Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Pulse Therapy, Drug: Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Thiotepa: A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.LeukopeniaAntibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Administration, Metronomic: Administration of low doses of a drug or a drug combination over prolonged periods of time usually at a regular interval.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Wegener Granulomatosis: A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).AcroleinPaclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse: Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: Group of systemic vasculitis with a strong association with ANCA. The disorders are characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small and medium size vessels, with little or no immune-complex deposits in vessel walls.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Microscopic Polyangiitis: A primary systemic vasculitis of small- and some medium-sized vessels. It is characterized by a tropism for kidneys and lungs, positive association with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), and a paucity of immunoglobulin deposits in vessel walls.Bladder Exstrophy: A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Mice, Inbred BALB CProdrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Myeloablative Agonists: Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Lymphoma, Follicular: Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Leukemia L1210Polyarteritis Nodosa: A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.Mice, Inbred C3HBlood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Maximum Tolerated Dose: The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Mice, Inbred C57BLMisonidazole: A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Mastectomy, Radical: Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1: A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Etanidazole: A nitroimidazole that sensitizes hypoxic tumor cells that are normally resistant to radiation therapy.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Agranulocytosis: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Widespread necrotizing angiitis with granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is frequent. Asthma or other respiratory infection may precede evidence of vasculitis. Eosinophilia and lung involvement differentiate this disease from POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Thalidomide: A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Inbred F344Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Mice, Inbred ICRPyrazinesUrodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
  • Although elevated levels of metabolites of cyclophosphamide have been observed in patients with renal failure, increased clinical toxicity in such patients has not been demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • Malignant histiocytosis (clinical): (single agent) 40 to 50 mg/kg IV in divided doses over 2 to 5 days OR 10 to 15 mg/kg IV every 7 to 10 days OR 3 to 5 mg/kg IV twice weekly. (wikidoc.org)
  • Malignant histiocytosis (clinical): (single agent) oral cyclophosphamide is usually administered at dosages in the range of 1 to 5 mg/kg/day for both initial and maintenance dosing. (wikidoc.org)
  • Note: although the rate of neutropenic fever was not reported in the original Dose Dense AC clinical studies, it can be common (more than 20%) without the use of medicines designed to prevent neutropenic fever . (chemoexperts.com)
  • To describe the incidence of, clinical manifestations of, and risk factors for cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in patients treated for nonmalignant disease. (annals.org)
  • Clinical characteristics, cystoscopic findings, results of cytologic examination of urine, surgical pathology, and total dose and duration of cyclophosphamide therapy were recorded and analyzed using a computer-based information retrieval system. (annals.org)
  • Although the data from the bortezomib trials showed significant clinical benefit, some toxicity was observed ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This therapeutic intervention led to a significant clinical benefit and confirms the potential use of cyclophosphamide in patients with CRPC, particularly those with liver metastases. (jnccn.org)
  • Several chemicals have been found to provide notable protection in experimental animals, but their clinical utility is limited by the drug toxicity on repeated administration [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [2.] Colvin M. A review of the pharmacology and clinical use of cyclophosphamide. (iosrphr.org)
  • The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of monthly doses of aducanumab in slowing cognitive and functional impairment as measured by changes in the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score as compared with placebo in participants with early AD. (rochester.edu)
  • Secondary objectives are to assess the effect of monthly doses of aducanumab as compared with placebo on clinical progression as measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (13 items) [ADAS-Cog and AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory (Mild Cognitive Impairment version) [ADCS-ADL-MCI]. (rochester.edu)
  • During or immediately after the administration, adequate amounts of fluid should be ingested or infused to force diuresis in order to reduce the risk of urinary tract toxicity. (drugs.com)
  • To reduce the likelihood of adverse reactions that appear to be administration rate-dependent (e.g., facial swelling, headache, nasal congestion, scalp burning), cyclophosphamide should be injected or infused very slowly. (drugs.com)
  • GI adverse effects (vomiting, diarrhea) may be avoided by administering with food or lowering the dose. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Since the adverse effects of low-dose cranial irradiation are minimal, using radiation therapy may be prudent for patients whose disease is refractory to steroids or who have had adverse responses to high-dose steroids. (medscape.com)
  • Head-to-head comparisons between MMF, TAC and high-dose CYC showed that MMF and TAC are associated with less adverse effects than high-dose CYC. (livehopelupus.org)
  • what antihypertensive can cause impotence, positive Coombs test (20% of pts), rare hemolytic anemia, orthostatic hypotension and hepatic toxicity? (cram.com)
  • Urothelium lines not only the inner surface of the urinary bladder, but also the renal pelvis, ureters, and proximal urethra [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The urothelium of the urinary bladder is composed of three distinctive cell layers. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the urothelium acts as an integral part of the urinary bladder sensory web, which receives, amplifies, and transmits information to the underlying tissues including sensory nerve fibres, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this respect, urothelium releases various mediators and neurotransmitters to reflect its degree of physical distension, so that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves can coordinate normal bladder function during filling and voiding [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)