Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Rats, Inbred F344Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Blood DonorsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.DucksHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
BSA-dosed patients were treated for a total of 680 months while dose-adjusted patients were treated for a total of 791 months. ... viral hepatitis, immunosuppression and nutritional deficiency. The liver damage can consist of damage to liver cells, hepatic ... Survivors of childhood cancer are more than 13 times as likely to get a secondary neoplasm during the 30 years after treatment ... Carboplatin and busulfan dosing rely upon results from blood tests to calculate the optimal dose for each patient. Simple blood ...
The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus and thus decreases the risk of liver cancer.[126] The ... most patients with invasive cancer are over 65.[172] According to cancer researcher Robert A. Weinberg, "If we lived long ... They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 ...
263,000 deaths from liver cancer were due to hepatitis B, 167,000 to hepatitis C, and 245,000 to alcohol. Higher rates of liver ... Timeline of liver cancer "Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)-Patient Version". NCI. 6 July 2016. Archived from the ... Less common types include mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary biliary neoplasm. The diagnosis may be supported ... minimizing the dose to the rest of the liver. Dual treatments of radiotherapy plus chemoembolization, local chemotherapy, ...
Focal hepatitis: Aspirin (c) Chronic hepatitis: Methyldopa, diclofenac Cholestasis Liver injury leads to impairment of bile ... P-450 metabolism should be considered when patients exhibit unusual sensitivity or resistance to drug effects at normal doses. ... Oral contraceptives Neoplasm Neoplasms have been described with prolonged exposure to some medications or toxins. ... Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease. The liver plays a central role in transforming and ...
Chronic alcohol abuse can cause fatty liver, cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. Treatment options are limited and consist of ... liver disease, and malignant neoplasms. The psychiatric disorders which are associated with alcoholism include major depression ... Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Bagnardi V, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, de Gaetano G. Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and ... Approximately half of patients attending mental health services for conditions including anxiety disorders such as panic ...
... dose-adjusted patients were able to be treated for longer periods of time.[20] BSA-dosed patients were treated for a total of ... viral hepatitis, immunosuppression and nutritional deficiency. The liver damage can consist of damage to liver cells, hepatic ... Secondary neoplasm[edit]. Development of secondary neoplasia after successful chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment can occur ... Carboplatin[25]:4 and busulfan[26][27] dosing rely upon results from blood tests to calculate the optimal dose for each patient ...
b) Focal hepatitis: Aspirin. (c) Chronic hepatitis: Methyldopa, diclofenac. Cholestasis. Liver injury leads to impairment of ... P-450 metabolism should be considered when patients exhibit unusual sensitivity or resistance to drug effects at normal doses. ... Neoplasm. Neoplasms have been described with prolonged exposure to some medications or toxins. Hepatocellular carcinoma, ... Toxic liver disease. Toxin induced liver disease. Drug induced liver disease. Drug induced liver damage. Drug induced liver ...
In sanitary living conditions and with ample food and water available, an otherwise healthy patient typically recovers from the ... hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, or cirrhosis. Bile salts from the liver give stool its brownish color. If there is decreased ... ulcerative colitis and neoplasms (cancer). Also, feces may be analyzed for any fecal occult blood, which is indicative of a ... In this study it was found that activated charcoal at a dose of 0.52g four times a day did not appreciably influence the ...
The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus and thus decreases the risk of liver cancer. The ... They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... Cancer patients have an increased risk of blood clots in veins. The use of heparin appears to improve survival and decrease the ... However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 ...
Patients with chronic liver disease, whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C), alcoholic liver ... Alden M, Mohiuddin M (1994). "The impact of radiation dose in combined external beam and intraluminal Ir-192 brachytherapy for ... Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare neoplasm that is classified as an adenocarcinoma (a cancer that forms glands or ... "Incidence of primary cholangiocellular carcinoma of the liver in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis". ...
Narcotic induced (especially with the large doses given to cancer or palliative care patients) ... "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015 ... Neoplasms, benign or malignant. *Intussusception. *Volvulus. *Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, a compression of the ... Opioid pain relievers may be used for patients with severe pain. Antiemetics may be administered if the patient is vomiting. ...
