Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Mannitol Dehydrogenases: Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Mannitol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannitol.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.WebcastsKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Serenoa: A plant genus in the family ARECACEAE, order Arecales, subclass Arecidae. The fruit or the extract (Permixon) is used for PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Waste Disposal Facilities: Sites that receive and store WASTE PRODUCTS. Some facilities also sort, process, and recycle specific waste products.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
In high doses, pentobarbital causes death by respiratory arrest. In the United States, the drug has been used for executions of ... Pentobarbital-induced coma has been advocated in patients with acute liver failure refractory to mannitol. Pentobarbital can ... He was the first inmate executed in three years in the state and the first to die by a single dose of pentobarbital. ... In October 2013, Missouri changed its protocols to allow for a compounded pentobarbital to be used in a lethal dose for ...
If mannitol is administered, the dosage used is mannitol 20% solution of 1-1.5 g/kg, followed by 0.25-1 g/kg doses as needed ... "Comparison of Effects of Equiosmolar Doses of Mannitol and Hypertonic Saline on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism in Traumatic ... Identifying the right dose of bumetanide that acts as an inhibitor of NKCCl could prevent cerebral edema to some extent. This ... Mannitol is an alcohol derivative of simple sugar mannose, and its use has been investigated since 1962. With a σ=.9, molecular ...
Prophylactic measures to reduce the risk of renal failure may include low-dose dopamine, vigorous hydration with intravenous ... crystalloid solutions (e.g., lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline), and osmotic diuresis with mannitol. If DIC is ...
... acts as an osmotic laxative in oral doses larger than 20 g, and is sometimes sold as a laxative for children.[citation ... D-mannitol oxidase E number Mannitol dehydrogenase Mannitol dehydrogenase (cytochrome) Mannitol-1-phosphatase Mannitol 2- ... Mannitol is the primary ingredient of mannitol salt agar, a bacterial growth medium, and is used in others. Mannitol is ... The three studies that initially found that high-dose mannitol was effective in cases of severe head injury were the subject of ...
The San Francisco emergency services protocol calls for a basic adult dose of a 2 L bolus of normal saline followed by 500 ml/h ... A urinary output of at least 300 ml/hour should be maintained with IV fluids and mannitol, and hemodialysis considered if this ... To prevent hyperkalemia/hypocalcemia, consider the following adult doses: calcium gluconate 10% 10ml or calcium chloride 10% 5 ...
Intake of doses of xylitol (greater than 500 to 1000 mg/kg bodyweight) has been implicated in liver failure in dogs, which can ... Xylitol has a lower laxation threshold than some sugar alcohols but is more easily tolerated than mannitol and sorbitol. ...
Glucose, like mannitol, is a sugar that can behave as an osmotic diuretic. Unlike mannitol, glucose is commonly found in the ... ISBN 0-7817-4118-1. Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Pedersen AR, Heickendorff L, Andreasen F, Mosekilde L (January 2003). "Dose- ... It was previously believed that the primary mechanism of osmotic diuretics such as mannitol is that they are filtered in the ... Osmotic diuretics (e.g. mannitol) are substances that increase osmolality but have limited tubular epithelial cell permeability ...
... irreversible at high doses Fluoride Demeclocycline Foscarnet. Lead, mercury and cadmium salts Aristolochic acid, found in some ... mannitol Distal tubule: NSAIDs (e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac), ACE inhibitors, ciclosporin, lithium salts, ... should not be confused with the fact that some medications have a predominantly renal excretion and need their dose adjusted ... Gold salts therapy can cause membranous nephropathy Penicillamine Lithium salts Amphotericin B-reversible at low doses, ...
With polyols such as glycerol and mannitol the acidity of the solution is increased. With mannitol for example the pK decreases ... Based on mammalian median lethal dose (LD50) rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, boric acid is only poisonous if taken internally ... According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "The minimal lethal dose of ingested boron (as boric acid) ... According to the boric acid IUCLID Dataset published by the European Commission, boric acid in high doses shows significant ...
The safe dose for rats is 3.0 KU/kg and for Macaca mulatta 1.5 KU/kg. The lethal dose has only been studied in mice and is ... The testing group and the control group received 2 units of batroxobin and 50 mg mannitol respectively 10 minutes before ... At low dose the batroxobin significantly shortened bleeding times and clotting times in mice and rats. So a low dose of ... They used a total dose of 2 BU/kg (in dogs also 0.2 BU/kg) given during a time of 30 minutes, three times a day. In the graph ...
