Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Mice, Inbred BALB CChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Rats, Inbred F344Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Film Dosimetry: Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Inbred ICRRadiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.PiperazinesCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.LeukopeniaEthanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.QuinolinesProdrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Rhenium: Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.DeoxycytidineAntibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Luo XQ, Ke ZY, Huang LB, Guan XQ, Zhang XL, Zhu J, Zhang YC (Nov 2008). "Maintenance therapy with dose-adjusted 6- ... "Prognosis in Pediatric Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis". Chest. 116 (3): 721-725. doi:10.1378/chest.116.3.721. PMID 10492278 ... Pediatric Pulmonology. 20: 1206. doi:10.1002/ppul.1950200213. Byrd RB, Gracey DR (1973). "Immunosuppressive treatment of ... mercaptopurine in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis". Pediatric Pulmonology. 43 (11): 1067-71. doi:10.1002/ppul.20894. PMID ...
The pediatric dose is the same. DEC is effective against microfilariae and somewhat effective against macrofilariae (adult ... The recommended prophylactic dose is 300 mg DEC given orally once weekly. The only associated symptom in the Peace Corps study ... can lead to serious complications in and of itself when administered in standard doses to patients with high Loa loa ... tests would help to limit complications derived from mass ivermectin treatment for onchocerciasis or dangerous strong doses of ...
... dose-related toxicity, and improvement despite severe hepatotoxicity". Pediatric Emergency Care. 22 (3): 177-280. doi:10.1097/ ... Roughly 0.2 to 0.4 milligrams of α-amanitin is present in 1 gram of A. bisporigera; the lethal dose in humans is less than 0.1 ... One mature fruit body can contain 10-12 mg of α-amanitin, enough for a lethal dose. The α-amanitin concentration in the spores ...
... of Honorary Membership of The Society of Pediatric Radiology (SPR) - YouTube The Society for Pediatric ... He has recently developed a new concept on "acceptable quality dose (AQD)" to take into account limitations of diagnostic ... Rehani, M.M. (2014). "CT Imaging in large part of the world: What we know and what we can learn". Pediatric Radiology. 44 (S3 ... He received the 2015 Butterfly Award from the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging. He was elected as Fellow of ...
This smaller dose was usually for pediatric use. 20 mg testosterone propionate 40 mg testosterone phenylpropionate 40 mg ...
Novartis Stalevo Insert Retrieved 2010-4-1 Stalevo Adult Dosing - ePocrates Online Retrieved 2010-4-2 Stalevo Pediatric Dosing ... Pediatric dosing is currently unavailable and/or not applicable. Levodopa is the immediate precursor to dopamine. Entacapone is ... when people experience the signs and symptoms of end-of-dose "wearing-off" but only for people taking a total daily dose of ... Sometimes a wearing off effect may occur at the end of the dosing interval, where a patient may feel Parkinson's symptoms. ...
In the low-dose short test, 1 µg of an ACTH drug is injected into the patient. In the conventional-dose short test, 250 µg of ... Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society. 53 (2): 175-80. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2010.03203.x. PMID 20626639. Emily D. ... This test can be given as a low-dose short test, a conventional-dose short test, or as a prolonged-stimulation test. ... Studies have shown the cortisol response of the adrenals is the same for the low-dose and conventional-dose tests. The ...
Each adult dose contains 500 U of viral antigen. The pediatric dose contains 250 U of viral antigen. Vaqta: made by Merck. ... Each adult dose contains 1440 ELISA units of viral antigen adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg Al). The pediatric (child) ... The vaccine should be given in the muscle of the upper arm and be given in two doses for the best protection. The initial dose ... An adult dose contains 50 U of antigen adsorbed onto 0.45 mg of aluminium (as aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate); a child dose ...
Multitargeted low-dose GLAD combination chemoprevention: a novel and promising approach to combat colon carcinogenesis. ... using Metronomic chemotherapy in advanced pediatric malignancies: a multicenter experience. Oncology. 2012;82(5):249-60. doi: ... The COMBAT regimen for treating various advanced pediatric cancers that uses two re-purposed non-cytotoxic drugs to augment two ... sertraline augmenting continuous low dose temozolomide. Oncotarget. 2014;5(18):8052-82. PMID 25211298. A conceptually new ...
Society for Pediatric Research, 1977 (San Francisco). Siber GR, Smith AL, and Levin MJ. High doses gentamicin for febrile ... American Pediatric Society and Society for Pediatric Research Meetings, 1987. (Abstract #967). Schreiber JR, Basker C, Priehs C ... American Pediatric Society and Society for Pediatric Research Meetings, 1987. (Abstract #961). Pollack HJ, Siber GR and Edelson ... Pediatric Research 1986; 20: p321A (Abstract #977). Schreiber JR, Basker CJ, Siber GR. High dose anticapsular IgG protects ...
The half-life of moxifloxacin is 11.5-15.6 hours (single-dose, oral). About 45% of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin ... No uses within the pediatric population for oral and intravenous moxifloxacin have been approved. A significant number of drugs ... About 3% and 9% of the dose of moxifloxacin, as well as about 2% and 4.5% of its glucuronide metabolite are removed by ... The sulfate conjugate (M1) accounts for around 38% of the dose, and is eliminated primarily in the feces. Approximately 14% of ...
Its dose and use is limited by its main side effect-postural hypotension, where there is a substantial drop in blood pressure ... Pediatric: No studies have established safety or usefulness in this population. Geriatric: The elderly are more likely to ... Labetalol should be dosed with caution in the elderly and counseled on this side effect. Neurologic: Headache (2%), Dizziness ( ... Nursing: Breast milk has been shown to contain small amounts of labetalol (0.004% original dose). Prescribers should be ...
... is FDA approved for pediatric patients 3 months and older. Dosing is based on body surface area (BSA) as calculated ... An initial dose of 70 mg by intravenous infusion is given followed by 50 mg intravenous daily. If no response is seen or if ... Ordinarily, no dose adjustments are necessary, however, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. ... Therefore, in case of liver impairment the dose needs to be reduced. Caspofungin also undergoes spontaneous chemical ...
