The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
An antipsychotic agent used in SCHIZOPHRENIA.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (1/73494)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (2/73494)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/73494)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (4/73494)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models. (5/73494)

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (6/73494)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (7/73494)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides. (8/73494)

The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-response characteristics for effects of insulin on production and utilization of glucose in man.. AU - Rizza, R. A.. AU - Mandarino, L. J.. AU - Gerich, J. E.. PY - 1981/6/1. Y1 - 1981/6/1. N2 - To determine the dose-response characteristics for the effects of insulin on glucose production, glucose utilization, and overall glucose metabolism in normal man, 15 healthy subjects were infused with insulin for 8 h at sequential rates ranging from 0.2 to 5.0; each rate was used for 2 h. Glucose production and utilization were measured isotopically ([3-3H]glucose). Tissue insulin receptor occupancy was estimated from erythrocyte insulin binding. Glucose production was completely suppressed at plasma insulin concentrations of approximately 60 microunits/ml. Maximal glucose utilization (10-11 occurred at insulin concentrations of 200-700 microunits/ml. The concentration of insulin causing half-maximal glucose utilization (55 + 7 microunits/ml) was ...
Chromosome aberrations induced in vivo were studied in nine children 5-12 years old treated with total-body high-energy photon irradiation (pulsed exposure from a LINAC) for different types of malignant diseases. Dose-effect relationships were obtained for each child by taking blood at different times during exposure. In vitro dose-effect relationships for chromosome aberrations in children and adults were obtained by exposing blood under the same conditions as the children. Exposure in vivo and in vitro yielded similar linear-quadratic dose-effect relationships for dicentric aberrations. The response in vitro was slightly greater than in vivo, but the difference was not very large. It is concluded that the dose-effect relationship for dicentric chromosome aberrations obtained in vitro for adults can be used for biological dosimetry in irradiated children. Some of the children displayed a high number of rogue cells before exposure; this may be due to the malignant disease as it was not found ...
Dose-Related Adverse Reactions Schizophrenia Dose response relationships for the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events were evaluated from four trials in adult patients with schizophrenia comparing various fixed doses (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg/day) of oral aripiprazole to placebo. This analysis, stratified by study, indicated that the only adverse reaction to have a possible dose response relationship, and then most prominent only with 30 mg, was somnolence [including sedation]; (incidences were placebo, 7.1%; 10 mg, 8.5%; 15 mg, 8.7%; 20 mg, 7.5%; 30 mg, 12.6%). In the study of pediatric patients (13 to 17 years of age) with schizophrenia, three common adverse reactions appeared to have a possible dose response relationship: extrapyramidal disorder (incidences were placebo, 5.0%; 10 mg, 13.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); somnolence (incidences were placebo, 6.0%; 10 mg, 11.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); and tremor (incidences were placebo, 2.0%; 10 mg, 2.0%; 30 mg, 11.8%). Extrapyramidal Symptoms ...
This Phase Ib Trial is Dose Finding Study of ABT-199 (A-1195425.0) Plus Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) and Rituximab in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Diffuse Large
BioAssay record AID 189219 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent reduction of neutrophil accumulatiom with an minimum effective dose of 1 mg/kg when administered orally twice daily for two days before induction of acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat.
BioAssay record AID 167575 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro functional antagonistic testing by obtaining ET-1 concentration response curves in rabbit carotid artery rings in the presence or absence of antagonist..
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hypothalamic hormone made up of 41 amino acids. Amino acids are proteins that when combined make up different substances, like hormones. The order of amino acids in CRH, has been determined, meaning that the hormone can now be synthetically reproduced in a laboratory setting.. When CRH is released from the hypothalamus it stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete another hormone, ACTH. ACTH then causes the adrenal glands to make a third hormone, cortisol. This process is known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Problems can occur in any of the steps of this process and result in a variety of diseases (Cushings Syndrome and adrenal insufficiency).. Researchers hope that CRH created in a laboratory setting, ovine CRH (oCRH) can be used to help diagnose and treat conditions of the HPA axis. This study will test the relationship for single doses of oCRH in normal volunteers and patients with disorders of the HPA axis. The oCRH will be injected ...
A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Dose Ranging Study to Evaluate the Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetics of Single Injection Femoral Nerve Block with Liposome Bupivacaine for Postsurgical Analgesia in ...
A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo and Active Controlled, Parallel Group, Multi-Center, Dose Ranging Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of LCI699 Compared to Placebo After 8 Weeks Treatment in Patients With Resistant Hypertension ...
A shallow slope of the exposure response relationship in the observable range in a laboratory bioassay predicts a higher low dose risk; a steep slope a lower low dose risk and thus allows a higher and less protective exposure limit. Increased variability in biological response of the host predicts a shallower exposure response relationship. BrooklynDodger hypothesizes that genetically diverse free living humans show greater variability than genetically homogeneous inbred laboratory housed animals. Therefore, a reference dose established with a dose response relationship in a laboratory study will be underestimate risk in people ...
May or may not have been receiving an approved PDE-5 inhibitor OR an approved ERA.. Subjects receiving an approved ERA or an approved PDE-5 inhibitor must have been on a stable dose for 30 days prior to Baseline, and were willing to remain on a PDE-5 inhibitor or an ERA and at the same dose for the duration of the 12-week Treatment Phase. If a subject chose to discontinue their PDE-5 or ERA prior to entering this study, they must have had a ≥30 day washout period between the last dose of the PDE-5 or ERA and start of the screening phase.. ...
This is one of my favourite topics to ask in vivas. It is very easy to get yourself confused unless you have things clear in your head. Practise, practise, practise..... BT_ GS 1.3 Define and explain dose-effect relationships of drugs with reference to: · Graded and quantal response · Therapeutic index · Potency and efficacy ·…
This 2 part study will select the subcutaneous(sc) dose of Herceptin which results in comparable exposure to intravenous(iv) Herceptin in healthy male v
SEATTLE, Oct. 28, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- A COVID-19 immune response study has revealed new findings that suggest that treatments aimed at arresting the infection at the stage of moderate severity may be most effective. The symptoms of COVID-19 vary widely, from very mild to severe conditions requiring ICU care. Resear...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
The identification of molecules involved in the mitogenic signaling and participating to the process of neoplastic transformation and progression has fostered the synthesis of novel agents able to selectively down-regulate such targets. PKAI seems to be one of such relevant targets suitable for therapeutic intervention, and antisense oligonucleotides against its RIα subunit have shown promising results in inhibiting human cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo (9, 10, 11, 12 , 15) .. In the present study, we have demonstrated that HYB 165, a novel DNA/RNA hybrid MBO with improved pharmacokinetic and bioavailability properties in vivo, exhibits a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on soft agar growth of ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells.. We have also shown that HYB 165, but not its control oligo HYB 508, has a synergisitic inhibitory effect on ZR-75-1 colony formation when used in combination with docetaxel, a cytotoxic drug very active in breast cancer patients (26) . The antiproliferative activity ...
The high rate of dose interruptions and reductions in the initially approved dose of oncology drugs points out the importance and need for improvement to current dose selection strategies that are based on the MTD/3 + 3 method. For example, the FDA approved ponatinib at 45 mg once daily in December 2012 as a treatment for adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML; ref. 5). Vascular occlusions (arterial and venous thrombosis and occlusions) occurred in at least 27% of treated patients. The adverse events included fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, stenosis of large cerebral arterial vessels, and severe peripheral vascular disease, often resulting in the need for urgent revascularization procedures (5). Ponatinib, once daily at 45 mg, was determined as the MTD in a phase I dose-escalation study using the 3 + 3 design (6), and no clear understanding was reached of the dose-response relationship for these vaso-occlusive events. Eventually, the FDA revised the label to explicitly indicate ...
S78454 (also called PCI-24781) is an orally bioavailable, hydroxamate-based pan-HDACi currently being tested in clinical trials in the US and EU. Like many other HDACi, this drug induces a reversible thrombocytopenia. This thrombocytopenia, which was associated with a decrease in either GATA1 transcriptional activity or the expression of proteins of the Rho GTPase family (RhoA, Cdc42 or Rac), remains poorly understood. Given that the S78454 plasma level is above 100nM in treated patients, we performed a dose-response analysis (from 10 to 100 nM) of the drug effects on CFU-MK growth and cell proliferation. CFU-MKs were generated by ex vivo culture of CD34-positive cells and their differentiation was dose-dependently decreased after either a 24-hour treatment or a continuous exposure to S78454. This effect was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in MK proliferation. When added at day 8 of the culture, at a time-point when MK have nearly finished their endomitotic process and are entering in ...
Here, using a Tecan Sunrise™ absorbance plate reader, a pre-selected enriched SM library containing 4,182 SMs was screened at 100 µM concentration against a predominant field APEC serotype, APEC O78, grown in minimal M63 media. Of the total 4,182 SMs, 41 SMs inhibited APEC O78 growth. The majority of growth inhibitory SMs were found belonging to chemical groups; quinolines, piperidines, pyrrolidinyls, and imidazoles. Among 41 SMs, 30 SMs exhibited bacteriostatic activity, while remaining 11 SMs displayed bactericidal activity and were selected for further studies. Dose-response analysis of these selected SMs revealed their dose-dependent activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging 12.5 µM to 200 µM. These selected SMs were found broadly effective against various APEC serotypes such as O1, O2, O8, O15, O18, O35, O109, and O115. Six of these SMs exhibited narrow-spectral activity affecting 1-3 tested commensal bacteria. Except SM11, other SMs were least toxic to Caco-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Studies on the mechanism of haloacetonitrile-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. T2 - interaction of dibromoacetonitrile with glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase in rats.. AU - Ahmed, A. E.. AU - Hussein, G. I.. AU - Loh, J. P.. AU - Abdel-Rahman, Sherif. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - The haloacetonitrile, dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), is a direct-acting genotoxic agent that has been detected in drinking water. In a time course study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with DBAN (75 mg/kg PO), and killed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hr after treatment. In a dose response study, animals were treated orally with various doses of DBAN (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg) and killed at one-half hour after treatment. Control animals received 1 ml/kg PO of the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In both experiments blood and organs were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until the time of analysis. At 0.5 hr after treatment, a single oral dose of DBAN caused a significant decrease of ...
Antibody vs Antigen concentration effect - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Someone once described to me that if there are too many non-specific bands when performing Western blot that a solution is to load more lysate? If this is true would one achieve the same effect if the lysate amount is held constant and the antibody concentration titrated? I have been trying to track down a literature article describing this. Hoping someone can shed some light. Thanks
Concerns about the present study: One Forum reviewer stated: This appears to be a carefully designed and well executed study, but I have four concerns: (1) The study has been undertaken in high-risk individuals, more than half of whom are hypertensive, a quarter dyslipidaemic, and a quarter diabetic. It is not described what happened to the conventional risk factors during the interventions. (For example, any improvement in inflammatory markers may have come at the cost of higher blood pressure with the alcohol interventions.) (2) Was there any weight change that could have confounded any of the outcomes? (3) Both polyphenol and alcohol biomarkers were measured - did the change in these biomarkers correlate with the changes in any of the inflammatory markers; i.e., any suggestion of a dose response relationship? (4) Even though at least 30 outcome variables were assessed, the authors do not describe any correction for multiple comparisons ...
Peterson, W J., Identification and estimation of the proportion of limiting cell types involved in the phytohemagglutinin response by limiting cell dose-response analysis. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4323 ...
Dr. Mercola, who is a self proclaimed fiber guru and our featured authority, states that lower than 10% of the folks within the United States eat enough dietary fiber. A lot of wonderful info right here and as a former Health and Security Rep with particular regard to DSE (Show Screen Tools) I know your recommendation is sound and greater than value following. Heart illness, slow growth, and different points might make a dog owner suspect a genetic illness.. If asked, many aged people suffering from health points would say they wished that that they had taken better care of themselves of their earlier years. Comprehensive weight problems prevention applications function in a dose‐response relationship; the more cash thats invested within the programs, the less individuals that can become sick or die from weight problems. Your physical health is essential, taking a look at your life as a whole youll probably sustain a number of bodily injuries. Weight problems is among the the explanation why ...
Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with an increased risk of hip replacement for osteoarthritis but only in men, Australian researchers report. The study of 9135 participants from the AusDiab study found that in males a one-standard-deviation increase in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D was associated with a 25% increased incidence of hip replacement. A dose response relationship […]
Conclusions: This study has shown dose response relationships between SHS and major tobacco related mortality, and provided new evidence to support causation for COPD and ischemic stroke ...
The bioassay data displayed in this panel includes modeled AC50 values from multi-concentration data only. Single concentration data may also be available for some assay technologies. Single concentration data are included in the list of tested assays endpoints if multi-concentration data are unavailable; this can be visualized by searching for a chemical, and clicking All Tested in the Assay pane in the Toxcast Dashboard. Raw, normalized, and interpreted single concentration data from level 0 to level 2 are fully available from the freely downloadable MySQL database, invitrodb. Internet Explorer may enable the best functionality to view the Toxcast Dashboard. The scaled response shown on the graph below is calculated by dividing the response values by the activity cutoff thereby enabling response comparisons across assay endpoints ...
