A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A synthetic broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Synthetic antimicrobial related to OXOLINIC ACID and NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Antimicrobial against Gram negative and some Gram positive bacteria. It is protein bound and concentrated in bile and urine and used for gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary infections.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
A plant genus of the family BORAGINACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES and naphthoxirene.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
"Absorption of norfloxacin is rapid following single doses of 200 mg, 400 mg and 800 mg. At the respective doses, mean peak ... Steady-state concentrations of norfloxacin will be attained within two days of dosing. Renal excretion occurs by both ... Fecal recovery accounts for another 30% of the administered dose. Two to three hours after a single 400-mg dose, urinary ... The urinary pH may affect the solubility of norfloxacin. Norfloxacin is least soluble at urinary pH of 7.5 with greater ...
It is available as a generic medication and not very expensive.[2][10] Wholesale it costs between 0.03 and 0.13 USD a dose.[11] ... The oral tablet form of ciprofloxacin was approved in October 1987,[80] just one year after the approval of norfloxacin.[81] In ... The fluoroquinolone program at Bayer focused on examining the effects of very minor changes to the norfloxacin structure.[77][ ... The serum half-life of ciprofloxacin is about 4-6 hours, with 50-70% of an administered dose being excreted in the urine as ...
Infection results from the ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the infective dose can be as low as 800 organisms. To ... or norfloxacin. Fluid replacement via oral rehydration salts may be needed and intravenous fluid may be required for serious ...
Isolates are believed to be sensitive in vitro but not in vivo due to the inability of the drug to reach therapeutic doses ... However, some susceptibility has also been shown to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ...
"Thyrolar (liotrix) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". "FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA approves ... Included were the popular drugs Cipro (ciprofloxacin), Levaquin (levofloxacin), Avelox (moxifloxacin), Noroxin (norfloxacin) ... Euthyroid populations demonstrate increased CV risk at clinical doses. Hypothyroid agents should not be used in combination ...
The standard regimen for complicated UTIs is an oral 3g dose administered once every 48 or 72 hours for a total of 3 doses or a ... A 2018 systematic review recommended the use of norfloxacin as it has the lowest rate of side effects with a comparable ... If intravenous therapy is chosen, single daily dosing with aminoglycosides is safe and effective. Fosfomycin can be used as an ... it is useful to initiate treatment with a single intravenous dose of a long-acting antibiotic such as ceftriaxone or an ...
Doses in excess of 1500 mg/kg orally and 250 mg/kg IV produced significant mortality in rodents. In the event of an acute ... which was a broader-spectrum conformationally locked analog of norfloxacin; both ofloxacin and levofloxaxin were synthesized ... More research is needed to determine the best dose and length of treatment. Overdosing experiments in animals showed loss of ... The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in combination with high dose fluoroquinolone therapy may lead to ...
In Japan, two fixed dose combinations are available: Loxonin S Plus, with magnesium oxide, and Loxonin S Premium, with apronal ... should not be administered at the same time as second-generation quinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, ...
Doses equivalent to 50 and 10 times the recommended maximum human dose of ofloxacin (based on mg/kg) were fetotoxic (i.e., ... Ofloxacin is a second-generation fluoroquinolone, being a broader-spectrum analog of norfloxacin, and was synthesized and ... "After multiple-dose administration of 200 mg and 300 mg doses, peak serum levels of 2.2 and 3.6 μg/ml, respectively, are ... Additional studies in rats with oral doses up to 360 mg/kg/day (five times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m2 or ...
Pharmacokinetics of newer fluoroquinolones following a single oral dose[67] Drug. Dosagea. (mg). BA (%). Cmax. (μg/mL). tmax. ( ... norfloxacin , ofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin.[38] ...
"Zanaflex (tizanidine hydrochloride) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions... from PDR.net". www.pdr.net. Retrieved ... or norfloxacin; blood pressure medications such as clonidine, guanabenz, guanfacine (Tenex), or methyldopa; heart rhythm ...
"Dose-dependent rate of nosocomial pulmonary infection in mechanically ventilated patients with brain oedema receiving ... "Effect of ionic strength on the stability of norfloxacin". Pharmazie. 43 (2): 134. PMID 3393584. AlphaV-beta3-Integrin ... "Mutagenicity of radiations at low doses". Hereditas. 91 (1): 111-5. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.1979.tb01649.x. PMID 387673. "The ...
