Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Tomography using x-ray transmission.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.
A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
CR = Computed Radiography. *CS = Cystoscopy. *CT = Computed Tomography. *DD = Duplex Doppler. *DF = Digital Fluoroscopy ( ... assim como doses de contrastes, por exemplo. Ajuda a fornecer ao departamento de radiologia um controle mais preciso sobre o ...
Baldwin, DR; Hansell, DM; Duffy, SW; Field, JK (Mar 7, 2014). "Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography". BMJ ( ... The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends yearly screening using low-dose computed tomography in ... "The American Association for Thoracic Surgery guidelines for lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography scans for ... computed tomography (CT) screening can detect cancer and give a person options to respond to it in a way that prolongs life.[64 ...
In computed tomography (CT scanning) an X-ray source and its associated detectors rotate around the subject which itself moves ... dose, and/or dose rate, for example, for verifying that radiation protection equipment and procedures are effective on an ... Computed tomography or CT scan (previously known as CAT scan, the "A" standing for "axial") uses ionizing radiation (x-ray ... In medicine and dentistry, projectional radiography and computed tomography images generally use X-rays created by X-ray ...
Dose in x-ray computed tomography. Phys Med Biol 2014; 59 R129-R150 [10] Kalender WA, Beister M, Boone JM, Kolditz D, Vollmar ... Eur Radiol 2017; 27:1081-1087 [12] The 4th edition of the textbook "Computed Tomography" by WA Kalender, published by Publicis ... Kalender developed volumetric spiral computed tomography; the world's first clinical spiral CT studies were presented at RSNA ... An integral approach to vertebral bone mineral analysis by X-ray computed tomography. Radiology 1987; 164:419-423 [2] Kalender ...
"Radiation dose optimization and thoracic computed tomography". Radiologic Clinics of North America. 52 (1): 1-15. doi:10.1016/j ... Modern computed tomography (CT) scanners have AEC systems which aim to maintain image quality for patients of varying sizes, ... Söderberg, Marcus; Gunnarsson, Mikael (July 2010). "Automatic exposure control in computed tomography - an evaluation of ... Tack, Denis; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gevenois, Pierre Alain (2012). Radiation Dose from Multidetector CT. Springer. p. 261. ISBN ...
Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography. BMJ. March 2014, 348: g1970. PMID 24609921. doi:10.1136/bmj.g1970.. ... The American Association for Thoracic Surgery guidelines for lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography scans for ... Aberle DR, Abtin F, Brown K. Computed tomography screening for lung cancer: has it finally arrived? Implications of the ... Pulmonary ground-glass opacity: computed tomography features, histopathology and molecular pathology. Translational Lung Cancer ...
The major research in the trial was to compare the efficacy of low-dose helical computed tomography (CT screening) and standard ... Baldwin, DR; Hansell, DM; Duffy, SW; Field, JK (7 March 2014). "Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography". BMJ ( ... January 2001). "Results of three-year mass screening programme for lung cancer using mobile low-dose spiral computed tomography ... "The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults ages 55 to 80 years who have ...
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images may also be acquired. In some imaging centers, SPECT images may be ... A common injection doses is around 150 megabecquerels. Imaging should not usually be sooner than 24 hours - high background at ... combined with computed tomography scan using either fusion software or SPECT/CT hybrid cameras to superimpose both ... 10% to 25% of the dose of gallium-67 is excreted within 24 hours after injection (the majority of which is excreted through the ...
"Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer" ... or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).[17] Histopathology[edit]. For cases suspicious enough to proceed to ... If there is an intermediate risk of malignancy, further imaging with positron emission tomography (PET scan) is appropriate (if ... "Accuracy of positron emission tomography for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and mass lesions: a meta-analysis". JAMA. 285 (7): ...
"Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer ... An SPN with a density below 15 Hounsfield units on computed tomography tends to be benign, whereas malignant tumors often ... or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ost D, Fein AM, Feinsilver SH; Fein; Feinsilver (June 2003). "Clinical ... If there is an intermediate risk of malignancy, further imaging with positron emission tomography (PET scan) is appropriate (if ...
Caon, M., Bibbo, G. & Pattison, J. (2000). "Monte Carlo calculated effective dose to teenage girls from computed tomography ... The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, and also of effective dose. For X-rays the "equivalent dose" is numerically ... Doses from Computed Tomography (CT) examinations in the UK - 2003 Review Archived September 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ... Computed tomography (CT scanning) is a medical imaging modality where tomographic images or slices of specific areas of the ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Doses from computed tomography (CT) examinations in the UK". Retrieved 12 August 2015 ... Current research on multi-slice/detector computed tomography (MDCT) is being undertaken in the Radiology Group of the ... a physicist who having done research in Electrical Impedance Tomography and Mammography has been working in Computed Tomography ... Safety and Efficacy of Computed Tomography (CT): A broad perspective) project, contract FP6/002388.) Stuart Meeson also has a ...
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems for high-quality, low-dose imaging of intracranial hemorrhage. Influence of x-ray ... Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems on mobile C-arms for image-guided surgery. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) ... cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and computed tomography (CT) systems; image-guided surgery; multi-modality medical image ... John Wong on the topic of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The Beaumont team ...
14 December 2009). "Radiation Dose Associated with Common Computed Tomography Examinations and the Associated Lifetime ... the average dose from an abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan, with and without contrast, is 20 to 30 mSv. In ... Given the uncertain health effects of low-dose radiation, cancer deaths cannot be ruled out. However, studies by the World ... The IAEA continues to confirm the evolution and value of this dose rate .... because of this detected value, non-indispensable ...
The introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging allowed a lower radiation dose to patients, in comparison to ... Computerised tomography (CT)[edit]. Studies have shown that tomography of the TMJ provided supplementary information that ... Panoramic tomography[edit]. The distortion brought about by panoramic imaging decreases its overall reliability. Data concluded ... for detecting osseous abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint and its correlation with cone beam computed tomography". ...
Diagnosis is also made more difficult, since computed tomography is infeasible because of its high radiation dose. Still, ... Radiation dose to each site depends on a number of factors, including the radio sensitivity of each cancer type and whether ... Radiation therapy uses special equipment to send high doses of radiation to the cancer cells. Most cells in the body grow and ... A study by Reddy A.T. determined the significant decrease in IQ with higher doses of radiation, specifically for children with ...
"Reduced Contrast Volume and Radiation Dose During Computed Tomography of the Pancreas: Timing-Specific Contrast Media Protocol ...
Consider a brain computed tomography (CT) scan to rule out other causes of altered or impaired mental status. Stimulation and ... Unmanageable agitation may be treated with short-acting benzodiazepines in small doses. Lactulose can be considered at this ...
The major objective of the trial was to compare the efficacy of low-dose helical computed tomography (CT screening) and ... More recent research based on this trial, published in JAMA Internal Medicine, has found that low-dose computed tomography ... "Overdiagnosis in Low-Dose Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer". JAMA Internal Medicine. 174 (2): 269-74. doi:10.1001/ ... "The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults ages 55 to 80 years who have ...
Dual energy computed tomography versus standard computed tomography". Investig. Radiol. 44: 293-297. doi:10.1097/RLI. ... and enables a higher CNR at a constant patient dose or a lower dose at a constant CNR. The benefit of energy weighting is ... In the 70's, spectral computed tomography (CT) with exposures at two different voltage levels was proposed by G.N. Hounsfield ... Roessl, E.; Proksa, R. (2007). "K-edge imaging in X-ray computed tomography using multi-bin photon counting detectors". Phys. ...
... the average dose from an abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan, with and without contrast, is 20 to 30 mSv.[52][53 ... "Radiation Dose Associated with Common Computed Tomography Examinations and the Associated Lifetime Attributable Risk of Cancer" ... "Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams". Radiological Society of North America, Inc. Retrieved 26 August 2018.. ... Given the uncertain health effects of low-dose radiation, cancer deaths cannot be ruled out.[11] However, studies by the World ...
... (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test that employs computed tomography (CT) angiography to obtain an image ... V/Q scans can offer lower radiation doses, and may be adapted to further reduce the dose by omitting the lung ventilation ... Schoepf UJ, Goldhaber SZ, Costello P (2004). "Spiral computed tomography for acute pulmonary embolism". Circulation. 109 (18): ... The best results are obtained using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. An intravenous cannula is required for ...
"Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a systematic review to update the US Preventive services task ... Imaging tests such as computerised tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET CT). Bone marrow biopsy. Biopsy for ... Imaging tests like X-ray, ultrasonography, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET CT. Endoscopy ... High dose cytarabine). Stem cell transplantation for high-risk patients. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): Chemo- ...
An example of IGRT would include localization of a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) dataset with the planning computed ... There are many factors that may contribute to differences between the planned dose distribution and the delivered dose ... Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) is a medical imaging technique that uses the Megavoltage range of X-rays to create an ... The variety of medical imaging technologies used in planning includes x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance ...
The introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging allowed a lower radiation dose to patients, in comparison to ... Low-doses of anti-muscarinic tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline, or nortriptyline have also been described. In a ... Hintze H, Wiese M, Wenzel A (May 2007). "Cone beam CT and conventional tomography for the detection of morphological ... for detecting osseous abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint and its correlation with cone beam computed tomography". ...
a b c d e Shrimpton, P.C; Miller, H.C; Lewis, M.A; Dunn, M. Doses from Computed Tomography (CT) examinations in the UK - 2003 ... For non-medical computed tomography, see industrial computed tomography scanning. For non-X-ray tomography, see Tomography. ... X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan),[2] computer aided tomography, computed ... "computed tomography" could be used to describe positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography ( ...
Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) In the past 20 years, Computer Layer (CT) has been widely used in the field of clinical ... The radiation dose at one site is equivalent to 1% of the chest X-ray dose and 1% of the QCT dose. There is no problem with the ... A comparison of plain radiographs with single- and dual-photon absorptiometry and with quantitative computed tomography". ... Adams, Judith E. (2009). "Quantitative computed tomography". European Journal of Radiology. 71 (3): 415-424. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Though this idea was displaced by the advent of computed tomography, tomosynthesis later gained interest as a low-dose ... is a method for performing high-resolution limited-angle tomography at radiation dose levels comparable with projectional ... The radiation dose of digital tomosynthesis was very close to that of digital radiography. However, tomosynthesis showed ... combines digital image capture and processing with simple tube/detector motion as used in conventional computed tomography (CT ...
Pavone, Fioranelli, Dowe: Computed Tomography or Coronary Arteries, Springer 2009). By comparison, a chest X-ray carries a dose ... Coronary CT angiography (CTA or CCTA) is the use of computed tomography (CT) angiography to assess the coronary arteries of the ... Aug 2011). "Age- and Sex-Related Differences in All-Cause Mortality Risk Based on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography ... Effective dose using MSCT coronary imaging can average less than the dose in conventional coronary angiography. Zhi-hui Hou; ...