Mannitol inhalation has been recently approved for use in the United States. It should be noted, however, that a relatively ... 2007). "Single-dose montelukast or salmeterol as protection against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction". Chest. 132 (3): 875- ... Stickland MK, Rowe BH, Spooner CH, Vandermeer B, Dryden DM (September 2011). "Accuracy of eucapnic hyperpnea or mannitol to ... Brannan JD, Koskela H, Anderson SD, Chew N (1998). "Responsiveness to mannitol in asthmatic subjects with exercise- and ...
... localized dose and to minimize exposure of healthy tissue in other parts of the body to the potentially adverse effects of the ... along with mannitol to temporarily open the blood-brain barrier permitting delivery of the chemotherapy into the brain. An ...
The infusion dose rate of barbiturates is increased under monitoring by electroencephalography until burst suppression or ... randomized comparison of pentobarbital and mannitol". Can J Neurol Sci. 11 (4): 434-40. doi:10.1017/s0317167100045960. PMID ... Nordby HK, Nesbakken R (1984). "The effect of high dose barbiturate decompression after severe head injury. A controlled ... brought on by a controlled dose of a barbiturate drug, usually pentobarbital or thiopental. Barbiturate comas are used to ...
Ecstasy pills might also contain a low dose of 2C-I to potentiate its euphoric effects. Pharmaceutical pills are sometimes sold ... Heroin is commonly cut with quinine, caffeine, dimethocaine, procaine, lactose, inositol, dextrose, mannitol, and starch. Other ... a toxic alkaloid which was used in very low doses (less than 1 mg) as a stimulant and performance-enhancing drug in the past. ... but is usually mixed with non psychoactive chemicals such as mannitol, inositol, pectin, glucose, lactose, saccharin, white ...
The large, clear dosing window allows for accurate dose setting and adjustment. NovoLog® is also supplied in 3-mL PenFill® ... and mannitol (36.4 mg/mL) Modifying protein - protamine (0.33 mg/mL) The pH is 7.2-7.44. NovoLog Mix is marketed to be used ... Novolog allows for a flexible dosing schedule, which allows patients to adjust their insulin according to any changes in their ...
Mannitol inhalation[12][13] has been recently approved for use in the United States. ... 2007). "Single-dose montelukast or salmeterol as protection against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction". Chest. 132 (3): 875- ... 2008). "Pulmonary gas exchange response to exercise- and mannitol-induced bronchoconstriction in mild asthma". J Appl Physiol. ... Stickland MK, Rowe BH, Spooner CH, Vandermeer B, Dryden DM (September 2011). "Accuracy of eucapnic hyperpnea or mannitol to ...
In early studies, a dose of 25g of sorbitol, eaten through the day, produced a laxative effect in only 5% of individuals. One ... Sorbitol is an isomer of mannitol, another sugar alcohol; the two differ only in the orientation of the hydroxyl group on ... Sorbitol is also used in the manufacture of softgel capsules to store single doses of liquid medicines. Sorbitol often is used ... Kearsley, M. W.; Deis, R. C. Sorbitol and Mannitol. In Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology; Ames: Oxford, 2006 ...
... starting or changing doses of diuretics, and others) can require management of electrolytes, whether through self-care in mild ... The same effect can be seen in therapeutics such as mannitol, which is used to increase urine output and decrease extracellular ...
If taken in large, unsafe doses, it is possible to cause mood swings, paranoia, insomnia, psychosis, high blood pressure, a ... Street cocaine is often adulterated or "cut" with talc, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, inositol, caffeine, procaine, ... amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to ... At sufficiently high doses, Ketamine users may experience what is called the "K-hole", a state of extreme dissociation with ...
At low doses, nitroglycerin will dilate veins more than arteries, thereby reducing preload (volume of blood in the heart after ... Erythritol tetranitrate Ethylene glycol dinitrate Mannitol hexanitrate Methyl nitrate Tetranitratoxycarbon Xylitol pentanitrate ... At higher doses, it also dilates arteries, thereby reducing afterload (decreasing the pressure against which the heart must ... He began treating his patients with small diluted doses of nitroglycerin in 1878, and this treatment was soon adopted into ...
