Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.ComputersRadiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Ependymoma: Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Craniopharyngioma: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Radiation ProtectionProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)United StatesTumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.DeoxycytidineMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Thoracic NeoplasmsComputers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)JapanHeavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
They may be unable to produce gametes following direct exposure to most normal treatment doses of radiation. Treatment planning ... and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers. The subspecialty of oncology concerned with radiotherapy is called radiation ... Treatment planning is generally performed on dedicated computers using specialized treatment planning software. Depending on ... For this reason, 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy is becoming the standard treatment for a number of tumor sites. More ...
... is an Assistant Professor for the MCW Department of Radiation Oncology at the Clement J. Zablocki VA Medical Center. ... Radiation Dosage. *Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. *Total Quality Management. Publications. * 3-T MRI-based adaptive ... brachytherapy for cervix cancer: treatment technique and initial clinical outcomes.. (Kharofa J, Morrow N, Kelly T, Rownd J, ... SU‐E‐J‐129: Dosimetric Impact of Interfractional Anatomy Changes On Breast Radiotherapy Based On Accumulative Dose: IMRT Versus ...
Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and TomoTherapy- Top-notch planning and delivery technology applies high dose conformal ... Computer assisted the state of art technology to manage the intra-fraction motion (the target and organ motion during treatment ... It is one of the most common treatments for cancer, used in more than half of all cancer cases. As part of Rutgers Cancer ... 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy - Sophisticated computer-assisted tomography (CT) scans and computer software tools are used to ...
... digitized in a computer planning system, and expressly considered in the planning of the delivery of the prescribed dose. ... but is also the key factor in mitigating the radiation-induced side effects that are common after brachytherapy treatment. ... MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy with single needle method-a planning study. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2004;71:327-32. [ ... The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery. 2005;1:40-7. [PubMed] ...
3-D Conformal Computer Planning. 3-D Conformal Computer Planning is used to accurately determine the position of tumors in ... allows doctors to attack a tumor with multiple small radiation beams that deliver the greatest treatment dose to cancer cells, ... Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment (IMRT). Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment (IMRT) system analyzes three- ... which often determine whether or not you can safely receive treatment. They also assist the physicians with procedures that ...
The high radiation doses employed during stereotactic radiotherapy have been associated with obliteration or obstruction of ... These advances include three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic ... stereotactic radiotherapy may be administered as a one-time treatment. Radioimmunotherapy is administered intravenously. ... As more patients are diagnosed with cancer and as these patients live longer, primary care physicians will increasingly care ...
... diagnose and treat prostate cancer with a combination of compassionate, patient-centered care and the most sophisticated cancer ... Anatomic CT or MRI images are used in combination with computer-generated radiation dose calculations and a computer-controlled ... Our urologic surgeons are pioneers in the field of robotic surgery used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Robotic-assisted ... Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy. Cryotherapy. Image-Guided Radiotherapy. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). ...
The center provides treatment through state-of-the-art technology and talented medical specialists in a convenient, comfortable ... Lung cancer services at Emerson Hospital are provided through the Mass General Hospital Cancer Center at Emerson - Bethke. ... 3-D Conformal Radiation Therapy: CT-scan guided treatment planning, which enables the physicians to pinpoint the precise tumor ... PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computer-assisted tomography). Imaging Accreditations. Emerson Hospitals imaging services ...
Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy [view name=treatmentsembed arg=1001][/view] IMRT [view name=treatmentsembed ... BMCs state-of-the-art Radiation Oncology services offer: CyberKnife [view name=treatmentsembed arg=886][/view] ... or other state-of-the-art imaging technologies will be taken to assist in planning the course of treatment. These scans are ... For high-dose-rate (HDR) treatment, the radiation oncologist places high-dose implants into the tumor or cavity for a short ...
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. *[MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and ... Intensity modulated radiation therapy achieves better conformal distributions than conventional 3D planning, allowing dose ... The treatment plans showed that the percentage of GTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (V(95-GTV)) was 98.5%, and the dose ... Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. ...
... radiotherapy, conformal; patient treatment; toxicity; disease control; computer assisted radiotherapy; mediastinal neoplasms; ... mediastinum lymph node; conformal radiotherapy; intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt); radiation depth dose; dose-volume ... Radiation Treatment Planning Techniques For Lymphoma Of The Stomach. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, ... Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy For Prostate Cancer Using 3 D Conformal And Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy ...
3-D Conformal Radiation Therapy; CT-scan guided treatment planning, which enables the physicians to pinpoint the precise tumor ... The Cancer Center offers advanced diagnostic imaging services, including:. *Bone scans *Computer-assisted tomography (CT) ... Low-Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening Program. Emerson Hospital offers low-dose CT screening (LDCT) to help identify lung cancer ... Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) so the physicians and physicists can "sculpt" radiation beams around the tumor- thus ...