Approximately 60% of an orally administered dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug within 24 hours. A small amount of ... ofloxacin and norfloxacin on theophylline disposition in humans". Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 35 (2): 161-5. doi:10.1007/ ... Backhouse CI, Matthews JA (June 1989). "Single-dose enoxacin compared with 3-day treatment for urinary tract infection". ... compared with those of norfloxacin, new beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and trimethoprim". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 24 (5 ...
Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin are drugs that are normally used to treat bacterial infections of the eye. It is of utmost ... increasing the frequency of dosing used for topicals. This is one of the fundamental problem associated with using topicals to ... has shown that when using the molecular imprinting method for loading drugs such as ketotifen and norfloxacin into the contact ... Some drugs that have been successfully loaded via this method are: timolol, norfloxacin, ketotifen, polyvinlypyrrolidone, and ...
Treated with a normal dose of the enantiomeric mixture, these persons will experience blood levels five-times higher than those ... Lexinor (norfloxacin). *Merrem/Meronem (meropenem). *Paludrine (proguanil). *Savarine(proguanil/chloroquine). *Synagis ( ... While omeprazole is approved only at doses of up to 20 mg for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux,[81] esomeprazole is ... approved for doses up to 40 mg.[82] In 2007, Marcia Angell, former editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine and a ...
Treated with a normal dose of the enantiomeric mixture, these persons will experience blood levels five-times higher than those ... Lexinor (norfloxacin). *Merrem/Meronem (meropenem). *Paludrine (proguanil). *Savarine(proguanil/chloroquine). *Synagis ( ... While omeprazole is approved only at doses of up to 20 mg for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux,[81] esomeprazole is ... pure S-omeprazole treatment would give higher dose efficiency and less variation between individuals.[78] In March 2001, the ...
Hosomi J, Maeda A, Oomori Y, Irikura T, Yokota T (1988). "Mutagenicity of Norfloxacin and AM-833 in Bacteria and Mammalian ... It is eliminated within 168 hours post-dosing. However, studies concerning the calf liver showed additional unidentified ... residues, of which a new metabolite, ml, represented the major single metabolite 24 hours after the last dose and at all ...
Additionally, studies have shown when treated with etoposide derivatives there is an anti-leukemic dose response that differ ... The first member of the fluoroquinolone subclass, norfloxacin, was discovered by Koga and colleagues at the pharmaceutical ... Quinolones can be divided into four generations: First generation: nalidixic acid Second generation: cinoxacin, norfloxacin, ... However, with the selective dosage, etoposide treatment is dose limiting proposing toxic effects like myelosupression ( ...
... as a selectable marker can grow in presence of high dose of triclosan in growth media. In surgery, triclosan coated sutures ... had increased resistance against antibiotics tetracycline and norfloxacin when exposed to triclosan. Results from a study ...
"Effects of moderate-dose versus high-dose trimethoprim on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance and adverse reactions". ...
Following an oral loading dose of 400 mg followed by 200 mg daily, mean concentrations of sparfloxacin (2.5 to 5 h after dosing ... The mean sparfloxacin concentration in maxillary sinus mucosa, 2-5 h after a single 400 mg dose, is 5.8 µg/g.[18] ... Following a single 400 mg oral dose of sparfloxacin, the mean peak concentration in cantharides-induced inflammatory fluid is ... Following single oral doses of 100 or 200 mg, concentrations in skin of 0.56 and 0.82-1.31 lA-g per g, respectively, can be ...
In Russia as of 2016 a similar dose costs 231.25 RUB (approximately 4 USD).[3] ...
... the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population requested and received 1 million doses of the oral cholera vaccine, ... Fluoroquinolones: norfloxacin. Outbreaks. *Cholera pandemics: 1817-1824 cholera pandemic. *1826-1837 cholera pandemic ...
About 100 million bacteria must typically be ingested to cause cholera in a normal healthy adult.[14] This dose, however, is ... The Zambian Ministry of Health implemented a reactive one-dose Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) campaign in April 2016 in three ... Fluoroquinolones: norfloxacin. Outbreaks. *Cholera pandemics: 1817-1824 cholera pandemic. *1826-1837 cholera pandemic ... that is effective as a single dose.[54] ...
Pharmacokinetics of newer fluoroquinolones following a single oral dose[69] Drug. Dosagea. (mg). BA (%). Cmax. (μg/mL). tmax. ( ... norfloxacin , ofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin.[39] ...
Find patient medical information for Norfloxacin Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, ... Missed Dose. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip themissed dose ... How to use Norfloxacin Tablet. Read the Medication Guide provided by your pharmacist before you start taking norfloxacin and ... Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up. ...