72-91 Ronald K. Siegel (1985), "New Patterns of Cocaine Use: Changing Doses and Routes", in Nicholas J. Kozel; Edgar H. Adams, ... Freebasing also tends to remove water-soluble impurities and adulterants such as sugars (lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, ...
... dose treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis and of trachoma For use in combination regimens for eradication of H. pylori in ... iodine Alcohol based hand rub Chlorine base compound Chloroxylenol Glutaral Amiloride Furosemide Hydrochlorothiazide Mannitol ... dose treatment of uncomplicated ano‐genital gonorrhoea Third-generation cephalosporin of choice for use in hospitalized ... pyrimethamine Other combinations that deliver the target doses required such as 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride) with 50 mg ...
... has about the same sweetness as sucrose,[8] but more sweetness than similar compounds like sorbitol and mannitol.[5] It ... Xylitol has no known toxicity in humans.[12] At high doses, xylitol and other polyols cause gastrointestinal discomfort, ... Due to the adverse laxative effect that all polyols have on the digestive system in high doses, xylitol is banned from soft ... In dogs, xylitol (in amounts greater than 100 mg/kg of body weight) generates a rapid, dose-dependent insulin release that can ...
The recommended dose is 100 micrograms of Preotact administered once-daily as a subcutaneous injection into the abdomen, during ... One chamber contains the active substance in the form of a white powder (with excipients: mannitol, citric acid monohydrate, ... In response to subcutaneous doses of Preotact (100 micrograms), serum total calcium levels increase gradually and reach peak ... of PTH into the abdomen produces a rapid increase in plasma PTH levels which reaches peak at 1 to 2 hours after dosing. The ...
In fact, high doses of corticoids are often prescribed by physicians after an acoustic-trauma in order to mitigate the ... Antibiotic injections with allopurinol, lazaroids, α-D-tocopherol, and mannitol were found to reduce the threshold shift after ... There is evidence that hearing loss can be minimized by taking high doses of magnesium for a few days, starting as soon as ... Jiang, W; Zhao, F; Guderley, N; Manchaiah, V (2016). "Daily music exposure dose and hearing problems using personal listening ...
Glucose, like mannitol, is a sugar that can behave as an osmotic diuretic. Unlike mannitol, glucose is commonly found in the ... The term "low ceiling diuretic" is used to indicate a diuretic has a rapidly flattening dose effect curve (in contrast to "high ... It was previously believed that the primary mechanism of osmotic diuretics such as mannitol is that they are filtered in the ... glucose (especially in uncontrolled diabetes), mannitol Promotes osmotic diuresis 2. proximal tubule, descending limb ...
The mannitol-treated patients were treated with 200 mL of a 20% mannitol solution (osmolarity 1100 mOsm/L). With these doses, ... 5 27 28 29 Marshall et al4 studied the effect of different mannitol doses in 8 patients and concluded that small doses (0.25 g/ ... larger dose-finding studies in humans have not been performed. Single doses of mannitol from 0.25 up to 2.27 g/kg body wt have ... 30 We chose the dose of 100 mL HS-HES (257 mOsm) to achieve a osmolar load similar to the standard dose of 200 mL 20% mannitol ...
... mannitol), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and ... encoded search term (mannitol (Osmitrol)) and mannitol (Osmitrol) What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ... Accumulation of mannitol due to insufficient renal excretion increases risk of hypervolemia; mannitol-induced osmotic diuresis ... a test dose should be utilized; a second test dose may be tried if there is inadequate response, but attempt no more than two ...
Medical information for Mannitol on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse Effect ... Hepatic Dose : No dose adjustments are recommended. Pediatric Oncall 05/25/2020 08:33:18 05/25/2020 08:33:18 Mannitol ... Dosing : Anuria/Oliguria: Give test dose: 200 mg/kg IV over 3-5 mins, then 0.5-1 gm/kg IV (Max: 12.5 g). Discontinue if no ... Digoxin: Increased risk of digoxin toxicity if mannitol administration produces hypokalemia.. Cisplatin: Mannitol reduces the ...