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) assessments may also be conducted pre and post treatment, depending on the ... cats at the behest of NASA that proved that cats trained to consciously alter their sensorimotor rhythm were resistant to doses ...
Analytical techniques, much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography ... A typical dose of FDG used in an oncological scan has an effective radiation dose of 7.6 mSv.[4] Because the oxygen atom that ... In modern PET computed tomography scanners, three-dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a computed ... 2010). "Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are two of the tests that can identify ... a single dose of doxycycline administered within the 72 hours after removal may reduce the risk of Lyme disease. It is not ... a single dose of doxycycline may be used to prevent development of infection, but is not generally recommended since ...
... and computed tomography (CT) scans. Neoplasms will often show as differently colored masses (also referred to as processes) in ... In standard external beam radiation therapy, multiple treatments of standard-dose "fractions" of radiation are applied to the ... Diagnosis is usually by medical examination along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.[2] The result is then ... method that uses computerized calculations to focus radiation at the site of the tumor while minimizing the radiation dose to ...
C-T scan (computed tomography scan) - cachexia - Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research - candida - candidiasis - carcinogen - ... dose-ranging study - dose-response relationship - double-blind study - drug resistance - drug-drug interaction - DSMB - Duffy ... computed tomography scan (C-T scan) - concomitant drugs - condyloma - condyloma acuminatum - contagious - contraindication - ...
Computed tomography (CT) scanning may also play an important role in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.[51][52][53] ... Alden ME, Mohiuddin M (March 1994). "The impact of radiation dose in combined external beam and intraluminal Ir-192 ... Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 23 (5): 670-7. doi:10.1097/00004728-199909000-00004. PMID 10524843.. ...
With Godfrey Hounsfield's invention of computed tomography (CT) in 1971, three-dimensional planning became a possibility and ... This is a radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is divided into large doses. Typical doses vary ... Side effects are dose- dependent; for example higher doses of head and neck radiation can be associated with cardiovascular ... It only occurs within the radiation field/s. Hair loss may be permanent with a single dose of 10 Gy, but if the dose is ...
Lower doses (30-50 mg/kg per day) is associated with fewer side effects and greater improvement of clinical features at high ... Cranial computed topography, magnetic resonance imaging, and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission topography are just some of ... MRI or X-ray computed tomography abnormalities. *Oculomotor apraxia. *Microcephaly. *Macrocephaly. *Hyperreflexia ... doses of the therapeutic. Although vigabatrin has not been consistently successful in patients with SSADH deficiency, it has ...
A computed tomography scanner combines an X-ray machine and computer to construct a three dimensional (3D) picture. This has ... Exposing the human body to high doses of X-rays for a long time is dangerous. It can cause cancer. However, cancer cells are ...
"No effects of short-term GSM mobile phone radiation on cerebral blood flow measured using positron emission tomography". ... Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ...
... computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Adrenoleukodystrophy, and the milder form, adrenomyeloneuropathy, cause ... When the person can take fluids and medications by mouth, the amount of glucocorticoids is decreased until a maintenance dose ... If aldosterone is deficient, maintenance therapy also includes oral doses of fludrocortisone acetate.[24] ... an injection of corticosteroid is recommended and people should carry a dose with them.[1] Often, large amounts of intravenous ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... "Radiation-dose calculation for five Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary agents", J Nucl Med, 23 (11): 1025-1030, PMID 6897074 ...
Computed axial tomographyEdit. Main article: CT head. Computed tomography (CT) or Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) scanning uses ... with higher radiation doses producing better resolution imaging.[27] While easy to use, increases in CT scan use, especially in ... Single-photon emission computed tomographyEdit. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is similar to PET and uses ... Positron emission tomographyEdit. Positron emission tomography (PET) and brain positron emission tomography, measure emissions ...
Computed tomography (CT) scans of people with PD usually appear normal.[65] MRI has become more accurate in diagnosis of the ... Using lower doses of levodopa may reduce the risk and severity of these levodopa-induced complications.[80] A former strategy ... Sometimes side effects appear even at a minimal clinically effective dose, leading the physician to search for a different drug ...
Committed dose. *Computed tomography dose index. *Counts per minute. *Effective dose. *Equivalent dose ... Recommended limits on dose uptake[edit]. USA Dept of Energy 2010 dose chart in sieverts for a variety of situations and ... Computed Tomography, better known as C.T. Scans or CAT Scans have made an enormous contribution to medicine, however not ... Factors in external dose uptake[edit]. Main article: sievert. There are three factors that control the amount, or dose, of ...
Neuroimaging, usually with computed tomography (CT/CAT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is used to exclude any mass ... Intracranial pressure may be increased due to medications such as high-dose vitamin A derivatives (e.g., isotretinoin for acne ... but Smith replaced this with computed tomography.[15] In a 2001 paper, Digre and Corbett amended Dandy's criteria further. They ... In addition to conventional agents such as paracetamol, a low dose of the antidepressant amitriptyline or the anticonvulsant ...
... and computed tomography (CT). Despite limited spatial resolution, EEG continues to be a valuable tool for research and ... pattern associated with high doses of opiates. Anesthetic effects on EEG signals are beginning to be understood at the level of ... single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and event-related optical signal (EROS ... EEG has also been combined with positron emission tomography. This provides the advantage of allowing researchers to see what ...
a b c d e Shrimpton, P.C; Miller, H.C; Lewis, M.A; Dunn, M. Doses from Computed Tomography (CT) examinations in the UK - 2003 ... For non-medical computed tomography, see industrial computed tomography scanning. For non-X-ray tomography, see Tomography. ... X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan),[2] computer aided tomography, computed ... "computed tomography" could be used to describe positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography ( ...
Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (November 2007). "Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure". The New England Journal ... However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 ... providing a much larger dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. As with chemotherapy, cancers vary in their ... "Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose- ...
"Anthropometric Assessment of Neck Adipose Tissue and Airway Volume Using Multidetector Computed Tomography: An Imaging Approach ... However, it was quickly discontinued when excessive dosing led to adverse side effects including hyperthermia and death.[54] β3 ... Ohkawara K, Tanaka S, Miyachi M, Ishikawa-Takata K, Tabata I (December 2007). "A dose-response relation between aerobic ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... can be used to check how much a drug penetrates the blood-brain barrier and dose vs effect information of the medication.[52] ... low-dose coronary CT angiography, nuclear imaging, and X-ray angiography), differences in the mechanism by which this damage ...
Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure»։ The New England Journal of Medicine 357 (22): 2277-84։ ... Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose- ...
Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (November 2007). "Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure". N. Engl. J. Med. 357 (22 ... systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 349: g4490. doi: ...
"ACR Recommendations for the use of Chest Radiography and Computed Tomography (CT) for Suspected COVID-19 Infection". American ... "In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute ...
Neonatal problems EEG abnormalities Psychoses MRI or X-ray computed tomography abnormalities Oculomotor apraxia Microcephaly ... Lower doses (30-50 mg/kg per day) is associated with fewer side effects and greater improvement of clinical features at high ... Cranial computed topography, magnetic resonance imaging, and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission topography are just some of ... mice at very high doses. Sodium valproate has been used for the treatment of generalized and partial seizures in humans for ...
Analytical techniques, much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography ... A typical dose of FDG used in an oncological scan has an effective radiation dose of 14 mSv.[3] Because the oxygen atom that is ... 2010). "Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) ... Qi, J.; R. Leahy (2006). "Iterative reconstruction techniques in emission computed tomography". Physics in Medicine and Biology ...
... which then allows radiation dose to be decreased. Interactive reconstruction has been shown to both reduce image... more ... Dual-source cardiac computed tomography: image quality and dose considerations. Eur Radiol. 2008 Jun. 18(6):1188-98. [Medline] ... Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer ... What is the radiation dose of iterative reconstruction for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)?. Updated: Dec 21, ...
Panel A. Location of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening centers in the United States and percentage of US population ... Panel A. Location of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening centers in the United States and percentage of US population ... Panel A. Location of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening centers in the United States and percentage of US population ... Geographic Availability of Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening in the United States, 2017. ...
Panel A. Location of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening centers in the United States and percentage of US population ... Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography in the United States - 2010 to 2015. JAMA Oncol 2017;3(9):1278-81. ... Geographic Availability of Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening in the United States, 2017. Prev Chronic Dis ... However, the National Lung Screening Trial clearly demonstrated that annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce lung ...
The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has increased continuously since 1980 for a variety of reasons, including ... MDCT angiography brain cancer cardiac CT computed tomography (CT) multidetector row CT radiation radiation dose and risk risk ... The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has increased continuously since 1980 for a variety of reasons, including ... Clinical Expansion of CT and Radiation Dose. * Clinical Expansion of CT and Radiation Dose ...
The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is a commonly used radiation exposure index in X-ray computed tomography (CT), first ... "Computed tomography dose assessment for a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner". Physics in Medicine and Biology ... "A method for describing the doses delivered by transmission x-ray computed tomography". Medical Physics. 8 (4): 488-495. ... The absorbed dose to water D w ( z ) {\displaystyle D_{w}(z)} (used to refer back to patient dose) is typically measured in a ...
Systems and methods are described for determining a minimum radiation dose for a computed tomography (CT) scanning device. The ... Dose. w. =. 2. 3. -. r. . Dose. p. ,. wherein Dosec is the center dose, Dosew is the weighted dose, r. =. Dose. c. Dose. w. , ... Dose. p. . . and. . . Dose. w. =. 2. 3. -. r. . Dose. p. ,. wherein Dosec is the center dose, Dosew is the weighted dose, ... Dose. p. . . and. . . Dose. w. =. 2. 3. -. r. . Dose. p. ,. wherein Dosec is the center dose, Dosew is the weighted dose, ...
High-Resolution Lower Dose Dedicated Breast Computed Tomography (CT) (LowerDoseBCT). The safety and scientific validity of this ...
... Dominik ... "Estimation and comparison of the radiation effective dose during coronary computed tomography angiography examinations on ... 4Division of Computed Tomography, Siemens Medical Solutions, An der Lände 1, 91301 Forchheim, Germany. ...
Computed tomography (CT) is an important noninvasive imaging modality for evaluating cardiovascular diseases, yet the growing ... Strategies for dose reduction in cardiovascular computed tomography. By Prabhakar Rajiah, MD, Sandra S. Halliburton, PhD, and ... New radiation dose saving technologies for 256-slice cardiac computed tomography angiography. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;25 ... Helical prospective ECG-gating in cardiac computed tomography: Radiation dose and image quality. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 ...
Objectives To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using ... of computed tomography coronary angiography and evaluation of stress-only single-photon emission computed tomography/computed ... Herzog BA, Husmann L, Burkhard N et al (2008) Accuracy of low-dose computed tomography coronary angiography using prospective ... To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using prospective ...