Norfloxacin dose for uti: to cry out loudly against the unnatural mother who does not want to nurse her. norfloxacin 400 mg and ... Norfloxacin dose for uti: to cry out loudly against the unnatural mother who does not want to nurse her. norfloxacin 400 mg and ... norfloxacin and tinidazole tablets uses. '"'""' ''""■•'^''^ r-"'''^^- & ...
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Norfloxacin) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... Norfloxacin did not adversely affect the fertility of male and female mice at oral doses up to 30 times2 the usual human dose ( ... The oral administration of single doses of norfloxacin, 6 times2 the recommended human clinical dose (on a mg/kg basis), caused ... Unit Dose. Frequency. Duration. Daily Dose. Urinary Tract. Uncomplicated UTIs (cystitis) due to E. coli, K. pneumoniae, or P. ...
Missed Dose. If you miss a dose, use it as soon as remembered; do not use it if it is near the time for the next dose, instead ... skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not "double-up" the dose to catch up. ... Since small amounts of norfloxacin are found in breast milk, consult your doctor before breast-feeding. ...
Norfloxacin is given to treat urinary tract infections, such as cystitis and chronic prostatitis. Learn more about the ... Active Ingredients: Norfloxacin. Visit Pharmacy. Release form: pill Pack: 30 Function: Antibiotics Shipping around the world ... How to store norfloxacin Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children. Store in a cool, dry place, away from ... Data and doses, where given usually refer to adults as there are few data for children and neonates. Another set of guidelines ...
Effect of PDS dose. Listen The initial PDS dose is an important parameter in evaluating the practicability of UV/PDS technology ... Degradation of norfloxacin in aqueous solution with UV/peroxydisulfate Honghai Xue; Honghai Xue ... Figure 1 depicts that adding PDS efficiently accelerated the removal of NOR; the higher the dose of PDS, the faster the NOR ... Honghai Xue, Siyu Gao, Na Zheng, Ming Li, Xue Wen, Xindong Wei; Degradation of norfloxacin in aqueous solution with UV/ ...
If a dose is missed:. *If you miss a dose or forget to use your medicine, use it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for ... Norfloxacin (Into the eye). Norfloxacin (nor-FLOX-a-sin). Treats eye infections. This medicine is a quinolone antibiotic.. ... Keep using this medicine for the full treatment time, even if you feel better after the first few doses. Your infection may not ... You should not use this medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to norfloxacin or similar medicines (such as Ciloxan®, ...
The Treatment arm will undergo rifaximin 1200 mg/day in 3 doses. ... Norfloxacin 400 mg/day in one dose. Drug: Norfloxacin ... Rifaximin Versus Norfloxacin in Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Rifaximin Versus Norfloxacin in the Primary Prophylaxis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. Actual Study Start Date :. ... Norfloxacin. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Gastrointestinal Agents. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. Topoisomerase ...
28 ($68) for 50-mg dose. 50 to 100 mg. Norfloxacin (Noroxin) ... Postcoital prophylaxis (one-time dose)‡. In retail discount ... norfloxacin [Noroxin], or ciprofloxacin [Cipro]) being equally effective. 17 Because fluoroquinolones are commonly used to ...
If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses ... Do not miss any dose. If you miss a dose of Noroxin, take it as soon as possible. ... Co norfloxacin, Constilax, Danilon, Diperflox, Effectsal, Epinor, Esclebin, Espeden, Firin, Flobarl, Flocidal, Flossac, Flox, ... Pharex norfloxacin, Pistofil, Quinabic, Renor, Renoxacin, Respexil, Rexacin, Ritromine, Sebercim, Senro, Setanol, Shinun, ...
Norfloxacin + Metronidazole + Zinc Acetate. 144. Zinc Carnosine + Oxetacaine. 145. Oxetacaine + Magaldrate + Famotidine. 146. ... Banned Fixed Dose Drug Combinations in India as of March 2016. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in India ... Metronidazole + Norfloxacin. 73. Amoxicillin + Bromhexine 74. Ciprofloxacin + Fluticasone + Clotrimazole + Neomycin. 75. ... has banned the manufacture and sale of more than 300 fixed dose drug combination to prevent the misuse of drugs and to prevent ...
What if I miss a dose?. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that ... Take your doses at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Do not stop taking this medicine ...
At this dosage, the urinary concentration exceeds the MICs for most urinary pathogens susceptible to norfloxacin, even when the ... Includes dose adjustments, warnings and precautions. ... The recommended daily dose of NOROXIN is as described in the ... should not be taken within 2 hours of administration of norfloxacin. Tablets NOROXIN should be taken with a glass of water. ...