Phase I, open label, dual centre, dose finding study to evaluate the safety and tolerability of continuous twice daily oral dosing with AZD2281 when adm
increasing the risk of hypertension, Clarithromycin Extended-Release Tablets provide extended absorption of clarithromycin from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. pharmacological properties and clinical use. Pediatric PatientsDosing for pediatric patients is determined by body surface area for PegIntron and by body weight for Rebetol. I had not had this problem previously, - cheap furadantin 50mg without prescription once daily dose response study. EEG changes, may necessitate interruption of therapy. Of particular concern are drugs that have time-release formulations, Oxidation of the bupropion side chain results in the formation of a glycine conjugate of meta-chlorobenzoic acid, - buy furadantin 50mg cheapest at least in some patients, Some would be so serious I would end up in the hospital a few times a year. Metformin and pioglitazone is for people with type 2 diabetes who do not use daily ...
The bioassay data displayed in this panel includes modeled AC50 values from multi-concentration data only. Single concentration data may also be available for some assay technologies. Single concentration data are included in the list of tested assays endpoints if multi-concentration data are unavailable; this can be visualized by searching for a chemical, and clicking All Tested in the Assay pane in the Toxcast Dashboard. Raw, normalized, and interpreted single concentration data from level 0 to level 2 are fully available from the freely downloadable MySQL database, invitrodb. Internet Explorer may enable the best functionality to view the Toxcast Dashboard. The scaled response shown on the graph below is calculated by dividing the response values by the activity cutoff thereby enabling response comparisons across assay endpoints ...
Drug-drug interactions associated with EE2 therapy have been primarily studied in regard to the cytochromes P450. Few studies investigating interactions with the SULTs or other major conjugating enzyme systems have been reported. The inhibition of SULT1A1 at low nanomolar concentrations of EE2 while allowing for EE2 sulfation at higher concentrations suggests a new paradigm for investigating and understanding drug-drug interactions involving SULT1A1 and possibly other isoforms. SULT1A1 is the major xenobiotic sulfating isoform in liver and is widely expressed throughout the body (Hempel et al., 2007); however, its interactions in EE2 therapy are not well studied. The potent inhibition of SULT1A1 was unexpected and indicates that more attention should be paid to sulfation of both drugs and xenobiotics during concurrent therapy with EE2-containing contraceptives. Lack of sulfation activity at the inhibitory concentrations also suggests a relatively long duration of inhibition. Combined with the ...
And things get even murkier or perhaps more clear when Dr. H. Kamel discusses challenges to the notion that the risk of stroke in afib is in fact solely due to thrombi in the left atrium and proposes that things are much more complicated including the notion that at least sometimes a stroke can cause an atrial thrombus. It is well known that stroke can precede the onset of afib.He and coauthors discuss a new model for stroke and afib in which both afib and emboli are downstream effect of abnormal atria substrate (an atrial myopathy).This model might explain why stroke risk is not eliminated by rhythm control strategies and why stroke can predate afib and generally the poor temporal relationship that exist between afib onset and stroke and why some reports do not show a dose response relationship between afib duration and stroke(.However, other reports such as the TRENDS data do show dose response relationship ...
BACKGROUND: Dose-finding trials are essential to drug development as they establish recommended doses for later-phase testing. We aim to motivate wider use of model-based designs for dose finding, such as the continual reassessment method (CRM). METHODS: We carried out a literature review of dose-finding designs and conducted a survey to identify perceived barriers to their implementation. RESULTS: We describe the benefits of model-based designs (flexibility, superior operating characteristics, extended scope), their current uptake, and existing resources. The most prominent barriers to implementation of a model-based design were lack of suitable training, chief investigators preference for algorithm-based designs (e.g., 3+3), and limited resources for study design before funding. We use a real-world example to illustrate how these barriers can be overcome. CONCLUSIONS: There is overwhelming evidence for the benefits of CRM. Many leading pharmaceutical companies routinely implement model-based designs.
Assessment of the efficacy of CN-100 a non-Steroidal antiphlogistic on the pain after the extraction of the impacted mandibular wisdom tooth. An optimal dose finding study by a multi-centered double blind study.:-An optimal dose finding study by a multi-centered double blind study- (1991 ...
dependent association between HCTZ and NMSC has been observed. One study included a population comprised of 71,533 cases of BCC and of 8,629 cases of SCC matched to 1,430,833 and 172,462 population controls, respectively. High HCTZ use (≥50,000 mg cumulative) was associated with an adjusted OR of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.23-1.35) for BCC and 3.98 (95% CI: 3.68-4.31) for SCC. A clear cumulative dose response relationship was observed for both BCC and SCC. Another study showed a possible association between lip cancer (SCC) and exposure to HCTZ: 633 cases of lip-cancer were matched with 63,067 population controls, using a risk-set sampling strategy. A cumulative dose-response relationship was demonstrated with an adjusted OR 2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.6) increasing to OR 3.9 (3.0-4.9) for high use (~25,000 mg) and OR 7.7 (5.7-10.5) for the highest cumulative ...
Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time.[1] It is commonly used as a measure of a drugs potency. EC50 is expressed in molar units (M), where 1 M is equivalent to 1 mol/L. The EC50 of a graded dose response curve therefore represents the concentration of a compound where 50% of its maximal effect is observed.[2] The EC50 of a quantal dose response curve represents the concentration of a compound where 50% of the population exhibit a response,[3] after a specified exposure duration. It is also related to IC50 which is a measure of a compounds inhibition (50% inhibition). For competition binding assays and functional antagonist assays IC50 is the most common summary measure of the dose-response curve. For agonist/stimulator assays the most common summary measure is the EC50.[4] The half maximal effective concentration is sometimes also ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Acute cardiovascular effects of OPC-18790 in patients with congestive heart failure: Time- and dose-dependence analysis based on pressure-volume relations. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
I am a 60-year-old female with osteoporosis. I took Fosamax 70 mg once weekly for seven months until I could no longer endure the side effects. For the following month, I took no medication. Since January 21, 2008, I have been on 680 mg strontium citrate once daily. I intend to relate my progress. My first DEXA scan was done May 8, 2007. My T-score at the lumbar spine was -3.0 (-2.0 at L1, -2.7 at L2, -3.4 at L3 and -3.8 at L4). My T-score at the left hip was -2.2 (-2.8 at neck, -2.0 at troch, -1.9 at inter). My BMD results in g/cm2 were 0.712 at the spine (L1-L4), 0.53 at the left hip (neck), and 0.670 at the left hip (total). A followup scan is planned for July 6, 2009. For these results, see: ...
Information relevant for assessing potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chlorobenzene (108907) was reviewed and summarized. Topics included physical properties, chemical properties, production levels, industrial uses, occupational exposure levels, toxicokinetics, acute and chronic toxicity, organ system toxicity, immunotoxicity, allergy, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, dose/response relationships, and research needs. Studies have indicated that chlorobenzene is absorbed via respiratory and dermal routes and has resulted in headaches, dizziness, somnolence, and dyspeptic disorders in humans chronically exposed. There were no case reports or epidemiological studies available concerned with the potential carcinogenicity of chlorobenzene in humans. There was some limited evidence indicating that the compound is genotoxic and that it may induce hematopoietic toxicity at relatively moderate doses. Chlorobenzene was not classifiable as a ...
Our experience demonstrates the feasibility of implementing this design in multi-institutional trials and the possibility of performing dose-finding studies that require fewer patients than conventional methods.
Warfarin is widely used oral anticoagulant and its pharrnacokinetic (PK) and pharrnacodynamic (PD) properties have been extensively studied. It has a narrow therapeutic index and displays poor quality of treatment due to its complex pharmacology and wide inter and intraindividual variability in the dose-response relationship. This study developed an integrated PK-PD model using STELLA® to describe the dose concentration- effect relationship for warfarin. This model used previously reported\ population PK and PD models and parameter values to generate dose-response data. A one compartment stereo-specific semi-physiological PK model with zero-order drug input was linked to an indirect PD model describing the anticoagulant effect. The indirect PD model consisted of two components: (i) the plasma concentration of S-enantiomer of warfarin (Cs) was related to synthesis of prothrombin complex activity (PCA) described by sigmoid Imax model (ii) conversion of PCA to prothrombin time ratio (PTR), which is
Ms. Deborah Proctor has more than 25 years of experience in environmental and occupational health risk assessment, specializing in applied toxicology, mode-of-action evaluations for chemical carcinogens, environmental chemistry, human health risk assessment, exposure reconstruction, and quantitative dose-response analysis for the purpose of developing toxicity criteria.. Ms. Proctor has technical expertise for assessing the potential human health risk associated with contaminated air, soil, sediments, groundwater, biota, and consumer products; evaluating failure-to-warn litigation claims pursuant to California Proposition 65, including determination of Safe Harbor Levels; designing risk-based site investigations; assessing the environmental fate and toxicity of metals in the environment; determining the bioavailability of metals in soil and solid media; and risk/hazard communications. Ms. Proctor uses state-of-the-art scientific approaches to evaluate potential hazards and develop ...
The experimental investigations used skin fibroblasts cultures at a density of 50,000 cells/100ml of media (5% fetal calf serum 3% antibiotics) exposed to UVB doses (0-5.6 J/cm2) with damage levels assessed by two cytotoxicity assays (Figure 1).. The MTS results in Figure 2 showed a dose response relationship between exposure and cellular mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity as measured by the MTS assay. A decrease in the mitochondrial activity was directly associated with increased UVB dose. The cell exposure to a dose of 2.1 J/cm2 of UVB reduced the mitochondrial activity by more than 50%, while at 5.6 J/cm2 of UVB we witnessed a reduction in activity by 80%.. The relationship between UVB exposure and cellular viability was further investigated using the NR assay. The damage caused by UVB was assessed by determining the reduction in NR dye uptake by the lysosomes because cells with damaged cellular membranes leak and cannot retain the dye [10]. The leakage results in reducing the NR dye uptake ...
Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, provides the most complete pharmacologic model of schizophrenia in humans and animals. Acute PCP causes hyperlocomotion, disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI), and increases social avoidance in rats. We have previously shown that repeated treatment with the dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor agonists, quinpirole or ropinirole, prevents agonist-induced PPI disruption. In the present study, we examined whether repeated ropinirole treatment similarly attenuates the effects of PCP in a more complete model of schizophrenia symptoms and examined the effect of repeated D2-like agonist treatment on locomotion, PPI, and social interaction after acute PCP challenge. The acute effect of PCP (3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg) on locomotor activity was examined to establish a minimum effective dose. Thereafter, the effect of PCP challenge (3.0 mg/kg) on locomotor activity, PPI, and social interaction was assessed in adult male rats before or ...
We observed a moderate positive association between smoking and risk of testicular cancer. Although smoking to any degree was suggestive of an increased risk, the strongest-large effect size and statistically significant-results were observed, independent of smoking status, among those who smoked between 12 and 24 pack-years [OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.04-3.69)] or more [,24 pack-years, OR = 2.31 (95% CI 1.12-4.77)] and among those who smoked about ≥21 years [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.32-7.64; Table 2⇓ )]. Although levels of smoking less than this were not statistically significant, examination of the effect estimates and CIs, particularly for pack-years, suggests a dose response relationship.. Modest but suggestive associations between testicular cancer and smoking have been noted in two large population based studies. The United Kingdom Testicular Cancer Group (4) reported a slight elevation in risk among ever smokers relative to never smokers [OR = 1.18 (95% CI: 0.96-1.46)]. No meaningful ...
Download Free eBook:Statins Toxic Side Effects: Evidence from 500 scientific papers (Cholesterol) - Free chm, pdf ebooks download
How does concentration effect on results of particle size distribution test?,Industry News,News,Jinan Winner Particle Instruments Joint Stock Co. Ltd.,Generally, the particle size distribution measurement is performed by the system to identify and re
How does concentration effect on results of particle size distribution test?,Industry News,News,Jinan Winner Particle Instruments Joint Stock Co. Ltd.,Generally, the particle size distribution measurement is performed by the system to identify and re
Increased time outdoors can help prevent myopia onset and lower the myopic shift in refractive error, reported Shuyu Xiong, and coauthors, in a recent study. However, spending time outdoors did not slow myopic progression in eyes that already had myopia. The investigators meta-analysis and review included 25 articles, 23 of which involved children. They found a significant protective effect from outdoor time for incident myopia and prevalent myopia. With dose-response analysis, an inverse nonlinear relationship was found with increased time outdoors reducing the risk of incident myopia, they wrote. Also, pooled results from clinical trials indicated that when outdoor time was used as an intervention, there was a reduced myopic shift of -0.30 D (in both myopes and nonmyopes) compared with the control group after 3 years of follow-up. Still, when only myopes were considered, a relationship was not found between time outdoors and myopic progression. Future studies can focus on evaluating the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase 1, open label, dose escalation study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of MG1102 (apolipoprotein(a) Kringle V) in patients with solid tumors. AU - Kim, Gun Min. AU - Reid, Tony. AU - Shin, Sang Joon. AU - Rha, Sun Young. AU - Ahn, Joong Bae. AU - Lee, Sung Sil. AU - Chung, Hyun Cheol. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Purpose MG1102 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, and preliminary antitumor efficacy of MG1102. Methods Patients with refractory solid tumors were eligible. Each patient received 1 dose of MG1102 followed by a 6-day rest period, during which they underwent PK assessments and safety monitoring. If the initial dose was tolerated, the patient continued with the 21-day treatment of MG1102 (5 days on, 2 days off for 3 weeks). Dose escalation was planned in 6 cohorts (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, and ...
