Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Norpregnenes: Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.PropylaminesMorphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Pseudoephedrine: A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
George C. Nichopoulos
Alexander Shulgin reported it to be stoning in high doses. Most frequently consumed orally, recreational doses of MDEA are in ... Infrequently, MDEA is an adulterant of ecstasy pills. Studies conducted in the 1990s found MDEA present in approximately four ... MDEA is a substituted amphetamine and a substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine. MDEA acts as a serotonin, norepinephrine, and ... Shulgin briefly mentioned a colleague's report of no effect from the substance with a 100 mg dose. Shulgin later characterized ...
Ecstasy pills might also contain a low dose of 2C-I to potentiate its euphoric effects. Pharmaceutical pills are sometimes sold ... 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), amphetamine, methylamphetamine, benzylpiperazine ( ... Their services were at one time free, but when they ran out of funding they had to charge a fee for every pill tested. Date ... The results are then posted on their website along with every other pill that they have tested. The tests are considered to be ...
... which also featured liberal doses of amphetamine. Freymann bragged that he could rattle off 100 names of his celebrity patients ... In a 1980 interview, John Lennon said the song was "Mainly about drugs and pills. It was about myself. I was the one that ... That's what Doctor Robert is all about, just a pill doctor who sees you all right." In the 1997 biography Paul McCartney: Many ... The US government began cracking down on amphetamine distribution in the early 1970s after a series of deaths and an increasing ...
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A go pill generally contains one of the following drugs: Amphetamine (methamphetamine having been used historically, such as ... both low-dose Dexedrine and relevantly, diazepam, for either one or the other extremity of condition (fatigue or sleeplessness ... In the U.S. military and other uses, a no-go pill refers to a hypnotic medication taken to ensure adequate rest in preparation ... As of November 2012, medications approved as no-go pills by the U.S. Air Force for Special Operations include: Temazepam ( ...
... is metabolized by the body to form two drugs, amphetamine (24.5% of oral dose) and theophylline (13.7% of oral ... Baker, Graeme (26 October 2015). "Saudi prince arrested in Lebanon trying to smuggle two tonnes of amphetamine pills out of the ... pills and some cocaine on a private jet scheduled to depart for the Saudi capital of Riyadh. Captagon pills have spread widely ... but are pressed and stamped to look like Captagon pills. Some counterfeit Captagon pills analysed do contain fenethylline ...
Corporate logos on pills. A number of ecstasy manufacturers brand their pills with a logo, often being the logo of an unrelated ... Acute adverse effects are usually the result of high or multiple doses, although single dose toxicity can occur in susceptible ... MDA and MDMA are less reinforcing than amphetamine.... *^ a b Steinkellner T, Freissmuth M, Sitte HH, Montgomery T (January ... 50 doses used and ,100 tablets consumed) lifetime exposure. MDMA use at high doses has been shown to produce brain lesions ...
This is a mechanism of action shared with drugs of abuse such as amphetamines, and MeOPP produces somewhat similar effects ... MeOPP is anecdotally said to induce significantly less anxiety than similar piperazines, and is usually taken at doses between ... "Party pills", initially in New Zealand and subsequently in other countries around the world. ... and hepatic metabolism of designer drugs of the amphetamine (ecstasy), piperazine, and pyrrolidinophenone types: a synopsis". ...
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In 2015, a systematic review and a meta-analysis of high quality clinical trials found that therapeutic doses of amphetamine ... doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1853-4. Twohey M (26 March 2006). "Pills become an addictive study aid". JS Online. Archived from the ... Therapeutic (relatively low) doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working ... Approximately 22% of the dose is immediate release, and the remaining 78% of the dose is released over 10-12 hours post ...
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... nicotine and d-amphetamine. The effect is dose-dependent. Since complete suppression of dependence using a medication had never ... Russell Goldman (14 January 2009), Doctor Claims Cure for Alcoholism in a Pill, ABC News Ameisen O (August 2005). "Naltrexone ... Ameisen O (2005). "Complete and prolonged suppression of symptoms and consequences of alcohol-dependence using high-dose ... Ameisen urged for randomized trials to test suppression of alcohol dependence using high-dose baclofen. In 2008, Ameisen wrote ...
At therapeutic doses, the adverse effects of amphetamine do not impede athletic performance; however, at much higher doses, ... Twohey M (26 March 2006). "Pills become an addictive study aid". JS Online. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. ... Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of component percentages / 4. dose = (1 / amphetamine base percentage) × scaling ... There is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans. However, large doses of amphetamine may indirectly ...
At therapeutic doses, the adverse effects of amphetamine do not impede athletic performance; however, at much higher doses, ... Conversely, "no-go pills" are used after the mission is completed, to combat the effects of the mission and "go-pills". The ... Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of component percentages / 4. dose = (1 / amphetamine base percentage) × scaling ... There is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans. However, large doses of amphetamine may indirectly ...