The norfloxacin doses applied (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, 75, and 87.5 ng/mL) are orders of magnitude lower than peak ... 1983) Norfloxacin disposition after sequentially increasing oral doses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 23(2):284-288. ... Comparisons of mutation rate responses to norfloxacin doses in wild-type lines with those of MMR− and DNA oxidative-damage ... A) Mutation rates of wild-type lines treated with different doses of norfloxacin. Regression of the mutation rate at fourfold ...
Norfloxacin disposition after sequentially increasing oral doses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983;23:284-8.PubMedGoogle ... Corrado ML, Strubble WE, Peter C, Hoogland V, Sabbaj J. Norfloxacin: Review of safety studies. Am J Med 1987;82(Suppl B):22-6. ... Patoia L, Guerciolini R, Menichetti F, Bucaneve G, Del Favero A. Norfloxacin and neutropenia. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:788-9. ...
The chart includes the dosing and duration of therapy for each antibiotic. ... 750mg dose: 5 days. norfloxacin. Noroxin. tabs. 400mg. Uncomplicated UTI: 400mg every 12hrs. 3 days (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, or ... Max 1 dose/episode.. 1 dose. trimethoprim. -. tabs. 100mg, 200mg. Uncomplicated UTI: 100mg twice daily, or 200mg once daily. 10 ... Uncomplicated UTI: 1−2g once daily or in 2 divided doses Complicated UTI: 2g/day in 2 divided doses. ...
Dosing considerations for Parsley.. *How does Parsley work?. *What is Parsley?. Norfloxacin Propranolol. 9 of 10 - Review by M ... The authors concluded that full-dose gemcitabine with concurrent radiotherapy was well toler- ated and efficacious. Merciful ... usage recommendations are to examine HIV-positive patients with anal canal cancers at canon chemotherapy and diffusion doses, ...
Chronic use of corticosteroids in a dose ≥ 5 mg/day of prednisone for over 30 days ... 130 research subjects on norfloxacin (test) 400 mg twice daily. Drug: Norfloxacin Norfloxacin Pills, 400 mg twice daily. ... Norfloxacin. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. Topoisomerase Inhibitors. Enzyme ... Comparison in the Treatment of Acute Cystitis Using Cephalosporin and Norfloxacin (CECI) (CECI). This study has been withdrawn ...
The dose is 100,000 units/kg divided by ay given in 2 equal doses (4 equal doses per day for infants more than 1 week old). The ... Quinolones, such as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, are contraindicated during pregnancy and in children 16 years of age or ... may be utilized in appropriate doses. Recommended Regimen B Clindamycin IV 900 mg every 8 hours plus Gentamicin loading dose IV ... Some authorities prefer a dose of 125 mg ceftriaxone IM because it is less expensive and can be given in a volume of only 0.5 ...
... pharmaceutical forms and doses by Grunenthal, Urekolin indications, usages and related health products lists ... J01MA06 - Norfloxacin*S01AX12 - Norfloxacin. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, developers, local ...
If the diameter around the disk of norfloxacin (5 ug) is less than 10 mm and/or if the MIC is , 16 µg/ml, there is a high risk ... 10The breakpoints for levofloxacin relate to high dose therapy.. 11Inducible clindamycin resistance can be detected only in the ... 9The norfloxacin disk diffusion test can be used to screen for fluoroquinolone resistance. Isolates categorized as susceptible ... 1Rx: Use of penicillin in meningitis requires therapy with maximum doses of intravenous penicillin (e.g., at least 3 million ...
quinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin). *salicylates (e.g., ASA) in daily doses greater than 1.5 g ... High blood glucose (hyperglycemia): Hyperglycemia may occur if your insulin dose is too low or you miss a dose of insulin. ... Your required dose of insulin depends on how much natural insulin your pancreas is producing and how well your body is able to ... If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are using the ...
... dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDRs drug ... Toremifene has also been shown to prolong the QTc interval in a dose- and concentration-related manner. Norfloxacin: (Major) ... after multiple dosing, dose proportionality was observed for doses ranging from 10 mg to 400 mg. Steady-state concentrations ... The increase in QTc is approximately 10 milliseconds at doses of 400 mg twice daily (the FDA-approved dose) and up to 25 ...
... dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDRs drug ... Norfloxacin should be used cautiously with other agents that may prolong the QT interval or increase the risk of TdP. Acute ... However, large increases (> 60 msecs from pre-dose) have occurred in two patients receiving 6 mg doses. Doses <= 6 mg SC are ... mitoxantrone 10 mg/m2/dose IV on days 1-5 and etoposide 100 mg/m2/dose IV on days 1-5 (course 2); and idarubicin 12 mg/m2/dose ...
... dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDRs drug ... Norfloxacin: (Major) Class IA antiarrhythmics (disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine) should be used cautiously with ... However, large increases (> 60 msecs from pre-dose) have occurred in two patients receiving 6 mg doses. Doses <= 6 mg SC are ... adjust the dose of colchicine either by reducing the daily dose or reducing the dose frequency, and carefully monitor for ...
... dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDRs drug ... Norfloxacin should be used cautiously with other agents that may prolong the QT interval such as the beta-agonists. Beta- ... 2.5 mg/dose) every 20 minutes for 3 doses, then 0.15 to 0.3 mg/kg/dose (Max: 10 mg/dose) every 1 to 4 hours as needed or 0.5 mg ... 2.5 mg/dose) every 20 minutes for 3 doses, then 0.15 to 0.3 mg/kg/dose (Max: 10 mg/dose) every 1 to 4 hours as needed or 0.5 mg ...
Fixed Dose Oral Dry Syrup Combination of Norfloxacin and Tinidazole Using Natural Polysaccharides: Formulation and Evaluation. ... Fixed Dose Oral Dry Syrup Combination of Norfloxacin and Tinidazole Using Natural Polysaccharides: Formulation and Evaluation. ...
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Dosing: Geriatric. Refer to adult dosing.. Dosing: Pediatric. Note: Caffeine citrate should not be interchanged with the ... Norfloxacin: May increase the serum concentration of Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products. Monitor therapy ... Loading dose: Minimum dose: 20 mg/kg as caffeine citrate; loading doses as high as 80 mg/kg of caffeine citrate have been ... Maintenance dose: 5 to 10 mg/kg/day as caffeine citrate once daily starting 24 hours after the loading dose; some centers ...
  • 0. Alters structure of bacterial DNA gyrase, thus promoting double-stranded DNA breakage, interfering with synthesis of bacterial protein and blocking bacterial survival Purchase Norfloxacin from BuyOvertheCounterUK. (underthemeso.com)
  • In 1993, CDC recommended single-dose, oral therapy with ciprofloxacin (500 mg) or ofloxacin (400 mg) as two of the primary regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea (2) . (cdc.gov)
  • The failure of infections to respond to single-dose therapy with 500 mg ciprofloxacin or 400 mg ofloxacin has been reported in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, and the United States ( 3 - 7 , 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Most members of the class including ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin have been implicated. (tga.gov.au)
  • Quinolone antibiotics (including norfloxacin ) may cause serious and possibly permanent tendon damage (such as tendonitis , tendon rupture), nerve problems in the arms and legs ( peripheral neuropathy ), and nervous system problems. (webmd.com)
  • Norfloxacin belongs to a group of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones, which work by killing the bacteria that cause the infections. (rxwiki.com)
  • The death is out of your use in gonorrhea cipro dose specifically a coadministered antibiotics, but the patients can linger on for it' trials and not first show up for neuromuscular drugs, in some legs. (pizzalaprovencale.com)
  • Tremors producing precautions of c. whether you sign up for the unfair muscle or choose to stop by for a home, gonorrhea cipro dose we offer antibiotics for symptoms and anesthetics. (pizzalaprovencale.com)
  • You should not use this medication if you have ever had swelling or tearing of a tendon caused by taking norfloxacin or similar antibiotics. (medypharma.com)
  • Finally, since antibiotic therapy is the third cornerstone of treatment, it is important to consider the appropriate selection, dosing, and duration of antibiotics. (uspharmacist.com)
  • But what about nonlethal doses of antibiotics, the researchers wondered. (ubc.ca)
  • To find out, the group treated Escherichia coli bacteria with low levels of the antibiotics norfloxacin, ampicillin, and kanamycin. (ubc.ca)
  • In otherwise healthy women with uncomplicated infections, a single-dose or 3-day course of antibiotics is sufficient and associated with far fewer side effects and lower costs than longer courses of treatment. (healthcentral.com)
  • Levaquin belongs to a group of medications known as fluoroquinolones or Quinolone Antibiotics (opens in new page), sometimes known just as "quinolones" for short, that also includes the antibiotics Cipro, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Norfloxacin, and Avelox. (tendonitisexpert.com)
  • Norfloxacin, sold under the brand name Noroxin among others, is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Who should not take Norfloxacin Tablet? (webmd.com)
  • What conditions does Norfloxacin Tablet treat? (webmd.com)
  • The half tablet dose was too much for me. (cnn.com)
  • Take Norfloxacin 400 MG Tablet one hour before or two hours after the food. (medypharma.com)
  • Do not stop taking Norfloxacin 400 MG Tablet before completion of course. (medypharma.com)
  • Tendinitis and tendon rupture - Use of Norfloxacin 400 MG Tablet will increase the risk to develop tendinitis or tendon rupture during the treatment or several months after treatment. (medypharma.com)
  • Drug-resistance - Usage of Norfloxacin 400 MG Tablet without sufficient proof or suspicion of a bacterial infection should be avoided. (medypharma.com)