Developed during the follow-up period, 700 women a type of cancer known to be related to smoking. Among the women who was never smoked beta-carotene. Inversely with the risk of developing tobacco-related cancer, with a dose - response relationship over the observed beta-carotene categories However, among women ever smoked ever smoked, the results were reversed: cancer risk was highest among women in the high-beta-carotene group. The Journal of the National… Read Article →. ...
Current excessive use and abuse of antibiotics has resulted in increasing bacterial resistance to common treatment options which is threatening to deprive us of a pillar of modern medicine. In this work methods to optimize the use of existing antibiotics and to help development of new antibiotics were developed and applied.. Semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) models were developed to describe the time course of the dynamic effect and interaction of combinations of antibiotics. The models were applied to illustrate that colistin combined with a high dose of meropenem may overcome meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections.. The results from an in vivo dose finding study of meropenem was successfully predicted by the meropenem PKPD model in combination with a murine PK model, which supports model based dosage selection. However, the traditional PK/PD index based dose selection was predicted to have poor extrapolation properties from pre-clinical to clinical settings, and ...
Breast-Feeding Promotion Interventions: Good Public Health and Economic Sense. Bonuck, Karen; Arno, Peter S; Memmott, Margaret M; Freeman, Kathy; Gold, Marji; Mckee, Diane // Journal of Perinatology;Jan2002, Vol. 22 Issue 1, p78 The health benefits of breast-feeding are well documented, as are the positive effects of breast-feeding promotion interventions. There is a clear dose -- response relationship between breast-feeding and infant health in the first year of life, and beyond. Further, nearly all breast-feeding... ...
A First-in-human Study of the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Anti-tumor Activity of SAR439459 Monotherapy and Combination of SAR439459 and Cemiplimab in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors
GS-6207, a potent, selective, first-in-class, multi-stage inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid function that inhibits HIV at picomolar concentrations and is in development as a long-acting agent for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The safety, antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics (PK) of GS-6207 were evaluated in people living with HIV (PLWH) in this Phase 1b study.. This is an ongoing, Phase 1b, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study of GS-6207 in HIV capsid-inhibitor naive PLWH who are not taking antiretroviral therapy. A single subcutaneous (SC) dose of GS-6207 (20, 50, 150, 450, or 750 mg; N=6/cohort) or placebo (N=2/cohort) was administered. The primary endpoint was maximum reduction of plasma HIV-1 RNA through post dose day 10 (D10). Safety was assessed using laboratory tests and adverse event (AE) reporting. We present antiviral activity, blinded safety, and dose-response relationship for the 20 to 450 mg dose cohorts; enrollment of the 750 mg cohort is ...
Metoprolol Dosage Range. Bonus pills with every order for all custumers, Free Pills With Every Order For All Custumers, Available free Delivery to USA & WorldWide!
In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, albuterol sulfate caused a significant dose-related increase in the incidence of benign leiomyomas of the mesovarium at dietary doses of 2.0, 10, and 50 mg/kg (approximately ½, 2, and 10 times, respectively, the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults and children, on a mg/m2 basis). In another study this effect was blocked by the coadministration of propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. In an 18-month study in CD-1 mice albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses of up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 60 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults and children on a mg/m2 basis). In a 22-month study in the Golden hamster albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses of up to 50 mg/kg (approximately 8 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults and children on a mg/m2 basis). Albuterol sulfate was not mutagenic in the Ames test with or without metabolic ...
LA and triggered cellular and subcellular reactions are pivotal events of early atherosclerosis and restenosis. We came to 3 basic conclusions after completing the present study. First, in monocultures of HCAECs and HCMSMCs, the surface expression of ICAM-1 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner after incubation with 5 and 10 mmol/L aspirin, but no effect was detected after incubation with 1 and 2 mmol/L aspirin. Second, in the 3DLA model, 5 mmol/L aspirin significantly inhibited the adherence of monocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes and the chemotaxis of monocytes. Third, 5 mmol/L aspirin significantly reduced the reactive proliferative response of cocultured HCMSMCs after selective monocyte or CD4+ lymphocyte attack in the 3DLA model.. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of aspirin on NF-κB-mediated signal cascades agrees with the prior reports of Weber et al14 and Amberger et al,15 who studied endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. The exact mechanism of aspirin on TNF-α-induced and ...
The dose-response relationship for these substances remains unclear. Various chemotherapy drugs have shown increased risk of ... Other drugs that have been associated with toxic leukoencephalopathy in much more rare occurrences include psychoactive drug 2C ... due to causes such as exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental toxins, or chemotherapeutic drugs. The prevalence of this ... High doses of opiates such as oxycodone can lead to leukoencephalopathy. The activity of various opioid and nociceptive ...
Dose-response relationship Ligand receptor binding: Kenakin T, 1993. Pharmacological analysis of drug-receptor interaction New ... Dose-response curves can be constructed to describe response or ligand-receptor complex formation as a function of the ligand ... The magnitude of the rightward shift can be quantified with the dose ratio, r. The dose ratio r is the ratio of the dose of ... This is seen as a change in the dose response curve: typically a rightward shift or a lowered maximum. A reversible competitive ...
Dose response relationship of cell killing by chemotherapeutic drugs on normal and cancer cells. At high doses the percentage ... Antibody-drug conjugates[edit]. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprise an antibody, drug and a linker between them. The ... 5-FU dose management results in significantly better response and survival rates versus BSA dosing.[20] ... "Modeling the 5-fluorouracil area under the curve versus dose relationship to develop a pharmacokinetic dosing algorithm for ...
... a linear dose-response relationship". Journal of Human Hypertension. 15 (8): 549-52. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001215. PMID 11494093. ... Black Licorice: Trick or Treat? from US Food & Drug Administration, Consumer Updates, 25 Oct 2011. ... Black Licorice: Trick or Treat? from US Food & Drug Administration, Consumer Updates, 25 Oct 2011. ...
"Single oral dose kinetics of zotepine and its relationship to prolactin response and side effects". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring ... Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Drug Approvals and Databases - Drug Trials Snapshots: REXULTI for the treatment of ... These drugs have relatively long half-lives. Each drug has a different half-life, but the occupancy of the D2 receptor falls ... There is a good response in 40-50% of patients, a partial response in 30-40%, and treatment resistance (failure of symptoms to ...
... a linear dose-response relationship". Journal of Human Hypertension. 15 (8): 549-52. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001215. PMID 11494093 ... Black Licorice: Trick or Treat? from US Food & Drug Administration, Consumer Updates, 25 Oct 2011. Räikkönen, Katri; et al. ( ... Drug Administration, Consumer Updates, 25 Oct 2011. Perry Romanowski, How Products are Made: Licorice, at ...
... places particular emphasis on dose-response relationships, that is, the relationships between drug ... Mechanism of action Dose-response relationship Pharmacokinetics ADME Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics Pharmaceutical company ... This expression is one way to consider the effect of a drug, in which the response is related to the fraction of bound ... The relationship between occupancy and pharmacological response is usually non-linear. This explains the so-called receptor ...
Drugs or toxins that have a pharmacological (type A) hepatotoxicity are those that have predictable dose-response curves ( ... This type of injury does not have a clear dose-response nor temporal relationship, and most often does not have predictive ... Drug induced hepatitis. Drug-induced hepatic necrosis. Drug induced hepatic fibrosis. Drug induced hepatic granuloma. Toxic ... Drug induced liver disease. Drug induced liver damage. Drug induced liver injury. Hepatogenous poisoning ...
In human performance toxicology, a dose-response relationship between a drug(s) present in the body and the effects on the body ... Lastly, forensic drug testing (FDT) is the detection of drug use among individuals in the workplace, sport doping, drug-related ... The substance may also have been diluted by its dispersal through the body; while a pill or other regulated dose of a drug may ... Testing for drugs in hair is not standard throughout the population. The darker and coarser the hair the more drug that will be ...
... it is important that researchers seek to determine this pattern to examine a possible dose-response relationship between MA use ... Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug that can make users crave more as soon as the end of the last dose, which makes it ... Prenatal drug use by women in the United States came to the forefront of media and public health attention in the 1980s when ... In this study they gave doses of 5 mg/day from days 8 to 22 of pregnancy . The offspring were sacrificed at days 7,14, and 21. ...
This form of the equation can reflect tissue/cell/population responses to drugs and can be used to generate dose response ... The Hill equation can be used to describe dose-response relationships, for example ion channel open-probability (P-open) vs. ... The Hill equation (for response) is important in the construction of dose-response curves. The Hill-Langmuir equation is a ... A distinction should be made between quantification of drugs binding to receptors and drugs producing responses. There may not ...
Strauch K, Lutz U, Bittner N, Lutz WK (August 2009). "Dose-response relationship for the pharmacokinetic interaction of ... Drug Enforcement Administration. August 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-16. Giannini AJ (1997). Drugs of ... Morris H, Wallach J (2014). "From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug ... Adverse effects of dextromethorphan in overdose at doses 3 to 10 times the recommended therapeutic dose:[failed verification] ...
Results from the study also showed highly unanticipated dose-response relationships in the MS patient population that will ... A biologic drug, it is designed to function as a LINGO-1 protein antagonist, known as "Anti-Lingo-1". Some Phase II clinical ... results indicate that primary study endpoints were not met and that opicinumab exhibits unexpected dose-response relationships ... Clinical trial number NCT01052506 for "BIIB033 Single Ascending Dose Study in Healthy Volunteer Subjects" at ...
Fach, WA; Starke, E; Becker, HJ (1992). "Duration of the effect and dose-response relationship of ridazolol in patients with ... "Ridazolol search results". Retrieved 2021-03-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ... Ridazolol is a pharmaceutical drug acting as a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. It was investigated in the 1980 and 90s for ...
Dose-response curves may illustrate the relationship of these metabolic effects. In over-the-counter medicines, dosage is based ... the patient's body weight and the drug's recommended dose per kilogram are used to determine a safe one-time dose. In drugs ... By combining these drugs with a system that detects the concentration of drug particles in the blood, proper dosing could be ... Prescription drug dosage is based typically on body weight. Drugs come with a recommended dose in milligrams or micrograms per ...
... is inconsistent with the law of mass action and the observed dose-response relationships characteristic of therapeutic drugs. ... This idea is also inconsistent with observed dose-response relationships, where effects are dependent on the concentration of ... but the dose-response relationship outside the zone of hormesis declines with dilution as normal, and nonlinear pharmacological ... He advocated the use of single drugs at lower doses and promoted an immaterial, vitalistic view of how living organisms ...
... is inconsistent with the law of mass action and the observed dose-response relationships characteristic of therapeutic drugs ( ... This dose-response relationship has been confirmed in myriad experiments on organisms as diverse as nematodes, rats, and humans ... This idea is also inconsistent with observed dose-response relationships, where effects are dependent on the concentration of ... but the dose-response relationship outside the zone of hormesis declines with dilution as normal, and nonlinear pharmacological ...
... and dose-response relationships thereof) What are the causes of an acute confusional state in a patient? Treatment induced ( ... Iatrogenic): polypharmacy, sedatives, analgesics, steroids, drug withdrawal Vascular: stroke, TIA, vascular dementia ... Inflammatory: infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome Traumatic: head injury, Intracranial hemorrhage, shock ...
... an unwanted change in medical condition caused by a drug Dose-response effect, the relationship between a drug dose and its ... plotted on a dose-response curve Special effect, an artificial illusion Sound effect, an artificially created or enhanced sound ... Effect may refer to: A result or change of something List of effects Cause and effect, an idiom describing causality Drug ... a measure of the strength of a relationship between two variables Effect system, formal system which describes the ...
The precise mechanisms involved remain elusive however, as while the cardiotoxicity shows some dose-response relationship, it ... These drugs include ergotamine and methysergide and both drugs can also cause cardiac fibrosis. Certain antiparkinson drugs, ... The drugs most classically associated with the condition are weight loss drugs such as fenfluramine and chlorphentermine, and ... These drugs include pergolide and cabergoline.[citation needed] Guanfacine may be a 5-HT2B agonist, based on the results of ...