For example, large recreational doses of amphetamine or methamphetamine can simultaneously cause erectile dysfunction and ... Emerging research is showing that hormonal contraception methods like oral contraceptive pills (which rely on estrogen and ... Gunne LM (2013). "Effects of Amphetamines in Humans". Drug Addiction II: Amphetamine, Psychotogen, and Marihuana Dependence. ...
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When taken orally, 30-54% of the dose is excreted in urine as methamphetamine and 10-23% as amphetamine. Following IV doses, ... Due to the psychological and stimulant effects of methamphetamine, Obetrol became a popular diet pill in America in the 1950s ... At higher doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle, seizures and bleeding in the brain. Chronic high-dose ... ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sex addictions, which are ...
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The most common abused stimulant by athletes is amphetamine. Amphetamine are the largest group of stimulants. Amphetamine was ... Diuretics, sometimes known as 'water pills', are drugs which draw excess fluid from the tissues of the body and convert it into ... and if taken in high doses, hyperthermia, heat failure, and possibly death. Anabolic agents, or Anabolic Androgenic Steroids ( ... Usage of stimulants, such as amphetamine, can lead to death. In 1960, Danish cyclist Kurt Enemar Jensen died from amphetamine ...
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"And pills. Do you want to see pills? Have a look, here are the pills." Each pulled out three boxes.. "The truth is," Francis ... Amphetamine was also used legally as an aid to slimming and also as a thymoleptic before being phased out by the appearance of ... Returning to America, Ziegler tried low doses of testosterone on himself, on the American trainer Bob Hoffman and on two ... With a soigneur we counted the pills: there were 5,000 of them, excluding hormone preparations and sleeping pills. I took them ...
The effects of oral administration of cathinone occur more rapidly than the effects of amphetamine pills; roughly 15 minutes as ... These leaves are chewed, and act upon the spirits of those using them, much as a strong dose of green tea acts upon us in ... Catha edulis (khat) is a stimulant narcotic that is similar to that of amphetamine and its congeners, not a drug as categorised ... These chemicals belong to the PPA (phenylpropanolamine) family, a subset of the phenethylamines related to amphetamines and the ...
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A Natural Standard monograph that reviews current research on theanine reports that it is likely safe in doses of 200-250 mg up ... the combination has become popular over recent years as a nootropic supplement typically found in the form of a pill, drink, or ... or urinalysis in rats fed high doses of theanine for 13 weeks. Large studies in humans have not been undertaken; however, ... to a maximum daily dose of 1,200 mg. Though some people use theanine for these purposes, Natural Standard rates the evidence to ...
... which makes it illegal to have ephedrine in higher doses than 8 mg per pill. Lower than 8 mg pills are still available Otc for ... As a phenethylamine, ephedrine has a similar chemical structure to amphetamines and is a methamphetamine analogue having the ... Non-liquid dose form of regulated product may only be sold in unit-dose blister packs ... In 1997, the FDA proposed a regulation on ephedra (the herb from which ephedrine is obtained), which limited an ephedra dose to ...
In Germany, alprazolam can be prescribed normally in doses up to 1 mg. Higher doses are scheduled as Anlage III drugs and ... Some people sell Xanax on the street for ten or fifteen dollars a pill. They call them Xannies.. ... such as amphetamine, cocaine, and MDMA allowing sleep. Alprazolam may also be used with other depressant drugs, such as ethanol ... The maximum recommended daily dose is 10 milligrams per day.. Overdoses of alprazolam can be mild to severe depending on ...
Slow dose titration is needed to mitigate some side effects. Investigational. Schizophrenia. See also: Modafinil ... In addition, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, an inhibitor of dopamine synthesis, blocks the action of amphetamine but does not block ... "Regulators Reject a Drug Maker's Plan to Use Its Alertness Pill to Overcome Jet Lag". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, ... "A single dose of armodafinil significantly promotes vigilance 11 hours post-dose". Military medicine. 176 (7): 833-839. PMID ...
Amphetamines (except methamphetamine) 1 to 3 days. up to 90 days. 12 hours ... Only a very small amount of material is needed to obtain results, and can be used to test powder, pills, capsules, crystals, or ... Detectable but dose relationship not established. LSD 2-24 hours. up to 4 days. 2 to 4 days ... Various panels are used for screening urine samples for common substances, e.g. triage 8 that detects amphetamines, ...
"New pill ingredient worries ministry". Television New Zealand. October 4, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2011.. ... Based on our findings we conclude that oral preparations with ,4 mg DMAA per dose unit should be considered as effective as a ... 3-amphetamine or simply dimethylamylamine (DMAA), is an indirect sympathomimetic drug invented and developed by Eli Lilly and ... "Another bitter pill: a case of toxicity from DMAA party pills". Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association. 123: 124-7. ...
It was sold in Germany in the late 1990s and early 2000s as an ingredient in imitation ecstasy (MDMA) pills. It shares a ... Acquisition of self-administration and fixed ratio dose-response curves in rats". Neuropharmacology. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm. ... and hepatic metabolism of designer drugs of the amphetamine (ecstasy), piperazine, and pyrrolidinophenone types: a synopsis". ...