The increased use of Computed Tomography as an imaging modality is of concern because of the growing body of evidence linking ... We found that current measures of dose are robust under current clinical conditions. We also found that measures of image ... We then investigated measures of dose and image quality using both simulation and laboratory experimentation. ... dose). We developed a method to estimate the shape and thickness of materials yielding attenuation equivalent to that of bow- ...
Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis: Low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) Versus Standard-dose CT. The safety and scientific validity ... Experimental: Low-dose CT Radiation: Diagnostic CT 2 mSv in an average patient (Low-dose (1/4 to 1/5 of standard-dose)) ... Radiation Dose [ Time Frame: 1 day after CT ]. Radiation dose is measured in terms of dose-length product (mGy•cm) as displayed ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether low-dose CT is not inferior to standard-dose CT in the rate of unnecessary ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of annual screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (CT) ... Results of three-year mass screening programme for lung cancer using mobile low-dose spiral computed tomography scanner Br J ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of annual screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (CT) ...
Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer. ... Radiation Dose Associated with Common Computed Tomography Examinations and the Associated Lifetime Attributable Risk of Cancer ... Radiation Dose Associated with Common Computed Tomography Examinations and the Associated Lifetime Attributable Risk of Cancer ... Use of computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic evaluation has increased dramatically over the past 2 decades. Even though CT is ...
Radiation doses from commonly performed diagnostic CT examinations are higher and more variable than generally quoted, ... Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer ... Background: Use of computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic evaluation has increased dramatically over the past 2 decades. Even ... Results: Radiation doses varied significantly between the different types of CT studies. The overall median effective doses ...
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography. An imaging technique using a device which combines TOMOGRAPHY, ... Lung Cancer Screening in the Low-Dose Computed Tomography Setting.". The uptake of shared decision making (SDM) for lung cancer ... Moscow Screening: Lung Cancer Screening With Low-Dose Computed Tomography.. For the first time in Moscow and Russia, a program ... Implementing Decision Coaching for Lung Cancer Screening in the Low-Dose Computed Tomography Setting.. 08:00 EDT 24th March ...
Screening for Lung Cancer With Low-Dose Computed Tomography John Brodersen, MD, GP, PhD; Jakob Fraes Rasmussen, MD; Bruno ... Humphrey and colleagues (1) recommend annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in persons at ... Brodersen J, Rasmussen JF, Heleno B. Screening for Lung Cancer With Low-Dose Computed Tomography. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:211. ... Screening for Lung Cancer With Low-Dose Computed Tomography: A Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task ...
The ability of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect stress-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities is of great ... Next Document: The effect of heart rhythm on patient radiation dose with dual-source cardiac computed tomography.. ... Title: Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography Volume: 5 ISSN: 1876-861X ISO Abbreviation: J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ... of myocardial perfusion abnormalities using ultra-low radiation dose regadenoson stress multidetector computed tomography. ...
This cross-sectional study included a total of 282,377 eligible participants, including 55,428 at high risk of lung cancer. The age of the eligible participants was between 50 and 74 years. The reviewers considered the overall and group-specific participation rates, with factors like sex, age, and education level being also put into consideration. The primary outcomes of the study were overall and group-specific participation rates.. Of the total participants, 22,260 underwent LDCT. The multivariable logistic regression model suggested that female sex (odds ratio 1.64), former smoking (OR 1.26), lack of physical activity (1.19), and family history of lung cancer (1.73) were the primary factors associated with an increased LDCT screening participation. At a follow-up of 6 years, 78 participants in the screening group and 125 in the non-screening group had lung cancer (OR 0.93).. The research concluded that participation in LDCT screening was lower in China compared with screening participation in ...
Radiation Dose From Computed Tomography Before and After Implementation of a High Pitch Dual Spiral Technique (FLASH). This ... Radiation Dose From Computed Tomography Before and After Implementation of a High Pitch Dual Spiral Technique. ... Patients who undergo cardiac CTA (computed tomography angiography) may be subjected to relatively high doses of ionizing ... Computed tomography has emerged as the gold standard for the diagnosis of a broad range of medical diagnoses. For cardiac ...
Verification of the Dose Reduction Effect via Diluted Injection in Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Using a Human Blood Flow ... The optimal conditions for reducing the contrast medium dose were a mixing ratio of 6:4 and 55 keV of energy. Conclusion. The ... imaging using a saline-mixed injection with a virtual monochromatic energy method of dual-source computed tomography (CT). ...
... Merimaa K; Hippeläinen E; Nikkinen P (2012). .fb_iframe_widget span ... In: Workshop on European Population Doses from Medical Exposure. 24-26 April 2012, Athens, Greece. ...
A novel protocol using 256-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) may allow dose reduction. ... Prosthetic Valve Evaluation Using Prospective Triggering With 256-Detector Row Computed Tomography Reduces Radiation Dose. Petr ... Prosthetic Valve Evaluation Using Prospective Triggering With 256-Detector Row Computed Tomography Reduces Radiation Dose ... Prosthetic Valve Evaluation Using Prospective Triggering With 256-Detector Row Computed Tomography Reduces Radiation Dose ...
Diagnostic Performance of Low-Radiation-Dose Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Ali Salavati, MD, MPH; Farid Radmanesh, ... Salavati A, Radmanesh F. Diagnostic Performance of Low-Radiation-Dose Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography. Ann Intern Med ... Meta-analysis: Diagnostic Performance of Low-Radiation-Dose Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography ... comprehensive systematic review on the diagnostic performance of low-radiation-dose coronary computed tomography angiography ...