"Influence of polarity on dose-response relationships of intrathecal opioids in rats". Pain. 40 (3): 339-47. doi:10.1016/0304- ... In the United States, it was never available and is classified as a Schedule I drug with a DEA ACSCN of 9301. The salts in use ... but is twice as potent as morphine and has a steeper dose-response curve and longer half-life. It is used in medicine as the ... It is controlled under the Single Convention On Narcotic Drugs. Oxymorphol N-Phenethylhydromorphinol (RAM-378) US 2960505, ...
... dry mouth and increased appetite Studies have also confirmed that impairment is related on a dose response relationship. As ... Drug-Free Workplace Policy Builder Section 7: Drug Testing. DOL elaws-Drug-Free Workplace Advisor". Houser, High times: A ... they follow The Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988, a comprehensive policy, which includes drug prevention methods, information ... thereby increasing the effects of the drug. The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 currently lists cannabis as a Schedule 1 drug ...
Dose-response curves may illustrate the relationship of these metabolic effects. ... Prescription drugsEdit. Prescription drug dosage is based typically on body weight.[3] Drugs come with a recommended dose in ... the patient's body weight and the drug's recommended dose per kilogram are used to determine a safe one-time dose. In drugs ... By combining these drugs with a system that detects the concentration of drug particles in the blood, proper dosing could be ...
... was called upon to provide some explanation for the observed relationships between dose and response during the early days of ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Stumpf, Walter E. (June 2006). "The dose makes the medicine". Drug Discovery Today. 11 ... It states that: For every substance, small doses stimulate, moderate doses inhibit, large doses kill. That is to say, highly ... For instance, many paralysing substances have no exciting effect in weak doses, and what constitutes a weak, medium, or strong ...
Dose-response relationship. *Hill equation (biochemistry). *Schild plot. *Del Castillo Katz model ... further reducing the drug's effects. Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not necessarily associated with drug ... This article is about human resistance to the effects of drugs. For pathogen resistance to the effects of drugs, see Drug ... The opposite concept to drug tolerance is drug reverse tolerance (or drug sensitization), in which case the subject's reaction ...
There was a satisfactory dose-response relationship. This contracture was very similar to that produced by ergometrine maleate ... Hofmann A (1971). "Teonanácatl and Ololiuqui, two ancient magic drugs of Mexico". Bulletin on Narcotics. 1: 3-14. Ergot - A ... the blood pressure increased moderately without showing any dose/response relationship. Ergometrine maleate seemed to be less ... when given in small doses, on the blood pressure of cats anaethetized with chloralose. Higher intravenous doses (0.1-0.3mg/kg) ...
The relationship between the dose and the response is first ascertained. Then the dose corresponding to a given response is ... drugs) applied to a subject (ex. animals, tissues, plants) and a response (ex. death) of the subject is triggered and measured ... The intensity of stimulus is varied by doses and depending on this intensity of stimulus, a change/response will be followed by ... The assay involves 'all or none' response (ex. life or death).[citation needed] The response is produced by threshold effect.[ ...
... was shown to be effective at promoting sleep at various doses; there is a positive dose response relationship between ... 20 mg dose had a different elimination constant from all other doses above 35 mg. TIK-301 is intended to be a take-as-need drug ... In a phase I clinical trial, TIK-301 was shown to be effective as a chronobiotic at a dose of 5 mg/L, but not in lower doses. ... Acquires Drug in Clinical Development to Treat Sleep Disorders". Phase 2 Discovery, Inc. Acquires Drug in Clinical Development ...
This is also referred to as the haemodynamic response. Near infrared (NIR)[edit]. Developed by Dr. Hershel Toomim, near ... 70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ... Mechanistic claims are unsupported as no reverse causal relationship between blood-flow increase and neuronal activity has been ... cats at the behest of NASA that proved that cats trained to consciously alter their sensorimotor rhythm were resistant to doses ...
The relationship of bile acids to cholesterol saturation in bile and cholesterol precipitation to produce gallstones has been ... is increased in the colonic contents of humans in response to a high fat diet.[32] In populations with a high incidence of ... "Bile acid signaling in metabolic disease and drug therapy". Pharmacol. Rev. 66 (4): 948-83. doi:10.1124/pr.113.008201. PMC ... "High-dose ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with the development of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis ...
... systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". BMJ. 354: i3857. doi:10.1136/ ... Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... Threshold for diagnosis of diabetes is based on the relationship between results of glucose tolerance tests, fasting glucose or ... a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Diabetologia. 59 (12): 2527-2545. doi: ...
De Smet, Peter A.G.M. (December 1997). "The Role of Plant-Derived Drugs and Herbal Medicines in Healthcare". Drugs. 54 (6): 801 ... only that a different version or dose might give different results.[120] Barrett also expressed concern that, just because some ... changes in the medical marketplace had influenced the type of response in the journals.[91] Changes included relaxed medical ... therapeutic practice and in their relationship to the medical mainstream.[44] Under a definition of alternative medicine as " ...
He believed the Khmer Việt Minh's relationship to the Việt Minh and thus the international Marxist-Leninist movement made it ... "Pol Pot died after ingesting a lethal dose of a combination of Valium and chloroquine".[400] In May, Pol Pot's widow and Tep ... In response, Sâr wrote an article, "Monarchy or Democracy?", published in the student magazine Khmer Nisut under the pseudonym ... "Pol Pot 'killed himself with drugs'". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 August 2014 ...
Dose-Ranging Study". Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. 17 (3): 333-338. PMID 29537451.. ... The relationship between diet and acne is unclear, as there is no high-quality evidence that establishes any definitive link ... Atrophic acne scars have lost collagen from the healing response and are the most common type of acne scar (account for ... "Drug Trials Snapshots: Aklief". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 ...
They were also more likely to have problems with alcohol and illegal drugs than those women who did not have an abortion. The ... Worries about the stability of the relationship with their partner.. *Feeling that they were not yet mature enough to have a ... Other causes for abortions can be the infection of either the woman or embryo/fetus, or their immune response. Certain diseases ... a retrospective analysis of 3161 consecutive cases of early medical abortion treated with reduced doses of mifepristone and ...
"Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion ... "Synthroid (Levothyroxine Sodium) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings". RxList. Archived from ... Too high a dose of levothyroxine causes hyperthyroidism.[18] Overdose can result in heart palpitations, abdominal pain, nausea ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. *^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket ...
"Infection and Drug Resistance. 8: 119-128. doi:10.2147/IDR.S66739. PMC 4440423. PMID 26028977.. ... The host inflammatory response to the bacteria in the skin causes the characteristic circular EM lesion.[61] Neutrophils, ... a single dose of doxycycline administered within the 72 hours after removal may reduce the risk of Lyme disease. It is not ... the relationship among tick bite, lymphocytoma, EM and Bannwarth's syndrome was recognized throughout Europe leading to the ...
The toxicity and many side effects of the drugs, and the uncertain outcome of chemotherapy in brain tumors puts this treatment ... Personality changes can have damaging effects such as unemployment, unstable relationships, and a lack of control.[14] ... In standard external beam radiation therapy, multiple treatments of standard-dose "fractions" of radiation are applied to the ... in part by shuttling different compounds around in response to injury or other stimulus. ...
Androgen receptor antagonists: drugs that bind directly to and block the AR.[57][58] These drugs include the steroidal ... High-dose estrogen was the first functional antiandrogen used to treat prostate cancer. It was widely used, but has largely ... Flynn T, Guancial EA, Kilari M, Kilari D (2016). "Case Report: Spironolactone Withdrawal Associated With a Dramatic Response in ... Singh SM, Gauthier S, Labrie F (2000). "Androgen receptor antagonists (antiandrogens): structure-activity relationships". Curr ...
"Fractional Dose Yellow Fever Vaccine as a Dose-sparing Option for Outbreak Response. WHO Secretariat Information Paper. ... Ribavirin and other antiviral drugs, as well as treatment with interferons, do not have a positive effect in patients.[18] ... The eradication of yellow fever strengthened the relationship between the US and Mexico, which had not been very good in the ... "WHO dispatched 3.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine for outbreak response in Brazil". World Health Organization. Archived ...
... is a controlled drug for the purpose of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1977 and Schedule 1 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations ... The responses indicated that 48% of Somali males and 16% of females used the narcotic on a monthly basis and that 29% of males ... These leaves are chewed, and act upon the spirits of those using them, much as a strong dose of green tea acts upon us in ... "LANGUAGE RELATIONSHIPS: FAMILIES, GRAFTS, PRISONS". Basic Reference. 28: 217-229. Retrieved 27 April 2012 ...
Guentert TW, Banken L, Hilton S, Holford NH (August 1995). "Moclobemide: relationships between dose, drug concentration in ... The therapeutic response in agitated depressive individuals is similar to that seen in non-agitated depression; however, a past ... An update on drug interactions". Drug Saf. 14 (4): 219-27. doi:10.2165/00002018-199614040-00002. PMID 8713690.. ... Despite its short half-life the pharmacodynamic action of a single dose persists for approximately 16 hours. The drug is almost ...
Dinesh C. Sharma with a motto "to use pleasant sounds in a specific manner like drug in due course of time as green medicine".[ ... If it's a bad experience, the song's rhythm or lyrics can bring out the person's anxiety or fear response. If it's a good ... Their success at establishing a means of communication and relationship with children with cognitive impairments at the ... doses of music', which should be determined by someone who knows the "Brunonian scale".[101] ...
Adult victims of childhood abuse that are depressed show a blunted ACTH response to exoegenous CRH.[33] A blunted ACTH response ... The drug LY354740 (also known as Eglumegad, an agonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3) has been shown to ... The relationship between chronic stress and its concomitant activation of the HPA axis, and dysfunction of the immune system is ... whereas exposure to high doses was associated with stress vulnerability.[29] ...
Body mass index and the risk of gout: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.. European ... Lorcaserin: drug profile and illustrative model of the regulatory challenges of weight-loss drug development. Expert review of ... Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with obesity. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic (Review). 2008-04, 83 (4): 460- ... Diet Drug Orlistat Linked to Kidney, Pancreas Injuries. Medscape. Medscape News. [2011-04-26]. (原始内容存档于2012-05-10).. ...
The drug does not appear on the FDA list of drugs or categories of drugs that present "demonstrable difficulties" for ... Other firms sell to physicians and patients with whom they have only a remote professional relationship."[20] The head of the ... Veterinary medicine, for a change in dose, change to a more easily administered form (such as from a pill to a liquid or ... The law established that pharmacies compounding only "patient-specific" preparations made in response to a prescription (503A ...
This therapy is intended to wean heroin users from the drug by administering small doses of methadone, thereby avoiding ... Relapse prevention is a cognitive-behavioral approach to self-management that focuses on teaching alternate responses to high- ... The complex relationship between employment and crime". International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. ... Drug-related crime[edit]. Of US federal inmates in 2010, about half (51%) were serving time for drug offenses[6] and many ...
... dose-ranging study - dose-response relationship - double-blind study - drug resistance - drug-drug interaction - DSMB - Duffy ... antiretroviral drugs - antisense drugs - antitoxins - Antiviral drug - aphasia - aphthous ulcer - apoptosis - approved drugs - ... multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - myalgia - mycobacterium - mycobacterium ... fat redistribution - FDA FDC - floaters - follicle - follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) - Food and Drug Administration (United ...
... and a linear dose-response relationship at usual clinical doses.[9] Side effects[edit]. Adverse effects include headache, ... Fenoldopam mesylate (Corlopam) is a drug and synthetic benzazepine derivative which acts as a selective D1 receptor partial ... as unexpected hypotension can result from beta-blocker inhibition of sympathetic-mediated reflex tachycardia in response to ... agonist.[1] Fenoldopam is used as an antihypertensive agent.[2] It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in ...
... and is as effective as the other long-acting β2 agonist drugs that require twice-daily dosing for people with stable COPD.[129] ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... "Relationship between cigarette smoking and occupational exposures". Asthma and COPD: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Management ... "Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Drugs: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Advises Restricting Use for Certain Uncomplicated ...
We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four ... Mason, M; Welsh, EJ; Smith, I (May 31, 2013). "Drug therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults". The Cochrane Database of ... Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea is significantly more common among people in relationships, who are alerted to their ... Temporary spells of OSA syndrome may also occur in individuals who are under the influence of a drug (such as alcohol) that may ...
Gross B, Ronen N, Honigman S, Livne E (1999). Tryptophan toxicity--time and dose response in rats. Advances in Experimental ... S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and ... No consistent relationship has ever been firmly established between any specific trace impurity or impurities identified in ... Regulatory response[edit]. The FDA loosened its restrictions on sales and marketing of tryptophan in February 2001,[9] but ...
... and 20 percent have an unsatisfactory response (after 6 weeks on two or three different drugs).[39] Other research from The ... Large doses of insulin would be injected into a person being treated causing them to go into a coma. Then glucose would be ... relationships, or self-care, are markedly below the level that the person achieved before. ... Several drugs have been linked with the development of schizophrenia and the abuse (harmful use) of certain drugs can cause ...