Freye, Enno (2010). "Toxicity of Datura Stramonium". Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related ... Further, the high standards applied to conventional medicines do not always apply to plant medicines, and dose can vary widely ... "The Methods of Preparation of Herb Formulas: Decoctions, Dried Decoctions, Powders, Pills, Tablets, and Tinctures". Institute ... both because they may provide an increased dose of similar compounds, and because some phytochemicals interfere with the body's ...
The oldest known pills were made of the zinc carbonates hydrozincite and smithsonite. The pills were used for sore eyes and ... Johnson AR; Munoz A; Gottlieb JL; Jarrard DF (2007). "High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary ... inhibits dopamine reuptake and amplifies amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux in vitro. The human serotonin ... "World's oldest pills treated sore eyes". New Scientist. January 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. ...
"A brief history of the birth control pill - The pill timeline , Need to Know , PBS". 7 May 2010.. ... Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and amphetamineEdit. By the 1890s, the profound effect of adrenal extracts on many different ... Phase II can include pharmacokinetics and dosing in patients, and Phase III is a very large study of efficacy in the intended ... Nonetheless, by 1962, 1.2 million American women were on the pill, and by 1965 the number had increased to 6.5 million. ...
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Aune D, Norat T, Vatten LJ (December 2014). "Body mass index and the risk of gout: a systematic review and dose-response meta- ... The second group coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and has ... and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if ... A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies". Circulation. 133 (7): 639-49. doi:10.1161/ ...
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... as amphetamine. Following IV doses, about 45% is excreted as methamphetamine and 7% as amphetamine. The half-life of ... "Herman-Göring-Pills" (Hermann-Göring-Pillen). Side effects were so serious that the army sharply cut back its usage in 1940.[ ... Kraemer T, Maurer HH (August 1998). "Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or ... Further information on illicit amphetamine synthesis: History and culture of substituted amphetamines § Illegal synthesis ...
Coe, HV; Hong, IS (May 2012). "Safety of low doses of quetiapine when used for insomnia". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 46 (5 ... After controlling for sleep duration and insomnia, use of sleeping pills was also found to be associated with an increased ... amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake. ... It is preferred that hypnotics be prescribed for only a few days at the lowest effective dose and avoided altogether wherever ...
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- The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine is in a class of medications called central nervous system stimulants. (medlineplus.gov)
- Both are deemed synthetic stimulants that don't create amphetamine-like outcomes. (google.com)
- The amphetamine-based stimulants include Adderall, Vyvanse, and Evekeo . (additudemag.com)
- Benzedrine had recently come on the scene in the US, and the amphetamine stimulants were popular among students, artists, and bohemian types in various European and American cities. (alternet.org)
- Amphetamines are stimulants. (kidshealth.org)
- That's been known for about 70 years," he noted, rattling off a list of names of a dozen central nervous system stimulants including Adrenalin, strychnine and amphetamines. (latimes.com)
- Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. (jrank.org)
- Folks who really need to stay awake dope themselves with amphetamines-stimulants that can ward off sleep for days but cause terrible crashes when they wear off. (slate.com)
- Stimulants like Adderall, sometimes called "smart pills," are currently the second most common form of drug use on college campuses. (everydayhealth.com)
- Just like with other stimulants, a dose of MDMA boosts heart rate and can increase blood pressure. (businessinsider.com.au)
- Stimulants like an increasing number of the stimulant treatment plans for some facts about stimulants available in conservative doses in psychotropic drug the psychostimulants cause these healthy inhibitory. (umbriameteo.com)
- Can't go far down that garcinia cambogia from the brain boost levels food some weight loss effects of stimulants are numerous and sah, stimulants, high dose administration of alcohol or inhibiting glutamate excitatory hi, approved canadian pharmacy. (umbriameteo.com)
- MDMA is a mixture of phenylethylamines, which release feel-good chemicals in your brain, and amphetamines, which are stimulants and hallucinogenic agents. (rookiemag.com)
- Stimulants fall into two main categories: amphetamines and methylphenidates. (thevarsity.ca)
- Unfortunately, as many as one in five people do not respond to the two standard stimulants, methylphenidate and amphetamine. (additudemag.com)
- People who abuse stimulants may swallow pills. (ahealthyme.com)
- If taken at doses or by methods other than those prescribed by a healthcare provider, stimulants can be addictive. (ahealthyme.com)
- Amphetamines or speed, ups, stimulants, diet pills are science's latest contribution to the turn-on generation. (nymag.com)
- Dexedrine - What doses are the ADHD adults here taking of dextroamphetamine? (drugs.com)
- But maybe I'm just a freak because I respond to very low doses of dexedrine. (longecity.org)
- The Air Force prescribes "go pills"-small doses of the amphetamine Dexedrine-to pep up long-haul pilots. (slate.com)
- Amphetamines like Dexedrine, for example, promote wakefulness by interfering with uptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine, causing dopamine to flood the brain. (slate.com)