Treatment plans were developed for 15 patients with stage III inoperable non-small cell lung cancer using 3D conformal ... A dose quality factor (DQF) was introduced to correlate the plan quality with patient specific parameters. Results: A good ... The aim of the present study was to compare different modalities of radiation delivery based on a balanced scoring scheme for ... 3D conformal and IMRT plans were generated on a commercial treatment planning system (TheraPlan Plus, Nucletron) with various ...
With 3-D Conformal Treatment Planning, allows physicians to deliver higher doses of radiation to the tumor while minimizing ... Our ImageChecker® computer-aided detection system that helps radiologists minimize false negatives and assist in early ... Radiation Oncology. Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, is the use of radiation to safely and effectively treat cancer ... Thats why Altru Cancer Center approaches cancer treatment differently. No matter what type of cancer you have, Altru has the ...
Discounted Chemotherapy cost , Radiation Therapy cost, cost of Surgeries etc. are provided by our partners. ... Lower doses of radiotherapy are given for palliative treatment to relieve pain over a shorter period of time to shrink the ... Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, or 3D-CRT, uses computers and high definition software with special imaging ... 3D imaging (CT, CT/PET, CT/MR) is used to construct very precise plans minimizing radiation dose to normal structures. ...
Radiotherapy is one of the treatment options for locally advanced prostate cancer; however, with standard radiation doses, it ... To compare 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with DP for prostate ... Thus, a computer-aided diagnosis system that assists pathologists in the diagnostic process can be so effective. Segmentation ... based radiation therapy treatment planning for accurate and fast dose calculation in radiotherapy centers. A program was ...
Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) uses sophisticated computers and computer assisted tomography scans (CT ... deliver the radiation dose to the cancer. Normal structures and tumors can move between treatments due to differences in organ ... Using sophisticated treatment planning software, your radiation oncology treatment team plans the size and shape of the beam, ... Stereotactic radiotherapy is a technique that allows your radiation oncologist to precisely focus beams of radiation to destroy ...
Lung, liver, prostate, spinal/paraspinal, gynecological, head and neck, esophagus, and pancreas tumors are now ready for dose ... Four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT), in which the accuracy of localization is improved - not only in space but also in time - ... Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) has been shown to be feasible for performing 4DRT with the aid of a fiducial ... External radiotherapy using imaging technology for patient setup is often called image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The most ...
Relief From Cancer In Phoenix. Learn More About Radiation Therapy Today! ... Radiation Oncology Center Is Your Provider For Treatment & ... IGRT involves conformal radiation treatment guided by imaging, ... Sometimes a high dose of stereotactic radiotherapy can be focused upon a tumor outside the brain and given in a few treatments ... 3D-CRT uses computers and special imaging techniques, such as computer assisted tomography (CT or CAT), magnetic resonance ...
Background Better knowledge of the dose-toxicity relationship is essential for safe dose escalation to improve local control in ... cervical cancer radiotherapy. The conventional dose-toxicity model is... ... An effective rectal toxicity prediction scheme is essential for guiding radiation treatment planning. D0.1/1/2cm3 are ... In International Conference on Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention. Springer; 2015: 234-241 (Available ...
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal. *. [Email] Email this result item Email the ... Shorter overall treatment time favoured local control in stage T1-2 (p=.015), higher total radiation dose and female gender ... Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. ... Chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment for anal cancer.. * From a prospective population-based database on radiation and ...
... the RT was ascertained with the help of a specialised computer-assisted treatment planning software used for radiation planning ... for cervical and uterine cancer. Now, a potential relation between the planning target volume (PTV) of the RT and the Se effect ... The actuarial incidence of at least CTC 2 radiation induced diarrhoea in the SeG was 20.5% compared to 44.5% in the CG (p=0.04 ... Whole blood Se concentrations had been measured in patients with cervical (n=11) and uterine cancer (n=70) after surgical ...
The 3D treatment planning systems allow for image fusion and also virtual patient dose planning. After the dose planning, ... treatment planning systems has transformed the radiation therapy paradigms [6]. Today, conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and ... The availability means that time on the treatment machines, simulators, CT-simulators, and treatment planning computer systems ... Report of the Collaborative Working Group on the evaluation of treatment planning for external photon beam radiotherapy. Int J ...
In a radiation oncology application, the treatment safety module verification criteria can include a satisfactory ... a medical treatment unless the treatment safety module determines that predetermined treatment verification criteria are met. ... The treatment safety device can tie into an existing operational interlock, such as an electrical door interlock. ... correspondence between elements of a pending treatment and an intended treatment. ...
