaired production of high-affinity anti-NP IgG1. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- However, LT alpha-/- mice immunized with high doses of NP-OVA, even though they failed to produce germinal centres, manifested a high-affinity anti-NP IgG1 response similar to wild-type mice. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- Furthermore, when LT alpha-/- mice were multiply immunized with high doses of NP-OVA, the predominantly expressed anti-NP VH gene segment VH186.2 showed somatic mutations typical of affinity maturation. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- A systematic study using Sk-1-hairless-mice was made of the dependence of squamous cell cancer development on ultraviolet (UV) wavelength distribution, total dose, and dose fractionation in a manner simulating solar radiation at various stages of ozone depletion. (cdc.gov)
- We show that recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara, expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag 85A (M.85A), strongly boosts bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced Ag 85A specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in mice. (ox.ac.uk)
- In a recent study done in mice, higher doses of ALVAC-HIV produced stronger immune responses. (bioportfolio.com)
- In a recent study done in mice concerning dose escalation using the ALVAC-HIV vectors, the data demonstrated more robust immune responses with higher doses of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) in mice. (bioportfolio.com)
- The tumorigenic responses observed in both rats and mice treated with TDI and TDA meet the criteria of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Cancer Policy for classifying a substance as a potential occupational carcinogen [Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations , Section 1990.112]. (cdc.gov)
- The tumorigenic responses observed in both rats and mice treated with either TDI or TDA meet the criteria of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Cancer Policy for classifying a substance as a potential occupational carcinogen [ 29 CFR 1990 ]. (cdc.gov)
- After vaccination, humoral and splenocyte responses were assessed, and some mice were challenged. (asm.org)
- Mice vaccinated with VLP i.n. had little detectable immune response, but survival was significantly increased. (asm.org)
- People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to increase when a person takes the medication over five years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. (wikipedia.org)
- The daily safe maximum dose for eye toxicity can be estimated from a person's height and weight. (wikipedia.org)
- Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. (wikipedia.org)
- This chapter covers experimental biology approaches used for the evaluation of the immunopathogenesis of M. bovis infection in cattle, specific details on innate and adaptive immune responses to vaccination/infection, discoveries in host genetic factors to resistance and susceptibility, and aspects of transmission of bovine tuberculosis between cattle and wildlife reservoirs. (usda.gov)
- It is hypothesized that multifactorial mechanisms involving mechanical, inflammatory, immunologic, hormonal , and genetic factors may link obesity and asthma [ 11 , 14 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- We investigated several factors affecting the gene transfer efficiency and the following immune response by intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA. (nih.gov)
- Efforts should also be made to gauge the effects of such factors as immunologic surveillance and chemical cocarcinogens on ultraviolet photocarcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
- Ultraviolet radiation, chemicals, ionizing radiation, immunologic and other host factors are risk factors for nonmelanoma skin cancer. (elsevier.com)
- The resulting mediators and growth factors are also associated with the late-phase allergic response and with chronic inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recent advances have been made in the of host factors, polymorphisms, and candidate genes associated characterization of the immune response to low-molecular- with occupational asthma may improve our understanding of weight agents. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, by day 2 after low-dose L-PAM therapy a drastic decrease in the amount of IL-10 secreted by the s.c. tumor nodules was noted, which preceded the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes capable of secreting IFN gamma. (nih.gov)
- De Gruttola V, Wulfsohn M, Fischl MA, Tsiatis A. Modeling the relationship between survival and CD4 lymphocytes in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- By contrast, high doses of HA3 had no effect on EBV-transformed B-cell lines making antibody of unrelated specificity. (ox.ac.uk)
- T-cell responses by ELISpot in 17 weeks following first vaccination, as well as subjects who discontinued the study before week 17 but showed responses to the treatment. (nih.gov)
- In the majority of patients (61 %), anti-survivin responses were detected only after vaccination, providing evidence for de novo induction. (nih.gov)
- Vaccination induced type 1 helper T-cell (Th1)-biased CD4 T-cell responses and low or undetectable Th2 or CD8 T-cell responses. (cdc.gov)
- After vaccination, two of 12 patients experienced dramatic tumor regression, one patient had a mixed response, and two had stable disease. (pnas.org)
- Secondary end points included gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses and clinical correlates of an immune response to vaccination. (asm.org)
- The latter affects both innate and adaptive immune responses and has broad implications for both natural infection and vaccination ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
- Initially, this program was set up for patients with multifocal motor neuropathy or chronic inflammatory demyelinating poly-neuropathy to receive reduced doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in clinic on a regular basis (usually every 3 weeks). (ox.ac.uk)
- The worldwide population exposure from medical radiation has been shown to increase, and the use of procedures (both diagnostic and therapeutic) with a high radiation dose has been growing steadily [ 2 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Initial experiments using'cyclooxygenase inhibitors indicate that arachidonic acid metabolites are active elements in producing the vascular phase of the therapeutic response and that these microvasculature effects appear to be critical to permanent tumor destruction. (spie.org)
