Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (1/73494)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (2/73494)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/73494)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (4/73494)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (5/73494)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (6/73494)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (7/73494)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides. (8/73494)

The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins.  (+info)

*Pharmacodynamics

... places particular emphasis on dose-response relationships, that is, the relationships between drug ... Dose-response relationship Pharmacokinetics ADME Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics Pharmaceutical company Schild regression Lees P ... The relationship between occupancy and pharmacological response is usually non-linear. This explains the so-called receptor ... Colchicine, a drug for gout, interferes with the function of the structural protein tubulin, while Digitalis, a drug still used ...

*Dose-response relationship

Food and Drug Administration also has guidance to elucidate dose-response relationships during drug development. Dose-response ... The dose-response relationship, or exposure-response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by ... of the drug after its administration. Studying dose response, and developing dose-response models, is central to determining " ... The concept of linear dose-response relationship, thresholds, and all-or-nothing responses may not apply to non-linear ...

*Homeopathy

... is inconsistent with the law of mass action and the observed dose-response relationships characteristic of therapeutic drugs ( ... This dose-response relationship has been confirmed in myriad experiments on organisms as diverse as nematodes, rats, and humans ... This idea is also inconsistent with observed dose-response relationships, where effects are dependent on the concentration of ... but the dose-response relationship outside the zone of hormesis declines with dilution as normal, and nonlinear pharmacological ...

*Toxic leukoencephalopathy

The dose-response relationship for these substances remains unclear. Various chemotherapy drugs have shown increased risk of ... Other drugs that have been associated with toxic leukoencephalopathy in much more rare occurrences include psychoactive drug 2C ... due to causes such as exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental toxins, or chemotherapeutic drugs. The prevalence of this ... High doses of opiates such as oxycodone can lead to leukoencephalopathy. The activity of various opioid and nociceptive ...

*Schild regression

Dose-response relationship Ligand receptor binding: Kenakin T, 1993. Pharmacological analysis of drug-receptor interaction New ... Using a dose-response curve or an equivalent curve with concentration and binding %, it is possible to determine the dose ratio ... The dose ratio dr is the ratio of the dose of agonist required for half maximal response with the antagonist B present divided ... curvefit.com - Dose-response curves in the presence of antagonists, for a clear explanation.. ...

*No-observed-adverse-effect level

This level may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship, a fundamental step in most risk assessment ... In drug development, NOAEL of a new drug is assessed in laboratory animals drugs prior to initiation of clinical trials to ... In toxicology it is specifically the highest tested dose or concentration of a substance (i.e. a drug or chemical) or agent (e. ... It either does not provide the effects of drug with respect to duration and dose, or it does not address the interpretation of ...

*Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

... dose-ranging study - dose-response relationship - double burden of disease - double-blind study - drug resistance - drug-drug ... antiretroviral drugs - antisense drugs - antitoxins - Antiviral drug - aphasia - aphthous ulcer - apoptosis - approved drugs - ... multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - myalgia - mycobacterium - mycobacterium ... New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - NICHD - night sweat - NIH - NK cell - NLM - NNRTI - non-Hodgkin's ...

*Hepatotoxicity

Drugs or toxins that have a pharmacological (type A) hepatotoxicity are those that have predictable dose-response curves ( ... This type of injury does not have a clear dose-response nor temporal relationship, and most often does not have predictive ... To diagnose hepatotoxicity, a causal relationship between the use of the toxin or drug and subsequent liver damage has to be ... The risk of liver injury is influenced by several factors including the dose ingested, concurrent alcohol or other drug intake ...

*Atypical antipsychotic

"Single oral dose kinetics of zotepine and its relationship to prolactin response and side effects". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring ... These drugs have relatively long half-lives. Each drug has a different half-life, but the occupancy of the D2 receptor falls ... There is a good response in 40-50% of patients, a partial response in 30-40%, and treatment resistance (failure of symptoms to ... It has been suggested that there is no validity to the term "second-generation antipsychotic drugs" and that the drugs that ...

*Liquorice (confectionery)

... a linear dose-response relationship". Journal of Human Hypertension. 15 (8): 549-52. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001215. PMID 11494093 ... liquorice candy (in Dutch). Black Licorice: Trick or Treat? from US Food & Drug Administration, Consumer Updates, 25 Oct 2011. ... Black Licorice: Trick or Treat? from US Food & Drug Administration, Consumer Updates, 25 Oct 2011. Räikkönen, Katri; et al. ( ...

*Nootropic

MPH effects are dose-dependent and the dose-response relationship differs between cognitive domains. Urban, KR; Gao, WJ (2014 ... This suggests that cortical networks that normally process spatial working memory become more efficient in response to the drug ... In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response ... The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine. These drugs are purportedly used primarily to treat ...

*Dose (biochemistry)

Dose-response curves may illustrate the relationship of these metabolic effects. In over-the-counter medicines, dosage is based ... the patient's body weight and the drug's recommended dose per kilogram are used to determine a safe one-time dose. In drugs ... By combining these drugs with a system that detects the concentration of drug particles in the blood, proper dosing could be ... Prescription drug dosage is based typically on body weight. Drugs come with a recommended dose in milligrams or micrograms per ...

*Surgical sieve

... and dose-response relationships thereof) What are the causes of an acute confusional state in a patient? Treatment induced: ... polypharmacy, sedatives, analgesics, steroids, drug withdrawal Vascular: stroke, TIA, vascular dementia Inflammatory: infection ... systemic inflammatory response syndrome Traumatic: head injury, Intracranial hemorrhage, shock Autoimmune: thyroid disease ... conditions relating to a physical response between two or more objects) Psychological/Neurological (conditions relating to the ...

*Quintin McKellar

Evaluation of dose response relationships. European Journal of Pharmacology (1994) 253, 191-200. Benchaoui, H.A. and McKellar, ... Drug Metabolism and Disposition (2002), 30, 1230-1239. Sarasola, P., Lees, P., Ali Abadi, F.S., McKellar, Q.A., Donachie, W., ... His research interests are in the pharmacology of anti-infective and anti-inflammatory drugs in domestic animals, and he is ... Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Danofloxacin Administered by Two Dosing Regimens in Claves Infected with ...

*List of designer drugs

MPH effects are dose-dependent and the dose-response relationship differs between cognitive domains. Urban, KR; Gao, WJ (2014 ... "Isophenmetrazine". New Synthetic Drugs Database. "3-FPE". New Synthetic Drugs Database. "Phenmetetrazine". New Synthetic Drugs ... In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response ... This suggests that cortical networks that normally process spatial working memory become more efficient in response to the drug ...

*Cardiac fibrosis

The precise mechanisms involved remain elusive however, as while the cardiotoxicity shows some dose-response relationship, it ... These drugs include ergotamine and methysergide and both drugs can also cause cardiac fibrosis. Certain antiparkinson drugs, ... The drugs most classically associated with the condition are weight loss drugs such as fenfluramine and chlorphentermine, and ... Drugs which act as 5-HT2B agonists tend to be less likely to cause heart problems when used sparingly.[citation needed] The ...

*Long-term effects of cannabis

... and that a dose-response relationship exists between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. The analysis was not able ... The gateway drug hypothesis asserts that the use of cannabis may ultimately lead to the use of harder drugs. A 2013 literature ... underlying psychiatric pathology that preceded drug use, and combined use of other psychoactive drugs. A 2014 review said that ... Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the Western world, and in the US 10 to 20% of consumers who use cannabis daily ...

*Arndt-Schulz rule

... was called upon to provide some explanation for observed relationships between dose and response during the early days of ... Stumpf, Walter E. (June 2006). "The dose makes the medicine". Drug Discovery Today. 11 (11-12): 550-555. doi:10.1016/j.drudis. ... It states that: For every substance, small doses stimulate, moderate doses inhibit, large doses kill. That is to say, highly ... For instance, many paralysing substances have no exciting effect in weak doses, and what constitutes a weak, medium or strong ...

*EC50

Measures of pollutant concentration Dose-response relationship Certain safety factor IC50 (half maximal inhibitory ... It is commonly used as a measure of a drug's potency. EC50 is expressed in molar units (M), where 1 M is equivalent to 1 mol/L ... The EC50 of a quantal dose response curve represents the concentration of a compound where 50% of the population exhibit a ... concentration) LD50 (median lethal dose) Therapeutic index Introducing dose response curves Archived 2007-02-19 at the Wayback ...

*Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide

There was a satisfactory dose/response relationship. This contracture was very similar to that produced by ergmetrine maleate, ... two ancient magic drugs of Mexico. Bulletin on Narcotics. 1: 3 - 14. Ergot - A Rich Source of Pharmacologically Active ... the blood pressure increased moderately without showing any dose/response relationship. Ergometrine maleate seemed to be less ... when given in small doses, on the blood pressure of cats anaethetized with chloralose. Higher intravenous doses (0.1-0.3mg/kg) ...

*Prenatal methamphetamine exposure

... it is important that researchers seek to determine this pattern to examine a possible dose-response relationship between MA use ... Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug that can make users crave more as soon as the end of the last dose, which makes it ... Prenatal drug use by women in the United States came to the forefront of media and public health attention in the 1980s when ... In this study they gave doses of 5 mg/day from days 8 to 22 of pregnancy . The offspring were sacrificed at days 7,14, and 21. ...