- Adderall and Dexedrine are amphetamines . (medicinenet.com)
- The side effects of Adderall and Dexedrine are nearly identical, given that dextroamphetamine is one of the two active ingredients in Adderall, the other being amphetamine. (medicinenet.com)
- Ecstasy, a combination of methamphetamine or amphetamine and hallucinogen, officially hit the party scene sometime in the late 70s and early 80s. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- Illegal users of methamphetamine originally took the drug in pill form or prepared it for injection. (jrank.org)
- Some generic names of amphetamines include amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. (encyclopedia.com)
- Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug related to the natural biochemical amphetamine . (dependency.net)
- In some cases, small doses of methamphetamine are prescribed by a doctor to treat certain medical conditions. (dependency.net)
- Legal methamphetamine is typically taken in pill form, while people using it illicitly may take it orally or may inject, smoke, or snort it. (dependency.net)
- a synthetic group of drugs that includes amphetamine and methamphetamine salt and base forms (speed, pills, base and ice). (health.gov.au)
- The participants were separated into two groups: one that received full MDMA doses and one that received "active-placebo" low doses. (yahoo.com)
- The study found that 68 percent from the full-dose MDMA group did not qualify for a PTSD diagnosis one month after their second MDMA session, compared to only 29 percent in the low-dose group. (yahoo.com)
- Psychosocial treatment may improve short-term adherence to treatment for cocaine and amphetamine (including MDMA) use disorders, and it may improve abstinence rates. (aafp.org)
- The active oral dose of MDMA is 75 mg. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- On average, most pills contain under 100 mg of MDMA - the rest is inactive pill filler which can include food dye, starch, or talcum powder. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- MDMA is at least in part a derivative of amphetamines , giving it those energy-boosting properties. (businessinsider.com.au)
- The primary risks taken by a recreational MDMA user relate to its criminal nature: adulteration with amphetamines, cathinones and others, as well as the unknown dose contained in a pill or questionably-pure powder have caused a great deal of suffering since MDMA's criminalisation. (medium.com)
- MDMA, which in its powder form is called molly (short for molecule) and in its pill form is called ecstasy, is a popular club drug. (rookiemag.com)
- Molly often comes as loose whitish powder in a bag or in a pill capsule and is considered to be the purer form of MDMA. (rookiemag.com)
- If someone decides to try MDMA, it's best to take one capsule or 100 mg of molly, or one single-stacked pill of ecstasy. (rookiemag.com)
- This is light-years below the lethal dose of MDMA, but it's better to play it really safe with drugs that might have any adverse effects on one's health and/or mind (i.e., all of them). (rookiemag.com)
- 4-FA, but also other substances such as amphetamine (speed), MDMA, caffeine or nothing at all. (jellinek.nl)
- Ecstasy (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, also known as MDMA , Molly, X, or Adam) is a recreationally used synthetic and hallucinogenic amphetamine. (columbia.edu)
- Ecstasy-chemically known as 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA - is a synthetic, psychoactive drug with amphetamine-like and hallucinogenic properties. (drugprevent.org.uk)
- Coingestion with MDMA or amphetamine should also be cautioned against. (nih.gov)
- MDMA, Molly and ecstasy - if you are lucky they are all the same thing - ideally at a dose of about 80mg/pill or dab. (hotpress.com)
- Pill seizures/amnesty bin sample analysis in the UK and Europe are showing most pills contain MDMA, sometime in a very high dose. (hotpress.com)
- 4) People seem to be dying a lot more often from MDMA in 2013 and there are rumours of contaminated pills being to blame. (hotpress.com)
- Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine (Adderall) is also used to treat narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep) in adults and children 12 years of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
- The highest dosage recommended by the drug company is forty milligrams, and this dose is supposed to be reserved for patients with narcolepsy. (studentdoctor.net)
- It can decrease appetite- was used as a diet pill, treat narcolepsy and adhd, pathological fatigue, sea sickness. (healthtap.com)
- The other condition for which amphetamines are prescribed is a sleep disorder known as narcolepsy, the sudden uncontrollable urge to sleep during the hours of wakefulness. (jrank.org)
- Amphetamines stimulate the nervous system and are used in the treatment of depression, attention-deficit disorder, obesity , and narcolepsy , a disorder that causes individuals to fall asleep at inappropriate times during the day. (encyclopedia.com)
- The typical dose for amphetamines in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults ranges from 5 mg to 60 mg per day. (encyclopedia.com)
- Prescription amphetamines have been used for short periods of time in weight-control programs to suppress appetite and to treat narcolepsy. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The recommended adult dose of modafinil for narcolepsy is between 200 mg and 400 mg daily. (medbroadcast.com)
- Developed by the military, Provigil is used to treat narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome, effects are smoother and cleaner than amphetamines and it is thought to improve memory and cognitive function, street use is rare but how long does provigil last in your system was popularized by Boston graffiti writer "ohyeser. (cedice.org.ve)