- The link between this immunologic medication and depression is debated, but researchers reporting in Therapeutic Advances in Neurologic Disorders in 2011 note that depression is a concern for those who take it, in part because of their underlying conditions. (everydayhealth.com)
Safety and tolerability1
- Previous short-term clinical studies in adults showed anti-HIV activity, although there were safety and tolerability problems associated with the higher dose regimens used. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To determine the effectiveness and safety of dextran sulfate (DS) as a treatment for patients with AIDS, AIDS related complex (ARC), or asymptomatic HIV infection with or without persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL), and to determine antiviral activity at different doses of DS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients who have completed 16 treatments under Fisons study no. 87-71 entitled, 'A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of Three Different Doses of Aerosol Pentamidine in the Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients With AIDS Post First Episode PCP. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The first 2 doses are received in the clinic where parents/guardians are trained to administer injections, and succeeding doses are given at home. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- ALVAC-HIV candidate vaccines have induced HIV-specific CTL responses in more than half of recipients in some protocols. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study will determine whether there is an increase in the anti-HIV antibody titers when GM-CSF is used as an adjuvant with ALVAC-HIV vCP205 and will also examine the kinetics and magnitude of the HIV-specific CTL response. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study will test the immune system response to and safety of two HIV vaccines alone and in combination: ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) and LIPO-5. (bioportfolio.com)
- METHODS: This review includes details of the program such as the training of patients, dosing with immunoglobulin, and monitoring and compliance for self-infusion at home, with cases to illustrate these points. (ox.ac.uk)
- Prospective studies with objective measurements of immunologic biomarkers, like immunoglobulin E (IgE), in blood obtained before cancer diagnosis could help to clarify whether an aetiological association exists. (hunimed.eu)
- Subsequently, stress-induced accumulation of this self antigen in oligodendocytes/myelin can provoke pro-inflammatory responses as the recruited memory T-cell repertoire then mistakes the self protein for a microbial antigen. (tudelft.nl)
- Prick/puncture and intradermal/intracutaneous skin tests provide a biologically relevant demonstration of an immediate hypersensitivity response in the skin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses developed in 12 of the 15 patients. (ox.ac.uk)
- Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses were abolished after peptide treatment, emphasizing the impact on peripheral T-cell reactivity. (tudelft.nl)
- Immune modulation by M-PLP139-151 was primarily antigen-specific because an irrelevant mannosylated peptide showed no significant effect on delayed-type hypersensitivity responses or on the course of EAE. (tudelft.nl)
- Experimental approaches permit disease confirmation through postmortem examination with laboratory analysis by histopathology and bacterial culture, defining the relationship between dose and route of infection, immune response, and the pathogenesis of infection. (usda.gov)
- Thirty-two adult Gambians in groups of four to eight received one, two or three doses of FP9 CS and/or MVA CS. (ox.ac.uk)
- Herein, we report 2-year area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide and HbA 1c , prespecified secondary end points, and potential immunologic correlates. (diabetesjournals.org)
- After termination of the pregnancy, analysis of blood from the abortus confirmed the diagnosis of severe hemophilia B. We conclude that very sensitive immunologic assays, such as the one described here, will prove useful in prenatal diagnosis of severe hemophilia B, since determination of factor IX activity in fetoscopic samples is unrealiable because of possible contamination with thromboplastic material. (lu.se)
Humoral immune r2
- Arsenic metabolism capacity, distribution of urinary arsenic species, serum level of micronutrients and immunologic profiles need to be explored for their associations with arsenic-induced skin cancer. (elsevier.com)
- We have been investigating the dose dependent modification of p02, pH, and phosphate metabolism within tumors subjected to PDT. (spie.org)
- Thus, intervention strategies may be directly assessed, as opposed to being inferred based upon immunologic and clinical parameters. (usda.gov)
- BICLA and SLE Responder Index (SRI-4) responder rates declined (likely due to interventions with disallowed escape medications), BILAG flares increased, and immunologic parameters returned towards baseline.Although the primary objective was not met, DZP appeared to be well tolerated, and patients exhibited improvements across multiple clinical and immunological measures of disease activity after 24 weeks relative to placebo. (onmedica.com)
- Assessment of product safety includes clinical observation, monitoring of hematological, chemical, and immunologic parameters, and a social harms questionnaire. (bioportfolio.com)
- On day 56, participants received a low-dose-series DPCP challenge to elicit recall of in vivo immune-specific memory (quantified by skinfold thickness 24 and 48 h later). (springer.com)
- Analysis of the dose-response curves allowed determination of the minimum dose required to elicit a positive response (i.e., sensitivity). (springer.com)
- 0.001) and 48 h ( p = 0.023) with doses ~ twofold greater required to elicit a positive response in PLA. (springer.com)
- These vaccines appear to elicit both strong antibody responses and long-lived and polyfunctional CD4 + T cell responses ( 12 ). (asm.org)
- Study of dose-response relationship in contact sensitivity using an in vitro assay. (naver.com)