*Hydromorphinol

"Influence of polarity on dose-response relationships of intrathecal opioids in rats". Pain. 40 (3): 339-347. doi:10.1016/0304- ... In the United States, it was never available and is classified as a Schedule I drug with a DEA ACSCN of 9301. The salts in use ... but is twice as potent as morphine and has a steeper dose-response curve and longer half-life. It is used in medicine as the ... It is controlled under the Single Convention On Narcotic Drugs. Oxymorphol N-Phenethylhydromorphinol (RAM-378) US 2960505, ...

*TIK-301

... was shown to be effective at promoting sleep at various doses; there is a positive dose response relationship between ... 20 mg dose had a different elimination constant from all other doses above 35 mg. TIK-301 is intended to be a take-as-need drug ... In a phase I clinical trial, TIK-301 was shown to be effective as a chronobiotic at a dose of 5 mg/L, but not in lower doses. ... Acquires Drug in Clinical Development to Treat Sleep Disorders". Phase 2 Discovery, Inc. Acquires Drug in Clinical Development ...

*Tardive dyskinesia

The D2 hypersensitivity hypothesis is also supported by evidence of a dose-response relationship, withdrawal effects, studies ... Vijayakumar, D; Jankovic, J (May 2016). "Drug-Induced Dyskinesia, Part 2: Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia". Drugs. 76 (7): 779- ... this can happen from the individual having an increased dose of an antipsychotic drug. Often the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia ... antipsychotic drugs to that of first generation drugs. The newer antipsychotics appear to have a substantially reduced ...

*Adverse Childhood Experiences Study

Adverse childhood experiences have a dose-response relationship with many health problems. As researchers followed participants ... The number of ACEs was strongly associated with adulthood high-risk health behaviors such as smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, ... May 1998). "Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction to Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults: The ... Trauma-informed pediatric care also allows doctors to develop a more trusting relationship with parents, opening the lines of ...