"Multiple effects of Honokiol on the life cycle of hepatitis C virus". Liver International. 32 (6): 989-97. doi:10.1111/j.1478- ... However, its antithrombotic effects could cause hemorrhage especially in patients with conditions that would put them at a ... So potent is honokiol's pro-apoptotic effects that it overcomes even notoriously drug resistant neoplasms such as multiple ... Honokiol inhibits platelet aggregation in rabbits in a dose-dependent manner, and protects cultured RAEC against oxidized low ...
In 2006, treatment with dose-adjusted EPOCH with rituximab showed promising initial results in a small series of patients (n=17 ... Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Frequency of lymphoid neoplasms. (Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p ... The endemic variant (also called "African variant") most commonly occurs in children living in malaria endemic regions of the ...
... patient derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) have been created by orthotopic implantation of patient tumor samples ... "Erin Buenger had a zest for living life fully". The Bryan College Station Eagle. April 12, 2009. Archived from the original on ... I-131 has a half-life of 8 days and at higher doses is an effective therapy as targeted radiation against relapsed and ... Nervous tissue tumors/NS neoplasm/Neuroectodermal tumor (ICD-O 9350-9589) (C70-C72, D32-D33, 191-192/225) ...
Patients being treated with high-dose CPA should be closely monitored with liver function tests. The risk is dose-dependent, ... autoimmune hepatitis, acute hepatitis, fulminant liver failure, and cirrhosis, as well as an increased risk of hepatocellular ... 544-. ISBN 978-3-642-60107-1. Meningeal Neoplasms-Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ... In a study of 1,685 patients treated with CPA, elevated liver enzymes were seen in 10% of patients at a dosage of 50 mg/day and ...
August 2010). "A systematic review of viral infections associated with oral involvement in cancer patients: a spotlight on ... live-attenuated) HSV vaccine are undergoing human testing.[citation needed] ... "Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections" ... Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus). *Herpes simplex *HSV-1 & HSV-2. *Molluscum contagiosum (MCV) ...
Besides the skin, other organs, such as the liver or brain, may also be affected (causing hepatitis or encephalitis[27][28] ... Mortality rates in treated patients are decreasing.[104]. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w ... Two doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine had levels of protection of about 90% at 3.5 years.[50] So far it has ... Salivary gland neoplasms *Benign: Basal cell adenoma. *Canalicular adenoma. *Ductal papilloma. *Monomorphic adenoma ...
BAIRD Definition and History Plasma Cell Neoplasms Essential Monoclonal Gammopathy Chronic Cold Agglutinin Syndrome ... GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Williams Hematology CHAPTER 104 PLASMA CELL NEOPLASMS: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS STEPHEN M. ... In patients with plasma cell neoplasms, however, b2-microglobulin increases in the serum due to increased neoplastic cell ... Amyloid is best detected by tissue biopsy, often of the kidney, liver, rectum, oral cavity, heart, or skin. Tissue light-chain ...
... dose-dependent or independent acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis or fibrosis, liver granuloma, neoplasms, and vasculitis [12, 39 ... F. Delcò, L. Tchambaz, R. Schlienger, J. Drewe, and S. Krähenbühl, "Dose adjustment in patients with liver disease," Drug ... Alcohol abuse leads to liver disorders characterized by damage of liver cells and consequent liver steatosis and alcoholic ... and chronic hepatitis leads to slow liver blood flow and increased viscosity [96]. Blood supply of the liver can be improved by ...
Patient with known diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus or acute or chronic hepatitis B infection ... of safety will be based on the frequency of adverse events and their severity for patients who received at least one dose of ... Past or current history of neoplasm other than the entry diagnosis with the exception of treated non melanoma skin cancer or ... Known liver disease or other significant medical illness that would exclude the patient as a candidate for resection of liver ...
Liver Neoplasms Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus 3 Citations (Scopus) Effect of high-dose folic acid on hemodialysis patients with ... Effect of a liver cancer education program on hepatitis B screening among Asian Americans in the Baltimore-Washington ... Exercise interventions for patients with gynaecological cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lin, K-Y., Frawley, H. C ... Factors relevant to patient assaultive behavior and assault in acute inpatient psychiatric units in Taiwan. Chou, K. R., Lu, R- ...
... dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDRs drug ... summaries are available free of charge and serve as a great resource for US based MDs, DOs, NPs and PAs in patient practice ... Steroid hormones may be poorly metabolized in patients with liver impairment. Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function ... Patients with hepatitis C who are being treated with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir are also ...
... chronic liver disease due to hepatitis C virus infection in patients not receiving anti-viral treatment. ... Basal liver biopsy without signs of acute and/or chronic rejection.. *Low dose immunosuppression (monotherapy with calcineurin ... risk of neoplasm development defined by history of previous non-hepatocarcinoma neoplasms or history of any of the following ... Liver function tests will be obtained at every clinical follow-up visit. Patients will be considered operationally tolerant if ...
Hepatitis C. Hepatitis. Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus Diseases. Flaviviridae ... We tested this drug in healthy adult volunteers to optimize the dosing regimen, and are now proceeding in adult patients with ... Any neoplasm, including hepatocellular carcinoma. *Decompensated renal disease (e.g., serum creatinine ,2.5 or on a dialysis ... Chronic HCV infection leads to inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular ...
Active hepatitis A or B infection.. *Active hepatitis C infection (antibody positive); patients with a history of hepatitis C ... A liver biopsy, if one has been previously obtained, which showed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Patients with suspected ... The purpose of this study is to examine the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of daily dosing with vidofludimus calcium over a ... CCA (malignant biliary stricture, neoplasm, and cytology/histopathology or positive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ...
Cholestatic hepatitis, jaundice, and abnormal liver function tests have occurred during androgen therapy. Drug-induced jaundice ... side effects have included hepatic neoplasms and hepatocellular carcinomas following prolonged therapy with large doses of ... Patients should be instructed to report edema.[Ref]. Hepatic. Hepatic side effects have included life-threatening peliosis ... In female patients the use of androgens has resulted in virilization, including deepening voice, hirsutism, acne, clitomegaly ( ...
Hepatitis C / complications * Humans * Isoflavones / pharmacology* * Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology* * Liver Neoplasms / ... Case patients were grouped according to consumption of isoflavones and soy products and stratified by hepatitis virus infection ... In women, genistein and daidzein were dose-dependently associated with an increased risk of HCC, with multivariable HRs for the ... Women with hepatitis virus infection may be advised to abstain from isoflavone consumption. Further studies are warranted to ...
... which resembled autoimmune hepatitis. Thirty-four patients (60.7%) developed cholestatic or mixed-type liver injury, although ... There was no significant improvement in the patient GERD symptoms increasing the dose of oral esomeprazole during the 6 months ... Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved the survival rate of patients carrying various malignant neoplasms. Despite ... Association between Smoking and Liver Fibrosis among Patients with. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease*. Abstract: Objective. We ...
Results in Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Being Treated with RuxolitinibCase Series The Implications of Liver ... The ALP remained elevated at 334 U/L, so a liver biopsy was performed at that time, demonstrating granulomatous hepatitis with ... He was continued on a higher dose of ruxolitinib at 15 mg twice daily for presumed EMH. ... The Implications of Liver Biopsy Results in Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Being Treated with Ruxolitinib. By Shree ...
Received a live vaccine =< 30 days prior to registration. *New York Heart Association classification III or IV cardiovascular ... This phase I/II trial studies the best dose and side effects of dendritic cell therapy, cryosurgery and pembrolizumab in ... Currently receiving or have received any other investigational agent considered as a treatment for the primary neoplasm =< 28 ... Negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis (TB) test ...
Current history of hepatitis B infection or positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen;. Hepatic encephalopathy including ... control; Concurrent use of coumadin allowed only if dose is stable and prothrombin time. and INR is stable; Total serum ... Neoplasms, Solid Tumor. *Pharmacia. *Neoplasms. *Liver Diseases. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px}. Name. ... Exclusion Criteria: Patients expressing tumor markers as their only evidence of disease or. who have previously irradiated ...
Hepatitis C/complications*. *Humans. *Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy*. *Liver Neoplasms/pathology. *Liver Neoplasms/virology ... Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. *Female. *Follow-Up Studies. * ... Survey of survival among patients with hepatitis C virus- ... This study examined the effects of peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, on the survival of patients with hepatitis C virus-related ... Administration of 600 mg/day peretinoin to patients with hepatitis C virus-related HCC who have completed curative therapy may ...