Scripps MD Anderson offers the latest in advanced treatment options and technology in San Diego. ... 3-D conformal radiation therapy allows physicians to visualize a patients anatomy in 3-D though the use of advanced computer ... Your custom cancer treatment plan. Your Scripps MD Anderson cancer team will develop a customized treatment plan outlining the ... is an advanced form of radiation therapy that allows the radiation oncologist to specify the dose of radiation for the tumor ...
Dose in the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with IMRT versus Conventional Radiotherapy. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 90, 213- ... done between two treatment plans; three-field conformal radiation therapy (3F-CRT) and four-field conformal RT (4F-CRT) for CTV ... 1994) MRI of Carotid Angiopathy after Therapeutic Radiation. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 18, 533-538. http://dx. ... A) PTV-LN minimum dose, (B) PTV-LN maximum dose, (C) PTV-LN mean dose and (D) carotid vessel maximum dose. ...
  • Wake Forest Baptist offers the most technologically advanced radiation therapies available, which are used as a primary treatment or together with surgery. (
  • We put the most advanced treatment technology to work for you, including minimally invasive laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery, and advanced radiology therapies that target gastrointestinal cancers while preserving healthy tissue. (
  • The ARMOR-T platform will subsequently be translated to other cancer entities where response to ACT is likely such as melanoma, breast or colon cancer, providing less toxic and more effective therapies to otherwise untreatable disease. (
  • The current challenge is to identify safe and promising immunotherapies in preclinical mouse models and to translate them into viable perioperative therapies to be given to cancer surgery patients to prevent the recurrence of metastatic disease. (
  • Despite cachexia's impact on mortality and data strongly suggesting that it hinders treatment responses and patients' abilities to tolerate treatment, no effective therapies have been developed to prevent or hamper its progression. (
  • Some biological therapies stimulate or suppress the immune system to help the body fight cancer, infection, and other diseases. (
  • Thousands of these people, whether they received radiation alone or in conjunction with other cancer therapies, are now living cancer free. (
  • Other therapies, including radiotherapy (RT) and topical medicines, may then become appropriate. (
  • Her lab focuses on technology development and applications related to liquid biopsy (CTCs, ctDNA, extracellular vesicles), droplet-based microfluidic platforms, and preclinical models for testing new cancer therapies. (
  • For the past decade, Dr. Jeffrey's lab has performed molecular profiling of cancer cells with the goal of identifying tumor-specific therapies for the personalized treatment of cancer. (
  • Our multidisciplinary team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, and radiologists offers the most innovative and advanced treatments and therapies for brain tumor and all diseases of the nervous system. (
  • Her research currently involves extracting, profiling, and growing circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from bone marrow to shed light on different tumor cell populations involved in the metastatic process and to help guide selection of appropriate therapies in individual cancer patients. (
  • (2018) . Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy targeting EGFR-Shedding new light on glioblastoma treatment. (
  • This document was amended in October 2018, and again in May 2019 to reflect new Level 1 literature that was released since the original publication of the guideline in April 2013 related to the use of hormone therapy with salvage radiation therapy. (
  • In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS'09), International Journal of CARS , vol. 4, pp. 25-26. (
  • It is not to be confused with Radiation (pain) or Radiology . (
  • Also my research interests include computational methods in medical imaging, medical image processing and segmentation, computer aided detection/diagnosis, medical image construction techniques and imaging in diagnostic radiology/echography. (
  • Treatment is carefully planned by using 3-D computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) images of the patient in conjunction with computerized dose calculations to determine the dose intensity pattern that will best conform to the tumor shape. (
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning is rarely helpful except in men who are at high risk for lymph node metastases or who are going to be treated with radiation. (
  • Positron emission Tomography with [18F] FDG currently used in staging and restaging of this malignancy, is an imaging modality that can aid in image- guided radiation treatment planning. (
  • For most women with stage I and II breast cancer, breast-conserving therapy with lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and whole breast radiation therapy is equivalent to mastectomy withaxillary lymph node dissection. (
  • Cancer that begins in a polyp on the innermost lining of the rectum can, over time, grow into the deeper layers of the rectum wall and may grow into blood vessels or lymph vessels. (
  • It's much more common for this cancer of the immune system cells to start in the lymph nodes. (
  • Because the kidney is a highly radiosensitive organ, the irradiated dose often becomes a problem when the kidney is included in the field of radiation together with the para-aortic lymph nodes, base of lung, and stomach. (
  • Quality-of-life treatments that maximize cosmetic outcomes involve breast-conserving surgery, optimal reconstructions, Gamma Camera's for sentinel lymph node biopsies, state of art Mammotome for taking biopsies and skin-sparing mastectomies. (
  • Determining whether there are cancer cells in lymph nodes can help a doctor estimate how far the cancer may have spread. (