... in all subjects groups while mannitol did not. Conclusion: Mechanical responses to mannitol and high-dose methacholine ... Mechanical responses to mannitol and high-dose methacholine challenges reflected a continuum amongst groups. Six of 8 subjects ... PHYSIOLOGY OF COUGH IN ASTHMA: COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL RESPONSES TO MANNITOL AND HIGH-DOSE METHACHOLINE CHALLENGES. ... Plethysmography was used to measure lung volumes at baseline, the dose nearest to a 15% decline in FEV1 during mannitol ...
... poly-L-lactic acid/carboxymethylcellulose/mannitol), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, ... Dosing Considerations. For immunocompetent individuals only. Patient must be an appropriate candidate for deep dermal grid ... poly-L-lactic acid/carboxymethylcellulose/mannitol (Rx). Brand and Other Names:Sculptra Aesthetic ... encoded search term (poly-L-lactic acid/carboxymethylcellulose/mannitol (Sculptra Aesthetic)) and poly-L-lactic acid/ ...
There are limited data on the ideal dose of mannitol. At our centre, 3 different doses are used: 12 g, 20 g, and 40 g /cycle ... Age, diabetes, cisplatin dose per cycle, mannitol dose per cycle, baseline eGFR, and baseline magnesium level were not ... Diabetes is a predictor of nephrotoxicity, whereas mannitol dosing has no significant influence, suggesting that doses may be ... Nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting adverse effect of cisplatin. Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic given routinely as part of ...
... versus conventional dose mannitol treatment in the emergency room. METHODS One hundred forty-one adult patients with traumatic ... and were compared with a control group that was treated with a lower preoperative mannitol dose (approximately 0.7 g/kg; 69 ... intraparenchymal temporal lobe hemorrhages and abnormal pupillary widening who received early preoperative high-dose mannitol ( ... Comparison of Equimolar Doses of Mannitol and Hypertonic Saline for the Treatment of Elevated Intracranial Pressure After ...
Mannitol Injection in Viaflex Plastic Container) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling ... Test Dose: A test dose of mannitol should be given prior to instituting OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) therapy ... OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of Mannitol, USP in a single dose container ... 5% Mannitol Injection, USP). 1000. 50. 274. 5.0 (4.5 TO 7.0). 10% OSMITROL Injection (10% Mannitol Injection, USP). 500 100. ...
Dose-response slope [ Time Frame: baseline and several time points collected throughout test (high-dose methacholine challenge ... Drug: high-dose methacholine challenge test nebulized liquid inhalation, 0.0625 - 256 mg/mL, doubling doses ... high-dose methacholine challenge test or mannitol challenge test) ]. *Plateau response [ Time Frame: baseline and several time ... CVA and methacholine-induced cough but normal airway sensitivity using mannitol and high-dose methacholine bronchoprovocation ...
Mannitol 0.6 times as sweet as table sugar. Hard coating for pills; very large doses can damage kidneys, heart ... Low in calories: Yc Yacón syrup or powder; St Stevia leaf powder; Mk Monk fruit; Li Glycyrrhizin; Re Rebaudioside; Mn Mannitol ... Mn Mannitol; Er Erythritol; Ad Advantame; Ne Neotame; Ac Acesulfame potassium; Is Isomalt; ...
Mannitol is intended for intravenous administration - slow jet or drip. In order to prevent the drug prescribed in a dose of ... Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic. Release form and composition Mannitol is produced in the form of an infusion solution (200 and ... Mannitol is used in the treatment of the following diseases: * Intracranial hypertension (with renal or renal-hepatic failure ... Mannitol can be used for heart failure (only simultaneously with loop diuretics), as well as hypertensive crisis with ...
It is important to monitor the patients blood pressure after administering a dose. Adjust the dose as necessary. ... Mannitol may reduce pressure in the subarachnoid space by creating an osmotic gradient between cerebrospinal fluid in the ... The dose must be individualized to the patient. Depending on the response, administer at increments of 20-40 mg, no sooner than ... Initially assess for adequate renal function in adults by administering a test dose of 200 mg/kg, given IV over 3-5 minutes. ...
The dose should be individualized; if daily dosage cannot be divided equally, larger dose should be given before bedtime. A ... Mannitol reduces cerebral edema with the help of osmotic forces, and it decreases blood viscosity, resulting in reflex ... The dose must be individualized to the patient. Depending on the response, administer at increments of 20-40 mg, no sooner than ... When treating infants, titrate with 1-mg/kg/dose increments until a satisfactory effect is achieved. ...