Learn about this Metastatic Malignant Solid Neoplasm and Unresectable Solid Neoplasm study at UC Davis (now recruiting people ... Patients on any systemic corticosteroid therapy within one week before the planned date for first dose on study would not be ... Has known active hepatitis B (e.g., hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] reactive) or hepatitis C (e.g., hepatitis C virus [HCV ... Has received a live vaccine within 30 days prior to the first dose of trial treatment ...
If cholestatic hepatitis with jaundice appears or if liver function tests become abnormal, the androgen should be discontinued ... Prolonged use of high doses of androgens has been associated with the development of peliosis hepatis and hepatic neoplasms ... Brief treatment with conservative doses may occasionally be justified in these patients if they do not respond to psychological ... There are rare reports of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients receiving long-term therapy with androgens in high doses. ...
Investigations for thrombotic risk factors in patients with vascular diseases of the liverMyeloproliferative neoplasm. ... The indicators include preexisting extensive hepatic fibrosis, viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic or alcoholic hepatitis, ... When this level cannot be achieved with usual doses, check for primary or secondary deficiency in antithrombin and give ... How should I monitor the patient with vascular liver disease?. In all patients with stabilized vascular liver disorders:. * ...
Cholestatic hepatitis and jaundice occur with 17-alpha-alkylandrogens at a relatively low dose. If cholestatic hepatitis with ... Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function and they should be administered with caution in ... Prolonged use of high doses of androgens has been associated with the development of peliosis hepatis and hepatic neoplasms ... Testosterone given orally is metabolized by the gut and 44 percent is cleared by the liver in the first pass. Oral doses as ...
If cholestatic hepatitis with jaundice appears or if liver function tests become abnormal, the androgen should be discontinued ... Prolonged use of high doses of androgens has been associated with the development of peliosis hepatis and hepatic neoplasms ... Hemoglobin and hematocrit should be checked periodically for polycythemia in patients who are receiving high doses of androgens ... Brief treatment with conservative doses may occasionally be justified in these patients if they do not respond to psychological ...
The liver is a metabolic organ, produces clotting factors and cholesterol. In a late stage a liver transplant is needed. ... hepatitis B and C. alcohol (dose dependent). The table above lists some of the chemicals that are known to cause liver cancer ... Chapter on Hepatobiliary Neoplasms.. 2. Cancer: Principles&Practice of Oncology. 5th edition, volume 1. Edited by Vincent T. ... The result is a decompensation and worsening of the patients condition in addition to the effect of the cancer. In the last ...
The Liver Meeting: Daily Aspirin May Reduce Risk for Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Cancer. A new study presented at The Liver ... LIVER TRANSPLANT offers the highest rates of long-term survival for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, according to Maria ... Study Details The phase I/II dose-escalation and dose-expansion trial was... ... 800,000 new cases diagnosed globally each year.1 In contrast to the stable or declining trends observed for most neoplasms, the ...
... , Zainab NH ... which are microtubule inhibiters are mainly metabolized by the liver and are restricted in patients with liver diseases [14]. ... Breast carcinoma is one of the most popular neoplasms in women and is a major cause of deaths in the world [1]. In Iraq, it is ... Also, it may be caused by a previous condition such as infections (hepatitis), malnutrition, or suppression of immunity. So, it ...
... and insufficient chemotherapeutic doses due to impaired liver function. Likewise, hepatectomy and liver transplantation can be ... H. V. Tong, C. T. Bock, and T. P. Velavan, "Genetic insights on host and hepatitis B virus in liver diseases," Mutation ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 5.6% of all tumors [1]. More than 80% of patients with liver cancer ... Although HCC is the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide, its grave prognosis makes it the third leading cause of cancer- ...
Investigations for thrombotic risk factors in patients with vascular diseases of the liverMyeloproliferative neoplasm. ... Statins slow progression of liver disease in patients with HIV, Hep C ... When this level cannot be achieved with usual doses, check for primary or secondary deficiency in antithrombin and give ... How should I monitor the patient with vascular liver disease?. In all patients with stabilized vascular liver disorders:. *. ...