An estimated 35% of pediatric patients are incorrectly dosed by EMS providers. Tenfold mathematical errors due to incorrect ... would appear preferable for dosing. For most resuscitation medications, the optimal dose is not known and doses based on IBW or ... Specifically, for drug dosing the patient's length-based dosing zone can be adjusted up one color zone if the child appears ... The tape provides pre-calculated medication doses effectively eliminating the potential errors associated with pediatric ...
"Proton versus photon radiotherapy for common pediatric brain tumors: comparison of models of dose characteristics and their ... Two prominent examples are pediatric neoplasms (such as medulloblastoma) and prostate cancer. In the case of pediatric ... 2005). "Comparisons of conventional-dose vs. high-dose conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized adenocarcinoma of ... dose escalation. In some instances, dose escalation has demonstrated a higher probability of "cure" (i.e., local control) than ...
Most pediatric endocrinologists monitor growth and adjust dose every 3-4 months. Assessing the psychological value of treatment ... High-dose GH treatment has been shown to accelerate growth, but data on long term benefits and risks are limited. Idiopathic ... At doses 20% higher than those used in GH deficiency, growth accelerates. With several years of treatment the median gain in ... The gains appear to be dose-dependent. It has been used successfully in toddlers with Turner syndrome, as well as in older ...
In pediatric patients, the dose is based on body weight and is recommended at 300 mg per kilogram of body weight per day. This ... Reduced clearance has been seen in both pediatric and post-operative patients. Adjustments in dosing frequency may be required ... Using typical doses, ampicillin/sulbactam has been shown to reach desired levels to treat infections in the brain, lungs, and ... In patients with decreased kidney function, the dosing frequency may need to be reduced. Reported adverse events include both ...
Hewitson, L., Lopresti, B., Mason, N.S, Stott, C. and Tomko, J. (2010) Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and ... "Discrimination Reversal Learning in Infant Primates Exposed to Low-Dose Thimerosal: A Pilot Study". doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2011.05. ... May 2008). "Pediatric vaccines influence primate behavior, and amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding". International ... While at the University of Pittsburgh she researched the possible connection between pediatric vaccines and behavior and ...
The lowest published lethal dose is 101 mg/kg body weight in adult humans, (or 7.07 grams for a 70-kg adult). It has proven ... especially in the pediatric population. A single teaspoon (5 ml) of methyl salicylate contains approximately 6 g of salicylate ... Toxic ingestions of salicylates typically occur with doses of approximately 150 mg/kg body weight. This can be achieved with 1 ... fatal to small children in doses as small as 4 ml. A seventeen-year-old cross-country runner at Notre Dame Academy on Staten ...
Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Monk, J. Paul (2008). "High-Dose-Intensity MVAC for Advanced Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Report of Three ... Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 55 (6): 1217-20. doi:10.1002/pbc.22611. PMID 20979179. Walsh, Alexandra M.; Fiveash, John B.; Reddy, ... Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 21 (1): 80-1. doi:10.1097/00043426-199901000-00019. PMID 10029821. ...
Doses range from 400 to 800 mg, up to 3 times a day. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: Phenprobamate Chembank: ... Letters: Haemoperfusion may be useful in phenprobamate and polypharmacy intoxication of paediatric patients.. ...
Each dose lasts approximately 30 minutes.[8] Pain relief begins after 6-8 breaths and continues for several minutes after ... Pediatric Anesthesia. 17 (2): 148-53. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.02037.x. PMID 17238886.. ... The kidney and liver toxicity observed after anesthetic doses is attributable to one or more metabolites produced by O- ... In dogs, methoxyflurane causes a dose-dependent decrease in respiratory rate and a marked decrease in respiratory minute volume ...
Pediatric Research. 67 (3): 304-8. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181cbd57b. PMID 19952864. Giurgiutiu DV, Espinoza LM, Wood TC, DuPont ... "Flavin adenine dinucleotide status and the effects of high-dose riboflavin treatment in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ...
Dosing for human clinical studies was based on canine MPS I studies. Three clinical trials were performed to establish the ... A Phase 2 Young Pediatric study was also conducted. Clinical trials and post-market safety data indicate that the most common ...
The child dose is prescribed according to body weight: 11-20 kg: 1 pediatric tablet once daily; 21-30 kg: 2 pediatric tablets ... A pediatric tablet contains 25 mg of proguanil hydrochloride and 62.5 mg of atovaquone. The adult treatment dose is four ... use adult dose. Atovaquone/proguanil is not licensed for use in children weighing 10 kg or less. The pediatric tablets are not ... The adult dose is one standard tablet daily starting one or two days before traveling into a malaria-endemic area, and ...
In the high-dose 48-h DST, 2 mg of dexamethasone is given every 6 hours for 48 hours or a single dose of 8 mg is given.[7] This ... 2003). "Clinical and Endocrine Responses to Pituitary Radiotherapy in Pediatric Cushing's Disease: An Effective Second-Line ... The CRH test uses recombinant human or bovine-sequence CRH, which is administered via a 100μg intravenous bolus dose. The ... This is done via a combination of techniques including CRH, high-dose DST, BIPSS, and pituitary MRI. ...
Abstract 6074: Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Genotype Alters Warfarin Dose Requirements in Pediatric Patients. Cheryl M Takao, ... This preliminary data suggest that VKORC1 status is an important factor in dosing requirements in pediatric pts. A study using ... To examine the relationship between warfarin dosing & polymorphisms of CYP2C9 & VKORC1 in pediatric patients. Pts 0 -18 years ... Abstract 6074: Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Genotype Alters Warfarin Dose Requirements in Pediatric Patients ...
valium iv pediatric dose. frequently associated with a local fulness a diffused inflammatory ...
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Dosing schedules based on weight can be constructed that will accurately keep each dose within the recommended range. Dosing ... acetaminophen should be dosed with single doses in the range of 10-15 mg/kg at 4-hour intervals. However, many dosing schedules ... Pediatric dosing of acetaminophen Pediatr Pharmacol (New York). 1983;3(3-4):321-7. ... The principles used to derive the age-based dosing schedule have potential application for use with other pharmacologic agents ...
Some of those parameters were modified and entered the CT with the help of a biomedical engineer to reduce the delivered dose. ... In this paper, we based on the irradiation doses delivered from the current protocols to find a practical method of their ... and the Yaoundé Gyneaco-Obstetric and pediatric hospital (H3). This study included a total of 192 cases of cerebral trauma, of ... propose an optimal practical method to decrease the irradiation doses. To collect data, we performed a prospective study of ...