... high-dose methacholine challenge test or mannitol challenge test) ]. *Dose-response slope [ Time Frame: baseline and several ... Drug: high-dose methacholine challenge test nebulized liquid inhalation, 0.0625 - 256 mg/mL, doubling doses ... Drug: high-dose methacholine challenge test nebulized liquid inhalation, 0.0625 - 256 mg/mL, doubling doses ... high-dose methacholine challenge test or mannitol challenge test) ]. Secondary Outcome Measures : *%ΔFEV1 (percentage change in ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of D-Mannitolfor price inquiry.where to buy D-Mannitol.Also offer free database of D- ... Mannitol including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, ... Reported Dose (Normalized Dose). Effect. Source. man. TDLo. intravenous. 17143mg/kg/2D (17143mg/kg). VASCULAR: BP ELEVATION NOT ... The D-Mannitol is an organic compound with the formula C6H14O6. The systematic name of this chemical is D-mannitol. With the ...
Mannitol(Osmitrol) generic is an osmotic diuretic, prescribed for increased intracranial pressure, eye pressure, to maintain ... What is the dosage of Mannitol?. IV- The recommended dose is 0.5 2 gm/kg. ... Mannitol , Retol-G , Kratol , Siptol -G , Mannitol 20% , Manogyl , Neurogyl IV , Humatrope (12mg) , Mannitol IV , Humatrope ( ... General Information on Mannitol. Generic Name : Mannitol Pronunciation : MAN-i-tol. Latest prescription information about ...
Mannitol acts as an osmotic laxative[12] in oral doses larger than 20 g,[13] and is sometimes sold as a laxative for children.[ ... The three studies[30][31][32] that initially found that high-dose mannitol was effective in cases of severe head injury were ... Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K, Facco E (March 2004). "Successful use of the new high-dose mannitol treatment in patients with ... A fructose to mannitol metabolic pathway, known as the mannitol cycle in fungi, has been discovered in a type of red algae ( ...
Adding the inhaled dry powder mannitol to standard therapy for cystic fibrosis produces sustained improvement in lung function ... A 50mg dose was chosen as the control because it was thought to be clinically ineffective based on an earlier dose-escalation ... "In this Phase 3 study, 12 month use of inhaled mannitol 400mg twice daily resulted in sustained improvement in lung function ... The study was supported by Pharmaxis Limited, the developer of the dry powder form of mannitol. Pharmaxis participated in the ...
Detailed Mannitol dosage information for adults. Includes dosages for Cerebral Edema and Oliguria; plus renal, liver and ... A test dose should be administered in patients with severe renal impairment.. Urine output should be monitored during mannitol ... A test dose should be administered in patients with severe renal impairment.. Diuresis caused by mannitol administration may ... Liver Dose Adjustments. Data not available. Precautions. Mannitol is considered contraindicated in patients with well ...
... was found to lie between 10 and 20 g of D-mannitol per single dose (Ellis & Krantz, 1941). D-mannitol fed to dogs was excreted ... MANNITOL Synonyms D-Mannitol; Mannitol Chemical name 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexanehexol Empirical formula C6H14O6 Structural formula H H ... of the dose was excreted in the urine within 24 hours, and only 2-3 per cent. of the mannitol carbon was oxidized to 14CO2. ... i.v. injection of 10 g D-mannitol into man, 81 per cent. of the dose was excreted unchanged in the urine and up to 80 g, ...
Airway response to mannitol. The cumulative dose of mannitol delivered on the control day was 252±213 mg, and this caused a ... and for 90 min after mannitol challenge (░) in 14 asthmatic subjects after a mean±sd cumulative dose of mannitol of 252±213 mg ... A mannitol challenge was performed 15 min after treatment using the dose increment that caused the 25% fall in FEV1 on the ... The mannitol challenge, using the cumulative dose that caused a 25% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) on ...
Mannitol is the generic name for a drug used as a diuretic and a laxative for children. Also used illegally to cut drugs, ... If a given Mannitol dose does not result in diuresis, what is the problem? ... is it correct that the effects of mannitol taken orally do not arise for mannitol administered intravenously, and vice versa? ... Mannitol raises the osmolarity in the nephron of the kidney so that more water is taken out of the body to be excreted.. ...