... the UK MHRA issued a Drug Safety Update to physicians in response to reports of these problems.[53] This was in response to an ... Evaluation of sebum production and the clinical response in a multiple-dose trial". Journal of the American Academy of ... Wysowski DK, Swartz L (May 2005). "Relationship between headache and depression in users of isotretinoin". Archives of ... Isotretinoin is the only non-psychiatric drug on the FDA's top 10 list of drugs associated with depression[39][43] and is also ...
"Listing of Drugs Currently Regulated as New Drugs (The New Drugs List)". Health Canada. 26 May 2016. Retrieved ... Relationship with kawakawaEdit. Kawakawa (Piper excelsum) plant, known also as "Maori kava", may be confused with kava. While ... In response to media reports from Europe, in 2002 the FDA issued a (now archived) Consumer Advisory stating that, "Kava- ... even a certain degree of causality linked to kava in a global kava-consuming community that may number in the millions of doses ...
... a dose-response meta-analysis". Scientific Reports. 4: 6161. Bibcode:2014NatSR...4E6161L. doi:10.1038/srep06161. PMC 5381428. ... a b c U.S. Food and Drug Administration: "Listing of Food Additives Status Part I". Archived from the original on January 17, ... The European Food Safety Authority found a cause and effect relationship exists between the dietary intake of vitamin C and ... Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[10] The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.[3] ...
The first strategy has been tested by looking at dose-response anti-tumor effects during autophagy-induced therapies. These ... "New use for old drugs? Prospective targets of chloroquines in cancer therapy". Curr Drug Targets. 15 (9): 843-51. doi:10.2174/ ... Morphological and histochemical studies so far did not prove a causative relationship between the autophagic process and cell ... This is directly related to the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as well.[84][87] This data supports the ...
... drug abuse and drug dependence; to provide for treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers and drug dependent persons; and to ... Pharmacology and CSA scheduling have a weak relationship. Because refills of prescriptions for Schedule II substances are not ... The 1993 Domestic Chemical Diversion and Control Act (effective on April 16, 1994) in response to methamphetamine trafficking. ... are labeled as scheduled III while low-dose testosterone when compounded with estrogen derivatives have been exempted (from ...
Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions. ... dose-response relationship. Definition: relationship in which a change in the amount, intensity, or duration of exposure is ... Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 Alejandro Dorado-García. ... Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming. ... of LA-MRSA-positive pooled samples from pigs during a study of the dose-response relationship between antimicrobial drug use ...
Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 Alejandro Dorado-García. ... Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming. ... Dose-response relationships between antimicrobial use (log2 DDDA/Y) and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant ... DDDA/Y was determined by dividing the total number of kilograms treatable with a single mass unit of the antimicrobial drug ...
Antibacterial Drug Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria Dose-Response Relationship Between Antimicrobial Drugs And ... Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming1 ...
Some drugs produce their effects by interaction with membrane lipids. A drug of this type ... Drug - Functional macromolecules: Many drugs work not by combining with specific receptors but by binding to other proteins, ... Transport proteins are important in many processes, and they may be targets for drug action. For example, some antidepressant ... drugs work by blocking the uptake of norepinephrine or serotonin by nerve terminals. ...
Results of search for su:{Dose-response relationship, Drug.} No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ Library ...
dose-response relationship; *drug. Publication History. *Issue online: 10 January 2003. *Version of record online: 10 January ... Amy T. Sheil, Kim A. Collins, Cynthia A. Schandl, Russell A. Harley, Fatal Neurotoxic Response to Neuroleptic Medications, The ... Meylers Side Effects of Drugs, 2016, 53. CrossRef. *2. S. Guru, Umamaheswari Vanamoorthy, Santosh Loganathan, Mathew Varghese ... Meylers Side Effects of Psychiatric Drugs, 2009, 185. CrossRef. *14. Dallas P. Seitz, Sudeep S. Gill, Neuroleptic Malignant ...
Dose-Response Relationship. *Drug. *Gastrointestinal Agents. *Gastrointestinal Agents: therapeutic use. *Heterocyclic. * ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Virus Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. Pharmacokinetics. ... The dose level will be increased similarly for up to 4 doses. An optimal dose level is chosen. ... An older cohort of ages 2 to 16 years receives PEG-Intron at the lowest drug level. If the dose is tolerated, patients are ... In a dose-escalation study, patients add weekly PEG-Intron to their antiretroviral therapy for up to 6 weeks. The first 2 doses ...
Drug Information available for: Corticotropin Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Hypoadrenalism Cushing& ... Dose Response Relationship for Single Doses of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) in Normal Volunteers and in Patients With ... Dose Response Relationship for Single Doses of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) in Normal Volunteers and in Patients With ... This study seeks to explore these clinical applications by determining the dose-response relationship for single doses of ovine ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay * Epithelial Cells / drug effects ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Adenine. Anti-HIV Agents. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Active drug or alcohol abuse as demonstrated by a positive screening test for drugs of abuse (except marijuana or drugs used ... To evaluate the safety of single and multiple doses (28 daily doses) of 9-[2-(R)-[[bis[[(isopropoxycarbonyl)- oxy]methoxy] ... In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 60 patients are randomized to receive PMPA prodrug at 1 of 5 doses ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Patch-Clamp Techniques * Rats * Receptors, GABA / metabolism* * Retinal Bipolar Cells / drug ... larger maximum current responses, slower response kinetics, and a smaller single channel conductance among diabetic cells ... Responses of the GABA(C) receptor, the predominant GABA receptor on rat rod bipolar cells, exhibited a greater sensitivity to ... receptor-mediated response of diabetic cells. The levels of mRNA, measured with real-time RT-PCR, were consistent with this ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Anorexia. Cachexia. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... To characterize dose response in relation to weight gain. To determine whether megestrol acetate relative to placebo improves ... A Study of Different Doses of Megestrol Acetate in Patients With AIDS Who Have Anorexia and Malnutrition. The safety and ... Contraindications to high-dose megestrol acetate (poorly controlled hypertension or heart failure or deep vein thrombosis). ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Aerosols. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Two Different Doses of Aerosol ... A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Two Different Doses of Aerosol ... To evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of long-term biweekly administration of 1 of 2 doses of ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug\. *Female\. *Humans\. *Male\. *Mortality\. *Neoplasms/mortality/prevention & control\ ...
Dose-Response Relationship/Drug; Drug Effects/Growth and Development; Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; Health Effects; Isoflavones/ ... Administration, Oral; Animal; Animal Feed; Birth Weight/Drug Effects; Carcinogen; DES/Pharmacology; ... Conduct tests to determine affects of gestational versus lactational exposure and possible dose dependent effects. ...
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), both nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors, are commonly used ... Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Drug Administration Schedule * Drug Interactions * Evidence-Based Medicine* ... An evidence-based review of the cardiovascular risks of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Am J Cardiol. 2009 May 1;103(9): ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), both nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors, are commonly used ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug • Down Syndrome • Drosophila • Drosophila melanogaster • Drosophila Proteins • Ecdysone • ... Duncan, TM; Reed, MC; Nijhout, HF, The relationship between intracellular and plasma levels of folate and metabolites in the ... Davidowitz, G; Roff, DA; Nijhout, HF, A physiological perspective on the response of body size and development time to ... Veitia, RA; Nijhout, HF, The robustness of the transcriptional response to alterations in morphogenetic gradients., Bioessays, ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Drug Therapy, Combination HIV Protease Inhibitors Ritonavir Indinavir Anti-HIV Agents Viral ... Patients in the Balanced Dose Arm will receive RTV and IDV in approximately equal doses. The Low Dose RTV Arm will receive a ... Anti-HIV drug therapy failure while on the same anti-HIV drugs for more than 16 weeks * Body size above a certain limit (body ... At each study visit, patients will be closely assessed for drug toxicity and virologic response. At the end of the study, ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Drug Administration Schedule * Drug Therapy, Combination * Estrogen Replacement Therapy/ ... Among women who had been prescribed placebo, these relationships were not evident; instead, cognitive impairment was associated ...
Animals • Biological Markers • Cell Cycle • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug • Female • Hair • Histocytochemistry • Male • Mice ... In a similar manner, mice were plucked and treated with a daily dose of 2% minoxidil. A slight difference in cycle lengths was ... Our objective for this study is to establish the relationship between gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and hair growth ... Minoxidil • analysis • analysis* • cytology* • drug effects • enzymology* • gamma-Glutamyltransferase • pharmacology • ...
No dose-response relationship has been established; reported with dosages of 1 mg twice daily or less.1 ... No dose-response relationship has been established; reported with dosages of 1 mg twice daily or less.1 ... Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
Open Access journal that spans the spectrum of drug design and development through to clinical applications. The journal is ... Analysis of pramipexole dose-response relationships in Parkinsons disease Wang Y, Sun SG, Zhu SQ, Liu CF, Liu YM, Di Q, Shang ... Drug-drug interaction of microdose and regular-dose omeprazole with a CYP2C19 inhibitor and inducer Park G, Bae SH, Park W, Han ... Variability of the drug response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs according to cyclooxygenase-2 genetic polymorphism Lee ...
Keywords: Dose-Response Relationship; Drug. Obesity. Cyclodextrins. INTRODUCTION. The pathophysiological changes determined by ... Briefly, the first patient with a positive response to the received dose will indicate an initial lower subsequent dose to the ... The first patient in the study received a dose of 2.4mg/kg and, if there was a negative response, the next patient would be ... Rocuronium total dose (mg). 96 (84.2-117.8). 100 (79.2-119.4). Sugamadex total dose (mg). 123.6 (108-160.8). 117.6 (107.8-136.8 ...
Some prescription drugs can increase the risk of depression. Learn about which medications may add to your depression risk and ... Dose-response relationship. With some drugs, depression symptoms may get better as the dose is reduced or worse as it is ... Drugs With Depression as a Side Effect. Dr. Bremner has published studies on the possible relationship between the use of ... Prescription Drugs That Cause Depression. Some prescription drugs can cause or contribute to the development of depression and ...
Clinical Drug Development Process and Trial Design Conference scheduled on June 17-18, 2020 in June 2020 in Montreal is for the ... Dose-response relationships. Drug concentration and effect. Model of reaction dynamics. Drug safety ... Drug design. Drug discovery. Drug repositioning. Cost. Safety assessment. Technology. Ethics. Valuation. Success rate. Novel ... Process of drug discovery. Regulatory approval New drug application. Trial design. Active comparator studies. Master protocol. ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Linoleic Acids / administration & dosage*. ... Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / cytology, drug effects, physiology*. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / cytology, drug effects, physiology*. ... Cell Proliferation / drug effects*. Cells, Cultured. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. ... Next Document: Glycocalyx modulates the motility and proliferative response of vascular endothelium to fluid shear .... ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drinking / drug effects. Fatty Liver / drug therapy. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, ... Appetite Regulation / drug effects*. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Dietary Fats / administration & dosage. ... Obesity / drug therapy*. Peptides / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Receptors, Neuropeptide Y / agonists*. Time Factors. ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex ... response to glucose stimulus - response to heat - response to hydrogen peroxide - response to iron ion - response to organic ... response to cytokine stimulus - response to estradiol stimulus - response to gamma radiation - ... Apoptotic Signaling in Response to DNA Damage BIOCARTA. - Caspase Cascade in Apoptosis BIOCARTA. - FAS signaling pathway ( CD95 ...