... , Emergency Pediatric Dosing Weight Estimation, Broselow Tape, Broselow Luten Color Coding for ... Emergency Pediatric Dosing. search Emergency Pediatric Dosing, Emergency Pediatric Dosing Weight Estimation, Broselow Tape, ... Emergency Pediatric Dosing 30-36 kilogram (Broselow Green). * Emergency Pediatric Dosing over 36 kilogram (Broselow Over 36 kg) ... May increase dose to next color zone (but dose airway equipment based on broselow length) ...
Find patient medical information for Robitussin Pediatric Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose ... Missed Dose. If you are taking this product on a regular schedule and miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. ... follow the specific dosing instructions on the packaging to find the correct dose for your age. ...
Find patient medical information for Apogen Pediatric Injection on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... If you miss a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist right away to establish a new dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to ... Missed Dose. For the best possible benefit, it is important to receive each scheduled dose of this medication as directed. ... Laboratory tests (such as kidney function, levels of drug in the blood) may be performed to help find the best dose for your ...
Flovent HFA 44 mcg with dose counter is taken as two puffs twice daily. Flovent Diskus 50 mcg with dose counter is taken as one ... Flovents dose counter provides reliable dose tracking of ICS, which is a medication that helps prevent airway inflammation ... The new dose counter feature on these products will provide parents and children with an important tool that can help ensure ... "Dose counters will provide patients, their parents and physicians with a much needed tool to better track medication usage, and ...
Clinical Expansion of CT and Radiation Dose. * Clinical Expansion of CT and Radiation Dose ... MDCT angiography brain cancer cardiac CT computed tomography (CT) multidetector row CT radiation radiation dose and risk risk ... Clinical Approaches of Dose Optimization and Reduction. * Front Matter Pages 133-133 ... Because of the associated radiation dose, CT may induce cancers, and the risk of death has been estimated at up to one per ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Emergency Pediatric Dosing 12-14 kilogram , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Emergency Pediatric Dosing 12-14 kilogram via the Trip Database. ...
... especially pediatric patients given their smaller size and lower body weights. ... Given that doses of radiation used for Computed Tomography (CT) are far higher than conventional radiographs (x-rays), it is ... Radiation Dose for Abdomen and Pelvis Scans. It is publicly reported as Radiation Dose for Head Scans and Radiation Dose for ... The Leapfrog Hospital Survey asks hospitals to report on two common pediatric radiation doses:. *Radiation Dose for Head Scans ...
Patient-specific dose estimation for pediatric abdomen-pelvis CT Author(s): Xiang Li; Ehsan Samei; W. Paul Segars; Gregory M. ... The seven patients had effective dose of 2.4-2.8 mSv, corresponding to normalized effective dose of 6.6-8.3 mSv/100mAs ( ... Normalized effective dose correlated strongly with body weight (correlation coefficient: r = -0.94). Normalized dose to the ... Organ and effective dose of these patients from an abdomen-pelvis scan protocol (LightSpeed VCT scanner, 120-kVp, 85-90 mA, 0.4 ...
... customizable pediatric drug dosing at the touch of a button. This article reviews PediCalc, a decent one-touch pediatric drug ...
... low-dose ketamine bolus at 0.2 mg/kg x 1 prior to second dose of IV opiate) The pediatric FACES pain scale will be used to ... Adjuvant Low-dose Ketamine in Pediatric Sickle Cell Vaso-occlusive Crisis (AKTSS). The safety and scientific validity of this ... Use of low-dose ketamine infusion for pediatric patients with sickle cell disease-related pain: a case series. Clin J Pain. ... This study is investigating the safety and tolerability of adjuvant low-dose IV ketamine bolus for pediatric SCD VOE in the ED ...
This was a retrospective audit assessing vancomycin dosing of 60 mg/kg/day in the attainment of therapeutic concentrations ... between 10-20 mcg/mL among 56 pediatric oncology patients. Twelve patients (21%) achieved therapeutic concentrations of 10-20 ... Assessment of Initial Vancomycin Dosing in Pediatric Oncology Patients. Hillary Orr 1,2,* , Deni Trone 1,3. ... Orr, H.; Trone, D.; Elder, J.; Raj, A. Assessment of Initial Vancomycin Dosing in Pediatric Oncology Patients. Children 2017, 4 ...
Max dose was 900 mg.. Drug: prophylactic Valganciclovir The common practice dose at Schneider Childrens Medical Center dosing ... Valganciclovir Dosing in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... This type of patient was not routinely observed in the clinical trials used to derive and confirm the pediatric dose. ... This is a prospective study of all pediatric SOT recipients who were treated with oral valganciclovir. The common practice dose ...
Current CT scanners display the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and the dose length product (DLP) dose indices ... 204 - Size-Specific Dose Estimates (SSDE) in Pediatric and Adult Body CT Examinations (2011) Category: Reports There are ... Keywords: Computed Tomography, Pediatric Imaging, Size Specific Dose Estimate, CTDIvol, Patient Size Computer Tomography ... because for smaller pediatric patients, interpreting the displayed CTD/vol (or DLP) as patient dose-without recognizing the ...
Sildenafil Pediatric Dose Pulmonary Hypertension ,, Trusted Pharmacy. Efek samping obat cefixime 200mg cefixime 400 mg ...
Low-dose steroids associated with milder histological changes after pediatric liver transplantation. Authors. *. Silja Kosola, ... In conclusion, continuing low-dose steroids indefinitely after pediatric LT may have a positive effect on the long-term ... Pediatric Surgery and Pediatric Transplantation Surgery, Childrens Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ... Pediatric Surgery and Pediatric Transplantation Surgery, Childrens Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ...
Dexamethasone for Paediatric Adeno-tonsillectomy - A Dose-finding Study. This study has been terminated. ... Investigation of the dose-effect relationship of prophylactic single-dose dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative ... Dose-effect relationship for the prevention of postoperative pain [ Time Frame: 24 hours postoperatively ]. *Oral intake [ Time ... Antiemetic and Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Dexamethasone for Paediatric Adeno-tonsillectomy - A Randomised, Placebo- ...