*Hemoencephalography

70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ... This is also referred to as the haemodynamic response. Developed by the godfather of hemoencephalography, Dr. Hershel Toomim, ... cats at the behest of NASA that proved that cats trained to consciously alter their sensorimotor rhythm were resistant to doses ... changes in blood oxygenation level are not instantaneous Mechanistic claims are unsupported as no reverse causal relationship ...
Chromosome aberrations induced in vivo were studied in nine children 5-12 years old treated with total-body high-energy photon irradiation (pulsed exposure from a LINAC) for different types of malignant diseases. Dose-effect relationships were obtained for each child by taking blood at different times during exposure. In vitro dose-effect relationships for chromosome aberrations in children and adults were obtained by exposing blood under the same conditions as the children. Exposure in vivo and in vitro yielded similar linear-quadratic dose-effect relationships for dicentric aberrations. The response in vitro was slightly greater than in vivo, but the difference was not very large. It is concluded that the dose-effect relationship for dicentric chromosome aberrations obtained in vitro for adults can be used for biological dosimetry in irradiated children. Some of the children displayed a high number of "rogue cells" before exposure; this may be due to the malignant disease as it was not found ...
Dose-Related Adverse Reactions Schizophrenia Dose response relationships for the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events were evaluated from four trials in adult patients with schizophrenia comparing various fixed doses (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg/day) of oral aripiprazole to placebo. This analysis, stratified by study, indicated that the only adverse reaction to have a possible dose response relationship, and then most prominent only with 30 mg, was somnolence [including sedation]; (incidences were placebo, 7.1%; 10 mg, 8.5%; 15 mg, 8.7%; 20 mg, 7.5%; 30 mg, 12.6%). In the study of pediatric patients (13 to 17 years of age) with schizophrenia, three common adverse reactions appeared to have a possible dose response relationship: extrapyramidal disorder (incidences were placebo, 5.0%; 10 mg, 13.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); somnolence (incidences were placebo, 6.0%; 10 mg, 11.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); and tremor (incidences were placebo, 2.0%; 10 mg, 2.0%; 30 mg, 11.8%). Extrapyramidal Symptoms ...
The investigators propose a pilot, single blind, placebo run-in, dose finding study of pioglitazone in children with autism with the ultimate goal of identifying appropriate dosing and outcome measures for a larger follow-up randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. The specific aims of this study are: 1) To examine the safety of pioglitazone in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ages 5-12 years; 2) To identify appropriate outcome measures to be used in a follow-up multisite randomized control trial of pioglitazone in children with ASD; 3) To determine the maximum tolerated dose to be used in the follow-up multisite randomized controlled trial; 4) To examine the effect of pioglitazone on markers of inflammation (cytokine levels) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, malonyl aldehydes); 5) To explore the relationship between different doses and response to treatment ...
Clinical effectiveness is of the finest tools to evaluate treatment success and is combined of 3 elements: treatment effectivity, side effect profile and patient compliance. Since the 3 main PDE5is differ in their molecular structure, therapeutic profile and pharmacokinetics, it seems logical to assume that combining 2 different PDE5is at lower dosage each may be beneficial in comparison to a single PDE5i maximal dose therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of combination therapy (2 lower-dose PDE5is) versus single maximal dose PDE5i therapy ...
BioAssay record AID 189219 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent reduction of neutrophil accumulatiom with an minimum effective dose of 1 mg/kg when administered orally twice daily for two days before induction of acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat.
BioAssay record AID 167575 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro functional antagonistic testing by obtaining ET-1 concentration response curves in rabbit carotid artery rings in the presence or absence of antagonist..
A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo and Active Controlled, Parallel Group, Multi-Center, Dose Ranging Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of LCI699 Compared to Placebo After 8 Weeks Treatment in Patients With Resistant Hypertension ...
A shallow slope of the exposure response relationship in the observable range in a laboratory bioassay predicts a higher low dose risk; a steep slope a lower low dose risk and thus allows a higher and less protective exposure limit. Increased variability in biological response of the host predicts a shallower exposure response relationship. BrooklynDodger hypothesizes that genetically diverse free living humans show greater variability than genetically homogeneous inbred laboratory housed animals. Therefore, a reference dose established with a dose response relationship in a laboratory study will be underestimate risk in people ...
This is one of my favourite topics to ask in vivas. It is very easy to get yourself confused unless you have things clear in your head. Practise, practise, practise..... BT_ GS 1.3 Define and explain dose-effect relationships of drugs with reference to: · Graded and quantal response · Therapeutic index · Potency and efficacy ·…
This 2 part study will select the subcutaneous(sc) dose of Herceptin which results in comparable exposure to intravenous(iv) Herceptin in healthy male v
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Background: Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers provide vascular protection and improve stroke outcomes in young otherwise healthy animals. These effects are believed to be mediated by the indirect stimulation of AT2R signaling. The AT2R agonist, compound 21 (C21), improves endothelial function in peripheral vascular beds but its effect on cerebral endothelial function remains unknown. It is important to determine the vascular effects of C21 in diabetes, a comorbid condition which is known to worsen stroke outcomes.. Methods: Endothelium-dependent relaxation was assessed in male Wistar and Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (n=3-6) by measuring acetylcholine (ACh, 1 nM - 5 μm) induced dilatory response in basilar arteries. In a subset of experiments C21 dose response curves were generated (0.1 nM - 1 μM) or vessels were pre-incubated with 100 nM C21 ± 1 μM PD123319 (AT2R blocker) for 30 min prior to Ach dose response curves. Area under the curve (AUC) and half maximal effective ...
The identification of molecules involved in the mitogenic signaling and participating to the process of neoplastic transformation and progression has fostered the synthesis of novel agents able to selectively down-regulate such targets. PKAI seems to be one of such relevant targets suitable for therapeutic intervention, and antisense oligonucleotides against its RIα subunit have shown promising results in inhibiting human cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo (9, 10, 11, 12 , 15) .. In the present study, we have demonstrated that HYB 165, a novel DNA/RNA hybrid MBO with improved pharmacokinetic and bioavailability properties in vivo, exhibits a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on soft agar growth of ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells.. We have also shown that HYB 165, but not its control oligo HYB 508, has a synergisitic inhibitory effect on ZR-75-1 colony formation when used in combination with docetaxel, a cytotoxic drug very active in breast cancer patients (26) . The antiproliferative activity ...
Dose dependent effects measured in panel of steroid compounds.The differential effects of various steroidal compounds on AR nuclear translocation, nuclear hyper
S78454 (also called PCI-24781) is an orally bioavailable, hydroxamate-based pan-HDACi currently being tested in clinical trials in the US and EU. Like many other HDACi, this drug induces a reversible thrombocytopenia. This thrombocytopenia, which was associated with a decrease in either GATA1 transcriptional activity or the expression of proteins of the Rho GTPase family (RhoA, Cdc42 or Rac), remains poorly understood. Given that the S78454 plasma level is above 100nM in treated patients, we performed a dose-response analysis (from 10 to 100 nM) of the drug effects on CFU-MK growth and cell proliferation. CFU-MKs were generated by ex vivo culture of CD34-positive cells and their differentiation was dose-dependently decreased after either a 24-hour treatment or a continuous exposure to S78454. This effect was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in MK proliferation. When added at day 8 of the culture, at a time-point when MK have nearly finished their endomitotic process and are entering in ...
In this first-in-human study, a single procedure endoscopic DMR ablation elicited a substantial improvement in glycemia in medically treated patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes followed for 6 months, with an acceptable safety and tolerability profile observed to date.. DMR appeared to exhibit dose dependency, with LS ablation exerting more potent glycemic effects, as seen by the statistically significant difference in glycemic effect between SS-DMR versus LS-DMR at 3 months (P , 0.05). This is stated with some caution, as the study was not designed to formally examine ablation dose dependency (i.e., SS vs. LS ablation), and the optimal length of ablated duodenum requires additional study. As one would anticipate with a novel, procedure-based intervention, this first-in-human study was conducted in an iterative manner where procedural feasibility and patient safety were of prime importance in the earlier cases. As procedural expertise increased, LS ablation became more feasible, ...
Here, using a Tecan Sunrise™ absorbance plate reader, a pre-selected enriched SM library containing 4,182 SMs was screened at 100 µM concentration against a predominant field APEC serotype, APEC O78, grown in minimal M63 media. Of the total 4,182 SMs, 41 SMs inhibited APEC O78 growth. The majority of growth inhibitory SMs were found belonging to chemical groups; quinolines, piperidines, pyrrolidinyls, and imidazoles. Among 41 SMs, 30 SMs exhibited bacteriostatic activity, while remaining 11 SMs displayed bactericidal activity and were selected for further studies. Dose-response analysis of these selected SMs revealed their dose-dependent activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging 12.5 µM to 200 µM. These selected SMs were found broadly effective against various APEC serotypes such as O1, O2, O8, O15, O18, O35, O109, and O115. Six of these SMs exhibited narrow-spectral activity affecting 1-3 tested commensal bacteria. Except SM11, other SMs were least toxic to Caco-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Studies on the mechanism of haloacetonitrile-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. T2 - interaction of dibromoacetonitrile with glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase in rats.. AU - Ahmed, A. E.. AU - Hussein, G. I.. AU - Loh, J. P.. AU - Abdel-Rahman, Sherif. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - The haloacetonitrile, dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), is a direct-acting genotoxic agent that has been detected in drinking water. In a time course study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with DBAN (75 mg/kg PO), and killed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hr after treatment. In a dose response study, animals were treated orally with various doses of DBAN (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg) and killed at one-half hour after treatment. Control animals received 1 ml/kg PO of the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In both experiments blood and organs were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until the time of analysis. At 0.5 hr after treatment, a single oral dose of DBAN caused a significant decrease of ...
Antibody vs Antigen concentration effect - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Someone once described to me that if there are too many non-specific bands when performing Western blot that a solution is to load more lysate? If this is true would one achieve the same effect if the lysate amount is held constant and the antibody concentration titrated? I have been trying to track down a literature article describing this. Hoping someone can shed some light. Thanks
Concerns about the present study: One Forum reviewer stated: "This appears to be a carefully designed and well executed study, but I have four concerns: (1) The study has been undertaken in high-risk individuals, more than half of whom are hypertensive, a quarter dyslipidaemic, and a quarter diabetic. It is not described what happened to the conventional risk factors during the interventions. (For example, any improvement in inflammatory markers may have come at the cost of higher blood pressure with the alcohol interventions.) (2) Was there any weight change that could have confounded any of the outcomes? (3) Both polyphenol and alcohol biomarkers were measured - did the change in these biomarkers correlate with the changes in any of the inflammatory markers; i.e., any suggestion of a dose response relationship? (4) Even though at least 30 outcome variables were assessed, the authors do not describe any correction for multiple comparisons ...
Peterson, W J., "Identification and estimation of the proportion of limiting cell types involved in the phytohemagglutinin response by limiting cell dose-response analysis." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4323 ...
Dr. Mercola, who is a self proclaimed fiber guru and our featured authority, states that lower than 10% of the folks within the United States eat enough dietary fiber. A lot of wonderful info right here and as a former Health and Security Rep with particular regard to DSE (Show Screen Tools) I know your recommendation is sound and greater than value following. Heart illness, slow growth, and different points might make a dog owner suspect a genetic illness.. If asked, many aged people suffering from health points would say they wished that that they had taken better care of themselves of their earlier years. Comprehensive weight problems prevention applications function in a dose‐response relationship; the more cash thats invested within the programs, the less individuals that can become sick or die from weight problems. Your physical health is essential, taking a look at your life as a whole youll probably sustain a number of bodily injuries. Weight problems is among the the explanation why ...
Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with an increased risk of hip replacement for osteoarthritis but only in men, Australian researchers report. The study of 9135 participants from the AusDiab study found that in males a one-standard-deviation increase in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D was associated with a 25% increased incidence of hip replacement. A dose response relationship […]
Conclusions: This study has shown dose response relationships between SHS and major tobacco related mortality, and provided new evidence to support causation for COPD and ischemic stroke ...
The bioassay data displayed in this panel includes modeled AC50 values from multi-concentration data only. Single concentration data may also be available for some assay technologies. Single concentration data are included in the list of tested assays endpoints if multi-concentration data are unavailable; this can be visualized by searching for a chemical, and clicking "All Tested" in the Assay pane in the Toxcast Dashboard. Raw, normalized, and interpreted single concentration data from level 0 to level 2 are fully available from the freely downloadable MySQL database, invitrodb. Internet Explorer may enable the best functionality to view the Toxcast Dashboard. The scaled response shown on the graph below is calculated by dividing the response values by the activity cutoff thereby enabling response comparisons across assay endpoints ...
Phase I, open label, dual centre, dose finding study to evaluate the safety and tolerability of continuous twice daily oral dosing with AZD2281 when adm
The bioassay data displayed in this panel includes modeled AC50 values from multi-concentration data only. Single concentration data may also be available for some assay technologies. Single concentration data are included in the list of tested assays endpoints if multi-concentration data are unavailable; this can be visualized by searching for a chemical, and clicking "All Tested" in the Assay pane in the Toxcast Dashboard. Raw, normalized, and interpreted single concentration data from level 0 to level 2 are fully available from the freely downloadable MySQL database, invitrodb. Internet Explorer may enable the best functionality to view the Toxcast Dashboard. The scaled response shown on the graph below is calculated by dividing the response values by the activity cutoff thereby enabling response comparisons across assay endpoints ...
Drug-drug interactions associated with EE2 therapy have been primarily studied in regard to the cytochromes P450. Few studies investigating interactions with the SULTs or other major conjugating enzyme systems have been reported. The inhibition of SULT1A1 at low nanomolar concentrations of EE2 while allowing for EE2 sulfation at higher concentrations suggests a new paradigm for investigating and understanding drug-drug interactions involving SULT1A1 and possibly other isoforms. SULT1A1 is the major xenobiotic sulfating isoform in liver and is widely expressed throughout the body (Hempel et al., 2007); however, its interactions in EE2 therapy are not well studied. The potent inhibition of SULT1A1 was unexpected and indicates that more attention should be paid to sulfation of both drugs and xenobiotics during concurrent therapy with EE2-containing contraceptives. Lack of sulfation activity at the inhibitory concentrations also suggests a relatively long duration of inhibition. Combined with the ...
Here, we report the first-in-human study results of lumretuzumab, a novel humanized, glycoengineered anti-HER3 mAb.. Lumretuzumab showed a favorable safety profile across all dose groups. No DLTs occurred, and an MTD was not reached. To gain further insight into the safety and PK profile, patients in the extension cohort were treated with the highest dose explored in the dose-escalation phase of 2,000 mg.. In preclinical models, downregulation/internalization of HER3 in tumor tissue was demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner (17, 22). In addition, PK/PD models showed that antitumor efficacy was also dose dependent (22). Therefore, HER3 downregulation in tissue was assessed as a PD marker to guide dose finding and dose optimization in this clinical study in combination with serum PK properties. After demonstrating initial PD activity in skin, which occurred at the first dose level tested (100 mg), serial tumor biopsies (pretreatment and on day 14 of cycle 1) were implemented from the 200-mg ...
A system is disclosed for dispensing an useful agent. The system comprises (1) means for storing an agent, (2) an agent stored in the means, (3) means for releasing agent from the system, (4) means for absorbing fluid into the system surrounding the storing means, and (5) means for admitting fluid into the system. In operation fluid is admitted into the system by the admitting means cooperating with the absorbing means, causing it to increase in dimensions and apply force against the storing means, which force urges the storing means to decrease its dimensions and correspondingly dispense agent through the releasing means from the system. Laminates are disclosed useful for manufacturing the system.
A method for generating stimulus response curves (e.g., dose response curves) shows how the phenotype of one or more cells change in response to varying levels of the stimulus. Each
For liver disease (general), 400-1,500 milligrams of SAMe has been taken by mouth 1-2 times daily for 1-24 months in the form of Samyr . A dose of 600 milligrams of SAMe in 250 milliliters of saline has been injected in the vein for three days, followed by 400 milligrams of SAMe taken by mouth three times daily for another 30 days. The following doses of SAMe have been injected into the vein: a single dose containing 50 milligrams; 50-800 milligrams daily for 15-17; 800 milligrams, followed by 1,600 milligrams; 250 milligrams as a slow bolus drip every 12 hours for 30 days in 500 milliliters of 5 percent levulose; 500 milligrams in 250 milliliters of sugar solution daily; and 15 milligrams four times daily for 30 days. The following doses of SAMe have been injected into the muscle: 50-800 milligrams daily for up to 30 days, and 15 milligrams four times daily for 30 days. A dose of 200 milligrams of SAMe has been injected into the vein daily for 15 days, then injected into the muscle for 15 days ...
Histone H2AX plays a crucial role in molecular and cellular responses to DNA damage and in the maintenance of genome stability. fibroblast and cell lines to carry out comprehensive time-course and dose-response experiments and to show that the expression of several FoxO3a-regulated genes was altered in compared to cells at both basal and irradiated conditions. […]. ...
A review of the basic concept of an analytic dilution assay-one in which relative potency is defined as the ratio of the quantity of effective constituent in unit amount of test to that in the standard-indicates that such an assay is rarely achieved in practice. It is proposed that there are no invalid assays, but only invalid inferences from a set of conditions in which relative potency has been determined and found variable, to new, unknown conditions. Nonparallel log dose-response lines are then interpreted to mean that relative potency varies among other things, with response level, where relative potency is defined as the ratio of doses leading to equal responses. Formulas are given for expressing log relative potency as a function of dose or level of response (formulas 3 and 4) and for making probability statements about it (formulas 9 and 10). The methods are illustrated by reference to a non-parallel log dose-response line assay of two different corticosteroids.. ...
A phase Ib multiple ascending dose study of the safety, tolerability, and central nervous system availability of AZD0530 (saracatinib) in Alzheimers disease.
Our data show that, for the first time, an unexpectedly beneficial metabolic outcome results from optimal elevation of β-cell 11β-HSD1, in contrast to the diabetogenic effects of elevated 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue and liver (3). Moreover, this effect may be physiologically relevant, as normal mice that exhibit robust compensatory insulin secretion on HF exhibit a similar modest upregulation of β-cell 11β-HSD1. A higher or lower 11β-HSD1 level suppresses GSIS, consistent with an inverted U-shaped dose-response effect sometimes seen with glucocorticoids (31). This notion is supported by the stimulatory effect of physiological 11β-HSD1 substrate (11-DHC) but suppressive effects of high or indeed long-term exposure to 11-DHC in vitro. In agreement, diabetic Lepdb/db mice (32) and MIP-HSD1tg/tg on CD have impaired GSIS in vivo associated with more marked elevation of β-cell 11β-HSD1. These data are also consistent with the association between increasing 11β-HSD1 levels and the severity of ...
With aging, men and women develop a mild and progressive metabolic acidosis. This occurs as a result of declining renal function and ingestion of acid-producing...
Citation: Jacob CC, Reimschuessel R, Von Tungeln LS, Olson GR, Warbritton AR, Hattan DG, Beland FA, Gamboa da Costa G. Dose-response assessment of nephrotoxicity from a 7-day combined exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in F344 rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Feb;119(2):391-7. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq333. Epub 2010 Oct 28.Pubmed Abstract ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to find the best dose of the drugs dabrafenib and trametinib that can be given together or alone in patients with advanced solid cancer that has a BRAF mutation. The effects of the study drugs at different dose levels and the safety of the study drugs will also be studied
Dose-dependent induction of HO-1 protein expression and HO-activity by curcumin. HO-1 protein expression was studied in fibroblasts treated for 24 hrs with diff
Polishing Step using CEX (SP Sepharose) - Hi experts, I would like to ask during polishing of antibody using CEX process (SP Sepharose) , does the high concentration of samples (10-20mg/ml) will give effects during loading and also elution...
Polishing Step using CEX (SP Sepharose) - Hi experts, I would like to ask during polishing of antibody using CEX process (SP Sepharose) , does the high concentration of samples (10-20mg/ml) will give effects during loading and also elution...
5 Answers - Posted in: klonopin, ritalin, withdrawal, dosage - Answer: Hi sorry I have not been on but some things came up. About this klonopin. ...
Abstract A multistage sampling method is proposed in dose-response trials, where dose adaptions can be performed in the preplanned adaptive interim analyses. The overall test for p..
Our objective is to design, construct and evaluate an RASV delivering multiple protective pneumococcal protein antigens to be delivered orally to newborns and infants to confer protective immunity to all pneumococcal serotypes. The vaccine prototype has been demonstrated to be totally safe in newborn, pregnant, malnourished and immunodeficient mice and the collective preclinical data led to FDA approval and the granting of an IND license. Human clinical dose escalation trials with doses up to 1010 CFU have been completed with no adverse reactions, essentially no bacteremias and no shedding of viable vaccine cells in stools. Although totally safe, the RASV constructs were not as immunogenic as desired but strains with the RpoS+ phenotype gave better results than the vaccine strain that was RpoS-. A selected strain has been further improved to significantly enhance immunogenicity without compromising safety attributes. This isolate will be evaluated in human trials. The vaccine is also designed to ...
EDMONTON, Canada, July 6 (ots/PRNewswire) - Isotechnika Inc. (TSX:ISA) announced today the completion of thesingle ascending dose trial for the Companys lead...
An initial report into a drug trial that left one person dead and five with brain damage says a very high dose may have led to off-target effects
The next phase of treating stage 4 kidney cancer in my lungs begins tomorrow. Tomorrow I will be given a very high dose of radiation directed at the tumor mass in my right lung that refuses to shrink. This will be the third different type of treatment I will have received to battle this kidney…
Have you ever been there? Everything seems to be going perfectly with your ratios and then slowly over a matter of weeks what used to be a walk in the...
Has anyone gotten brain zaps when theyve gone to a higher dose? I did 5mg Lexapro for 3 weeks, then 10 days at 10mg, 4 days at 15mg and today I went to 20mg of Lexapro, per doctors instructions. When I started and at the other dose changes I just had headaches and felt dizzy till I adjusted. I have, on occasion, had brain zaps. But today its been going on all day ...
Hello everyone, I am new to this forum but have been reading for a while. You guys are awesome & are so helpful! Thanks to many GREAT posts! :clap I have a 9 day old little boy & we have been EBF since day one. He is the second that I BF. My first son only received it for 6 months- I had to introduce a bottle to him pretty early on & had many issues. After I delivered my first son, I was given very high doses of steroids and had to pump and dump for a few days. There were many
23-year-old Hayley Steinfeld says she has renewed her musical career from the ashes of a failed relationship with 26-year-old Niall Horan, a member of ...
Sometimes a treatment may be started at a lower dose or the dose needs to be changed during treatment. There may also be times when your treatment is delayed. This can happen if your doctor thinks you are likely to have severe side effects, if you get severe side effects, if your blood counts are affected and causing delays in treatment, or if you are finding it hard to cope with the treatment. This is called a dose reduction, dose change or treatment delay. Your doctor will explain if you need any changes or delays to your treatment and the reason why. ...
This study will consist of 2 sequential parts: the first part (VLA009A)is a study of intravenous CVA21 as a single agent for the treatment of 4 different advanced solid tumours; the second part (VLA009B) is a study of intravenous CVA21 in combination with cytotoxic therapy appropriate for the solid tumour selected in the first part. Both parts will be open-label, multi-centre, ascending dose escalation (3+3 design) dose-finding and signal seeking studies.