  • Currently metabolic networks (e.g. folate metabolism) are being used to develop a deeper understanding of the functional relationships between genetic variation and trait variation, and of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variables interact to produce phenotypes. (
  • Together with sex it explains 11% of the between-subject variability in apparent oral clearance, but predictions could potentially be improved if additional alleles causing reduced drug metabolism were identified. (
  • The effect of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids on collagen metabolism. (
  • An overview with emphasis on pharmacokinetics and effects on oxidative drug metabolism. (
  • Thus, HCC therapy is hampered by the fact that the liver is central for xenobiotic metabolism resulting in rapid modifications and efflux of drugs. (
  • 8 This is of particular concern because a substantial number of children with hypertension have underlying systemic diseases that might influence metabolism, dosing, efficacy, and safety. (
  • Typically, different doses are recommended for children 6 years and under, children aged 6 to 12 years, and persons 12 years and older, but outside of those ranges the guidance is slim. (
  • To evaluate differences in steroid concentrations induced by different doses and routes of administration of progesterone. (
  • Different doses of progesterone, given vaginally or orally, were added sequentially during the last 14 days of each treatment cycle. (
  • This study will utilize a rising multiple-dose design to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of PEG-Intron in HIV-infected children. (
  • To determine the pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of PMPA prodrug when administered orally to HIV-infected patients. (
  • A novel polymorphism in ABCB1 gene, CYP2B6*6 and sex predict single-dose efavirenz population pharmacokinetics in Ugandans. (
  • T) may have effect on efavirenz single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics. (
  • WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS center dot A new polymorphism in ABCB1 gene (rs3842) and CYP2B6*11 in addition to sex and CYP2B6*6 genotype predict efavirenz single-dose pharmacokinetics. (
  • center dot A combined population pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic modelling approach allows determination and simulation of determinant factors for efavirenz single-dose pharmacokinetics based on data on gender, biochemical variables and genetic factors in relevant genes (a total of 30 SNPs in CYP2B6, ABCB1 and CYP3A4 genes) in Ugandan population. (
  • The aim was to develop an integrated population pharmacokinetic/pharmacogenetic model and investigate the impact of genetic variations, sex, demographic and biochemical variables on single-dose efavirenz pharmacokinetics among Ugandan subjects, using nonmem. (
  • The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of monoclonal antibodies: mechanistic modeling applied to drug development. (
  • Ternant D, Paintaud G. Pharmacokinetics and concentration-effect relationships of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. (
  • Differences in the pharmacokinetics of SSRIs between men and women may explain why these reports of dose-related ADRs when using SSRIs concern women more than men. (
  • A study regarding the pharmacokinetics after ingestion of low-dose oral progesterone was conducted with postmenopausal women. (
  • The pharmacokinetics of teniposide is linear at doses up to 1000 mg/m 2 . (
  • In mice, the pharmacokinetics of teniposide differs from that of etoposide, a closely related drug, with lower clearance, a larger volume of distribution and a longer terminal elimination half-time. (
  • Small-molecule drug discovery can be viewed as a challenging multidimensional problem in which various characteristics of compounds - including efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety - need to be optimized in parallel to provide drug candidates. (
  • IL-1 or IL-6) I've been trying the following: (adalimumab OR certolizumab OR etanercept OR golimumab OR infliximab OR rituximab OR anakinra OR interleukin-1 OR interleukin-6) AND (sex factors OR sex characteristics) Other terms I've ANDed with the above: treatment outcome, treatment failure, difference, administration and dosage, pharmacokinetics, dose-response relationship. (
  • E E m a x = 1 1 + ( E C 50 [ A ] ) n {\displaystyle {\frac {E}{E_{\mathrm {max} }}}={\frac {1}{1+\left({\frac {\mathrm {EC} _{50}}{[A]}}\right)^{n}}}} The parameters of the dose response curve reflect measures of potency (such as EC50, IC50, ED50, etc.) and measures of efficacy (such as tissue, cell or population response). (
  • To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ESL when used as an add-on treatment for people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. (
  • Dose regression analysis showed evidence that ESL reduced seizure frequency with an increase in efficacy with increasing doses of ESL. (
  • To maximise therapeutic efficacy, sufficient antibody doses should be administered to ensure the saturation of antigen targets by therapeutic antibodies in all patients. (
  • The efficacy of this class of drugs has been demonstrated in the treatment of a number of acid-related gastrointestinal diseases, in particular, gastroesophageal reflux and ulcer disease. (
  • We aimed to establish a human model of EMT to examine drug efficacy and specificity in HCC progression. (
  • Most remarkably, combined treatment with doxorubicin and sorafenib caused increased susceptibility of both HCC cell types resulting in enhanced drug efficacy. (
  • Taken together, this EMT model of human HCC allows the identification of molecular mechanisms and the assessment of therapeutic drug efficacy during liver cancer progression in preclinical studies. (
  • We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and dose-response relationship of fosinopril in children aged 6 to 16 years with hypertension or high-normal blood pressure with an associated medical condition requiring treatment. (
  • 9,10 This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and dose-response relationship of fosinopril in hypertensive children. (
  • Providing public access to clinical information on the safety and efficacy of drugs and on the safety and effectiveness of medical devices can enable independent re-analyses of data, foster new research questions, and benefit Canadians by helping them make informed decisions about their health. (
  • drug monitoring (TDM) is essential for tacrolimus to optimize dosage and prevent adverse reactions. (
  • Prescription drug dosage is based typically on body weight. (
  • Drugs come with a recommended dose in milligrams or micrograms per kilogram of body weight, and that is used in conjunction with the patient's body weight to determine a safe dosage. (
  • In single dosage scenarios, the patient's body weight and the drug's recommended dose per kilogram are used to determine a safe one-time dose. (
  • Medication underdosing occurs commonly when physicians write prescriptions for a dosage that is correct for a certain time, but fails to increase the dosage as the patient needs (i.e. weight based dosing in children, or increasing dosages of chemotherapy drugs if a patient's condition worsens). (
  • The correct dosage for a patient is dependent on their individual reaction to both chemicals, and therefore the dosing must be continually adjusted once treatment is initiated to find the right balance. (
  • The recommended dosage of ANTHIM in adult patients is a single dose of 16 mg/kg administered intravenously over 90 minutes (1 hour and 30 minutes) [see Administration ]. (
  • A concise summary of the information required under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, with any appropriate subheadings, including the recommended dosage regimen, starting dose, dose range, critical differences among population subsets, monitoring recommendations, and other clinically significant clinical pharmacologic information. (
  • In clinical pharmacology , dose refers to dosage or amount of dose administered to a person [ citation needed ] , whereas exposure means the time-dependent concentration (often in the circulatory blood or plasma) or concentration-derived parameters such as AUC (area under the concentration curve) and C max (peak level of the concentration curve) of the drug after its administration [ citation needed ] . (
  • On the basis of the concept that a given dose of an antineoplastic compound would destroy a certain fraction of tumor cells, the efficiency of tumor chemotherapy, to a great extent, is dependent on the dosage of drugs and higher doses are supposed to be more effective. (
  • Lack of quantitative information about the drug exposure-response relationship has resulted in empirical dosage regimens for use of NPX in RA. (
  • In drugs where multiple doses of treatment are needed in a day, the physician must take into account information regarding the total amount of the drug which is safe to use in one day, and how that should be broken up into intervals for the most effective treatment for the patient. (
  • Dose-response relationships between antimicrobial use (log 2 DDDA/Y) and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) predicted probabilities in pigs (A) and humans (B), the Netherlands, 2011-2013. (
  • Studying dose response, and developing dose-response models, is central to determining "safe", "hazardous" and (where relevant) beneficial levels and dosages for drugs, pollutants, foods, and other substances to which humans or other organisms are exposed. (
  • However, the new data also showed that some DIPG cells develop resistance to the drug, which means it will likely need to be combined with other drugs to achieve the best results in humans. (
  • The drugs were chosen because they were thought to have possible effects against brain tumors and were already used in humans or were being developed for human use. (
  • To examine selectivity of tolerated doses of an inhibitor of the inducible COX-2 in humans, we examined the effects of celecoxib on indices of COX-1-dependent platelet thromboxane (Tx) A 2 and on systemic biosynthesis of prostacyclin in vivo . (
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Pharmacology: Drug Regulation and Approval 1. (
  • Dose response relationships modelled by dose response curves are used extensively in pharmacology and drug development. (
  • Background Observational studies and randomized controlled trials have yielded inconsistent findings about the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and the risk of pneumonia. (
  • The aim of this study was to summarize the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and the risk of pneumonia in observational studies and randomized controlled trials. (
  • The objective of this Technical Review is to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other prospective, comparative clinical trials of self-administered drug treatments for the acute, episodic treatment of migraine headaches. (
  • In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 60 patients are randomized to receive PMPA prodrug at 1 of 5 doses or matching placebo tablets. (
  • Part A (Days 1-7): Patients receive a single dose of PMPA prodrug or matching placebo tablets administered orally followed by a 1-week observation period. (
  • Randomized placebo controlled double- blind add-on trials of ESL in people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. (
  • Certain postmenopausal women on sequential HT with vaginal and oral progesterone experience mood deterioration during the progesterone phase while on a low dose of progesterone but not on higher doses or the placebo. (
  • Design 42 placebo controlled studies of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors submitted to the Swedish drug regulatory authority as a basis for marketing approval for treating major depression were compared with the studies actually published (between 1983 and 1999). (
  • Forty two short term (4-8 weeks) placebo controlled clinical trials with the approved doses were submitted to the Swedish drug regulatory authority and formed the basis for the approvals. (
  • There were 4 phases: a screening phase of 10 days maximum, a 4-week dose-response phase, a placebo withdrawal phase of 2 weeks maximum, and a 52-week open-label safety phase. (
  • The literature review addressed the question "What are the effects on headache pain and the tolerability of self-administered drug treatments for acute migraine headache compared to placebo, alternative drug treatments, and non-drug therapies? (
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), both nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors, are commonly used medications for the relief of acute and chronic pain associated with a wide range of medical conditions. (
  • The recommended initial dose for acute hyperammonemia is 100 mg/kg/day to 250 mg/kg/day. (
  • Acute renal failure has been associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in healthy children. (
  • High doses of intravenous methotrexate, a necessary component of chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, is known to cause asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy in children. (
  • Adverse drug events (ADEs) impose a major clinical and cost burden on acute hospital services. (
  • A substantial body of high-quality evidence exists describing the effectiveness of various drugs for the treatment of acute migraine. (
  • Synthesis and dissemination of this information may help correct the underuse or misuse of acute drug treatment strategies for migraine headache. (
  • Studies of parenteral treatments ordinarily administered in a clinical setting will be covered in a companion report (Parenteral drug treatments for acute migraine headache). (
  • 1967) noted that clinical syndromes vary from a mild euphoric feeling of relaxation at low doses (25 micrograms per kilogram) to an intensive hallucinogenic-like experience at high doses (250 micrograms per kilogram). (
  • These regimens, though effective, do not completely eliminate HIV and the development of drug resistance is a major clinical problem. (
  • Previous short-term clinical studies in adults showed anti-HIV activity, although there were safety and tolerability problems associated with the higher dose regimens used. (
  • Combination regimens of RTV and IDV in adults offer the benefit of two potent antiretroviral agents, convenience of twice-daily dosing, unrestricted timing of meals, and fewer renal complications. (
  • There are limited, largely anecdotal data from children suggesting that initial virologic response can also be attained in children given IDV with RTV, but there are not sufficient pharmacokinetic data to define appropriate dose regimens. (
  • A population PK approach was used to derive intravenous infusion dosing regimens that are predicted to provide pediatric patients with exposure comparable to the observed exposure in adults [see Use in Specific Populations ]. (
  • The majority of people with epilepsy have a good prognosis , but up to 30% of people continue to have seizures despite several regimens of antiepileptic drugs. (
  • Across all antidiabetes drug regimens, patients with AKI experienced hypoglycemia more frequently than patients without AKI, though the incidence of hypoglycemia was highest among insulin users, followed by glyburide and glipizide users, respectively. (
  • Exactly assessing tumor response to different dose of chemotherapy would help to tailor therapy for individual patients. (
  • This study was to determine the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of tumor vascular response to different dose cisplatin. (
  • Significant decreases in tumor normalized perfusion parameters were observed on day 3 in the high dose group and on day 7 in the low dose group. (
  • Dynamic CEUS for quantification of tumor perfusion could be used to evaluate tumor vascular response to different dose of chemotherapy. (
  • However, high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumor in order to boost the effect of anti-cancer therapy is always under controversy. (
  • Thus, exactly assessing tumor response to different dose of chemotherapy is urgently needed, which could not only be helpful to tailor therapy for individual patients, but also avoid wasting of medical resource. (
  • Ultrasound is an attractive imaging technique for assessment tumor response to treatment because it can be repeated without exposing the patient or animal to any risk of radiation. (
  • The purpose of our study was to measure the dose-response relationship in cisplatin-treated breast tumor xenografts by using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound. (
  • For the first time, scientists have identified an existing drug that slows the growth of the deadliest childhood brain tumor. (
  • The drug restricted the tumor's growth in a lab dish and improved the survival time of mice that had the tumor implanted into their brains, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine , in collaboration with colleagues at other institutions. (