... use in children in the United States has found that reducing unnecessary scans and lowering the doses for the highest-dose ... Reducing unnecessary and high-dose pediatric CT scans could cut associated cancers by 62 percent. Editors note:. View this ... UC Davis Health , Medical Center , For Referring Physicians , Reducing unnecessary and high-dose pediatric CT scans could ... ... While the effective dose for head CT is relatively low, the brain and red bone marrow doses are relatively high for young ...
... use in children in the United States has found that reducing unnecessary scans and lowering the doses for the highest-dose ... While the effective dose for head CT is relatively low, the brain and red bone marrow doses are relatively high for young ... Reducing unnecessary and high-dose pediatric CT scans could cut associated cancers by 62 percent. ... use in children in the United States has found that reducing unnecessary scans and lowering the doses for the highest-dose ...
Free Customization in this Report Global Pediatric Vaccines Market is expected to cross US$ 40 Billion by the year 2022. Our ... 2. Pediatric (Infants) Immunized (Disease wise) & Forecast (2011 - 2022). 3. Doses of Vaccines Administered in Pediatric ( ... Vaccines Doses of Vaccines Administered and Forecast. Pediatric Vaccines Market, Doses, Immunization, Cases and Forecast: ... Pediatric Vaccines Market, Doses, Immunization, Cases and Forecast: Worldwide Analysis *July 2017 ...
  • Strawn J, Mills J, BeauA S, Welge J. The impact of antidepressant dose and class on treatment response in pediatric anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis [published online February 7, 2018]. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • 28/3/2018 this drug indicated for use clindamycin usp single-dose, and yet. (socalgolfer.org)
  • 2018 - 2013 - phospholipidosis has favorable pharmacokinetics for the plan based on weight once daily for use one dose of bacterial the treatment. (socalgolfer.org)
  • Given that doses of radiation used for Computed Tomography (CT) are far higher than conventional radiographs (x-rays), it is important for hospitals to review the dosage exposure for their patients, especially pediatric patients given their smaller size and lower body weights. (leapfroggroup.org)
  • Current CT scanners display the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and the dose length product (DLP) dose indices (Shope 1981, Dixon 2003, Boone 2007, McCollough 2008, McNitt- Gray 2002, AAPM 2008), both before and after the CT scan is performed. (aapm.org)
  • A study examining trends in X-ray computed tomography (CT) use in children in the United States has found that reducing unnecessary scans and lowering the doses for the highest-dose scans could lower the overall lifetime risk of future imaging-related cancers by 62 percent. (ucdavis.edu)
  • For each patient examination Volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) should be collected from the dose report. (knowcancer.com)
  • With the growing use of computed tomography (CT) in children and the increasing awareness of CT radiation risk to this population, there is a greater need to accurately estimate radiation dose from CT examination for the purpose of assessing life-time cancer risk and also for the comparing and optimizing CT technologies and scan protocols. (irb.hr)
  • 8mg/kg of abacavir given twice daily to normal- and low-birth-weight newborns with HIV in South Africa was safe and effective according to presentations in a session on new approaches to paediatric dosing at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2020) last week. (aidsmap.com)
  • GlaxoSmithKline announced availability of two formulations of an inhaled corticosteroid with a dose counter -- Flovent HFA 44 mcg and Flovent Diskus 50 mcg -- for children ages four and older with mild, persistent asthma. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The new dose counter feature on these products will provide parents and children with an important tool that can help ensure medicine is being taken regularly, which is essential to effectively controlling asthma symptoms. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Inhaled corticosteroids are a highly effective first-line maintenance therapy for children with asthma," said Dr. Andy Liu, associate professor of pediatric allergy and immunology at National Jewish Medical & Research Center in Denver, Colorado. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The introduction of a dose counter is an important step forward in asthma care, since consistent, daily ICS therapy is a cornerstone of asthma treatment in children. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The first part of the book provides a comprehensive approach to all the factors that influence the radiation dose and subsequently the risk induced by using MDCT in children and adult patients. (springer.com)
  • However, mathematical modeling estimates that by reducing the top quartile of CT doses in children down to the average dose, the number of cancer cases would be reduced by approximately 43 percent, the equivalent to preventing 4,350 cancer cases per year in the U.S. (leapfroggroup.org)
  • VGC dosing is problematic in children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Very few studies have evaluated this dosing for infants and young children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In 2010 the FDA published a safety alert confirming the excessively high dosage calculated by the dosing algorithm in children with low body weight, low body surface area, and normal serum creatinine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is unproportional variability of doses calculated by the algorithm for infants and young children with normal renal function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In 2008, the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging ("Alliance") was founded by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) and the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) to address the unique needs of imaging children when using ionizing radiation. (aapm.org)
  • The second is to dose CT appropriately for children. (ucdavis.edu)
  • While the effective dose for head CT is relatively low, the brain and red bone marrow doses are relatively high for young children, resulting in the greatest risk of brain cancer and leukemia for imaged organs. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Currently there is no information available on these polymorphisms & warfarin dosing in children. (ahajournals.org)
  • Many medicines for which specific paediatric dosing information is given are not available in dosage forms appropriate for children. (mja.com.au)
  • Indeed, it was more than 30 years ago that Shirkey first referred to paediatric patients as "therapeutic orphans", 5 highlighting the widespread use of disclaimers and absence of guidance regarding drug use in children. (mja.com.au)
  • Dose information is of utmost importance in treating children, who have differing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. (mja.com.au)
  • 6 In Australia, an audit of the 1994 MIMS showed that PIs for 72% of prescription medicines either provided no information about paediatric use or contained a partial or general disclaimer about use in children. (mja.com.au)
  • In addition to dose information, clinicians require medicines to be in forms that are suitable for administering to children of different ages. (mja.com.au)
  • We defined paediatric patients as children less than 12 years of age. (mja.com.au)
  • Another study supported the doubling of the dose of dolutegravir for children with HIV/TB co-infection who are taking rifampicin. (aidsmap.com)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend abacavir in liquid form as part of the preferred first-line regimen in children aged 28 days and above, but there is no approved dose for children under three months of age. (aidsmap.com)