  • All the differentiated cells within such a neoplasm produce the same whole immunoglobulin chain or chain fragment. (
  • Chronic cold agglutinin syndrome is a disease in which elderly patients produce a monoclonal IgM molecule that binds red blood cells and causes their agglutination at temperatures significantly below 37°C (98.6°F) (see Chap. 56). (
  • The term benign must be used with caution when describing monoclonal gammopathies in patients who do not have overt malignant plasmacytoma or multiple myeloma. (
  • However, a low but significant percentage of patients with monoclonal gammopathy develop frank B-cell malignancies each year.7,8,9,10 and 11 For this reason, the term benign monoclonal gammopathy largely has been replaced by the term essential monoclonal gammopathy (see Chap. 105). (
  • Once the catheter is in the proper blood vessel, the TheraSphere microspheres containing Y-90 will be injected into the catheter to reach the tumor in the liver. (
  • Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant tumor of the liver, typically occurs in the first few years of life, and accounts for two thirds of all liver cancer in children. (
  • The key to diagnosis is the age of the patient, the radiographic appearance, and the level of the tumor marker alpha fetoprotein. (
  • This preliminary RFA model was tested in swine, with extensive histological workup, and in a clinical simulation study based on patient data,both of which reported relatively high correlations between estimated and actual tumor volumes. (
  • Radical tumor resection makes it possible to cure patients with PTH-rP-secreting HCC. (
  • Here we provide the proof of the principle by demonstrating that three intracutaneous injections of Mage-3A1 peptide-pulsed mature DCs reliably enhance Mage-3A1-specific CD8 + and recall CD4 + T cell immunity in heavily pretreated, progressive stage IV melanoma patients with large tumor loads. (
  • It is a rare malignant tumor that primarily develops in children, and accounts for approximately 1% of all cancers in children and 79% of all primary liver cancers under the age of 15. (
  • 9 While some diseases, such as hematologic neoplasms, cause neutropenia, it occurs most often as a result of the myelosuppression caused by antineoplastic chemotherapy, especially when such therapy is administered at doses designed to achieve maximum antitumor activity. (
  • NOTE: Subjects who received prior treatment with hypomethylating agents either for Myelodysplastic Syndrome ( MDS ), Myeloproliferative Neoplasm ( MPN ), or AML will be eligible if they achieved response to hypomethylating agents in the past (PR or CR) and did not progress while receiving therapy with hypomethylating agents. (
  • The risk appears to depend on both duration of treatment1 and on estrogen dose.3 In view of these findings, when estrogens are used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the lowest dose that will control symptoms should be utilized and medication should be discontinued as soon as possible. (
  • Usual symptoms o peripheral neuropathy, lower extremity lll left lower quadrant rml right middle cerebellar peduncle claudewith contralateral ataxia are seen on blood sugars due to contralateral side o the type of secondary neoplasms may increase. (
  • The presence of the most common pit all in ections such as muscle symptoms counsel patient on drug use or several days. (
  • Patient will be asked about any symptoms they may have had and any drugs they may be taking. (
  • Pubmed ID: 12417508 Somatostatinomas involving the gastrointestinal tract are extremely rare neoplasms that typically present with indolent, nonspecific symptoms in the absence of systemic neuroendocrine manifestations that characterize the somatostatinoma syndrome. (
  • For the treatment of [[primary dysmenorrhea]] ====Dosage==== =====Osteoarthritis and Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis===== * The recommended dose of BEXTRA Tablets for the relief of the signs and symptoms of arthritis is 10 mg once daily. (
  • Therefore, physicians and patients should remain alert for ulceration and bleeding even in the absence of previous GI tract symptoms. (
  • A 62-year-old patient (weight:NA) experienced the following symptoms/conditions: NA. (
  • Our patient is a male in his fifties with type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and chronic hepatitis C who presented in 2016 with a two-month history of odynophagia and neck swelling with no B-symptoms. (
  • From January to June 2004, 317 people sought hospital treatment for symptoms of liver failure , and 125 died. (
  • Globally, the number of people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has reached 400 million and up to 2 billion people are with the evidence of exposure. (
  • Specifically, MABs have proven to be some of the most efficacious treatments at reducing relapses and the inflammation in MS patients, including the first treatment for primary progressive MS and are being explored as reparative/remyelinating agents as well. (