- Small doses of speed (one line, one pill) wear off 3-8 hours later, leaving you fatigued but not exhausted. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- A positive therefore conducted, give small doses of amphetamine-like drugs. (yogachicago.com)
- These daily doses are usually divided into at least two small doses taken during the day. (encyclopedia.com)
- Effects, which are speak when a, little these chemicals in small doses of recreational drugs at hand, old caffeine. (umbriameteo.com)
- Amphetamine really does give a sense of euphoria, especially at higher doses. (wisegeek.com)
- If you have been taking this medicine (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets) for a long time or at high doses, it may not work as well and you may need higher doses to get the same effect. (drugs.com)
- Growth hormone, thereby effectively eliminating the possibility and recurrent vaginal yeast infections first, while replacement doses of testosterone do not consistently produce substantial increases in strength, Page et al (2005) and Bhasin et al (2005) have shown that higher doses of testosterone do produce such increases. (fs-security.com)
- Not only will he need to take higher doses to get the same effect he was achieving earlier on, but once the user's brain gets accustomed to having a certain level of dopamine, the amphetamine user will start to experience cravings for the drug. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- The most common problem in achieving the optimal dose is that physicians stop increasing the dosage at the first sign of positive benefit in their patients, fearing that the development of side effects at higher doses will cause the patient to stop taking the medication altogether. (additudemag.com)
- However, if you have taken such medications for reasons other than prescription, or taken them more frequently or at higher doses than prescribed, please answer the questions accordingly. (va.gov)
- There are time release versions as well as vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine) which gets metabolized to amphetamine . (healthtap.com)
- One question which many people ask is about the dosing of Vyvanse. (addadhdblog.com)
- Research studies compared the dosing of Vyvanse with Adderall XR. (addadhdblog.com)
- Doctors should start Vyvanse at 30 mg, and then gradually increase the dose to 50 mg, and then up to 70 mg if needed. (addadhdblog.com)
- The doctor will also monitor for side effects - i.e. if there are too many side effects at 70 mg, then the dose may need to be dropped to 50 mg of Vyvanse. (addadhdblog.com)
- Using the information above, you can figure out how to change your dose of Adderall XR to Vyvanse. (addadhdblog.com)
- I have to say that the dose changes from Concerta to Vyvanse are based on logic, and not on research. (addadhdblog.com)
- Even though this blog article may help you to find the right dose of Vyvanse based on a combination of my review of the research and my opinion, your doctor is an expert in your care. (addadhdblog.com)
- Thank you for reading, and please post any comments or your experiences with the dosing of Vyvanse in the comments below. (addadhdblog.com)
- That's why I prefer the amphetamine Vyvanse, which can be dissolved in water. (additudemag.com)
- Does ecstasy cause any problems with contraceptive pills? (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- At the door to raves, kids stand with Ecstasy pills on their tongues, waiting for the weekly surge of empathy and good feeling that comes from the combination of hallucinogen and amphetamine. (villagevoice.com)
- Some scientists foresee a future where a few doses of Ecstasy replace a lifetime of couch sessions and serotonin manipulators like Prozac. (villagevoice.com)
- Some even foresee a future where a few doses of Ecstasy, taken in a therapist's office, replace a lifetime of couch sessions and serotonin manipulators like Prozac. (villagevoice.com)
- And the per-person amounts approved for possession by anyone 18 or older could easily turn any college party into an all-nighter: half a gram of coke, a couple of Ecstasy pills, several doses of LSD, a few marijuana joints, a spoonful of heroin, 5 grams of opium and more than 2 pounds of peyote, the hallucinogenic cactus. (blogspot.com)
- Ecstasy comes a solid pill, not a capsule, and is often cut with other drugs or additives. (rookiemag.com)
- Ecstasy, even if it is the authentic article, is very rarely pure, so it's hard to gauge how intensely a person will feel it or what the effects of the specific pill they're taking will be. (rookiemag.com)
- Ecstasy varies depending on how many dosages (or "stacks") are in a given pill. (rookiemag.com)
- Taken orally in pill form, Ecstasy can be extremely dangerous, especially in high doses. (drugprevent.org.uk)
- Because people rarely call them "amphetamines," it can help to be aware of other names for amphetamines, from brand names like Ritalin or Adderall to nicknames like Bennies or Black Mollies. (kidshealth.org)
- though amphetamines and dextroamphetamines are both used for ADHD treatment, they are not in the same drug class as Ritalin ( methylphenidate ), another common ADHD drug. (medicinenet.com)
- My doctor decided to add Ritalin to the cocktail, and by the end of the summer I was taking 60 milligrams a day, the highest approved dose for adults. (alternet.org)
- I've just found a fascinating article in the American Journal of Public Health on 'America's First Amphetamine Epidemic' and how it compares to the current boom in meth and Ritalin use. (mindhacks.com)
- Adderall is a mixture of amphetamine salts, dextroamphetamine is the main one I believe. (drugs.com)
- Adderall or amphetamine salts. (bloggers.nl)
- Adderall is the brand name for a dextroamphetamine salts and amphetamine sulfate combination pill. (studentdoctor.net)
- How long will amphetamine salts 20 mg last? (healthtap.com)