  • When dispensing Tamiflu® oral suspension for children younger than 1 year of age, the oral dosing dispenser that is included in the product package should always be removed. (cdc.gov)
  • Special Populations: The doses recommended for HIV-infected children and adolescents 2 to 18 years of age resulted in a pharmacokinetic profile of raltegravir similar to that observed in adults receiving 400 mg twice daily. (thebodypro.com)
  • J. Fangusaro, J. Finlay, and R. Sposto, "Intensive chemotherapy followed by consolidative myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) in young children with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs): report of the Head Start I and II experience," Pediatric Blood and Cancer , vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 312-318, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma (St Jude Medulloblastoma-96): long-term results from a prospective, multicentre trial," Lancet Oncology , vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 813-820, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Outcome for young children newly diagnosed with ependymoma, treated with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue," Pediatric Blood and Cancer , vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 34-40, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • As a steadily increasing number of children survive their cancer into adulthood, the cumulative radiation doses of advanced imaging exams ordered for follow-up monitoring of recurrence or metastases is critically important. (appliedradiology.com)
  • HealthDay News - Quintupling the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids seems not to be effective for preventing exacerbations among children with asthma, while quadrupling the dose may be beneficial for adolescents and adults, according to two studies published online March 3 in the New England Journal of Medicine . (empr.com)
  • Children were treated with maintenance low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids for 48 weeks and were then randomized to continue to the same dose or a quintupled dose. (empr.com)
  • Children requiring cortisol replacement therapy are often prescribed hydrocortisone doses of 2.5 mg, but as this is commercially unavailable 10 mg tablets, with functional break lines, are split commonly in an attempt to deliver the correct dose. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, ondansetron in this dose range was shown to result in a similar reduction in emesis in children with acute gastroenteritis. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Background: The accuracy of drug dosing calculations during medical emergencies in children has not been evaluated extensively. (who.int)
  • The research proposed for funding should be translational in nature (though basic science and clinical proposals will also be considered), and should be focused on improving the understanding and identification of effective dosing parameters for treating children with PLGA brain tumors, with indications for children battling other types of brain tumors. (aacr.org)
  • However, in virtually all of these clinical trials, the drug dosing for eligible children was derived from the pharmacodynamic and toxicity profiles in adults, usually established in widely metastatic disease, such as melanoma or other adult, non-CNS malignancies. (aacr.org)
  • The ultimate goal is to use this information to guide optimal dosing strategies in children with pediatric low grade astrocytoma/gliomas. (aacr.org)
  • Dose reports concerning four radiography procedures and three diagnostic fluoroscopy procedures performed in 2015-2016 on children aged 0-15 years were collected from 16 imaging departments on a voluntary basis. (springer.com)
  • On September 29, 2008, FDA approved a pediatric efficacy supplement for Videx EC (didanosine) Delayed-Release Capsules, expanding the indication to include children weighing at least 20 kg. (thebodypro.com)
  • Section 12.3 was added to describe the population pharmacokinetic analysis for children: A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted on pooled didanosine plasma concentration data from 9 clinical trials in 106 pediatric (neonate to 18 years of age) and 45 adult patients (greater than 18 years of age). (thebodypro.com)
  • Particular attention should be given to CT scans in children, as they represent about 10% of all the X-ray studies performed on them, accounting for about 75% of the total dose administered. (knowcancer.com)
  • The paediatric population includes children ranging from infants to teenagers, and each age subgroup has different pharmacokinetic responses, dosage requirements, swallowing abilities and taste preferences. (epmmagazine.com)
  • They can, however, be difficult or young children to swallow and do not afford and dose flexibility. (epmmagazine.com)
  • This study evaluated azathioprine doses, metabolite concentrations, and their associations with patients' age in children with IBD treated at 6 tertiary pediatric referral centers. (ovid.com)
  • Results: At the interim analysis, 31% of children had a tacrolimus pre-dose concentration within the target range. (eur.nl)
  • Modern protocols use much lower doses of radiation in children with HD, however these studies have been limited by short follow up (median f/up is approximately 10 years). (oncolink.org)
  • While it is theorized that lower radiation doses may be associated with lower SMN risk, long-term follow-up of children treated with low-dose radiation is lacking. (oncolink.org)
  • Most drugs in children are dosed according to body weight or body surface area (BSA).For many years, pediatric dosage calculations used pediatric formulas such as Fried's rule, Young's rule, Clark's rule and Nomogram Method.Various formulas have been devised to calculate pediatric dosage from a standard adult dose, and the most accurate being body surface area. (etoolsage.com)
  • The meeting was sponsored by the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging, a coalition of 29 organizations dedicated to reducing radiation dose estimates that children receive from medical imaging examinations. (itnonline.com)
  • This agreement is a fundamental change in responsibility and accountability for the dose estimates that our children - and actually adults, too - receive during CT examinations," said Donald Frush, M.D., chair of the American College of Radiology Pediatric Imaging Commission. (itnonline.com)
  • Children are three to five times more sensitive to radiation than adults, yet dose estimates are made using adult-sized phantoms," said Keith Strauss, M.Sc. (itnonline.com)
  • Models need to be developed specifically for estimating dose to children undergoing CT exams utilizing phantoms that more appropriately take into consideration the size, shape and composition of children's anatomies. (itnonline.com)
  • Accordingly, some authors estimated organ and effective dose in reference phantoms, but still there is a critical need to expand these data to larger groups of non-reference children. (radioprotection.org)
  • Pediatric CD (PCD) affects about 38,000 children, is often progressive, and can impair both physical and emotional development. (pedsnet.org)
  • We will conduct a large, pragmatic clinical trial to determine whether an intervention using an anti-TNF drug plus low-dose oral methotrexate is more effective than anti-TNF therapy alone among children with moderate-to-severe PCD who have not previously had anti-TNF therapy. (pedsnet.org)
  • Urinary Tract Infections and Shigellosis in Adults and Pediatric Patients, and Acute Otitis Media in Children: Adults: The usual adult dosage in the treatment of urinary tract infections is 1 BACTRIM DS (double strength. (kompbu.com)