A 2012 study exploring new treatment strategies for CF assessed whether long-term treatment with inhaled mannitol improves lung ... Smyth AR, Bhatt J. Once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing with intravenous aminoglycosides for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane ... encoded search term (What is the role of mannitol or tobramycin in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF)?) and What is the role ... What is the role of mannitol or tobramycin in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF)?. Updated: Oct 30, 2018 ...
2014) What is stress? Dose-response effects in commonly used in vitro stress assays. Plant Physiol 165: 519-527. ... After 4 h of exposure to mannitol, ERF11 was 11.3-fold higher expressed in mannitol-treated wild-type plants, compared with the ... ERF6 Is an Activator of ERF11 Expression under Mannitol-Mediated Stress. The expression pattern of ERF11 upon mannitol exposure ... Exposure to Long-Term Mannitol Stress and Rosette Growth Analysis. For long-term exposure to mannitol stress, plants were grown ...
... pharmaceutical forms and doses by Kraspharma, Mannit indications, usages and related health products lists ... A06AD16 - Mannitol*B05BC01 - Mannitol*B05CX04 - Mannitol*R05CB16 - Mannitol. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, ...
  • We prospectively evaluated a treatment protocol alternating single-dose HS-HES and mannitol in stroke patients with elevated ICP. (ahajournals.org)
  • The laxative threshold for man was found to lie between 10 and 20 g of D-mannitol per single dose (Ellis & Krantz, 1941). (inchem.org)
  • This medication is given as a single dose as directed by your doctor. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • For the treatment of Paget's disease, this medication is given as a single dose and may be repeated based on your symptoms. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • For the treatment of osteoporosis, this medication is given as a single dose once a year. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • To evaluate the efficacy of palifermin given as a single dose before each cycle in patients receiving multicycle chemotherapy. (annals.org)
  • Palifermin (180 µg per kg of body weight) or placebo was administered intravenously as a single dose 3 days before each chemotherapy cycle (maximum, 6 cycles). (annals.org)
  • He was the first inmate executed in three years in the state and the first to die by a single dose of pentobarbital. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown in animals that following a single dose of Calcium Disodium Versenate urinary lead output increases, blood lead concentration decreases, but brain lead is significantly increased due to internal redistribution of lead. (nih.gov)
  • A standard, single dose of inhaled terbutaline attenuates hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction and mast cell activation in athletes. (edu.au)
  • Each single dose vial of a sterile lyphoplized, buffered, light-yellow-to-greenish powder contains topotecan HCl equivalent to 4 mg of topotecan as free base. (canada.com)
  • Renal toxicity has been noted in 28% to 36% of patients treated with a single dose of 50 mg/m2. (cancermonthly.com)
  • Ototoxicity: Ototoxicity has been observed in up to 31% of patients treated with a single dose of PLATINOL-AQ 50 mg/m2, and is manifested by tinnitus and/or hearing loss in the high frequency range (4,000 to 8,000 Hz). (cancermonthly.com)
  • The maximum recommended single dose is 10 mg. (medbroadcast.com)
  • At approximately day 30, a single dose of IA bevacizumab was given followed by standard radiation and oral temozolomide (TMZ) for 42 days. (aans.org)
  • Mannitol is contraindicated in people with anuria, congestive heart failure, and active cerebral haemorrhage (except during craniotomy). (wikipedia.org)
  • 150 mEq/l), treatment with any hyperosmotic fluid (mannitol or HS) in the previous 24 h, or history of congestive heart failure or kidney disease. (asahq.org)
  • Mannitol is considered contraindicated in patients with well established anuria due to acute renal failure. (drugs.com)
  • Mannitol is considered contraindicated in patients with well established anuria due to acute renal failure, severe pulmonary congestion or frank pulmonary edema, active intracranial bleeding (except during craniotomy), and severe dehydration. (drugs.com)
  • Subjects were challenged with mannitol and high-dose methacholine in random order 2-14 days apart. (queensu.ca)
  • Mechanical responses to mannitol and high-dose methacholine challenges reflected a continuum amongst groups. (queensu.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE We evaluated long-term clinical outcomes and postoperative physiological findings in acutely comatose patients with nonmissile surgical intraparenchymal temporal lobe hemorrhages and abnormal pupillary widening who received early preoperative high-dose mannitol (HDM) versus conventional dose mannitol treatment in the emergency room. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phase II: The primary objective of this phase of the study is to: Evaluate the time to failure (TTF) rate following therapy with bortezomib plus rituximab-hyperCVAD alternating with bortezomib plus rituximab-high dose methotrexate/cytarabine in patients between 18 and 79 years of age with untreated aggressive mantle cell lymphoma. (mdanderson.org)