- I have to take Amphetamine Salts 15 mg, twice a day. (healthtap.com)
- Is amphetamine salts 20mg tablets chewable? (healthtap.com)
- There are long acting or sustained-release preparations of amphetamine salts that should not be chewed. (healthtap.com)
- I asked an earlier question if amphetamine salts 20mg is chewable? (healthtap.com)
- I am taking amphetamine salts 20mg tablets to help me stay focused. (healthtap.com)
- What are amphetamine salts ER for? (healthtap.com)
- Could prolonged and excessive use of amphetamine salts cause enlarged atria? (healthtap.com)
- I took 30mg of amphetamine salts yesterday and 30 mg the day before. (healthtap.com)
- How many milligrams of adderall (amphetamine salts) does it take to possibly cause overdose? (healthtap.com)
Methylphenidate and amphetamine3
- The response rates for methylphenidate and amphetamine are about the same," Dodson says. (additudemag.com)
- When you try both methylphenidate and amphetamine, you get about an 80 to 85 percent robust response rate. (additudemag.com)
- If you have tried both methylphenidate and amphetamine at adequate dosages, and have seen neither benefits nor side effects, it is possible that you are in the 3 percent of people who just do not absorb these medications orally. (additudemag.com)
Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine27
- The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine can be habit-forming. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you take too much dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, you may continue to feel a need to take large amounts of the medication, and you may experience unusual changes in your behavior. (medlineplus.gov)
- Overusing dextroamphetamine and amphetamine may also cause serious heart problems or sudden death. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor will probably not prescribe dextroamphetamine and amphetamine for you. (medlineplus.gov)
- Do not stop taking dextroamphetamine and amphetamine without talking to your doctor, especially if you have overused the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
- You may develop severe depression and extreme tiredness if you suddenly stop taking dextroamphetamine and amphetamine after overusing it. (medlineplus.gov)
- Selling or giving away dextroamphetamine and amphetamine may harm others and is against the law. (medlineplus.gov)
- Store dextroamphetamine and amphetamine in a safe place so that no one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with dextroamphetamine and amphetamine and each time you get more medication. (medlineplus.gov)
- Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine combination should not be taken in the late afternoon or evening because it may cause difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. (medlineplus.gov)
- Take dextroamphetamine and amphetamine exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
- Use this medicine (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets) only as you were told by your doctor. (drugs.com)
- Misuse of this medicine (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets) may cause heart-related side effects or even sudden death. (drugs.com)
- What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine Tablets? (drugs.com)
- If you have an allergy to dextroamphetamine , amphetamine , or any other part of this medicine (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets). (drugs.com)
- Taking this medicine (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets) within 14 days of those drugs can cause very bad high blood pressure. (drugs.com)
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- Today I am my own Superman, dosed on 100 milligrams of modafinil. (slate.com)
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- For adults with obstructive sleep apnea , the usual adult daily dose of modafinil is 200 mg taken as a single dose in the morning. (medbroadcast.com)
- One, modafinil (Provigil) has fewer side effects than amphetamines and works much better at preventing EDS. (cedice.org.ve)
- I dislike amphetamine in general because it causes addiction and can have very dangerous side effects like psychosis when used in the long term. (wisegeek.com)
- A severe effect of long-term speed use is amphetamine psychosis. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- Long-term abuse of amphetamines may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia. (kidshealth.org)
- The idea of giving speed to depressed people seems quite amazing now, especially considering its tendency to cause anxiety, addition and psychosis in the doses prescribed at the time, but it was widely promoted for this purpose. (mindhacks.com)
- Mentation is probably unaffected if used in reasonable doses, but Kenndey was taking at least 3 medications for diarrhea, suggesting that doses were high. (doctorzebra.com)
- He also gobbled down more than 1,100 medications in pill form. (alternet.org)
- The British Channel 4 TV documentary Hitler's Hidden Drug Habit asserted that Hitler spent his final days in his bunker being injected with Vitamultin, a drug that included meth among its ingredients, but Hitler was also a hypochondriacally pill head and 'splenetic' man who took 74 different medications, according to a World War II American military intelligence dossier. (alternet.org)
- The interaction between over-the-counter cold medications with amphetamine, for instance, is particularly dangerous because this combination can significantly increase blood pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
- In studies women lost about 5% to 10% of their initial body weight over a year on prescription weight loss drugs Prescription Diet Pills Prevention Clinics A cultural shift in body image of the late 19th early 20th centuries led to increasing demand for prescription weight loss medications. (takamatu-kinen.info)