  • The mechanism proposed to explain this difference is that hepatitis B virus directly modulates oncogenes, whereas hepatitis C virus-induced HCC is related to the degree of inflammation. (
  • At large doses, spermatogenesis may be suppressed through feedback inhibition of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). (
  • The large doses of steroid are responsible for suppressing testosterone through inhibition of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). (
  • The large doses of anabolic steroid result in the Oligospermia and reduction of ejaculatory volume. (
  • The Percentage of Patients Who Experience an Objective Benefit From Treatment. (
  • The analyses of safety will be based on the frequency of adverse events and their severity for patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. (
  • The treatment of HCV patients initially consisted of subcutaneous injections given twice a day for 14-days. (
  • Standard treatment of chronic HCV hepatitis is combination therapy for 24 to 48 weeks with alpha interferon and ribavirin. (
  • The objective of the second part of the study is to evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and signals of HCV virus response in cohorts of HCV patient volunteers that are interferon and ribavirin treatment failures. (
  • After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 3 years. (
  • When prolonged treatment is medically indicated, the patient should be reassessed on at least a semiannual basis to determine the need for continued therapy. (
  • Brief treatment with conservative doses may occasionally be justified in these patients if they do not respond to psychological support. (
  • This is an open-label, multicenter, Phase 1b/2 study to determine the safety and tolerability of IMGN632 and assess the antileukemia activity of IMGN632 when administered in combination with azacitidine and/or venetoclax in patients with relapsed and frontline CD123-positive AML, and antileukemia activity of IMGN632 when administered as monotherapy in patients with MRD+ AML after frontline treatment. (
  • This is an important next step in advancing LPCN 1144 for treatment of NASH given the substantial liver fat reductions in the interim analysis observed via MRI-PDFF," said Dr. Mahesh Patel, Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer of Lipocine. (
  • There are currently no FDA approved products for the treatment of NASH and we believe our unique oral androgen, known to promote anabolism in the musculoskeletal system while generally repressing adiposity, can more effectively address the needs of this patient population with high likelihood of sarcopenia. (
  • LPCN 1144, an oral prodrug of bioidentical testosterone, is being developed as a treatment of NASH and is currently being studied in a proof-of-concept ("POC") liver imaging study. (
  • If patient has any serious side effects, they may be admitted to the hospital to be checked on and for treatment, if needed. (
  • The treatment of relapsed and refractory AML patients. (
  • 2) Patients must be diagnosed with PMF, PPV-MF or PET-MF irrespective of JAK2 mutation status, guided by the criteria outlined in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for PMF, and the proposed criteria for PPV-MF and PET-MF outlined by the International Working Group for Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT). (
  • The rate may be higher in patients who discontinue this drug without regard to treatment response. (
  • In treatment-naive patients, genotypic resistance and virologic breakthrough are rare even after up to 5 years of entecavir therapy. (
  • Although human studies have not linked this treatment duration with an increased risk of adverse events, murine studies have identified benign and malignant tumors of the brain, lung, and liver in entecavir-treated mice and rats. (
  • Compared with other HBV nucleoside and nucleotide analogues, long-term treatment with entecavir "provided a high margin of safety" and was not tied to higher rates of liver or nonliver malignancies, the researchers found. (
  • Primary Dysmenorrhea===== * The recommended dose of BEXTRA Tablets for treatment of [[primary dysmenorrhea]] is 20 mg twice daily, as needed. (
  • For the treatment of hot flushes in patients under treatment with LHRH analogues or who have had orchidectomy a 50 mg starting dose, with upward titration if necessary within the range 50-150 mg/day, is recommended. (
  • Previously hyperpigmented areas every to days, forming larvae that elisa, indirect immunofluorescence using rabbit antiameba fulminant bacterial meningitis facilitates postpartum weight loss varies by ges- of these patients can lose heat rapidly, and they the treatment of shock syndromes. (
  • Therapy evaluation correct reversible causes of disability from ra can be used by facility administrators and government overseers to identify whether bacteria are the most from treatment with long term care geriatric practices emphasize the importance of staying on one medical unit admission at many us hospitals, icu patients with true hearing loss and or pharmacologic treatments. (
  • Without treatment, half of patients die within two years. (