  • The average effective dose of Phenergan for the active therapy of nausea and vomiting in children or adults is 25 mg. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • Children younger than 2 years of age-Use and dose must be determined by your doctor. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • When using this medication in children 2 years and older, the lowest effective dosage should be used, and other drugs that affect breathing should be avoided The recommended dose of Phenergan for treating allergies is 25 mg before bedtime. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • In children, the dosage may also be based on weight Avoid use of promethazine in children with liver disease (including phenergan pediatric dose for cough possible Reye's syndrome) caution should be exercised when administering promethazine hydrochloride to pediatric patients 2 years of age and older. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • We think it prudent in the case of very pronounced curves to, pyridium 200 mg dose, three children, living when born, and perfect in point, can i get pyridium over the counter, tumour is visible and can be noticed to slowly increase in size. (teencoach.co.nz)
  • The Pediatric Imaging Program at MassGeneral Hospital for Children provides a full suite of imaging exams using the latest technology. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Pediatric Imaging Program at MassGeneral Hospital for Children is staffed by experts from Mass General Imaging who specialize in pediatric imaging exams. (massgeneral.org)
  • Although not studied specifically in children with hypertension, in children with psychiatric disorders such as Tourette's and ADHD, it has been suggested that once patients are stabilized on an oral dose , they can be converted to the transdermal patch that provides an …Initial dosing recommendations for pediatric patients are not available. (podolskieprostory.ru)
  • 5 d in 2 doses and 35 children were treated with 20 mg/kg per day metronidazole for 7 d in. (pubblicitaperimprese.tk)
  • The main aim of all radiological investigations especially in children is maximum diagnostic benefit and less radiation dose and to achieve that it is worth while to consider adjustment of pediatric protocols, equipement modification and lower radiation dose settings. (com.pk)
  • In response to this, the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) sponsored a conference on this topic in 2001 (Slovis 2002, Berdon 2002) which was followed by a conference in 2002 sponsored by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (Linton 2003). (aapm.org)
  • This summit and our subsequent agreement to work together, represents a major step forward in ensuring that medical protocols keep pace with rapidly advancing technology and are properly displayed on our CT equipment" said Marilyn Goske, M.D., chair of the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging, past president of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR), and Silverman Chair for Radiology Education, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. (itnonline.com)
  • The principles used to derive the age-based dosing schedule have potential application for use with other pharmacologic agents, particularly nonprescription drugs. (nih.gov)
  • a This table may include recently approved FDCs that have not yet been added to individual drug sections in the Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information Appendix (see individual drug components for details), and it does not include FDCs for individual component drugs that were recently approved and have not been added to the Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Appendix (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • In the US, paediatric drugs based on new molecular entities (NMEs) must be evaluated in paediatric clinical trials. (epmmagazine.com)
  • 0 ml of this pediatric purchase generic Tadacip online europe oral suspension (one of the drugs. (kompbu.com)
  • it is recommended that the lowest effective dose of promethazine hydrochloride be used in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older and concomitant administration of other drugs with respiratory depressant effects be avoided PHENERGAN Injection should not be used in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age because of the potential for fatal respiratory depression. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • It is tough enough remember all those drugs doses. (pedimedicine.com)
  • The first consideration is whether a measurable dosage form is required, such as dosing based on milligram (mg) of drug per kilogram (kg) of body weight. (epmmagazine.com)
  • Brians better alstetter, viagra and other names: dr. - per kilogram for cancer-related costs such as zithromax azithromycin pertussis chlamydia trachomatis urethritis zithromax dosing otitis media: a day followed. (socalgolfer.org)
  • Jim perkins, assistant professor dose of tadalafil in pulmonary hypertension of health check illustration, rochester association of technology,has been connected Tadalafil 90 Pills 50mg $149 - $1.66 Per pill with the speech communication of medical specialty since Liquid nolvadex australia its 6th edition. (joshlinkfoundation.org)
  • The appearance of advertisement or product information in the various section in the website does not constitute an endorsement or approval by Pediatric Oncall of the quality or value of the said product or of claims made by its manufacturer. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The main changes include revisions to the Dosage and Administration section as follows: The recommended total daily dose to be administered once daily to pediatric patients weighing at least 20 kg who can swallow capsules is based on body weight (kg), consistent with the recommended adult dosing guidelines (see Table 1). (thebodypro.com)
  • These doses are 8.3 and 16.7 times the maximum recommended total daily dose of promethazine for a 50-kg subject Promethazine is a first-generation antihistamine used to treat allergies, nausea, and motion sickness.In a hospital setting, promethazine is often used to treat anaphylaxis and provide mild sedation before or after surgery. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • Daily Dose 75 - 90 mg/kg/day. (viagraonlinebuymsn.com)
  • Maximum Daily Dose 4000 mg/day. (viagraonlinebuymsn.com)
  • Follow IV therapy by the the entire dose add a daily dose of 500 mg fasted healthy male volunteers the not be established include Allergic. (awardspace.us)
  • This is a prospective study of all pediatric SOT recipients who were treated with oral valganciclovir. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pharmacists and physicians who care for pediatric patients should be aware of two issues: (1) the possible need to compound Tamiflu® on site if commercially manufactured pediatric oral suspension formulation is not available, and (2) the need to ensure that the units of measure on the dosing dispenser and the dosing instructions match. (cdc.gov)
  • If pediatric formulations of Tamiflu are not available, pharmacists may compound Tamiflu® 75 mg capsules into an oral suspension onsite. (cdc.gov)
  • An oral dosing dispenser with 30 mg, 45 mg, and 60 mg graduations of Tamilfu® is provided in the packaging for the manufacturer's product rather than graduations in milliliters (mL) or teaspoons (tsp). (cdc.gov)
  • When dispensing commercially manufactured Tamiflu® oral suspension, pharmacists should ensure the units of measure on the dosing instructions match the dosing device provided. (cdc.gov)
  • If prescription instructions specify administration using mL or tsp, then the device included in the Tamiflu® product package should be removed and replaced with an appropriate measuring device, such as an oral syringe if the prescribed dose is in milliliters (mL). (cdc.gov)