- Some of the substances listed may be prescribed by a doctor (like amphetamines, sedatives, pain medications). (va.gov)
- Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. (medbroadcast.com)
- As an aside, when patients complained about the agitation associated with amphetamine treatment, the drug companies brought out new medications which were speed mixed with barbituates, a class of sedatives. (mindhacks.com)
- Many pediatricians are trained to prescribe a certain number of milligrams per kilogram of a patient's body mass, but there is no evidence that an ideal dose of ADHD medication correlates in any way to a patient's size, age, gender, scale scores, or severity of impairment. (additudemag.com)
- Curious, I decided to learn what prompted those who don't have ADHD to take these highly addictive pills. (thevarsity.ca)
- In my pursuit of students who had used these pills, it seemed common for people to justify their actions by thinking, 'Everyone has a little bit of ADHD anyway, so why not just take these meds? (thevarsity.ca)
- Wondering which ADHD medication to try or what dose is right? (additudemag.com)
- Sleeping pills such as Ambien and Lunesta can help insomniacs find relief, but they are also dangerously addictive. (recoveryfirst.org)
- Amphetamines are addictive and may lead to compulsive behavior , hallucinations, paranoia, and suicidal actions. (jrank.org)
- Amphetamines are commonly abused recreational drugs and are highly addictive. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are highly addictive and should be used only if alternative approaches have failed. (encyclopedia.com)
- All amphetamines are highly addictive and should be prescribed and used with caution. (medicinenet.com)
- The CDC DOSE system was developed to analyze data from syndromic surveillance systems to rapidly identify outbreaks and provide situational awareness of changes in drug overdose-related emergency department (ED) visits at the local, state, and regional level. (cdc.gov)
- Where manner of injury is defined, only diagnosis codes for "unintentional" or "undetermined" intent drug poisoning are included in the DOSE standardized syndrome definitions. (cdc.gov)
- The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. (drugs.com)
- Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor. (drugs.com)
- Long-term amphetamine users become psychologically dependent on the drug. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- Over the long term, a person who uses amphetamines regularly will find that the short-term side effects of using the drug are exaggerated. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- In many cases, this side effect is caused by using a high dose of the drug over a short time. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- A book published in Germany this summer adds new information to old stories about Adolf Hitler's drug use and amphetamine use among German soldiers during World War II. (alternet.org)
- Between April and July 1940 alone, the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe went through 35 million 3 miligram doses of the drug. (alternet.org)
- Amphetamine is a drug for productivity, in war-making as much as anything else. (alternet.org)
- When this happens, amphetamine users develop a tolerance to the drug. (kidshealth.org)
- The popularity of amphetamines as a street drug appears to have been facilitated originally by pilfering from the drug companies manufacturing the pills. (jrank.org)
- Amphetamines were first synthesized in 1887 by the drug company Smith, Kline and French. (jrank.org)
- Pill poppin' truckers provide the focus of this anti-drug drama. (barnesandnoble.com)
- Much of the story centers upon an investigator for the US Food and Drug Department who has been assigned to stop all truckers from taking amphetamines while they drive. (barnesandnoble.com)
- Phentermine is an amphetamine-like drug which is poorly tolerated by dogs. (justanswer.com)
- The agency also has approved the combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine as a generic drug. (everydayhealth.com)
- As a result, it has become a drug of choice among people trying to get "high," who often crush and snort the pills or mix them water and inject them. (everydayhealth.com)
- Adderall also can suppress appetite, and a growing number of people who want to lose weight also abuse the drug as a diet pill. (everydayhealth.com)
- Yet children, often very young, are dosed with powerful amphetamines (normally a Class A illegal drug) or very similar pills, on this cloudy basis. (mailonsunday.co.uk)
- What do you think the pill did to my body and what should I do about my brother who slipped a drug on me while I was drunk? (teenhelp.org)
- Individuals with a history of drug abuse, psychological agitation, or cardiovascular system disease should also not receive amphetamine therapy. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamine, itself, is in the same drug class as dextroamphetamine, and therefore has similar side effects. (medicinenet.com)
- 4-FA (4-fluoramphetamine) is an amphetamine-like drug that has only appeared on the Dutch market for a relatively short time. (jellinek.nl)
- Phentermine the anti obesity drug, is a doctor prescribed diet pill that is viewed as the antidote for overweight obesity by helping to suppress hunger. (takamatu-kinen.info)
- Drug Shop, Cheapest Pills. (edelkoort.com)
- According to last year's Global Drug Survey, the mean price per pill across the world was about $14/pill and $55/gram. (hotpress.com)
- Home Online Stories Buy cheap Sibutramine online in usa - Drug Shop, Cheapest Pills. (texasschoolbusiness.com)
- These little pills are quietly building toward the next major drug explosion in America. (nymag.com)
- In communal enclaves like the East Village, amphetamine is already the No. 1 drug. (nymag.com)
- General practitioners rely increasingly on amphetamine to treat overweight and mildly depressed patients, as well as alcoholics and drug addicts. (nymag.com)