  • A Phase II dose-finding clinical trial of P1101 in treatment of chronic Hepatitis C was begun in 2012. (
  • On 21 December 2018, the FDA approved the CD123-directed cytotoxin tagraxofusp-erzs (Elzonris™, Stemline Therapeutics), for the treatment of adult and paediatric patients of 2 years and older with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN). (
  • Aim To confirm these clinical trial findings in the treatment of genotype 1 and 4 hepatitis C under real-world conditions. (
  • Methods Patients enrolled for treatment with OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV based on therapeutic guidelines were included, and the regimen was administered according to product characteristics. (
  • In five (2.4%) patients, adverse events led to treatment discontinuation. (
  • On-treatment decompensation was experienced by seven (3.3%) patients. (
  • Development of second-generation direct-acting anti-virals (DAA) marked the advent of new anti-HCV therapies characterised by excellent SVR rates and a good safety profile, independent of liver fibrosis and previous treatment history. (
  • The combination of the NS5A inhibitor ombitasvir (OBV), the NS3/4A PI paritaprevir (PTV) boosted with ritonavir (r) and the NS5B polymerase inhibitor dasabuvir (DSV), with or without RBV, was the first all oral interferon-free regimen containing three distinct DAAs approved for therapy of patients infected with HCV genotype 1 and 4, who are both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced. (
  • 92% and 89%, respectively, and hence Jakafi could be an effective long-term treatment option for patients with PV who are HU-resistant or intolerant. (
  • In both the Jakafi arm and the crossover population, around 30% of patients completed the study treatment and 37% of patients were still receiving treatment. (
  • COPAXONE is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing-forms of multiple sclerosis (1). (
  • 1 Fifty-nine patients were still on treatment at 24 months, with an ORR of 91% for those in the pegylated interferon alfa-2a arm, and 88% in the hydroxyurea arm. (
  • Of all 106 patients who were determined to be eligible to receive treatment for 24 months, the ORR was 59.6% for pegylated interferon alfa-2a. (
  • The mean treatment duration for the analysis was 3.8 years and median doses remained constant at 425 µg of ropeginterferon alfa-2b every 2 weeks and 1000 mg of hydroxyurea daily. (
  • The double dose buffy coat method requires fewer buffy coats and reduces the use of consumables by up to 50% ( e.g. pooling sets, filter sets, platelet additive solution, and sterile connection wafers) compared to preparation and treatment of single dose buffy coat platelet units. (
  • Patients may also present with nephrotoxicity from antiretroviral agents or other therapies used for prevention or treatment of opportunistic infections. (
  • Currently, most patients are identified at this acute stage. (
  • In the present study, we retrospectively examined patients who underwent early ERCP for mild-to-moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis and compared the therapeutic outcomes and safety of single-session stone removal with biliary drainage alone. (
  • In addition to antibiotics for acute cholangitis (metronidazole 500 mg/IV/q6h and ceftazidim 200 mg/IV/q8h), triclabendazole (10 mg/kg single dose) was started for therapy. (
  • The based read eating disorders in was closed around three everyday attacks of the Acute difference in the erosion of construction and faculty rewards for electrostatic patient bone: area, commitment loss, and complete acceleration. (
  • FLORENCE - A man who died in a Florence jail cell had a history of acute alcoholism and possibly died of liver failure , Police Chief Lynn Lamm said Wednesday. (
  • The majority of deaths were due to liver-related causes such as hepatic failure, hepatic encephalopathy , hepatorenal syndrome, and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage . (
  • Gastroenterology and Hepatology is the first journal to cover the latest advances in pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas, and bile ducts, making it an indispensable tool for gastroenterologists, hepatologists, internists and general practitioners. (
  • In patients presenting with severe hemorrhage, the authors conducted an equivalence trial that compared noninvasive occlusion spectroscopy and the capillary blood method to determine hemoglobin level. (
  • Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to [[NSAIDs]] are possible in such patients. (
  • Patient experiences range from asymptomatic to mild conditions such as itching and tiredness to severe such as enlarged organs and blood clots with the potential for heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Food and Drug Administration has received reports of rare cases of worsening liver function or liver failure in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) who had moderate-to-severe liver impairment and were treated with Mavyret, Zepatier, or Vosevi, despite these drugs being contraindicated in this group of patients, the agency reported yesterday. (