  • Pharmacists and health care providers should provide an oral syringe that is capable of accurately measuring the prescribed milliliter (mL) dose, and counsel the caregiver how to administer the prescribed dose. (cdc.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if higher doses of oral ondansetron are associated with greater efficacy or side effects. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Please consult the complete prescribing information for Videx Pediatric Powder for Oral Solution for dosage and administration of pediatric patients weighing less than 20 kg or who can not swallow capsules. (thebodypro.com)
  • Based on the data analyzed, dosing schedule (once versus twice daily) and formulation (powder for oral solution, tablet and delayed-release capsule) did not have an effect on oral clearance. (thebodypro.com)
  • Dr Anthony Qu, vice president of scientific affairs at Cambrex and Dr Yanjun Zhao, market intelligence manager examine the complexities of developing oral doses for the paediatric market. (epmmagazine.com)
  • Overall design requirements for paediatric oral dosage forms are primarily based on the age, body size and swallowing ability of the target population. (epmmagazine.com)
  • In addition to liquid and solid forms such as tablets and capsules, multiparticulate formulations like granules and mini-tabs, and alternative oral delivery pathways such as dose-sipping technology are available. (epmmagazine.com)
  • They are appropriate for smaller molecule weight of APIs with no bitter taste that are delivered at doses of less than 20 mg and can diffuse into the epithelium of the upper GI tract and permeate oral mucosal tissues. (epmmagazine.com)
  • This study investigates whether administration of an oral cephalosporin increases the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intravenous irinotecan. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: The MTD of intravenous irinotecan administered on a protracted schedule was increased by 50% from 20 to 30mg/m 2 /dose with the addition of oral cefpodoxime. (elsevier.com)
  • When oral medication cannot be tolerated, the dose should be given parenterally (cf. 50-100 mg PO or 25-100 mg IM. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • Total daily oral doses up to 24 g may be required. (drugs.com)
  • There was no significant association between the dose of ondansetron and the outcomes of number of vomiting episodes, volume of fluids consumed, increase in bodyweight, or number of diarrhea episodes/hour. (luriechildrens.org)
  • A deeper understanding of MAPK-pathway inhibitor pharmacodynamics in pediatric CNS tumors could inform optimal dosing, improving clinical outcomes. (aacr.org)
  • PEDSnet is a pediatric learning health system dedicated to discovering and implementing new ways of providing the best care and improving health care outcomes. (pedsnet.org)
  • High-dose fenoldopam reduces postoperative neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocaline and cystatin C levels in pediatric cardiac surgery. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For some medicines, although paediatric dosing information is provided, there is no commercially available paediatric dosage formulation. (mja.com.au)
  • This study aimed to determine the dose variation obtained from quartered hydrocortisone tablets when different operators performed the splitting procedure and to ascertain whether better uniformity could be attained from mini-tablets as an alternative formulation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Drug name, formulation, length of delay, reasons for omission and prescribed time was recorded for all omitted or missed doses. (bmj.com)
  • Use a medication-measuring device to measure your dose of liquid medication. (webmd.com)
  • If you are using this medication for self-treatment (without a prescription from your doctor), follow the specific dosing instructions on the packaging to find the correct dose for your age. (webmd.com)
  • Your risk is also increased if you receive high doses, or with longer use of this medication. (webmd.com)
  • It can also track remaining doses to help eliminate the possibility of patients running out of asthma medication unexpectedly. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Dose counters will provide patients, their parents and physicians with a much needed tool to better track medication usage, and will help limit the times when they are caught short without their medication. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Flovent's dose counter provides reliable dose tracking of ICS, which is a medication that helps prevent airway inflammation associated with asthma. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This study evaluates the impact of 12,093 consecutive dose alerts generated by a computerized provider order entry system on pediatric medication ordering. (nih.gov)
  • All medication orders entered and all resulting medication dose alerts at the Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgical Center in 2010, were retrospectively evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • Healthcare professionals should pay special attention to the accurate dose selection of Intelence, the transcription of the medication order, the dispensing information and the dosing instructions to minimize the risk of medication errors, overdosing, and underdosing. (thebody.com)
  • A retrospective analysis of inpatient medication orders and dosing alerts at a large, academic, pediatric medical center. (pedinfo.org)
  • The findings were that weight errors were uncommon (0.63% of all weights, as defined by the weight being a new extreme value on the growth chart) in the 3 EDs, but they led to identifiable weight-based medication-dosing errors with the potential to cause harm. (pedinfo.org)
  • Researchers found that color-coded prefilled syringes improved dose accuracy and decreased time to medication delivery, demonstrating how a system intervention can enhance clinical performance. (ahrq.gov)
  • If you are using the liquid form, use a medication measuring device to carefully measure the prescribed dose. (webmd.com)
  • When Zithromax azithromycin is prescribed drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the drug combination azithromycin dosing pediatric no way although it is common to that the drug or drug course of the therapy the medication should azithromycin dosing pediatric taken exactly. (awardspace.us)
  • The most common pediatric brain tumors are low grade lesions harboring somatic alterations in genes within the MAPK signaling pathway. (aacr.org)
  • The mean dose of ondansetron (mg/kg) administered was not different amongst those who did and did not have ongoing vomiting, undergo hospitalization, and receive intravenous rehydration. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Bedside nurses suggestions for reducing missed/omitted dose frequency included increasing the availability and variety of prefilled syringes prioritising support and assistance when intravenous access is problematic. (bmj.com)
  • The pediatric epinephrine dose calculator allows you to estimate the amount of epinephrine required for a child, no matter the route of administration, be it Intravenous (IV), Intramuscular (IM), Subcutaneous (SC), Endotracheal (ET) or via a nebulizer. (omnicalculator.com)
  • In this paper, we based on the irradiation doses delivered from the current protocols to find a practical method of their optimization during the pediatric cranial scan. (scirp.org)
  • At present, for pediatric body CT protocols, some manufacturers use the 16 cm diameter phantom and some use the 32 cm diameter phantom as the reference for calculating CTDIvol and DLP. (aapm.org)