  • The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel defines low dose therapy as 80 to 240 mcg/day, medium dose as 241 to 480 mcg/day, and high dose therapy as more than 480 mcg/day for children 12 years and older. (pdr.net)
  • The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines define low dose therapy as 100 to 200 mcg/day, medium dose as 201 to 400 mcg/day, and high dose therapy as more than 400 mcg/day. (pdr.net)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of surgery, conventional chemotherapy, sequential high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and reduced dose radiation therapy in high-risk PNET brain tumors. (centerwatch.com)
  • Oral Anticoagulants: Mannitol may reduce the effect of anticoagulant drugs. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The D-Mannitol is medically used as a dehydrating agent and diuretic drugs. (lookchem.com)
  • Mannitol is on the World Anti-Doping Agency 's banned drug list due to concerns that it may mask other drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not known whether drugs that inhibit mediator release from mast cells in vitro 11 - 13 also inhibit mediator release in response to mannitol challenge in vivo . (ersjournals.com)
  • The Phase II portion of the clinical trial will test the clinical effectiveness of the best dose combination of the three drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Used to determine drug dosing Combining Fluids - There are a number of drugs in a clinical setting that come as a percent solution. (cnet.com)
  • Your child's healthcare team will consider your child's personal needs to plan the drugs, doses and schedules of corticosteroids and antiseizure medicines. (cancer.ca)
  • The primary objectives will be: To establish the safety, tolerability, and recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of KW-2478 in combination with bortezomib administered intravenously on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle (Phase 1) To assess the overall response rate (ORR) when subjects with advanced MM are treated with KW-2478 in combination with bortezomib (Phase 2). (mdanderson.org)
  • The animals were divided into sham (group I), TBI (group II), TBI+quercetin (50 mg/kg intravenously) (group III), and TBI+mannitol (1 mg/kg intravenously) (group IV) groups. (jkns.or.kr)
  • During the period of Mannitol treatment, there is a likelihood of dehydration (manifested by symptoms such as dry skin, thirst, dry mouth, myasthenia, dyspepsia, low blood pressure, hallucinations, convulsions) and impaired water-electrolyte metabolism (manifested by an increase in circulating blood and / or hyponatremia, rarely - hyperkalemia). (remedy-info.com)
  • Mannitol is also the first drug of choice to treat acute glaucoma in veterinary medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannitol is sometimes effective in reversing acute brain swelling, but its effectiveness in the ongoing management of severe head injury remains unclear. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomised controlled trials of mannitol, in patients with acute traumatic brain injury of any severity. (cochrane.org)
  • Wakai A, McCabe A, Roberts I, Schierhout G. Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury. (cochrane.org)
  • Mannitol is also the first drug of choice for the treatment of acute glaucoma in veterinary medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pentobarbital-induced coma has been advocated in patients with acute liver failure refractory to mannitol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study to investigate the normal values of erythropoietin (EPO) and neuroprotective effects of quercetin and mannitol on EPO and hematocrit levels after acute severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rat model. (jkns.or.kr)
  • HealthDay News - Adding the inhaled dry powder mannitol to standard therapy for cystic fibrosis produces sustained improvement in lung function for up to 52 weeks, according to a study published online Dec. 16 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine . (empr.com)
  • The study was supported by Pharmaxis Limited, the developer of the dry powder form of mannitol. (empr.com)
  • Mannitol is also used as a dusting powder for chewing gum. (wisegeek.com)
  • Results showed that adding inhaled dry powder mannitol to standard therapy for CF produced sustained improvement in lung function for up to 52 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Adding inhaled dry powder mannitol to standard therapy for cystic fibrosis produced sustained improvement in lung function for up to 52 weeks, according to a new study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In addition, the dry-powder inhaler used to administer mannitol is small, portable, easy to use and doesn't require thorough cleaning and disinfection after each use, which may help patients better adhere to treatment. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • An Apparatus to Deliver Mannitol Powder for Bronchial Provocation in Children Under Six Years Old. (edu.au)