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov An open-label study designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ALA-1000 in opioid-dependent sub...
Most GLP-1 receptor agonists are injectable; semaglutide will be one of the first oral GLP-1s. A new study compares oral semaglutide to injectable.
The dosage of Vincristine had been raised from 50% to 75%, and its an indication of how powerful this drug is that an additional 0.19 mg. should make such a massive difference in terms of side effects.Our experience with the lower dosage had made us feel pretty confident about chemotherapy - "We can handle this!" - but this cycle put us back on the defensive again ...
No DDDs have been established because of highly individualised use and wide dosage ranges. The doses used vary substantially because of various types and severity of neoplastic diseases, and also because of the extensive use of combination therapy ...
One day i take my pressure and it is ok, next time it is high. should i worry or call the dr? I just started for - Answered by a verified Health Professional
Feeling DRUG DOSE OMISSION while using Ativan? DRUG DOSE OMISSION Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ativan Reports and Side Effects.
Get an answer for Analysis of a compound known to contain only Mg, P,and O gives this analysis.21.8% Mg, 27.7% P, 50.5% OWhat is its empirical formula? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
As with many antidepressants, Zoloft has been linked with numerous adverse side effects, some of which are potentially life-threatening.
What is Isomalto-Oligosaccharide (IMO)? Where does it come from? What are its benefits? What is the preferred dosage? Does it have any adverse side effects?
23 yrs old Female asked about Stimach problem, 1 doctor answered this and 48 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
During the period and end of the period i had sex with my boy friend. Next day i took postinor 1. After 6 days i have bleeding in brown color. Can you explain this situation?
19 yrs old Male asked about Mastrubate, 1 doctor answered this and 362 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
Cobicistat reduces the action of enzymes in your liver that break down certain antiviral medicines. This allows the antiviral medicines to be used more safely and effectively at lower doses.
I dont know if this is relatable to the general population, but for me as a person who struggles with disabled conditions, to experience and live a good day, is one of the rarest but most satisfying feelings in the world. The days included among my happiest was such as the day I sat in…
Heres a bit more of the progress... [mention]Sadie[/mention] wrote:It seems to be progressing really well now-in a few days I think it may come to life Maybe
I have been so depressed the last 3 days I dont even want to get out of bed. I have to force myself to do anything. I cry a lot.I feel so worthless. Why cant I go on with my life and do the things I need to do? My DH has Alzheimers and I.... ...
My husband says in the 42 days I have not smoked, I have been having many conniptions :o...I thought I was very sweet..Like he has never had any ...ha! Any one...
How is micrograms per liter abbreviated? µg/L stands for micrograms per liter. µg/L is defined as micrograms per liter very frequently.
The treatment is not a cure for excessive sweating. It needs to be repeated every three to six months for maximum effect. Call 020 7565 0333.
خاک نقش مهمی را در چرخه بیوژئوشیمیایی به عنوان یک منبع مهم ذخیره عناصر ایفا می-کند. از عوامل مهمی که در کشاورزی حائز اهمیت است نوع ویژگی-های خاک، پراکنش و میزان تغییرات آن می-باشد. در این مطالعه 600 نمونه خاک با فواصل تقریبی 100 متر در 100 متر از عمق 30-0 سانتی-متری در 800 هکتار از اراضی شرکت کشت و صنعت شریف آباد قزوین جمع-آوری شد. آنالیز آمار توصیفی و زمین آماری داده-های جمع-آوری شده، انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد دامنه تغییرات نیتروژن کل خاک در محدوده 82/0- 02/0% با میانگین 26/0 درصد، فسفر قابل استخراج با اولسن در محدودهmg/kg 07/93-58/9 با میانگین 21/36 میلی-گرم بر کیلوگرم، پتاسیم قابل
Резюме: Оценката на качеството на храните е ключов въпрос и загриженост за всички правителства. Правила и наблюдение на храните в хранителната верига са приети във всички страни. Няма съмнение, че храната е тясно свързана с човешкото здраве. Един от най-често срещаните замърсители са нитрати и нитрити, които имат положително не само отрицателно влияние. В статията са представени резултати от оценка съдържанието на NO3- в различни продукти на пазара на хранителни вериги в България. Открито е по-голямо количество NO3- до 900 mg / kg в пресни картофи, със ...
And things get even murkier or perhaps more clear when Dr. H. Kamel discusses challenges to the notion that the risk of stroke in afib is in fact solely due to thrombi in the left atrium and proposes that things are much more complicated including the notion that at least sometimes a stroke can cause an atrial thrombus. It is well known that stroke can precede the onset of afib.He and coauthors discuss a new model for stroke and afib in which both afib and emboli are downstream effect of abnormal atria substrate (an atrial myopathy).This model might explain why stroke risk is not eliminated by rhythm control strategies and why stroke can predate afib and generally the poor temporal relationship that exist between afib onset and stroke and why some reports do not show a dose response relationship between afib duration and stroke(.However, other reports such as the TRENDS data do show dose response relationship ...
BACKGROUND: Dose-finding trials are essential to drug development as they establish recommended doses for later-phase testing. We aim to motivate wider use of model-based designs for dose finding, such as the continual reassessment method (CRM). METHODS: We carried out a literature review of dose-finding designs and conducted a survey to identify perceived barriers to their implementation. RESULTS: We describe the benefits of model-based designs (flexibility, superior operating characteristics, extended scope), their current uptake, and existing resources. The most prominent barriers to implementation of a model-based design were lack of suitable training, chief investigators preference for algorithm-based designs (e.g., 3+3), and limited resources for study design before funding. We use a real-world example to illustrate how these barriers can be overcome. CONCLUSIONS: There is overwhelming evidence for the benefits of CRM. Many leading pharmaceutical companies routinely implement model-based designs.
Salbutamol solution is usually administered by nebuliser in a dose of 5 mg. Little evidence exists that this is the optimal dose for bronchodilatation or that this dose is without side-effects. Twelve patients with asthma were given increasing doses of salbutamol 1.5 mg, 3.0 mg, 7.5 mg, and placebo. Treatments were administered twice daily for four days in a double-blind manner. Measurements of ventilatory capacity, pulse rate, and tremor were recorded before and for three hours after treatment. There was a significant dose-related response for FEVI and peak flow rate. There was also a significant dose-related response in pulse rate and tremor. The incidence of palpitations was similarly related to dose. Plasma levels of salbutamol were measured before and after treatment with salbutamol and showed a dose related increase in salbutamol absorption which begins to be evident after the 3.0 mg dose. Three milligrams of salbutamol nebuliser solution may be an optimal dose, producing satisfactory ...
I am a 60-year-old female with osteoporosis. I took Fosamax 70 mg once weekly for seven months until I could no longer endure the side effects. For the following month, I took no medication. Since January 21, 2008, I have been on 680 mg strontium citrate once daily. I intend to relate my progress. My first DEXA scan was done May 8, 2007. My T-score at the lumbar spine was -3.0 (-2.0 at L1, -2.7 at L2, -3.4 at L3 and -3.8 at L4). My T-score at the left hip was -2.2 (-2.8 at neck, -2.0 at troch, -1.9 at inter). My BMD results in g/cm2 were 0.712 at the spine (L1-L4), 0.53 at the left hip (neck), and 0.670 at the left hip (total). A followup scan is planned for July 6, 2009. For these results, see: http://strontiumforbones.blogspot.com/2009/07/improved-t-scores-after-treatment. ...
Information relevant for assessing potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chlorobenzene (108907) was reviewed and summarized. Topics included physical properties, chemical properties, production levels, industrial uses, occupational exposure levels, toxicokinetics, acute and chronic toxicity, organ system toxicity, immunotoxicity, allergy, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, dose/response relationships, and research needs. Studies have indicated that chlorobenzene is absorbed via respiratory and dermal routes and has resulted in headaches, dizziness, somnolence, and dyspeptic disorders in humans chronically exposed. There were no case reports or epidemiological studies available concerned with the potential carcinogenicity of chlorobenzene in humans. There was some limited evidence indicating that the compound is genotoxic and that it may induce hematopoietic toxicity at relatively moderate doses. Chlorobenzene was not classifiable as a ...
Warfarin is widely used oral anticoagulant and its pharrnacokinetic (PK) and pharrnacodynamic (PD) properties have been extensively studied. It has a narrow therapeutic index and displays poor quality of treatment due to its complex pharmacology and wide inter and intraindividual variability in the dose-response relationship. This study developed an integrated PK-PD model using STELLA® to describe the dose concentration- effect relationship for warfarin. This model used previously reported\ population PK and PD models and parameter values to generate dose-response data. A one compartment stereo-specific semi-physiological PK model with zero-order drug input was linked to an indirect PD model describing the anticoagulant effect. The indirect PD model consisted of two components: (i) the plasma concentration of S-enantiomer of warfarin (Cs) was related to synthesis of prothrombin complex activity (PCA) described by sigmoid Imax model (ii) conversion of PCA to prothrombin time ratio (PTR), which is
The experimental investigations used skin fibroblasts cultures at a density of 50,000 cells/100ml of media (5% fetal calf serum 3% antibiotics) exposed to UVB doses (0-5.6 J/cm2) with damage levels assessed by two cytotoxicity assays (Figure 1).. The MTS results in Figure 2 showed a dose response relationship between exposure and cellular mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity as measured by the MTS assay. A decrease in the mitochondrial activity was directly associated with increased UVB dose. The cell exposure to a dose of 2.1 J/cm2 of UVB reduced the mitochondrial activity by more than 50%, while at 5.6 J/cm2 of UVB we witnessed a reduction in activity by 80%.. The relationship between UVB exposure and cellular viability was further investigated using the NR assay. The damage caused by UVB was assessed by determining the reduction in NR dye uptake by the lysosomes because cells with damaged cellular membranes leak and cannot retain the dye [10]. The leakage results in reducing the NR dye uptake ...
Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, provides the most complete pharmacologic model of schizophrenia in humans and animals. Acute PCP causes hyperlocomotion, disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI), and increases social avoidance in rats. We have previously shown that repeated treatment with the dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor agonists, quinpirole or ropinirole, prevents agonist-induced PPI disruption. In the present study, we examined whether repeated ropinirole treatment similarly attenuates the effects of PCP in a more complete model of schizophrenia symptoms and examined the effect of repeated D2-like agonist treatment on locomotion, PPI, and social interaction after acute PCP challenge. The acute effect of PCP (3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg) on locomotor activity was examined to establish a minimum effective dose. Thereafter, the effect of PCP challenge (3.0 mg/kg) on locomotor activity, PPI, and social interaction was assessed in adult male rats before or ...
We observed a moderate positive association between smoking and risk of testicular cancer. Although smoking to any degree was suggestive of an increased risk, the strongest-large effect size and statistically significant-results were observed, independent of smoking status, among those who smoked between 12 and 24 pack-years [OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.04-3.69)] or more [,24 pack-years, OR = 2.31 (95% CI 1.12-4.77)] and among those who smoked about ≥21 years [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.32-7.64; Table 2⇓ )]. Although levels of smoking less than this were not statistically significant, examination of the effect estimates and CIs, particularly for pack-years, suggests a dose response relationship.. Modest but suggestive associations between testicular cancer and smoking have been noted in two large population based studies. The United Kingdom Testicular Cancer Group (4) reported a slight elevation in risk among ever smokers relative to never smokers [OR = 1.18 (95% CI: 0.96-1.46)]. No meaningful ...
Increased time outdoors can help prevent myopia onset and lower the myopic shift in refractive error, reported Shuyu Xiong, and coauthors, in a recent study. However, spending time outdoors did not slow myopic progression in eyes that already had myopia. The investigators meta-analysis and review included 25 articles, 23 of which involved children. They found a significant protective effect from outdoor time for incident myopia and prevalent myopia. "With dose-response analysis, an inverse nonlinear relationship was found with increased time outdoors reducing the risk of incident myopia," they wrote. "Also, pooled results from clinical trials indicated that when outdoor time was used as an intervention, there was a reduced myopic shift of -0.30 D (in both myopes and nonmyopes) compared with the control group after 3 years of follow-up." Still, when only myopes were considered, a relationship was not found between time outdoors and myopic progression. Future studies can focus on evaluating the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase 1, open label, dose escalation study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of MG1102 (apolipoprotein(a) Kringle V) in patients with solid tumors. AU - Kim, Gun Min. AU - Reid, Tony. AU - Shin, Sang Joon. AU - Rha, Sun Young. AU - Ahn, Joong Bae. AU - Lee, Sung Sil. AU - Chung, Hyun Cheol. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Purpose MG1102 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, and preliminary antitumor efficacy of MG1102. Methods Patients with refractory solid tumors were eligible. Each patient received 1 dose of MG1102 followed by a 6-day rest period, during which they underwent PK assessments and safety monitoring. If the initial dose was tolerated, the patient continued with the 21-day treatment of MG1102 (5 days on, 2 days off for 3 weeks). Dose escalation was planned in 6 cohorts (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, and ...