The school will be aimed at advanced tasks connected with Computed Tomography. The school will cover the main physics aspects ... and is intended for practicing clinical Medical Physicists who are involved in Computed Tomography. As in last years school, ... identified by COCIR will give insides on the technical solution adopted by manufacturers in the relevant elds of CT dose ...
Abstract 14334: Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography With Very Low Tube Voltage Reduces Radiation Dose and Maintains Image ... Abstract 14334: Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography With Very Low Tube Voltage Reduces Radiation Dose and Maintains Image ... Abstract 14334: Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography With Very Low Tube Voltage Reduces Radiation Dose and Maintains Image ... Abstract 14334: Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography With Very Low Tube Voltage Reduces Radiation Dose and Maintains Image ...
Li, Xiang (2010). Radiation Dose and Diagnostic Accuracy in Pediatric Computed Tomography. Dissertation, Duke University. ... CT dose to the pediatric population. The key element of all dose reduction efforts is to reduce radiation dose while ... Since its inception in the 1970s, computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized the practice of medicine and evolved into an ... At a given effective dose, Az increased with decreasing patient size, i.e., the dose needed to achieve the same noise and hence ...
Computed Tomography (MDCT) scans is unclear despite Italian law ... The situation in Italy regarding radiation dose to patients ... For each patient examination Volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol). and Dose Length Product (DLP) should be ... In-depth knowledge of patient dose levels may stimulate local programmes of dose reduction and raise radiologist awareness of ... MDCT dose survey for the assessment of CT dose in the Italian population. ...
O33-1 Screening with low-dose computed tomography (ldct) of asbestos exposed subjects is associated with reduced lung cancer ... O33-1 Screening with low-dose computed tomography (ldct) of asbestos exposed subjects is associated with reduced lung cancer ... Purpose In 2002 subjects already enrolled in a surveillance program for asbestos-exposed workers were recruited in a Low Dose ...
  • What is the radiation dose of iterative reconstruction for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)? (medscape.com)
  • Prospectively gated axial CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and effective radiation dose between 64- and 256-slice CT. (medscape.com)
  • Prospectively gated transverse coronary CT angiography versus retrospectively gated helical technique: improved image quality and reduced radiation dose. (medscape.com)
  • Visualization techniques in computed tomographic coronary angiography. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnostic performance of 64-multidetector row coronary computed tomographic angiography for evaluation of coronary artery stenosis in individuals without known coronary artery disease: results from the prospective multicenter ACCURACY (Assessment by Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography of Individuals Undergoing Invasive Coronary Angiography) trial. (medscape.com)
  • Noninvasive coronary artery imaging: magnetic resonance angiography and multidetector computed tomography angiography: a scientific statement from the american heart association committee on cardiovascular imaging and intervention of the council on cardiovascular radiology and intervention, and the councils on clinical cardiology and cardiovascular disease in the young. (medscape.com)
  • To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using prospective electrocardiogram-triggering. (springer.com)
  • Mowatt G, Cook JA, Hillis GS et al (2008) 64-Slice computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis and assessment of coronary artery disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. (springer.com)
  • Patients who undergo cardiac CTA (computed tomography angiography) may be subjected to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation (ie. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We read von Ballmoos and colleagues' (1) comprehensive systematic review on the diagnostic performance of low-radiation-dose coronary computed tomography angiography with great enthusiasm. (annals.org)
  • Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is increasingly used for the non-invasive evaluation of symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). (ahajournals.org)
  • Estimated radiation dose associated with cardiac CT angiography. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Objectives This study sought to determine updated conversion factors ( k -factors) that would enable accurate estimation of radiation effective dose (ED) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and calcium scoring performed on 12 contemporary scanner models and current clinical cardiac protocols and to compare these methods to the standard chest k -factor of 0.014 mSv·mGy −1 cm −1 . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) is feasible for aortic valve evaluation, but retrospective gated protocols required high radiation doses for aortic valve assessment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prospectively ECG-triggered cardiac CT angiography targeted to end-systole for the evaluation of aortic pathology was feasible at a low radiation dose (2.8 mSv) with 128 dual-source CT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The feasibility of cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) for aortic valvular evaluation has been established for aortic stenosis (AS) evaluation (via direct planimetry) in small referral cohorts [ 1 - 9 ], and has performed well versus transthoracic echocardiography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low Dose versus Standard Single Heartbeat Acquisition Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography. (clinicalimagingscience.org)
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare image quality and mean radiation dose between two groups of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using a 640-slice CT scanner with two protocols with different noise level thresholds expressed as standard deviation (SD). (clinicalimagingscience.org)
  • Background: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is now widely used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease since it is a rapid, minimally invasive test with a diagnostic accuracy comparable to coronary angiography. (currentcardiologyreviews.com)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the image quality, radiation exposure, and means of application in a group of patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) performed with low-dose prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered acquisition in which a standard sequence was added if the low-dose sequence did not allow reliable exclusion of coronary stenosis with respect to image quality. (edu.pl)
  • Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is recommended as a first-line option for the exclusion of coronary artery disease in patients with low to intermediate (15-50%) pretest probability. (smw.ch)
  • In recent years, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has emerged as an alternative and/or addendum to non-invasive stress tests in the diagnostic algorithm [ 5 , 6 ]. (smw.ch)
  • Cardiac CTA (Computed Tomography Angiography): Cardiac CTA is used to evaluate coronary artery disease and to evaluate a patient's risk of heart attack. (camc.org)