  • Pediatric use - The safety and effectiveness of Norfloxacin 400 MG Tablet have not been established in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age. (medypharma.com)
  • Wonderfull great site http://www.marcata.net/walkmen/ albendazole 400 mg tablet If a DUR override is being submitted, an entry in Field 441-E6, DUR Outcome Code, is.norfloxacin and metronidazole syrup metronidazole 500mg tablets in philippines. (2p2e.tk)
  • Each tablet contains: Norfloxacin 400 mg. (mims.com)
  • Selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin, a quinolone with relatively poor gastrointestinal absorption and with antibacterial activity against GNB, is the most commonly used regimen, but several concerns have been recently raised in this regard. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There are three contraindications found within the 2008 package insert: "Noroxin (norfloxacin) is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity, tendinitis, or tendon rupture associated with the use of norfloxacin or any member of the quinolone group of antimicrobial agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients hypersensitive to Norfloxacin or quinolone compound. (mims.com)
  • Oral multivitamin and mineral supplements containing divalent or trivalent cations such as iron or zinc may interfere with oral absorption of norfloxacin resulting in decreased serum and urine concentrations of the quinolone. (mims.com)
  • NORFLOXACIN is a quinolone antibiotic. (mydiscountpill.com)
  • Norfloxacin fights bacteria in the body After considering the citizen petition and reviewing Agency records and based on the information we have at this time, FDA has determined under § 314. (underthemeso.com)
  • Norfloxacin fights bacteria in the body NOROXIN is available in 400-mg tablets. (underthemeso.com)
  • Norfloxacin works by killing some types of bacteria that can cause these infections. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Norfloxacin fights bacteria in the body. (medypharma.com)
  • Ideally a doctor will test and identify what bacteria seem to be the problem and pick the best antibiotic, instead of just seeing an infection and Levaquin dosing and hoping that that will do the job. (tendonitisexpert.com)
  • In ophthalmology, Norfloxacin licensed use is limited to the treatment of conjunctival infections caused by susceptible bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Norfloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. (rxlist.com)
  • Norfloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, differs from non-fluorinated quinolones by having a fluorine atom at the 6 position and a piperazine moiety at the 7 position. (rxlist.com)
  • In this study, the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of norfloxacin (NOR), a typical fluoroquinolone pharmaceutical, by the UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS) was investigated. (iwaponline.com)
  • With hundreds of Escherichia coli cell lines evolving in a near-neutral scenario under exposure to the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin, this study reveals a significant linear relationship between the mutation rate and antibiotic concentration, while also demonstrating that antibiotic treatment compromises the efficiency of DNA oxidative-damage repair and postreplicative mismatch repair. (pnas.org)
  • 161 that NOROXIN (norfloxacin) tablets, 400 mg, was not withdrawn for reasons of safety or effectiveness Jan 07, 2014 · Norfloxacin is a first generation fluoroquinolone that is typically used to treated urinary tract infections and prostatitis. (underthemeso.com)
  • and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment Noroxin (norfloxacin) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections of the prostate and urinary tract. (underthemeso.com)
  • JANACIN (Norfloxacin) is a fluoroquinolone derivative, which has a broad spectrum bactericidal activity. (mims.com)
  • This study is to assess if the efficacy of cephalosporin is similar to the efficacy of norfloxacin in the acute cystitis treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For acute asthma exacerbations, the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) Expert Panel recommends 4 to 8 puffs every 20 minutes for 3 doses, then 4 to 8 puffs every 1 to 4 hours as needed. (pdr.net)
  • Taking into account the convenience of taking a single dose we conclude that fosfomycin trometamol is a reasonable alternative to 7 days nitrofurantoin 50 mg four times a day in the treatment of women with symptoms of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections in general practice. (springer.com)
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for acute dysuria in women: a single-dose or 10-day course. (springer.com)
  • Gossius G, Vorland L. A randomised comparison of single-dose vs. three-day and ten-day therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for acute cystitis in women. (springer.com)
  • These are poorly soluble insulin dose is particularly common cause acute form of a functional kidney. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • CHMP had concluded that the marketing authorizations for norfloxacin, when used in the treatment of acute or chronic complicated pyelonephritis, should be withdrawn because the benefits do not outweigh their risks in this indication. (wikipedia.org)
  • If acute overdosage of norfloxacin occurs, the stomach should be emptied by inducing emesis or by gastric lavage. (mims.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of norfloxacin (Noroxin)? (rxlist.com)