  • Complementary to Argus is PortalVision Portal Dosimetry, which offers another way of accomplishing dosimetric verification of patient treatments. (
  • The Netherlands Cancer Institute have fully replaced pre-treatment verification with 3D EPID-based in vivo dosimetry. (
  • This work has demonstrated that offline in vivo EPID-based dosimetry has the ability to provide clinically useful information regarding the accuracy of the dose delivered to each patient at each individual treatment fraction. (
  • My research focuses primarily on the preparing scintillators for in-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy and brackytherapy. (
  • In certain circumstances, radiation therapy has disease control rates comparable with those of surgery, but with less morbidity. (
  • 1 , 2 In some patients, radiation therapy can be used before surgery, allowing for a more limited, safer, and more effective surgery. (
  • From biopsies to cancer surgery, Emerson's surgeons are committed to performing the most minimally invasive procedures possible. (
  • Robotic-Assisted Surgery. (
  • or one may be treated with radiation after surgery to destroy small amounts of cancer that may have been left behind. (
  • Brainlab neuronavigation technology is used to plan and perform open surgery such as tumor resection or brain biopsy with greater precision. (
  • The concept of active surveillance, or watchful waiting, has increasingly emerged in recent years as a viable option for men who decide not to undergo immediate surgery or radiation therapy. (
  • Robotic-assisted surgery refers to minimally invasive procedures that utilize and combine robot technology and 3D imaging. (
  • When used before surgery, radiation can shrink a tumor and make it easier for the surgeon to remove. (
  • Radiation can be used after surgery to stop any remaining cancer cells from growing, preventing the cancer from returning, or spreading to other parts of the body. (
  • Moreover, surgery was associated with a higher incidence of adverse events necessitating treatment. (
  • These systems are predominantly used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and in a few cases, for optical biopsy and image guided laser surgery. (
  • If the tumor cannot be safely accessed for surgery, radiation therapy may be used to help reduce the size of the tumor or prevent it from growing larger. (
  • Surgery can provide a cure in some cancer cases, when the tumor is discovered early. (
  • VATS stands for video-assisted thorascopic surgery. (
  • Video-Assisted Thorascopic Surgery (VATS) is a minimally invasive alternative to open chest surgery that involves less pain and recovery time. (
  • Radiation therapists position patients to receive their radiation at each treatment, monitor the patient's progress, and refer the patient to other team members for care as needed. (
  • A patient's diseased bone marrow is replaced or destroyed by anticancer drugs or treatment. (
  • It also combines real-time image guidance and tumor tracking technology to synchronize and adjust for regular movement that occurs during a treatment sessions by the patient's body as well as the tumor itself. (
  • Our multidisciplinary, collaborative board of cancer specialists reviews every patient's care plan to ensure you receive the best possible care from diagnosis to recovery. (
  • Once a patient's digital anatomic information has been obtained by a volumetric CT scan, the simulation/planning task becomes a virtual process and is performed with a computer workstation using software tools developed specifically for simulation and planning the cancer patient's treatment [5- (
  • Therapy that involves removing some of a patient's own immune-system cells-often altering and increasing their ability to recognize and kill cancer cells-growing billions of them in the laboratory and infusing the cultured cells into the patient. (
  • CAR T-cell therapy is a promising new type of immunotherapy where doctors collect a patient's white blood cells and try to isolate T cells with the most cancer-fighting strength. (
  • For cancer patients, the type of resection will be based on the tumor location, size, and type, as well as the patient's overall health prior to diagnosis. (
  • A source of a collimated electromagnetic radiation beam in the system is controlled by a beam-positioning assembly for positioning the beam source such that the beam, when activated, is aimed along a selected path at a selected coordinate in the external coordinate system corresponding to a selected target region in the patient's eye. (
  • Radiotherapy Dosage" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Radiotherapy Dosage" by people in this website by year, and whether "Radiotherapy Dosage" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Radiotherapy Dosage" by people in Profiles. (
  • Patients treated with CyberKnife are no longer required to hold their breath, have restrictive frames bolted to their heads, or rely on other techniques designed to stabilize the tumor, compensate for movement, or keep them as still as possible during treatment. (
  • HDR treatment allows high dose delivery to certain tumor types without the hospitalization associated with LDR treatments. (
  • High dose three-dimensional conformal boost (3DCB) using an orthogonal diagnostic X-ray set-up for patients with gynecological malignancy: a new application of real-time tumor-tracking system. (
  • These variations resulted in large differences in dose distribution parameters, especially in high dose gradient regions. (
  • This chapter describes the principles of motion compensation in radiotherapy with a focus on robotic radiosurgery, starting with a brief description of the medical implications. (
  • A minimum dose of 72 Gy (conventional fractionation) is required [ 3 ], but higher doses are desirable and further increase the rate and duration of PSA control. (
  • For most patients, the lungs and liver consistently receive doses below the mean body dose, and the thyroid and kidneys consistently receive higher doses than the mean body dose. (