  • The drug repairs a portion of the cellular machinery now known to be defective in DIPG tumor cells, the new research showed. (
  • Of the 83 drugs, only a small number showed promise in slowing tumor cells' growth. (
  • Over-the-counter medications are typically accompanied by a set of instructions directing the patient to take a certain small dose, followed by another small dose if their symptoms don't subside. (
  • Dosing should be titrated based on individual patient plasma ammonia levels and clinical symptoms. (
  • Metronidazole, an antibiotic used to treat aerobic and protozoal infections, has been known at high doses to produce neurologic symptoms associated with toxic leukoencephalopathy. (
  • Patients with severe symptoms or lack of response to first-line therapies should be referred to a psychiatrist. (
  • To be considered for this review, studies were required to be prospective, controlled trials of self-administered drug treatments aimed at the relief of symptoms of individual episodes of headache in patients with migraine. (
  • Similar measurements can be used as a rough estimate of drug toxicity , the result being expressed as the median lethal dose (LD 50 ), which is defined as the dose causing mortality in 50 percent of a group of animals. (
  • Patients who complete Part A without a dose-limiting toxicity begin Part B. (
  • At each study visit, patients will be closely assessed for drug toxicity and virologic response. (
  • At the end of the study, patients with good virologic response and no evidence of toxicity may choose to enter a 48 week extension phase and continue taking the combination regimen. (
  • The risk of rhabdomyolysis (severe muscle toxicity) from statin drugs increases with increase in systemic exposure. (
  • Various chemotherapy drugs have shown increased risk of cancer patients developing leukoencephalopathy. (
  • There have been over 200 clinical trials of chemotherapy drugs for DIPG, and none have shown any survival benefit," said Michelle Monje , MD, PhD, assistant professor of neurology at Stanford and a senior author of the paper. (
  • In the new study, the research team screened 16 DIPG cell lines derived from patients' tumors against 83 possible chemotherapy drugs, exposing cells to small samples of each drug. (
  • In conclusion, it is important that cardiologists, who are not among those physicians frequently prescribing NSAIDs, have a particular responsibility to have up-to-date, thoughtfully synthesized information about the CV risks of these drugs, especially when administered to patients receiving low-dose aspirin for cardioprotection. (
  • To evaluate the risk of developing upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a retrospective (historical) cohort study was performed, using a computerized data base including 1980 billing data from all Medicaid patients in the states of Michigan and Minnesota. (
  • Objective To evaluate whether prenatal use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased risk of miscarriage. (
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs in the developed world 1 - 3 and are often used by pregnant women. (
  • Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis is thought to account for both the therapeutic and adverse effects associated with the administration of conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ( 23 , 24 ). (
  • In a dose-escalation study, patients add weekly PEG-Intron to their antiretroviral therapy for up to 6 weeks. (
  • An integrated nano-scale approach to MEDICINE which involves concurrent diagnosis, drug delivery, therapy, and monitoring of therapeutic response. (
  • However, when patients with such variants are treated with drugs outside of their approved label, successes and failures of targeted therapy are not systematically collected or shared. (
  • In a US Medicaid population, PPIs accounted for 5.6% of the net pharmacy expenditures and ranked first in expenditures among all drug therapy classes during the 12 months before the implementation of the PPI prior-authorization policy. (
  • Recommended first-line therapies are cognitive behavior therapy, specifically exposure and response prevention, and/or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (
  • Cognitive behavior therapy, specifically exposure and response prevention, is the most effective psychotherapy method for treating OCD. (
  • Augmenting SSRI therapy with an atypical antipsychotic is effective in some patients with OCD who have inadequate response to SSRI therapy. (
  • Because therapy with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets is initiated at a low dose and gradually titrated upward according to clinical tolerability to obtain the optimum therapeutic effect, adjustment of the initial dose based on gender, weight, or age is not necessary. (
  • Food does not affect the extent of pramipexole absorption, although the time of maximum plasma concentration (T max ) is increased by about 1 hour when the drug is taken with a meal. (
  • The effect produced by a drug varies with the concentration that is present at its site of action and usually approaches a maximum value beyond which a further increase in concentration is no more effective. (
  • There are sequential evaluation methods for binary response variables used to determine the concentration or dose associated with the 50% point of the dose-response curve. (
  • Impact of POR and CYP3A5 Polymorphisms on Trough Concentration to Dose Ratio of Tacrolimus in the Early Post-Operative Period Following Kidney Transplantation. (
  • Whether a drug is ingested orally, injected into a muscle or vein, absorbed through a mucus membrane, or any of the other types of administration routes, affects how quickly the substance will be metabolized by the body and thus effects the concentration of the active ingredient(s). (
  • The Hill equation is the following formula, where E {\displaystyle E} is the magnitude of the response, [ A ] {\displaystyle {\ce {[A]}}} is the drug concentration (or equivalently, stimulus intensity) and E C 50 {\displaystyle \mathrm {EC} _{50}} is the drug concentration that produces a 50% maximal response and n {\displaystyle n} is the Hill coefficient. (
  • A commonly used dose-response curve is the EC50 curve, the half maximal effective concentration, where the EC50 point is defined as the inflection point of the curve. (
  • The concentration leading to 50% maximal response was 17.3±1.3 μg/mL. (
  • We observed a dose-response relationship between SHS particle concentration over 30min and post-exposure impairment of FMD, which was linear through the range typically encountered in smoky restaurants and then saturated at higher concentrations. (
  • Doses are most commonly measured for compounds in medicine. (
  • Calculating drug dosages for treatment for more serious diseases like cancer is commonly done through measuring the Body Surface Area of the patient. (
  • In fact, marijuana is patently safer than many commonly prescribed drugs. (
  • ADRs more reported in women than men when using SSRIs were usually dose-related ADRs or commonly occurring ADRs. (
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with UGI bleeding, although the magnitude of the increased risk is reassuringly small. (
  • Naproxen (NPX) is a frequently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • To be eligible for the trial, patients have to have exhausted or declined standard therapies, and have malignancies with potentially actionable variants for which no approved anticancer drugs are available. (
  • Here we show an overall rate of clinical benefit-defined as complete or partial response, or as stable disease beyond 16 weeks-of 34% in 215 treated patients, comprising 136 patients who received targeted therapies and 79 patients who received immunotherapy. (
  • Some drugs produce their effects by interaction with membrane lipids . (
  • ED 50 values provide a useful way of comparing the potencies of drugs that produce physiologically similar effects at different concentrations. (
  • When a drug is used therapeutically, it is important to understand the margin of safety that exists between the dose needed for the desired effect and the dose that produces unwanted and possibly dangerous side effects. (
  • In general, the narrower this margin, the more likely it is that the drug will produce unwanted effects. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists hostility, anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts as possible side effects of this medication. (
  • Given these potential adverse effects, clinicians should use caution in prescribing acid-suppressive drugs for patients at risk. (
  • Dose-response curves may illustrate the relationship of these metabolic effects. (
  • Drugs and Addiction Drugs have many effects on the body and mind. (
  • For most beneficial or recreational drugs, the desired effects are found at doses slightly greater than the threshold dose. (
  • However, toxic leukoencephalopathy induced by drug abuse or environmental toxins have had more damaging side effects. (
  • Outcomes investigated included 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, seizure freedom, treatment withdrawal, adverse effects , and drug interactions. (
  • Debonnel G, Saint-Andre E, Hebert C, de Montigny C, Lavoie N, Blier P. Differential physiological effects of a low dose and high doses of venlafaxine in major depression. (
  • Drugs, Society and Human Behavior provides the latest information on drug use and its effects on society as well as on the individual. (
  • Magnitude of response, dose dependency, time course, effects of sex and age, and response to switching from haloperidol to olanzapine are assessed. (
  • ActRI mRNA levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner by activin-A with the maximal effect observed at the dose of 10 ng/ml.Time course studies revealed that activin-A had maximal effects on ActRI mRNA levels at 6 hours after treatment.In addition, inhibin-A inhibited basal, as well as activin-A-induced ActRI mRNA levels. (
  • The effects of activin-A on ActRI mRNA levels was blocked by follistatin, an activin binding protein, in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • At the doses of 50 and 100 ng/ml, follistatin-288 completely blocked the effects of activin-A on the ActRI mRNA levels (Fig. 5). (
  • Selective publication: studies showing significant effects of drug were published as stand alone publications more often than studies with non-significant results. (
  • For multivariate analysis multiple logistic regression was performed for constipation with the number of drugs, use of drugs with known constipation side effects, and each drug class (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC) level 4) as independent variables. (
  • 0.001) and the usage of drugs with known constipation adverse effects (odds ratio 2.21, p = 0.009). (
  • These findings suggest that constipation is associated with the number of drugs used, particularly those with constipation adverse-effects, in the elderly of GWS. (
  • Effects of low-dose recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I on insulin sensitivity, growth hormone and glucagon levels in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. (
  • A logistic growth function accounting for natural paw growth and an indirect response model for paw edema and drug effects (inhibition of k in ) was applied. (
  • Of special interest is the possibility that acid-suppressive drugs could increase susceptibility to respiratory infections because these drugs increase gastric pH, thus allowing bacterial colonization. (
  • 6 , 7 Several previous studies have shown that treatment with acid-suppressive drugs might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections 8 and community-acquired pneumonia in adults 6 , 7 and children. (
  • Our study supports the need for caution when using intramuscularly administered, abruptly increasing, high-dose neuroleptics, particularly in mentally retarded or agitated patients, regardless of environmental temperature. (
  • If the dose is tolerated, patients are added and if safety criteria are met, patients are enrolled in the next higher dose level. (
  • Patients initially receive the next lower PEG-Intron dose to the optimal dose identified in Cohort I [AS PER AMENDMENT 07/23/01: or 1 microg/kg if the optimal dose proves to be 1 microg/kg]. (
  • If this dose is safely tolerated, additional patients are added. (
  • If this dose level meets safety criteria, patients are enrolled to receive the optimal dose level. (
  • This study will test the relationship for single doses of oCRH in normal volunteers and patients with disorders of the HPA axis. (
  • This study seeks to explore these clinical applications by determining the dose-response relationship for single doses of ovine CRH (oCRH) in normal volunteers and in patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (
  • To evaluate the anti-HIV activity of PMPA prodrug, as demonstrated by increases in CD4 cell counts and decreases in HIV RNA, when administered orally as a single dose and daily for 4 weeks to HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of 200 or more cells/mm3. (
  • To evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of long-term biweekly administration of 1 of 2 doses of aerosol pentamidine when used as a prophylactic agent in patients who have had multiple episodes of AIDS associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). (
  • Patients will be randomized to either Balanced Dose or Low Dose RTV treatment arms. (
  • Patients in the Balanced Dose Arm will receive RTV and IDV in approximately equal doses. (
  • Patients will have intensive pharmacokinetic analysis at Week 4 (or 2 weeks after a stable dose of study drugs has been reached) and Week 16. (
  • to determine the ED90 (minimum effective dose in 90% of patients) of sugammadex for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in patients with grade III obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. (
  • Measures of weight correction to indicate the best scheme of drug administration in obese patients have been proposed 4 - 6 . (
  • Results in patients with grade III obesity submitted to laparoscopic bariatric surgery under NMB indicated an optimal dose of 2mg/kg of sugammadex based on 140% of the IBW for patients with moderate neuromuscular blockade 14 . (
  • However, a prospective observational study found that 23.4% of patients required a second dose of sugammadex to reverse moderate NMB over a two-minute time interval when a dose of 2mg/kg was used in comparison with the time of reversion between non-obese subjects 15 . (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the minimum effective dose of sugammadex in 90% of obese patients (ED 90) required to complete the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockage using the up-and-down design of biased coin (BCD) in patients with grade III obesity submitted to bariatric surgery. (
  • Dose optimisation of tacrolimus with therapeutic drug monitoring and CYP3A5 polymorphism in myasthenia gravis patients. (
  • However, patients have to take immunosuppressive drugs to. (
  • Based on limited data in 22 patients receiving maintenance treatment with Carbaglu® in a retrospective case series, maintenance doses were usually less than 100 mg/kg/day. (
  • ANTHIM is indicated in adult and pediatric patients for the treatment of inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs. (
  • The recommended dose for pediatric patients is based on weight as shown in Table 1 below. (
  • We therefore initiated the Drug Rediscovery protocol, an adaptive, precision-oncology trial that aims to identify signals of activity in cohorts of patients, with defined tumour types and molecular variants, who are being treated with anticancer drugs outside of their approved label. (
  • The potential of the Drug Rediscovery protocol is illustrated by the identification of a successful cohort of patients with microsatellite instable tumours who received nivolumab (clinical benefit rate of 63%), and a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer with relatively low mutational load who experienced only limited clinical benefit from immunotherapy. (
  • Patients with OCD require higher SSRI dosages than for other indications, and the treatment response time is typically longer. (
  • Adverse drug events and medication problems in hospital at home patients. (
  • Prospective validation of clinical criteria to identify emergency department patients at high risk for adverse drug events. (
  • But serum RBP declined by about 75% in the early enrollers receiving 300 mg a day of the drug, and these patients had the smallest mean increase in lesion size. (
  • Dose-response relationships of inhaled insulin delivered via the Aerodose insulin inhaler and subcutaneously injected insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. (