  • These are not all the possible side effects of norfloxacin. (rxwiki.com)
  • This is one of the ABs that can be catabolic to gains if used at high doses for long periods of time, but it is generally not a problem. (anabolicminds.com)
  • They have a tendency toward pseudomembranous colitis (severe diarrhea) when used at high doses for too long. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Not teratogenic in animals but causes embryonic loss at high doses. (safefetus.com)
  • At high doses, B1 selectivity can be lost and some B2 effects can be seen. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Antimicrobial agents used in high doses for short periods of time to treat gonorrhea may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystalluria has occurred with high doses. (mims.com)
  • Norfloxacin prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis recurrence in cirrhosis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • Norfloxacin is used for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients who have a low ascites fluid protein level, impaired renal function, severe liver disease, have had a prior episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or esophageal variceal bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Norfloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections . (webmd.com)
  • Therapy with norfloxacin at 400 mg orally twice per day for 7 days can reduce serious bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis who have GI bleeding. (medscape.com)
  • One study noted that the 37% incidence of serious bacterial infection was reduced to 10% when treatment with norfloxacin was instituted. (medscape.com)
  • Norfloxacin prevents bacterial infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
  • Norfloxacin treats certain bacterial infections. (rxwiki.com)
  • Norfloxacin is a prescription medication used to treat certain bacterial infections including urinary tract and prostate infections. (rxwiki.com)
  • Norfloxacin is used to treat different bacterial infections of the prostate or urinary tract (bladder and kidneys). (medypharma.com)
  • Using a simple procedure to estimate the number of mutations occurring in a cell culture, the team found that higher ROS levels led to higher mutation rates in the bacterial genomes-up to an eightfold rise in the case of norfloxacin. (ubc.ca)
  • Norfloxacin Attar et a,l 1999 400 mg b.i.d. 10 GI surgery or intestinal stasis 30% Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid Attar et al 1999 500 mg t.i.d. 10 GI surgery or.Bacterial translocation in cirrhosis: consequences. (2p2e.tk)
  • As noted above, under licensed use, norfloxacin is also now considered to be contraindicated for the treatment of certain sexually transmitted diseases by some experts due to bacterial resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Norfloxacin inhibits DNA topoisomerase (ATP-hydrolyzing), a type II DNA topoisomerase commonly referred to as DNA-gyrase, in susceptible organisms, DNA-gyrase is necessary for bacterial DNA replication and some aspects of transcription, repair, recombination and transposition. (mims.com)
  • Do not take norfloxacin if you are allergic to norfloxacin, other quinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid), or any other ingredients of the medication. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The simultaneous application of antacids containing aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide, drugs containing iron, zinc and sucralfate reduces the absorption of norfloxacin (the time interval between their appointment must be at least 2-4 hours). (jcenonline.com)
  • Participants 253 women with uncomplicated lower UTI were randomly assigned 1:1 to symptomatic treatment with the NSAID diclofenac (n=133) or antibiotic treatment with norfloxacin (n=120). (bmj.com)
  • A 2012 guideline from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends that adult cirrhotic patients who have survived an episode of SBP should receive long-term prophylaxis with norfloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (medscape.com)
  • effects of prophylaxis with norfloxacin (400 mg/day) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 4 8 12 16 20 Placebo Norfloxacin.NORFLOXACINA ABC Active Ingredient Norfloxacin 400 mg capasules - 14 capsules: VISIT ABC FARMACEUTICI GROUP WEB SITES: HOME: COMPANY PROFILE: PRODUCTS: ABC PARTNERS.Moduretic (moduretic tablets side effects). (2p2e.tk)
  • Medscape The 2006 guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis recommend prophylaxis with norfloxacin 400 mg.This happens because of xerotes cardizem 60 mg lowest price blood. (2p2e.tk)
  • Iron, Penicillamine, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin: Zinc reduces absorption. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Commonly prescribed ones are Bactrim, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin. (ndtv.com)
  • Common norfloxacin side-effects What can I do if I experience this? (irse-itc.net)
  • If the headaches continue, let your doctor know Feeling dizzy Do not drive and do not use tools or machines until you feel well again Rash If this is severe, let your doctor know Important: there are also a number of less common but more serious side-effects which have been associated with norfloxacin. (irse-itc.net)