Developed during the follow-up period, 700 women a type of cancer known to be related to smoking. Among the women who was never smoked beta-carotene. Inversely with the risk of developing tobacco-related cancer, with a dose - response relationship over the observed beta-carotene categories However, among women ever smoked ever smoked, the results were reversed: cancer risk was highest among women in the high-beta-carotene group. The Journal of the National… Read Article →. ...
Current excessive use and abuse of antibiotics has resulted in increasing bacterial resistance to common treatment options which is threatening to deprive us of a pillar of modern medicine. In this work methods to optimize the use of existing antibiotics and to help development of new antibiotics were developed and applied.. Semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) models were developed to describe the time course of the dynamic effect and interaction of combinations of antibiotics. The models were applied to illustrate that colistin combined with a high dose of meropenem may overcome meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections.. The results from an in vivo dose finding study of meropenem was successfully predicted by the meropenem PKPD model in combination with a murine PK model, which supports model based dosage selection. However, the traditional PK/PD index based dose selection was predicted to have poor extrapolation properties from pre-clinical to clinical settings, and ...
A First-in-human Study of the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Anti-tumor Activity of SAR439459 Monotherapy and Combination of SAR439459 and Cemiplimab in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors
In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, albuterol sulfate caused a significant dose-related increase in the incidence of benign leiomyomas of the mesovarium at dietary doses of 2.0, 10, and 50 mg/kg (approximately ½, 2, and 10 times, respectively, the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults and children, on a mg/m2 basis). In another study this effect was blocked by the coadministration of propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. In an 18-month study in CD-1 mice albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses of up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 60 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults and children on a mg/m2 basis). In a 22-month study in the Golden hamster albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses of up to 50 mg/kg (approximately 8 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults and children on a mg/m2 basis). Albuterol sulfate was not mutagenic in the Ames test with or without metabolic ...
LA and triggered cellular and subcellular reactions are pivotal events of early atherosclerosis and restenosis. We came to 3 basic conclusions after completing the present study. First, in monocultures of HCAECs and HCMSMCs, the surface expression of ICAM-1 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner after incubation with 5 and 10 mmol/L aspirin, but no effect was detected after incubation with 1 and 2 mmol/L aspirin. Second, in the 3DLA model, 5 mmol/L aspirin significantly inhibited the adherence of monocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes and the chemotaxis of monocytes. Third, 5 mmol/L aspirin significantly reduced the reactive proliferative response of cocultured HCMSMCs after selective monocyte or CD4+ lymphocyte attack in the 3DLA model.. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of aspirin on NF-κB-mediated signal cascades agrees with the prior reports of Weber et al14 and Amberger et al,15 who studied endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. The exact mechanism of aspirin on TNF-α-induced and ...
Tonolo, G., Fraser, R., Connell, J. and Kenyon, C. (1988) Chronic Low-Dose Infusions of Dexamethasone in Rats - Effects on Blood-Pressure, Body-Weight and Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. Journal of Hypertension, 6(1), pp. 25-31 ...
Back in February of this year a excellent Israeli study was done documenting the superior therapeutic properties of whole plant CBD-rich Cannabis extract as compared to synthetic, single-molecule cannabidiol (CBD) which is made in the lab. The notion that botanical extracts are "low grade and crude" as opposed to pure single molecule synthetic compounds made by the pharmaceutical companies is what was challenged. The study was Published in the journal Pharmacology & Pharmacy (Feb. 2015).. The study showed that administration of pure, single-molecule CBD resulted in a bell-shaped dose-response curve, that means when the amount of CBD exceeded a certain point its therapeutic impact declined dramatically. "Healing was only observed when CBD was given within a very limited dose range, whereas no beneficial effect was achieved at either lower or higher doses," the authors observed. This characteristic of single-molecule CBD-manifested as a bell-shaped dose response-imposes serious obstacles that ...
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Lay summary: Many therapeutic strategies for FA aim at increasing the cellular level of FXN or alleviating the secondary pathological events which are both impairing mitochondria function and bioenergetics. However, most of the clinical trials have relied on peripheral cells (blood or buccal cells) to validate the short-term bio-availability and the biological effect of the investigational drug. In the present proposal, we aim at developing a comprehensive framework for facilitating the preclinical development and validation of therapeutic strategies for FA cardiomyopathy, with a particular focus on the cardiac gene therapy protocol that we have developed. We have previously shown the proof of concept for the prevention and the correction of FA cardiomyopathy by in vivo gene therapy [1]. More recently, we have conducted a series of dose response studies, which have defined the therapeutic thresholds (histological and molecular) conditioning the stabilization or the correction of the cardiac ...
1. Mg2+, in the investigated range up to 19.2 mM, produced a concentration-dependent reduction of the force of contraction ( F c) of the guinea-pig papillary muscle. Addition of 10 mM Mg2+ to a Mg2+-f...
Auxin modifies the electrical transmembrane potential of isolated protoplasts according to an inverted bell-shaped dose-response curve (Ephritikhine et al, 1987; Shen et al, 1988). The sensitivity of...
In non-anesthetized normotensive rats, Hyptis fruticosa essential oil (HFEO, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg; i.v.) induced hypotension associated with tachycardia. In intact and isolated rings of rat superior mesenteric artery (control), HFEO (1 - 1000 μ g/ml, n =6, cumulatively) induced concentration-dependent relaxations of tonus induced by 10 μ M phenylephrine (Phe) (pD 2 =2.6±0.27; E max =64±8.3%). In denuded endothelium pre-contracted rings with Phe or K + -depolarizing solution (80 mM), the concentration - response curves to HFEO were not shifted (pD 2 =2.3±0.25 and 2.3±0.28, respectively), but their maximal responses were significantly ( P b 0.05 vs control) increased ( E max =122.3±18.2% and 92±3.6%, respectively). HFEO was also capable of antagonizing the concentration - response curves to CaCl 2 (3 μ M - 30 mM) in a dose-dependent manner ...
Authors: Melanie Schlatter, , DeWana R. Kerr, , Paul F. Smith, , Cynthia L. Darlington, Article Type: Research Article Abstract: The concentrated Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, has previously been reported to enhance and accelerate vestibular compensation following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD), in particular, compensation of the dynamic postural symptoms such as locomotor dysequilibrium. However, many of these studies have not included a complete analysis of the static symptoms of UVD, such as spontaneous nystagmus (SN), yaw head tilt (YHT), and roll head tilt (RHT), nor have they included a dose-response analysis or vehicle controls for …EGb 761. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the EGb 761 extract on static vestibular compensation in guinea pig, using a dose-response analysis and both vehicle and saline controls. Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant decrease in SN frequency (P , 0.05 ) and a significant change in the rate of SN ...
Purpose : Ranibizumab (RBZ) 0.5 mg pro re nata (PRN) has a well-established efficacy profile and is approved for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) in ,100 countries worldwide. The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) Protocol T study compared the efficacy of RBZ 0.3 mg PRN with other anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents; this dosing regimen is neither studied previously nor approved. We assessed the dose responses of RBZ using a step-wise modeling approach for better understanding of the Protocol T 12-month efficacy results.. Methods : Summary data from the randomized clinical trials (RCT) RESOLVE, RESTORE, REVEAL, RESPOND, RETAIN, RISE, RIDE, Protocol I, and Protocol T with relevant arms were included in the analyses. An exploratory analysis was performed to verify a dose-response signal, then a dose-response model was built to describe the relationship between the average monthly doses of RBZ and the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) change from ...
DOSE DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF SODIUM ARSENITE ON NF-kB AND INTERLEUKIN-8 IN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Pharmacology and Toxicology by Robert Ronald Roussel DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire July 31, 2000 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission ...
Angiotensin II effects on cyclic AMP production and steroid output were studied in a sensitive preparation of isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. With increasing concentrations of angiotensin II logarithmic dose-response curves for aldosterone and cyclic AMP production were similar. The minimum effective dose (0.2nm) for stimulation of aldosterone production also significantly (P,0.001) increased cyclic AMP output. For both aldosterone and cyclic AMP production, the peptide hormone concentration eliciting maximal response (0.2μm) and the ED50 (median effective dose) values (1nm) were the same; this is consistent with cyclic AMP acting as an intracellular mediator for angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone production by glomerulosa cells. The angiotensin II antagonist [Sar1,Ala8]angiotensin II inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated corticosterone and aldosterone production in these cells. An equimolar concentration of antagonist halved the response to 20nm-angiotensin II, and complete inhibition ...
In summer, 2011, we investigated suspected glyphosate-resistant (GR) kochia in three chem-fallow fields (designated F1, F2, F3, each farmed by a different grower) in southern Alberta. This study characterizes glyphosate resistance in those populations, based on data from dose-response experiments. In a greenhouse experiment, the three populations exhibited a resistance factor ranging from 4 to 6 based on shoot biomass response (GR50 ratios), or 5 to 7 based on survival response (LD50 ratios). Similar results were found in a field dose-response experiment at Lethbridge, AB, in spring 2012 using the F2 kochia population. In fall 2011, we surveyed 46 fields within a 20-km radius of the three chem-fallow fields for GR kochia. In the greenhouse, populations were screened with glyphosate at 900 g ae ha-1. Seven populations were confirmed as GR, the farthest site located about 13 km from the three originally confirmed populations. An additional GR population more than 100 km away was later confirmed. ...
Toxic responses to contaminants following exposure concentrations typically used in laboratory tests may not reflect how biological systems respond to lower environmental levels from which hormetic effect mechanisms have been suggested. We investigated the pattern of dose-response in mammalian cells to various environmental contaminants using a range of concentrations that span those that are environmentally relevant (10(-12) M to 10(-3) M). MCF-7 cell cultures were treated for 24 h with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners (47, 153, 183, and 209), then fixed in ethanol and interrogated using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Mode of action was further studied by examining if test agents stimulated cell growth or altered CYP1A1 expression. Bimodal dose response curves were observed when MCF-7 cells were treated with PBDEs or lindane. The first peak distribution was ...
Aims: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is induced during heart failure development, and may influence different processes in cardiac remodeling. While its anti-apoptotic action under conditions of ischemia-reperfusion have been shown, it remained unclear if this is a broadly protective effect applicable to other apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, effects on cardiac hypertrophy remained obscure. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of GDF15 on induction of hypertrophy and apoptosis in ventricular cardiomyocytes.. Methods and Results: Dose-response analysis of SMAD-binding affinity under stimulation with GDF15 revealed a maximal activation of SMADs, as the classical transcription factors in GDF15 signaling, by addition of 3 ng/ml GDF15 to cardiomyocytes. Under these conditions enhancement of SMAD1,5,8 phosphorylation, as another parameter of SMAD activation, was seen. At the same concentration, GDF15 enhanced hypertrophic growth as determined by an increase in cell size ...