- While innate and acquired immune responses appear to be responsible for the initial control of viremia in acute HIV-1 infection, naturally occurring immune responses appear to fade over time in the majority of HIV-1-infected individuals, resulting in disease progression ( 4 , 10 , 15 ). (asm.org)
- Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
- Concerns about ionizing radiation during interventional cardiology have been increased in recent years as a result of rapid growth in interventional procedure volumes and the high radiation doses associated with some procedures. (hindawi.com)
- Although interventional cardiac procedures account for 12% of all radiological examinations, they are responsible for delivering the highest radiation dose (up to 50% of the total collective effective dose) [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Evaluation and followup of radiation doses received by the medical staff and patients should be considered an important part of quality assurance programmes for interventional cardiology procedures. (hindawi.com)
- This level of effector T-cell responses appears higher than that seen in previously reported studies of CS-based candidate malaria vaccines. (ox.ac.uk)
- Both VLP and split vaccines given i.m. protected 100% of the young animals, but the VLP group lost the least weight and had stronger humoral and cellular responses. (asm.org)
- Influenza vaccines for adults are administered by either intramuscular (i.m.) or intradermal injection of detergent-split virions at a fixed dose of 15 μg hemagglutinin (HA)/strain ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- The findings suggested that photocarcinogenesis is a dynamic process with no simple relationship existing between erythema and tumorigenic responses, nor is there a simple relationship between spectral distribution with possible waveband interactions, total dose, and dose fractionation as they relate to tumor production. (cdc.gov)
- Although many approaches have been used to vaccinate against CEA, none of the reported trials has led to objective responses ( 6 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
- Antigen affinity and antigen dose exert distinct influences on CD4 T-cell differentiation. (umassmed.edu)
- mAbs are primarily absorbed through the lymphatics via convection and can be conveniently administered by the subcutaneous (sc) route in large doses/volumes with co-formulation of hyaluronidase. (bvsalud.org)
- cal to induce skin and/or respiratory allergy at relatively high doses. (cdc.gov)
- Increasing the extent of DNP substitution in the priming antigen shifts the dose-response curves to lower antigen doses and promotes the antigen's ability to induce immunological memory to a level greater than that expected by its ability to induce a primary response. (meta.org)
- The most serious adverse effects affect the eye, with dose-related retinopathy as a concern even after hydroxychloroquine use is discontinued. (wikipedia.org)
- MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with advanced colorectal cancer received either 0.5-, 1.0- or 5.0-mg doses of PR1A3 mixed with 10% w/v Alum adjuvant (Superfos Biosector, Denmark) intradermally at 4-week intervals for 3 months. (ox.ac.uk)
- The most immunogenic regimen was two doses of FP9 followed by a single dose of MVA 4 weeks later (an average of 1000 IFN-gamma spot forming units/million PBMCs). (ox.ac.uk)
Cellular immune responses2
- The humoral and cellular immune responses of the host promote the containment of the infection, and these responses are characterized as important lines of defense during infection and colonization of the bacterium. (bvsalud.org)
- Participants will be monitored longitudinally for HIV-specific serologic and cellular immune responses. (bioportfolio.com)
- Foetal exposure to maternal depression predicts cortisol responses in infants: findings from rural South India. (ox.ac.uk)
- In addition, the dose-response relationship between foetal exposure to antenatal depression and infant cortisol reactivity is unclear. (ox.ac.uk)
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the association between antenatal depression and infant cortisol reactivity is dose-dependent and U-shaped, implying that infants exposed to both low and high levels of maternal depression showed greater reactivity. (ox.ac.uk)
- Dr. Bremner has published studies on the possible relationship between the use of retinoic acid acne treatments and the development of depression. (everydayhealth.com)
- As many as 40 percent of people using this immunologic medication may experience depression, according to a 2009 report in Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience . (everydayhealth.com)
- A third group of patients will be given either a higher or lower dose depending on the results of the earlier groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and description of time to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) for long-term biweekly administration of 1 of 2 doses of aerosol pentamidine when used as a prophylactic agent in patients who have had one episode of AIDS-associated PCP. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients must receive the first dose on this study within 2 weeks of their last dose under study no. 87-71. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of long-term biweekly administration of 1 of 2 doses of aerosol pentamidine when used as a prophylactic agent in patients who have had multiple episodes of AIDS associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In a dose-escalation study, patients add weekly PEG-Intron to their antiretroviral therapy for up to 6 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients initially receive the next lower PEG-Intron dose to the optimal dose identified in Cohort I [AS PER AMENDMENT 07/23/01: or 1 microg/kg if the optimal dose proves to be 1 microg/kg]. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- If this dose is safely tolerated, additional patients are added. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- If this dose level meets safety criteria, patients are enrolled to receive the optimal dose level. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- RESULTS: Hyperimmune sera from 12 of the 15 patients showed Ab2 reactivity with no detectable Ab3 responses. (ox.ac.uk)
- CONCLUSION: PR1A3 generated limited idiotypic responses but robust DTH reactivity in most patients. (ox.ac.uk)