  • In addition to potentially helping reduce the risk of developing a radiation-induced secondary cancer, the authors also note that a dose monitoring program can be used to optimize and lower dose protocols for studies of the same modality as long as diagnostic quality can be obtained. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Our aim was to determine the maximum level of statistical iterative reconstruction that can be used to establish dose-reduced head CT protocols in a primarily pediatric population while maintaining similar appearance and level of image noise in the reconstructed image. (ajnr.org)
  • Dose-reduced head protocols using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction were compared for image quality with the original filtered back-projection reconstructed protocols in a phantom by using the following metrics: image noise frequency (change in perceived appearance of noise texture), image noise magnitude, contrast-to-noise ratio, and spatial resolution. (ajnr.org)
  • Four common protocols will be used for dose calculation: CT scan of the head, lumbar spine, chest and abdomen. (knowcancer.com)
  • A Second Look ' in forests chipmunks will perfectly with all of the paranoia and sulks but its recent performance China in which at perform the role of that profession Medscape - Indication-specific dosing for Bactrim, Bactrim DS (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions. (kompbu.com)
  • codeine: 60 mg) in 24 hours Comments:-Each 5 mL contains Promethazine 6.25 mg/Phenylephrine 5 mg/Codeine 10 mg Medscape - Motion sickness, nausea, vomiting-specific dosing for Phenergan, Phenadoz (promethazine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information Codeine is an opioid cough suppressant (antitussive) that affects a certain part of the brain, reducing the urge to cough. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • They felt that data from the retrospective analysis, published in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology , can provide insight into future ordering patterns and beneficial changes to reduce the radiation dose risk to these vulnerable patients. (appliedradiology.com)
  • To report on a dose survey conducted by the French societies of radiology and paediatric imaging (SFR and SFIPP) and the French public service expert in nuclear and radiological risks (IRSN), and to suggest new diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for paediatric plain radiography and diagnostic fluoroscopy. (springer.com)
  • Radiology departments dealing with adult and paediatric CT in Italy will receive an invitation to participate to the survey and a questionnaire regarding some important features of their CT equipment. (knowcancer.com)
  • For example, in a typical pediatric CT scan we may use less than half as much radiation as in an adult scan (and our levels for adult scans already are lower than the recommendations of the American College of Radiology). (massgeneral.org)
  • To ensure that steady-state conditions have been achieved, the subcellular actin filaments around the abrupt onset of a chemical that has been taken in the OCT (1-3) and is an adverse effect from a dose of ibuprofen 400-mg-induced asthma was reported in 2013. (secureserver.net)
  • Organ and effective dose of these patients from an abdomen-pelvis scan protocol (LightSpeed VCT scanner, 120-kVp, 85-90 mA, 0.4-s gantry rotation period, 1.375-pitch, 40-mm beam collimation, and small body scan field-of-view) was calculated using a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated for the same CT system. (spie.org)
  • Effective dose was calculated as the sum of the organ doses using tissue weighting factors. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Effective dose, the whole body equivalent of partial body irradiations, was estimated by applying the mean dose per exam calculated by the data from the DoseTrack group for all exams performed before October 2012. (appliedradiology.com)
  • They note that when PET/MRI is substituted for a PET/CT exam, it produces the equivalent of only one-fifth of the effective dose. (appliedradiology.com)
  • with the mean effective dose increasing from 1,3 mSv in the 1970s to 8,8 mSv per year per 1000 persons in the early 1990s. (knowcancer.com)
  • But it should be noted that these low expansion data are not comprehensive enough for finding a reasonable relationship between phantom size and effective dose except in chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) imaging. (radioprotection.org)
  • Use the lowest possible effective dose, and avoid concomitant use of other respiratory depressants. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • 12.5 to 25 mg doses may be repeated as necessary at 4- to 6-hour intervals Use the lowest possible effective dose, and avoid concomitant use of other respiratory depressants. (jamiehale.co.uk)
  • Laboratory tests (such as kidney function, levels of drug in the blood ) may be performed to help find the best dose for your condition. (webmd.com)
  • Using MIMS drug references, we investigated the extent to which information is currently available on paediatric dosing, the nature of this information, and the availability of paediatric dosage forms in Australia. (mja.com.au)
  • Corresponding median abacavir PK parameters for CL/F (drug clearance determining dose-rate) were 0.67, 0.79 and 1.03 L/hr/kg, at weeks 2, 10 and 24 respectively. (aidsmap.com)
  • The AUC 0-12 (overall amount of drug in the blood after a dose) was 16.9, 10.7 and 9.8, mg.hr/L, respectively. (aidsmap.com)
  • SEG101 ( crizanlizumab ) drug administered at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg on Week 1 Day 1, Week 3 Day 1 and Day 1 of every 4-week cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • On March, 26, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration approved dosing recommendations for INTELENCE® ( etravirine ) for treatment-experienced pediatric patients 6 to 18 years of age and weighing at least 16 kg. (thebody.com)
  • The frequency, type and severity of adverse drug reactions in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adult subjects, except for rash which was observed more frequently in pediatric subjects. (thebody.com)
  • The most common adverse drug reactions in at least 2% of pediatric subjects were rash and diarrhea . (thebody.com)
  • Consequently, developing paediatric dosage forms for both new and existing drug substances provides an effective means for expanding market reach and improving the lifecycle management of many different products. (epmmagazine.com)
  • Pediatric Dosage Calculations answers are found in the Davis's Drug Guide powered. (buymodafinilmsn.com)
  • Pediatric Dosage Calculations Davis's Drug Guide. (buymodafinilmsn.com)
  • The Medicare Prescription Drug, among the cause of the maximum dose approved for patients to remember that will achieve a variety of liver dysfunction and MATE are self-administered by the major components of all deaths due to 48 hours, TET2, metergoline, North America, whereas mosquitoes that have changes in outcome studies to 100 million Dengue cases per year. (secureserver.net)
  • It is publicly reported as Radiation Dose for Head Scans and Radiation Dose for Abdomen/Pelvis Scan on Leapfrog's Hospital Ratings Results page . (leapfroggroup.org)
  • According to the results, there were no consistent differences between the doses of organs exposed indirectly and effective doses of these three phantom types, but it was observed that for organs located in the scan region, there was a relation between absorbed doses and pediatric age group, as expected. (radioprotection.org)
  • Dose report was recorded by CT scan machine including: The Dose Length Peak (DLP), CTDI (CT dose index) automatically. (com.pk)
  • The most valuable applied pediatric scanning protocol during brain CT scan was modified protocol with low Ma less than150 mA, the tube current ranged from 80 to 280 mAs, with a median tube current of 159 mAs. (com.pk)