  • Panel A. Location of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening centers in the United States and percentage of US population aged 55 to 79 who live without access to a screening center within 30 miles. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the National Lung Screening Trial clearly demonstrated that annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce lung cancer deaths by up to 20% in high-risk populations (ie, people aged 55-74 y who have a ≥30-pack-year smoking history and who, if former smokers, had quit within the previous 15 years) (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Alternative models for delivering SDM are needed, such as decision coaching in the low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) setting. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The performance of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) (LDCT) in China is uncertain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Humphrey and colleagues (1) recommend annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in persons at high risk for lung cancer based on age and smoking history. (annals.org)
  • Purpose In 2002 subjects already enrolled in a surveillance program for asbestos-exposed workers were recruited in a Low Dose CT scan screening (LDCT) (ATOM002 Study). (bmj.com)
  • In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued recommendations for low-dose computed tomography for lung cancer screening (LDCT-LCS), but there continues to be a dearth of information on the adoption of LDCT-LCS in healthcare systems. (springer.com)
  • With the advent of the low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan it has become feasible to detect early invasive stage 1 lung cancer in 80-90% of cases. (ebme.co.uk)
  • Chest computerized tomography, Low radiation dose computed tomography (LDCT) is faster and less expensive than standard helical CT scanning and has been shown to detect nearly three times the number of small nodules detected by chest radiograph. (ebme.co.uk)
  • All English language articles reporting on prospective studies where non-contrast, low-dose CT (LDCT) was used to investigate adults (males and non-pregnant females) presenting with flank pain or suspected urolithiasis were included. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The effective radiation dose of the LDCT techniques used ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 mSv. (soton.ac.uk)
  • A 320-slice volumetric CT scanner (Aquilion ONE Toshiba Medical Systems) was used to scan an anthropomorphic phantom at doses ranging from ∼0.1 mGy up to that typical of low-dose CT (LDCT, ∼5 mGy) and diagnostic CT (∼10 mGy). (elsevier.com)
  • Annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening in high-risk individuals is now recommended by multiple national healthcare organisations. (healthmanagement.org)
  • The aim was to assess the effectiveness of LCS digital awareness campaigns on utilization of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and visits to institutional online educational content. (jmir.org)
  • Results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrate that screening high risk individuals with low dose computed tomography (LDCT) can have a significant impact on mortality rates of lung cancer. (pitt.edu)
  • Osteoporosis can be detected through low dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging tests performed for lung cancer screening or other purposes. (news-medical.net)
  • Through low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) examinations, we can proactively and safely screen patients for this disease. (bidmc.org)
  • LDCT lung cancer screening at BIDMC is performed with a low dose of radiation and has minimal risk for the patient. (bidmc.org)
  • The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has increased continuously since 1980 for a variety of reasons, including new indications and growth in the number of CT units. (springer.com)
  • Because of the associated radiation dose, CT may induce cancers, and the risk of death has been estimated at up to one per 1,000 CT examinations. (springer.com)
  • Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • We sought to estimate the radiation dose associated with common CT studies in clinical practice and quantify the potential cancer risk associated with these examinations. (nih.gov)
  • Radiation doses from commonly performed diagnostic CT examinations are higher and more variable than generally quoted, highlighting the need for greater standardization across institutions. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the radiation dose for chest CT examinations using current technology with radiation dose exposure using the newest generation CT scanner. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary objective of this study is to compare the estimated radiation dose for chest CT examinations (cardiac and non cardiac) performed using current technology (ie. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Current radiation doses for cardiac CT examinations are comparable to the effective doses for patients undergoing nuclear stress tests or cardiac catheterization (ie. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The first part of this dissertation involved the development of an accurate method for estimating patient-specific radiation dose and potential cancer risk from CT examinations. (duke.edu)
  • Combined with realistic computer models of patients created from clinical CT data, the program was applied to estimate patient-specific dose from pediatric chest and abdomen-pelvic CT examinations and to investigate the dose variation across patients due to the variability of patient anatomy and body habitus. (duke.edu)
  • Dose considerations are particularly pertinent in the context of detecting urolithiasis given the high risk of disease recurrence, which can necessitate multiple radiological examinations over the lifetime of a stone-former. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The global increase in the number of computed tomography (CT) examinations have enhanced concerns regarding stochastic radiation risks to patients, especially for children. (radioprotection.org)
  • The radiation dose and quality of a CT image are highly dependent on the CT scanner, the scan settings and, if applicable, the timing and dosage of the intravenous contrast media (CM). The aim of this Thesis was to develop tools and insights that help maximize the value of examinations for patients undergoing CT and to reduce its cost in terms of radiation and CM dose. (ki.se)
  • By comparison of the cumulative effective dose and the number of CT examinations in the two groups, we evaluated effects of a radiation dose reduction strategy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The radiation dose reduction strategy for CT in severely injured trauma patients effectively decreased the cumulative effective dose of the total CT examinations in the emergency department. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data produced in MEDIRAD subtasks 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 will be integrated into a freeware modular software expert system [CT Image Quality and Radiation Dose (CT-IQURAD)] that will provide a) image quality information, b) accurate estimation of patient organ doses and c) estimation of radiogenic risk associated with chest CT examinations performed for several clinical indications. (med-physics.com)