  • In a similar manner, mice were plucked and treated with a daily dose of 2% minoxidil. (
  • MCF-7 breast cancer bearing mice were treated with different dose of cisplatin in group B (1 mg/kg) and group C (3 mg/kg). (
  • Many drugs work not by combining with specific receptors but by binding to other proteins, particularly enzymes and transport proteins . (
  • Transport proteins are important in many processes, and they may be targets for drug action. (
  • Children with an obviously difficult airway and mental retardation and taking drugs that have antiemetic action (phenothiazines, corticosteroids, and tricyclic antidepressant) and with previous history of motion sickness were excluded from the trial. (
  • Typical experimental design for measuring dose-response relationships are organ bath preparations, ligand binding assays, functional assays, and clinical drug trials. (
  • The greater the quantity delivered, the larger the dose. (
  • As with most drugs, the larger the dose taken, the greater the psychopharmacologic effect. (
  • The major dose-limiting toxic effect of teniposide in clinical trials is myelosuppression, manifest mainly as leukopenia. (
  • In clinical trials of drugs the role of the sponsor is especially important. (
  • Prostaglandins (PGs) are autacoidal lipid mediators of importance in physiological responses, inflammation and thrombosis ( 1 ). (
  • Serious adverse cardiovascular (CV) events have been reported with NSAID use, but unfortunately, definitive evidence regarding the precise CV risk associated with these drugs, as a class and individually, is lacking. (
  • Several studies have investigated sex as a risk factor for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and found that women are more likely to experience ADRs than men. (
  • Epidemiology of drug exposure and adverse drug reactions in two swiss departments of internal medicine. (
  • Martin RM, Biswas PN, Freemantle SN, Pearce GL, Mann RD. Age and sex distribution of suspected adverse drug reactions to newly marketed drugs in general practice in England: analysis of 48 cohort studies. (
  • Sex-related differences in hospital admissions attributed to adverse drug reactions in the Netherlands. (
  • Drici MD, Clement N. Is gender a risk factor for adverse drug reactions? (
  • Vilhelmsson A, Svensson T, Meeuwisse A, Carlsten A. What can we learn from consumer reports on psychiatric adverse drug reactions with antidepressant medication? (
  • No differences between men and women in adverse drug reactions related to psychotropic drugs: a survey from France, Italy and Spain. (
  • A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if a physician's use of electronic medication reconciliation software when writing a patient's discharge prescription will prevent adverse drug ev. (
  • Medication reconciliation (MR) at hospital admission, transfer, and discharge has been designated as a required hospital practice to reduce adverse drug events. (
  • However, the incidence of adverse drug events in these programs is unknown. (
  • This study describes adverse drug events an. (
  • Adverse drug events cause or contribute to one in nine emergency department presentations in North America, and are often misdiagnosed. (
  • Bivariate associations between constipation and number of drug use and number of drug use with constipation adverse effect were compared. (
  • Further, there is a dose/response relationship between adverse impact and years of increased exposure under legalization. (
  • These legislative changes were enacted in response to community outrage after a series of adverse events reported in the media, particularly the deaths of two young men associated with alcohol-fuelled violence. (
  • AIMS Efavirenz exhibits pharmacokinetic variability causing varied clinical response. (
  • Pharmacokinetic analyses show that low-dose oral progesterone can be used as a prodrug to allopregnanolone when the aim is to achieve physiological concentrations of allopregnanolone. (
  • Arthritic rats exhibited lower plasma and ISF albumin concentrations and reduced clearances of unbound drug to explain pharmacokinetic profiles. (
  • provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. (
  • Some prescription drugs can cause or contribute to the development of depression and other mood disorders. (
  • What do certain asthma, acne, malaria, and smoking-cessation prescription drugs have in common? (
  • Depression as a side effect of prescription drugs is widespread and increasingly gaining attention. (
  • Can Physicians Spot Prescription Drug Misuse? (
  • Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). (
  • The relationship between prescription drug usage and constipation has not been explored. (
  • Steady-state concentrations are achieved within 2 days of dosing. (
  • A drug of this type is the antifungal agent amphotericin B , which binds to a specific molecule ( ergosterol ) found in fungal cells. (
  • Responses of the GABA(C) receptor, the predominant GABA receptor on rat rod bipolar cells, exhibited a greater sensitivity to GABA, larger maximum current responses, slower response kinetics, and a smaller single channel conductance among diabetic cells relative to those recorded from normal controls. (
  • Compared with the properties of homomeric rho1 and heteromeric rho1rho2 receptors formed in a heterologous expression system, these results suggested that there was a greater contribution from the rho1 subunit in the GABA(C) receptor-mediated response of diabetic cells. (
  • Like mammalian hair cells, zebrafish hair cells are sensitive to damage from ototoxic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics. (
  • A dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy was observed in tumour cells following cisplatin treatment, as demonstrated by up-regulation of autophagy-inducing protein beclin-1 and subsequent appearance of acridine orange-stained acidic autophagic vesicles. (
  • Taken together, these data suggest that cisplatin-triggered activation of AMPK and subsequent suppression of mTOR activity can induce an autophagic response that protects tumour cells from cisplatin-mediated apoptotic death. (
  • Drug exposure of mesenchymal HCC cells showed higher resistance to the targeted therapeutic agents sorafenib and erlotinib as compared to epithelial HCC cells, which were slightly more resistant to cytostatic drugs. (
  • The team tracked six of the drugs' dose-response relationship on DIPG cells and selected panobinostat for further study. (
  • Volunteers received doses of 100, 400, or 800 mg of celecoxib or 800 mg of a nonselective inhibitor, ibuprofen. (
  • ICCDDPTD 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Clinical Drug Development Process and Trial Design . (
  • Help us be a 2020 "Top Rated Nonprofit", and spread accurate info about psychoactive drugs, health, culture, & policies. (
  • ANTHIM is supplied as 600 mg/6 mL in single-dose vials for intravenous infusion. (
  • Leukoencephalopathy may result from the inhalation, intravenous injection, or ingestion of substance abuse drugs. (
  • 2 Drug shortage bulletins have been issued repeatedly for intravenous PPIs in the United States. (
  • Large-Scale Variability of Inpatient Tacrolimus Therapeutic Drug Monitoring at an Academic Transplant Center: a Retrospective Study. (
  • We report the phylogenetic relationship of swine enteric coronaviruses collected in Italy during 2007-2014 and identify a drastic shift in PEDV strain variability and a new swine enteric coronavirus generated by recombination of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and PEDV. (
  • The dosing recommendations in Table 1 are derived from simulations using a population PK approach designed to match the observed adult exposure to ANTHIM at a 16 mg/kg dose [see Use in Specific Populations ]. (
  • Is the Extrapolated Adult Dose of Fosinopril Safe and Effective in Treating Hypertensive Children? (
  • The primary objective of the dose-response phase was to determine whether low (0.1 mg/kg), medium (0.3 mg/kg), or high (0.6 mg/kg) doses of fosinopril based on established adult dosing affect trough seated systolic blood pressure. (
  • CRH is administered intravenously at doses up to 10 pg/kg, given as a bolus or up to 1 ug/kg/b as a continuous infusion lasting up to 24 hours. (
  • Administer the recommended dose of ANTHIM intravenously over 90 minutes (1 hour and 30 minutes) [see Preparation and Dilution for Administration ]. (
  • PEG-Intron is an experimental drug that works differently than other anti-HIV medications. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Clinical Drug Development Process and Trial Design are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • Because a hypothesis in drug design is based on incomplete, error-prone experimental data, the term 'abduction' may be formally better suited. (
  • High doses of opiates such as oxycodone can lead to leukoencephalopathy. (
  • The medications that contribute to drug-induced depression might surprise you. (
  • 1 One group of medications in widespread use is acid-suppressive drugs, which represent the second leading category of medication worldwide, with sales totalling US$26.9 billion in 2005. (
  • In particular, the shape of a drug's dose-response curve (quantified by EC50, nH and ymax parameters) reflects the biological activity and strength of the drug. (
  • CONCLUSIONS The model identified the four factors CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*11, a novel variant allele in ABCB1 (rs3842) and sex as major predictors of efavirenz plasma exposure in a healthy Ugandan population after single-dose administration. (
  • Inpatient tacrolimus therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) lacks standardized guidelines. (
  • Due to narrow therapeutic range of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, therapeutic drug mo. (
  • The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. (
  • The children enrolled in this study will have high HIV viral loads despite taking anti-HIV drugs. (
  • For bacterial or viral agents, dose typically refers to the amount of the pathogen required to infect a host. (
  • PEG-Intron has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat hepatitis C in adults, but in this study, it is being used as an investigational agent for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (
  • The purpose of this study is to find a combination of RTV and IDV that is safe, well tolerated, and produces drug levels in the blood of children that are comparable to effective drug levels in the blood of adults. (
  • Because children appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of fosinopril than adults, starting doses for children should be ≤0.1 mg/kg. (
  • There was no significant difference between the doses of celecoxib on COX-2 inhibition. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration also has guidance to elucidate dose-response relationships during drug development. (
  • TACE represents an intraarterial administration of therapeutic drugs combined with embolizing agents which leads to a more selective distribution and a higher retention time of therapeutics within HCC. (
  • Panobinostat was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of a form of blood cancer. (
  • Dose response relationships may be used in individuals or in populations. (
  • In populations, dose-response relationships can describe the way groups of people or organisms are affected at different levels of exposure. (
  • States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for leadership in expanding the Global AIDS Program to respond to epidemics of HIV in drug-using populations and for promoting HIV prevention in drug-using populations. (
  • citation needed] Statistical analysis of dose-response curves may be performed by regression methods such as the probit model or logit model, or other methods such as the Spearman-Karber method. (
  • Methods and Results- Under physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.35, 1.25 mmol/L Ca 2+ ), there was a dose-dependent decrease in contractile force in ventricular trabeculae isolated from end-stage failing human hearts superfused with pantoprazole. (
  • Contraindications to high-dose megestrol acetate (poorly controlled hypertension or heart failure or deep vein thrombosis). (
  • The majority of drugs with high lipid solubility have a high distribution volume 3 . (
  • Inderal (propranolol hydrochloride) and other drugs in the beta-blocker class, used to treat high blood pressure. (
  • To examine the dose-response relationship between match-play high-speed running (HSR), very high-speed running (VHSR), and sprint (SPR) distances versus subsequent ratings of fatigue and soreness. (
  • In a nontolerant person the estimated lethal dose of heroin may range from 200 to 500 mg, but addicts have tolerated doses as high as 1800 mg without even being sick[1]. (
  • An optimal dose level is chosen. (
  • This systematic review was designed to find out optimal tacrolimus dose in pediatrics according to their CYP3A5*1 genotype by performing meta-analysis. (
  • Review of literature showed that optimal dose of granisetron for prevention of PONV was 40 mcg/kg [ 5 ] while dexamethasone has been used in 50 mcg/kg to 1 mg/kg for PONV prophylaxis [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • A 'dose' of any chemical or biological agent (active ingredient) has several factors which are critical to its effectiveness. (
  • The dose-response relationship, or exposure-response relationship, describes the magnitude of the response of an organism, as a function of exposure (or doses) to a stimulus or stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time. (
  • Three groups of rats were included for each sex: healthy animals, CIA controls, and CIA rats given a single 50-mg/kg dose of NPX intraperitoneally. (
  • Prespecified subgroup analyses by renal recovery, baseline chronic kidney disease, preadmission drug regimen, and HbA 1c were performed. (
  • We have developed a chemical screen that takes advantage of neuromasts in the larval zebrafish lateral line system to evaluate FDA-approved drugs and bioactives for modulators of hair cell regeneration. (
  • A dose-response curve is a coordinate graph relating the magnitude of a stimulus to the response of the receptor. (
  • One of the drugs within this category is Accutane (isotretinoin), the oral treatment for severe acne that has been associated with psychiatric problems, including depression. (
  • Over the past 40 years, the development of potent acid-suppressive drugs, including proton pump inhibitors, has led to considerable improvements in the treatment of acid-related disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Leukoencephalopathy can develop from long-term treatment of methotrexate even at low doses. (
  • ESL reduces seizure frequency when used as an add-on treatment for people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. (
  • In this review , we summarized the current evidence regarding eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) when used as an add-on treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. (
  • Take advantage of free CureHunter research engine access to explore the best drug and treatment options for any disease. (
  • Drug treatment should rely on solid evidence, and it is now generally recognised that the standard basis for treatment guidelines is systematic literature reviews or meta-analyses of all randomised controlled trials. (
  • The present report does not cover all analgesics or other drugs that may be used for the treatment of migraine, but only those that have been studied in controlled trials among a population of migraineurs. (
  • Prevalence of LA-MRSA-positive pooled samples from pigs during a study of the dose-response relationship between antimicrobial drug use and LA-MRSA on pig farms, the Netherlands, 2011-2013. (
  • Our objective for this study is to establish the relationship between gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and hair growth and to determine whether its activity can be correlated to induced hair growth. (
  • A dose response relationship was found in the case control study. (
  • But study leaders blamed a change in drug formulation midway through the trial for obscuring benefits accruing to the study's initial participants. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of drug use on constipation in the elderly population of GWS (NSW, Australia). (
  • 160, or 240 units inhaled regular insulin , delivered via a clinical Aerodose insulin inhaler, and two of three corresponding doses of 8, 16, or 24 units by subcutaneous injection under isoglycemic clamp conditions on 4 separate study days in an incomplete block design study. (
  • While the preclinical data in the new study are encouraging, Monje cautioned that the drug, panobionstat, needs further testing in a closely monitored human clinical trial. (
  • We have developed a chemical screen to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologically active compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. (