- This depletion of stored-up serotonin helps to explain the phenomenon of "Prozac Poop-Out" which commonly results in the need to increase the dosage of an SSRI to obtain the same artificially stimulating effect or to avoid the common withdrawal symptoms that happen when the drug is stopped abruptly, the dose decreased or the synapse function altered and/or damaged. (ihealthtube.com)
- Side effects, drug interactions , dosing, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this drug A generic version of Provigil has been approved by the FDA. (cedice.org.ve)
- Yesterday i had acquired 10 topcare Olay complete touch of sun of tablets and well dosed them all over the course best of several weary hours, i felt no effect follows from construing the avobenzone at all if only anyone he is chiefly curious. (ezinelocater.com)
- It comes in blue, orange and white tablets which are sometimes sold on the street as 'speed,' 'speed pills,' or just plain, 'uppers. (studentdoctor.net)
- Eight billion amphetamine tablets are officially produced in the U.S. annually, enough to supply 40 doses to every man, woman and child. (nymag.com)
- Abuse, including amphetamines and lower dose of pills effects talk to your doctor or pharmacist. (fs-security.com)
- What are common symptoms of amphetamine salt abuse? (healthtap.com)
- Agitation, hyperarousal, and cravings can lead a person who is suffering from amphetamine withdrawal to lapse back into abuse. (medicinenet.com)
- Certain antidepressants in some health studies of people trying to quit amphetamine and dextroamphetamine abuse have proven slightly helpful for treatment of withdrawal symptoms, but how useful they are in helping people abstain remains in question. (medicinenet.com)
- The great debate is: does the medical value of amphetamine outweigh the dangers of abuse and dependency? (nymag.com)
- Caffeine & racetams along with choline source to replace the amphetamine. (longecity.org)
- You may need to keep your caffeine levels down though since you are on a high dose of selegiline. (longecity.org)
- Caffeine affect you or compounds many shapes and fifteen co authors conducted a pill known like methylphenidate. (umbriameteo.com)
- I tried these pills for a short time but I didn't want to take them any longer because I became afraid of addiction. (wisegeek.com)
- One user may give a few doses to a friend with sleeping troubles, and that friend may soon develop an addiction of their own. (recoveryfirst.org)
- These effects further emphasize the need for amphetamine rehab for the addicted individual, as only proper treatment can help stop the cycle of addiction. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- Most alprazolam 1mg to purchase online of the research on gene regulation and addiction is based upon animal studies with intravenous amphetamine administration at very high doses. (texasschoolbusiness.com)
Last 14 days1
- The will codeine pills get you high tyrosine receptor in the stomach, lamivudine given without excess Digoxin inhibits tumour. (musicaenlamochila.net)
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- Those sold in pill or powdered form may not have been what they were marketed as, either through fraud or ignorance by dealers and users. (idmu.co.uk)
- Phentermine is chemically an amphetamine and it is basically a short form for phenyl-tertiary-butylamine. (pimaair.org)
- In street language, amphetamines are known as pep pills, as speed (when injected), and as ice (when smoked in a crystalline form). (jrank.org)
- Adderall usually is taken once or twice a day in pill form. (medicinenet.com)
- High doses of vitamin C (1000 mg.), in pill or juice form, can also accelerate the excretion of amphetamine in the urine and act like an "off" switch on the med. (additudemag.com)
- From 1 April 2005 to 1 September 2005 all presentations associated with party pill use were captured on a prospective data collection form. (nih.gov)
- salt form of amphetamine mixed with hydrochloric acid. (health.gov.au)
- People that die using speed have either seriously overdosed, gotten addicted to the rush (unavailable in pill form) and wasted away, had complications or disease related to injecting, or been poisoned by black market impurities. (cannabisnews.com)
- The worst … is, the pills form was that not inflammatory as it had slowly been. (eyfel.de)
- When amphetamines get into the body, they go to work on the central nervous system. (kidshealth.org)
- I'm not sure if I was nervous or if it was the pill affecting me. (teenhelp.org)
- In addition, it is similar to amphetamine and stimulates the nervous system, elevating blood pressure, and increasing your heart rate. (livestrong.com)
- Adderall pills contain a relatively low, therapeutic dose of amphetamine- so you'd need to take several pills to be in danger. (teenhelp.org)
- Therapeutic doses of amphetamine also enhance cortical network efficiency, an effect which mediates improvements in working memory in all individuals. (texasschoolbusiness.com)
- But after a while, you may need larger doses to get the same feeling. (webmd.com)
- This is more likely if you take Adderall in larger doses, more often, or for longer than recommended by your doctor. (everydayhealth.com)
- Larger doses, however, should not donate blood for 6 days, except quinine + tetracycline combination than in white blood cell transfusion in clinical psychology in 1969 by newell and simon. (cadasb.org)
- Low doses are also because of treatment with will naproxen help with tooth pain g-CSF The gonadorelin analogue octreotide formulation. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- The recommended dose is 2.5 mg to 60 mg daily depending on the patient's age and the purpose of the treatment. (medicinenet.com)
- With the types of steroids administered and the who use steroids do not generally seek treatment such polypharmacy and supratherapeutic doses. (imapny.org)