  • Dye will be injected into the catheter, and a series of x-rays will be taken that will allow the doctor to see the blood vessels in patient's liver. (
  • Given her autoimmune hepatitis and her monclonal gammopathy, her amyloid sample was subtyped using laser capture microdissection, liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry, and the patient was found to have AL kappa type amyloidosis stemming from her monoclonal gammopathy. (
  • In a diagnostic observational sub-study, peripheral blood and liver tissue samples collected before immunosuppressive drug withdrawal will be employed to validate the diagnostic accuracy of a previously identified set of tolerance biomarkers and to identify potential new biomarkers capable of predicting the outcome of the immunosuppressive withdrawal protocol. (
  • The patient subsequently underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain specimens for testing. (
  • In the diagnostic evaluation of B-cell neoplasms, flow cytometric and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping have a critical role in the differentiation of a precursor B-cell phenotype from a mature B-cell phenotype . (
  • Patients will be visited every 2-3 weeks, and immunosuppressive drugs will be gradually discontinued with the aim of achieving 50% decrease in drug dosages by month 3, and complete withdrawal by month 6 after initiation of the study. (
  • Increases in liver function tests below 2-fold normal levels for AST/ALT/GGT, 1.5-fold normal levels for ALP, or 2 mgIdL for bilirubin will result in no further decreases in drug dosages, and performance of new liver function tests in 14 days. (
  • With the exception of lung tumors, which were limited to male mice, rodent tumors occurred only at entecavir exposures [that were] significantly higher than those achieved in human beings with standard approved doses," the researchers wrote. (
  • The five cancers that were most frequently treated with RT between 2011 and 2012 were breast, lung, colorectal, liver, and uterine cervical cancers. (
  • At the median follow-up of 4.9 years, 5-year cumulative survival rates for patients in the 600 mg/day, 300 mg/day, and placebo groups were 73.9, 56.8, and 64.3 %, respectively. (
  • Evaluate the overall response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] v.1.1) and the progression free survival of patients enrolled on the study. (
  • For liver oligo-progression, criteria are needed to select patients in whom improved overall survival can be expected through SBRT. (
  • Ypes o injections that can contribute to the brain shows restricted di usion appear very bright continued table fda approved pancreatic enzyme supplements pes are more likely to have an increased risk o myocardial in arction, there is only indicated in special populations table elderly patients is relevant because offering potent antiretroviral therapies since. (
  • Virologic responses were confirmed and maintained in 80% of entecavir patients and 61% of patients who received other therapies, said Jin-Lin Hou, MD, of Southern Medical University in Guangzhou, China, and associates. (
  • Interferon, way back when [before] imatinib (Gleevec), was used in CML in the short-acting formulation at a high dose," said Ruben A. Mesa, MD. "This was the first evidence that it was really active in MPNs before there were targeted therapies for [patients with] CML. (
  • Additionally, AVI-4065 Injection was safe and well-tolerated in the three dose-escalating groups of 31 healthy volunteers (Part I) with no serious adverse events. (
  • The potential adverse effect on bone maturation should be discussed with the patient and parents prior to androgen administration. (
  • Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. (
  • Adverse events occurred in 151 (72.2%) patients and were mostly mild and associated with the use of RBV. (
  • Eighty-three patients in the ropeginterferon arm and 70 patients in the hydroxyurea/BAT arm completed the 36-month efficacy analysis timepoint. (
  • To lead a efficacy of pulmonary acidosis students from a historical charge with great social substrates, our able environmental MATH has a budget in probability min of practical years of liver as motorized to peripheral constant inflows. (
  • Pubmed ID: 12035031 To examine trends in outcomes of patients undergoing resection at a single tertiary care referral center over a 16-year period. (
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for patients with liver oligo-recurrence and oligo-progression from various primary tumors. (
  • Background Virologic and safety outcomes of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) therapy have shown high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates and good tolerability in most patient populations in pre-registration studies. (
  • Oral doses as high as 400 mg per day are needed to achieve clinically effective blood levels for full replacement therapy. (
  • ithis often difficult clinically to the patient previously trialed with other immunosuppressants, regular prophylactic antibiotics institutional and or vancomycin mg kg day. (