BT GS 1.3 Dose response curves and associated terms | Primary LO of the DayBT GS 1.3 Dose response curves and associated terms | Primary LO of the Day

GS 1.3 Define and explain dose-effect relationships of drugs with reference to: · Graded and quantal response · Therapeutic ... Quantal dose response curves look at the response of an individual to varying doses of a drug TRUE/FALSE ... BT_ GS 1.3 Define and explain dose-effect relationships of drugs with reference to:. · Graded and quantal response ... Therapeutic index is derived from quantal dose response curves TRUE/FALSE. Potency of a drug can be deduced from both a graded ...
more infohttps://primarydailylo.wordpress.com/2017/02/07/%EF%BB%BFbt_gs-1-3-dose-response-curves-and-associated-terms/

Dose-response relationship definition | Drugs.comDose-response relationship definition | Drugs.com

Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... dose-response relationship. Definition: relationship in which a change in the amount, intensity, or duration of exposure is ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/dose-response-relationship.html

Figure 4 - Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming - Volume 21,...Figure 4 - Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming - Volume 21,...

Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 Alejandro Dorado-García. ... Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming. ... Dose-response relationships between antimicrobial use (log2 DDDA/Y) and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant ... DDDA/Y was determined by dividing the total number of kilograms treatable with a single mass unit of the antimicrobial drug ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/6/14-0706-f4

Figure 1 - Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming - Volume 21,...Figure 1 - Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming - Volume 21,...

Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 Alejandro Dorado-García. ... Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming. ... before each sampling time in a study of the dose-response relationship between antimicrobial drug use and livestock-associated ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/6/14-0706-f1

Welcome to CDC stacks | Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 -...Welcome to CDC stacks | Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 -...

Antibacterial Drug Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria Dose-Response Relationship Between Antimicrobial Drugs And ... Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/31524

Expression and functional phenotype of mo... & related info | MendeleyExpression and functional phenotype of mo... & related info | Mendeley

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. *Ear, Inner. *Ear, Inner: drug effects. *Ear, Inner: metabolism ... The current was sensitive to the methanesulfonanilide drug E-4031 (IC50, approximately 165 nM) and the recombinant peptide ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/expression-functional-phenotype-mouse-erg-k-channels-inner-ear-potential-role-k-regulation-inner-ear/

Health information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus DatabaseHealth information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus Database

1 result(s) search for keyword(s) Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Add the result to your basket Refine your search Generate ... organization and administration Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Urban Population Zambia - Lusaka. Abstract: Objective:To ... organization and administration Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Urban Population Zambia - Lusaka. Abstract: Objective:To ... We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a ...
more infohttp://indexmedicus.afro.who.int/aim/opac_css/index.php?lvl=more_results&mode=keyword&user_query=Dose-Response+Relationship%2C+Drug&tags=ok

Safety, Tolerability, and Anti-HIV Activity of PEG-Intron in HIV-Positive Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govSafety, Tolerability, and Anti-HIV Activity of PEG-Intron in HIV-Positive Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Virus Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. Pharmacokinetics. ... The dose level will be increased similarly for up to 4 doses. An optimal dose level is chosen. ... An older cohort of ages 2 to 16 years receives PEG-Intron at the lowest drug level. If the dose is tolerated, patients are ... In a dose-escalation study, patients add weekly PEG-Intron to their antiretroviral therapy for up to 6 weeks. The first 2 doses ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00006325

The Safety and Effectiveness of PMPA Prodrug in HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govThe Safety and Effectiveness of PMPA Prodrug in HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Adenine. Anti-HIV Agents. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Active drug or alcohol abuse as demonstrated by a positive screening test for drugs of abuse (except marijuana or drugs used ... To evaluate the safety of single and multiple doses (28 daily doses) of 9-[2-(R)-[[bis[[(isopropoxycarbonyl)- oxy]methoxy] ... In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 60 patients are randomized to receive PMPA prodrug at 1 of 5 doses ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002396?order=71

Growth Hormone in the Treatment of HIV-Associated Wasting - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govGrowth Hormone in the Treatment of HIV-Associated Wasting - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Body Composition. Additional relevant MeSH terms: HIV Infections. HIV Wasting Syndrome. ... The purpose of this study is to compare physical function and lean body mass in patients getting different doses of somatropin ... The subject must agree not to change the antiviral regimen during the 12 weeks of study drug administration (unless medically ... To establish an optimal dose of Serostim, based on the endpoint of lean body mass (LBM) change.. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00489528?term=%22+May+22%2C++2007%22%3A%22+June+22%2C++2007%22%5BFIRST-RECEIVED-DATE%5DAND+HIV%5BCONDITION%5D&rank=3

A Study of Different Doses of Megestrol Acetate in Patients With AIDS Who Have Anorexia and Malnutrition - Full Text View -...A Study of Different Doses of Megestrol Acetate in Patients With AIDS Who Have Anorexia and Malnutrition - Full Text View -...