  • Common side effects of norfloxacin include dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea. (rxwiki.com)
  • Norfloxacin can cause side effects that may be serious. (rxwiki.com)
  • Norfloxacin and other medicines can affect each other causing side effects. (rxwiki.com)
  • Your doctor also may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients often stop taking the higher dose because of its strong side effects such as vomiting. (cnn.com)
  • Side-effects were reported at day 4 by 43% of the women receiving single-dose treatment, compared with 25% of the women in the seven-day treatment group, a significant difference. (springer.com)
  • You'll notice that Norfloxacin side effects are the same as Levaquin side effects. (tendonitisexpert.com)
  • Children A 1998 retrospective survey found that numerous side effects have been recorded in reference to the unapproved use of norfloxacin in the pediatric population. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have gonorrhea, prostatitis, or a urinary tract infection, your healthcare provider may prescribe norfloxacin. (emedtv.com)
  • Single-dose therapy with trimethoprim-sulfa-methoxazole for urinary tract infection in women. (springer.com)
  • Gossius G. Single-dose nitrofurantoin therapy for urinary tract infections in women. (springer.com)
  • Single-dose antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated urinary tract infections. (springer.com)
  • Single-dose antibiotic treatment for symptomatic urinary tract infections in women: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. (springer.com)
  • Norfloxacin is generally well tolerated at dosage used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. (mims.com)
  • The European Medicines Agency, also in 2008, had recommended restricting the use of oral norfloxacin to treat urinary infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHMP stated that doctors should not prescribe oral norfloxacin for complicated pyelonephritis and should consider switching patients already taking oral norfloxacin for this type of infection to an alternative antibiotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antacids containing magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide may decrease absorption of oral norfloxacin. (mims.com)
  • [ 18 ] In this study, Pande et al found over a 28-month period that 110 patients who were randomized to either norfloxacin 400 mg with probiotics or placebo did not have improved efficacy in primary or secondary prophylaxis or in reducing mortality in cirrhotic patients with ascites. (medscape.com)
  • These data indicate that short-course therapy with either norfloxacin or TMP-SMX can be effectively used to treat shigellosis in adults in developing countries. (ajtmh.org)
  • Fluoroquinolones including norfloxacin are considered contraindicated in pregnancy. (safefetus.com)
  • Pregnancy Norfloxacin has been reported to rapidly cross the blood-placenta and blood-milk barrier, and is extensively distributed into the fetal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy due to the risk of spontaneous abortions and birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • As safer alternatives are generally available norfloxacin is contraindicated during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester. (wikipedia.org)
  • The manufacturer only recommends use of norfloxacin during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • During pregnancy, it is possible if the expected effect of therapy in the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus (adequate and strictly controlled studies of the safety of using norfloxacin in pregnant women have not been carried out, including for local use in the form of drops). (jcenonline.com)
  • Norfloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. (mims.com)
  • In some countries, gonococcal infections have been treated with a single, orally administered dose of 250 mg ciprofloxacin (8) . (cdc.gov)
  • Norfloxacin has been restricted in the Republic of Ireland due to the risks of C. difficile super infections and permanent nerve as well as tendon injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. James Lah, director of the cognitive neurology program at Emory University's Department of Neurology, regularly prescribes Aricept to patients, but doesn't prescribe the 23-milligram dose. (cnn.com)
  • In patients with moderate renal impairment, the daily dose should be reduced. (mims.com)
  • Women better than 40 years were significantly less first to be cured with either treatment psychosis and with single-dose therapy. (irse-itc.net)
  • In this study the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of 3 g fosfomycin trometamol and the conventional treatment with nitrofurantoin 50 mg four times daily for seven days were compared. (springer.com)
  • Following oral administration of 800 mg single dose in healthy, fasting adults, peak serum concentration average 2.4 μg/ml. (mims.com)
  • The recommended dose of norfloxacin for gonorrhea is 800 mg (two 400-mg tablets) as a single, one-time dose. (emedtv.com)
  • Norfloxacin may be used to treat gonorrhea. (rxwiki.com)
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  • Norfloxacin is also used to treat gonorrhea. (medypharma.com)
  • Enoxacin (400 mg), lomefloxacin (400 mg), and norfloxacin (800 mg) were recommended among alternative regimens (2) . (cdc.gov)