  • Pulmonary drug delivery can itself be achieved by different approaches, including liquid nebulizers, aerosol-based metered dose inhalers (MDI's), and dry powder dispersion devices. (google.es)
  • Mannitol can be used for heart failure (only simultaneously with loop diuretics), as well as hypertensive crisis with encephalopathy. (remedy-info.com)
  • Major clinical and physiological benefits of early high doses of mannitol for intraparenchymal temporal lobe hemorrhages with abnormal pupillary widening: a randomized trial. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mannitol has been used extensively, and various clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that single doses of mannitol-at least transiently-reduce increased ICP. (ahajournals.org)
  • During the Phase I portion of this clinical trial, the dose of Revlimid® and carfilzomib will be increased until the best and safest amount (or dose) is identified in combination with standard doses of Revlimid® and dexamethasone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After the Phase I clinical trial defines the safest doses of Revlimid® and carfilzomib and dexamethasone that can be taken together, the research study will move on to its second portion, a Phase II clinical trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 5. Adjust dose of active vitamin D or calcium supplement or both based on serum calcium value and clinical assessment (i.e., signs and symptoms of hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia). (medicines.org.uk)
  • 8,9 Although the results of these studies provided valuable clinical data, they did not address the question of comparative efficacy between HS and mannitol because the study designs did not control for equiosmolar concentrations of the two solutions. (asahq.org)
  • In keeping with our institutional practice, we defined 2 study populations based on the postoperative bleeding risk that received separate dosing regimens. (medscape.com)
  • Mannitol therapy should be discontinued if progression in renal damage or dysfunction, heart failure, or pulmonary congestion occurs. (drugs.com)
  • Biological Data Biochemical aspects D-mannitol occurs widely in nature in a variety of plants, algae fungi and certain bacteria. (inchem.org)
  • Mannitol occurs naturally in algae, trees, and mushrooms. (wisegeek.com)
  • High frequency loss occurs at cumulative doses of 270-450 mg/m 2 . (starship.org.nz)
  • Peripheral neuropathy occurs at cumulative doses of 300-600 mg/m 2 . (starship.org.nz)
  • I have been among the first to demonstrate the beneficial role of ketamine, a long-standing, partly clinically abandoned, anesthetic, that when used in ultra-low doses would minimize resistance to postoperative morphine, block hyperalgesia that occurs after remifentanil, and also reduces the dose of morphine that is consumed in order to control postoperative pain. (tau.ac.il)
  • The use of mannitol, when inhaled, as a bronchial irritant as an alternative method of diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • He played a pivotal role in the development of Aridol™ (inhaled mannitol for diagnosis of asthma), which was approved by the FDA in the United States, 14 European Union countries, Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand. (edu.au)
  • Inhaled Mannitol in the Diagnosis and the Management of Asthma. (edu.au)
  • Give test dose: 200 mg/kg IV over 3-5 mins, then 0.5-1 gm/kg IV (Max: 12.5 g). (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Such a test dose may be approximately 0.2 g/kg body weight (about 75 mL of a 20% solution or 100 mL of a 15% solution) infused in a period of three to five minutes to produce a urine flow of at least 30 to 50 mL/hour. (rxlist.com)
  • If no response is seen following the second test dose, the patient should be reevaluated. (drugs.com)
  • Investigational' means that the drug combination is still being studied and that research doctors are trying to find out more about it such as the safest dose to use, the side effects it may cause and how effective the Revlimid® and carfilzomib and dexamethasone investigational combination is for treating newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prolonged use of high doses (i.e., more than 480 mcg/day) may be associated with additional adverse effects. (pdr.net)
  • If sofosbuvir is used in combination with peginterferon alfa, and a patient has a serious adverse reaction potentially related to this drug, the peginterferon alfa dose should be reduced or discontinued. (who.int)
  • Mannitol therapy was safe and well tolerated. (bmj.com)
  • The usual maximum dose is 320 mcg (8 sprays 40 mcg/spray or 4 sprays 80 mcg/spray) inhaled orally twice daily, although higher-dose therapy has occasionally been used. (pdr.net)
  • Careful monitoring of audiometry should be performed prior to initiation of therapy and prior to subsequent doses of PLATINOL-AQ. (cancermonthly.com)