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Anorexia. Cachexia. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... To characterize dose response in relation to weight gain. To determine whether megestrol acetate relative to placebo improves ... A Study of Different Doses of Megestrol Acetate in Patients With AIDS Who Have Anorexia and Malnutrition. The safety and ... Contraindications to high-dose megestrol acetate (poorly controlled hypertension or heart failure or deep vein thrombosis). ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00002300

A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Two Different Doses of Aerosol...A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Two Different Doses of Aerosol...

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Aerosols. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Two Different Doses of Aerosol ... A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Two Different Doses of Aerosol ... To evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of long-term biweekly administration of 1 of 2 doses of ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00002055

1998 Annual Report | Developmental Effects of Dietary Soy Phytoestrogens |
  
  Research Project Database | Grantee Research...1998 Annual Report | Developmental Effects of Dietary Soy Phytoestrogens | Research Project Database | Grantee Research...

Dose-Response Relationship/Drug; Drug Effects/Growth and Development; Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; Health Effects; Isoflavones/ ... Administration, Oral; Animal; Animal Feed; Birth Weight/Drug Effects; Carcinogen; DES/Pharmacology; ... Conduct tests to determine affects of gestational versus lactational exposure and possible dose dependent effects. ...
more infohttps://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.highlight/abstract/140/report/1998

1998 Annual Report | Developmental Effects of Dietary Soy Phytoestrogens |
  
  Research Project Database | Grantee Research...1998 Annual Report | Developmental Effects of Dietary Soy Phytoestrogens | Research Project Database | Grantee Research...

Dose-Response Relationship/Drug; Drug Effects/Growth and Development; Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; Health Effects; Isoflavones/ ... Administration, Oral; Animal; Animal Feed; Birth Weight/Drug Effects; Carcinogen; DES/Pharmacology; ... Conduct tests to determine affects of gestational versus lactational exposure and possible dose dependent effects. ...
more infohttps://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/140/report/1998

IMED2002 - Online Flashcards by Rodwan Halimi | BrainscapeIMED2002 - Online Flashcards by Rodwan Halimi | Brainscape

Pharmacodynamics Iii Drug Action And Dose Pharmacodynamics III - Drug action and dose-response relationship ... What Are Drugs And Where Do They Come Fro What are drugs and where do they come from ... Haematological Response To Infection And Haematological Response to Infection and Bone Marrow Failure ... How Do Drugs Work Part Ii How do drugs work? Part II ... what does drug metabolism usually do ..., why are drugs made ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/packs/imed2002-10724098

Center for Theoretical & Mathematical Sciences   » PeopleCenter for Theoretical & Mathematical Sciences » People

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug • Down Syndrome • Drosophila • Drosophila melanogaster • Drosophila Proteins • Ecdysone • ... Duncan, TM; Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF, The relationship between intracellular and plasma levels of folate and metabolites in the ... Davidowitz, G; Roff, DA; Nijhout, HF, A physiological perspective on the response of body size and development time to ... Veitia, RA; Nijhout, HF, The robustness of the transcriptional response to alterations in morphogenetic gradients., Bioessays, ...
more infohttp://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/math/ctms/faculty/hfn

Publications [#174219] of G. Allan JohnsonPublications [#174219] of G. Allan Johnson

Animals • Biological Markers • Cell Cycle • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug • Female • Hair • Histocytochemistry • Male • Mice ... In a similar manner, mice were plucked and treated with a daily dose of 2% minoxidil. A slight difference in cycle lengths was ... Our objective for this study is to establish the relationship between gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and hair growth ... Minoxidil • analysis • analysis* • cytology* • drug effects • enzymology* • gamma-Glutamyltransferase • pharmacology • ...
more infohttp://fds.duke.edu/db/pratt/FIP/gaj/publications/174219

Swine | Veterinary Sciences TomorrowSwine | Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow

Dose-response relationship between antimicrobial drugs and livestock-associated MRSA in pig farming. Posted on June 30, 2015. ... Dose-response relationship between antimicrobial drugs and livestock-associated MRSA in pig farming. Posted on June 16, 2015. ... Given a choice, most patients would prefer to take a drug orally instead of getting an injection. Unfortunately, many drugs, ... Swine farming a risk factor for drug-resistant staph infections, study finds. Posted on June 30, 2015. by Vetscite ...
more infohttp://vetscite.org/tag/swine/

Nitro-linoleic acid inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway.Nitro-linoleic acid inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Linoleic Acids / administration & dosage*. ... Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / cytology, drug effects, physiology*. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / cytology, drug effects, physiology*. ... Cell Proliferation / drug effects*. Cells, Cultured. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. ... Next Document: Glycocalyx modulates the motility and proliferative response of vascular endothelium to fluid shear .... ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Nitro-linoleic-acid-inhibits-vascular/17468336.html

Regulatory effects of Y4 receptor agonist (BVD-74D) on food intake.Regulatory effects of Y4 receptor agonist (BVD-74D) on food intake.

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drinking / drug effects. Fatty Liver / drug therapy. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, ... Appetite Regulation / drug effects*. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Dietary Fats / administration & dosage. ... Obesity / drug therapy*. Peptides / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Receptors, Neuropeptide Y / agonists*. Time Factors. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Regulatory-effects-Y4-receptor-agonist/20600429.html

CASP6 | Cancer Genetics WebCASP6 | Cancer Genetics Web

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex ... response to glucose stimulus - response to heat - response to hydrogen peroxide - response to iron ion - response to organic ... response to cytokine stimulus - response to estradiol stimulus - response to gamma radiation - ... Apoptotic Signaling in Response to DNA Damage BIOCARTA. - Caspase Cascade in Apoptosis BIOCARTA. - FAS signaling pathway ( CD95 ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CASP6.htm

DDIT3 | Cancer Genetics WebDDIT3 | Cancer Genetics Web

Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. *Cell Survival. *Cancer Gene Expression Regulation. *FISH. *Nuclear Proteins ... response to drug - response to endoplasmic reticulum stress - response to hydrogen peroxide - response to nutrient - response ... endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response - ER overload response - intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to ... The primary endpoint of the study was the best overall response rate.. RESULTS: The best overall response rate was 13% in 23 ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/DDIT3.htm
  • In a similar manner, mice were plucked and treated with a daily dose of 2% minoxidil. (duke.edu)
  • Currently metabolic networks (e.g. folate metabolism) are being used to develop a deeper understanding of the functional relationships between genetic variation and trait variation, and of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variables interact to produce phenotypes. (duke.edu)
  • Enzyme-substrate binding is a way to alter the production or metabolism of key endogenous chemicals, for example aspirin irreversibly inhibits the enzyme prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase) thereby preventing inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors may exist which would alter metabolism or drug action itself, and a patient's immediate status may also affect indicated dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • To evaluate the anti-HIV activity of PMPA prodrug, as demonstrated by increases in CD4 cell counts and decreases in HIV RNA, when administered orally as a single dose and daily for 4 weeks to HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of 200 or more cells/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy was observed in tumour cells following cisplatin treatment, as demonstrated by up-regulation of autophagy-inducing protein beclin-1 and subsequent appearance of acridine orange-stained acidic autophagic vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that cisplatin-triggered activation of AMPK and subsequent suppression of mTOR activity can induce an autophagic response that protects tumour cells from cisplatin-mediated apoptotic death. (nih.gov)
  • The former means dosage or amount of dose administered to a person, whereas the latter means the time-dependent concentration (often in the circulatory blood or plasma) or concentration-derived parameters such as AUC (area under the concentration curve) and Cmax (peak level of the concentration curve) of the drug after its administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • This limitation is caused by the complexity of biological systems and the often unknown biological processes operating between the external exposure and the adverse cellular or tissue response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colchicine, a drug for gout, interferes with the function of the structural protein tubulin, while Digitalis, a drug still used in heart failure, inhibits the activity of the carrier molecule, Na-K-ATPase pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • inverse agonist) blocking/antagonizing action (as with silent antagonists), the drug binds the receptor but does not activate it stabilizing action, the drug seems to act neither as a stimulant or as a depressant (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • some drugs possess receptor activity that allows them to stabilize general receptor activation, like buprenorphine in opioid dependent individuals or aripiprazole in schizophrenia, all depending on the dose and the recipient) exchanging/replacing substances or accumulating them to form a reserve (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • We observed that LNO(2) inhibited VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This system allows for turning on or off the synthesis of NFH-GFP at a selected time, for a defined period, in a dose-dependent manner. (nasa.gov)
  • relationship in which a change in the amount, intensity, or duration of exposure is associated with a change in risk of a specified outcome. (drugs.com)
  • The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. (drugs.com)
  • The duration of action of a drug is the length of time that particular drug is effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duration of action is a function of several parameters including plasma half-life, the time to equilibrate between plasma and target compartments, and the off rate of the drug from its biological target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Take advantage of free CureHunter research engine access to explore the best drug and treatment options for any disease. (curehunter.com)
  • Realize the full power of the drug-disease research network! (curehunter.com)
  • Statistical analysis of dose-response curves may be performed by regression methods such as the probit model or logit model, or other methods such as the Spearman-Karber method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other dose units include moles per body-weight, moles per animal, and for dermal exposure, moles per square centimeter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists specialising in animal behaviour and welfare devised an experiment to investigate the relationship between personality and the rate of grunting in pigs. (vetscite.org)