  • An innovated dose solution provides the infrastructure for me to make sure that we have a quality management program in place in our department that ensures that examinations which use radiation doses are discharged in the optimal manner. (philips.com)
  • In general, the estimated radiation doses from abdominal CT examinations in this study are low and comparable with those published in the literature. (alquds.edu)
  • The total effective doses of 16-slices spiral CT thorax and abdominal examinations were 300% lower when compared with 4-slices spiral CT and traditional single-slice CT. (elsevier.com)
  • Diagnostic Reference Levels for Computed Tomography Examinations in Iran: A Nationwide Radiation Dose Survey', Iranian Journal of Medical Physics , 16(1), pp. 19-26. (ac.ir)
  • Cancer risks and radiation exposure from computed tomographic scans: how can we be sure that the benefits outweigh the risks? (nih.gov)
  • They are usually detected by chest CT scans (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Particular attention should be given to CT scans in children, as they represent about 10% of all the X-ray studies performed on them, accounting for about 75% of the total dose administered. (knowcancer.com)
  • Conventional cranial computed tomography (CT) scans with bone windows or 3-dimensional (3D) CT scans are frequently obtained to confirm bony abnormalities and to delineate any associated intracranial anomalies. (medscape.com)
  • For perspective, recent studies have shown that the median cumulative effective dose of ionizing radiation can be as high as 40.2 mSv for CT scans of blunt trauma patients [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low-dose CT scans without decreasing image contrast or noise. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Considering that CT scans are recommended very casually by physicians and followups of many treatments require repeated CT scans, patients could potentially receive an unacceptably high radiation dose. (technologypublisher.com)
  • The 128-slice imaging creates sharper, more detailed images and reduces the radiation dose by 83 percent on cardiac scans and 50 percent across the rest of the body, compared to predecessor CT system. (wesleymc.com)
  • Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) scans may offer fast and early detection of COVID-19 in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, according to new research published today in Stroke, a journal of the American Stroke Association, a division of the American Heart Association. (news-medical.net)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the radiation dose for spiral computed tomography and conventional CT during different CT examination. (elsevier.com)
  • A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiog. (medscape.com)
  • National organizations such as BfS (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Germany) and ACR (American College of Radiology, USA) provide recommendations 1 on reference dose levels in terms of CTDI vol and DLP. (siemens.com)
  • X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a highly utilized tool in diagnos- tic radiology. (kth.se)
  • The dose distribution imparted by a CT scan is much more homogeneous than that imparted by radiography, but is still somewhat larger near the skin than in the centre of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dose-length product (DLP) is a quantity defined for use in CT as D L P = C T D I v o l . n T {\displaystyle DLP=CTDI_{vol}.nT} for n {\displaystyle n} and T {\displaystyle T} as described above ( n T {\displaystyle nT} is therefore the total scan length). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,3 To reduce radiation dose without compromising image quality, cardiovascular imagers have developed and adopted several novel scan acquisition techniques and scan parameter modifications. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The overall median effective doses ranged from 2 millisieverts (mSv) for a routine head CT scan to 31 mSv for a multiphase abdomen and pelvis CT scan. (nih.gov)
  • Lung Cancer Screening by Low-Dose CT Scan: Baseline Results of a French Prospective Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Monte Carlo method was further employed to investigate the effects of patient size and scan parameters on dose and risk for the entire pediatric population. (duke.edu)
  • The relationships between diagnostic accuracy and nodule detectability, between noise and scan parameters, and between dose/risk and scan parameters were lastly combined to yield the relationship between diagnostic accuracy and dose/risk. (duke.edu)
  • Across the entire pediatric population, dose and risk associated with a chest scan protocol decreased exponentially with increasing patient size. (duke.edu)
  • The average chest diameter was found to be a stronger predictor of dose and risk than weight and total scan length. (duke.edu)
  • The effects of any scan parameter were patient size-dependent, which could not be reflected by the difference in volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDIvol). (duke.edu)
  • Four common protocols will be used for dose calculation: CT scan of the head, lumbar spine, chest and abdomen. (knowcancer.com)
  • With the growing use of computed tomography (CT) in children and the increasing awareness of CT radiation risk to this population, there is a greater need to accurately estimate radiation dose from CT examination for the purpose of assessing life-time cancer risk and also for the comparing and optimizing CT technologies and scan protocols. (irb.hr)
  • The resulting doses for each axial slice were then modulated by the attenuation values of the slice normalized by the average attenuation in the exam scan ranges and the average effective tube current-time product delivered over each exam. (ufl.edu)
  • With a properly prescribed 3D scan, practitioners have gained the ability to collect much more data - often with a single scan and potentially with a lower effective patient dose. (carestreamdental.com)
  • We performed a systematic review of the literature to see whether there was any evidence that reducing the effective radiation dose of a CTKUB compromised the diagnostic accuracy of the scan. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Finally, a manual procedure for radiation exposure control was designed, in which the largest diameter of the patient's cross section is used to determine the CT scan parameters for minimal radiation dose. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Furthermore, radiation exposure control can and should be a standard feature of every CT system, to allow automatic optimisation of scan parameters for each patient resulting in minimal radiation dose.The potential success of 1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a clinical and research tool depends on several factors. (avhandlingar.se)
  • If the planned setting for the exam would result in a CTDI vol or DLP higher than these predefined values for one scan a Dose notification message box will inform the user. (siemens.com)
  • According to the results, there were no consistent differences between the doses of organs exposed indirectly and effective doses of these three phantom types, but it was observed that for organs located in the scan region, there was a relation between absorbed doses and pediatric age group, as expected. (radioprotection.org)
  • In the following section, in-depth information is provided about how radiation dose during a CT scan is estimated. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • The operator can therefore easily observe on the screen the absorbed dose according to the parameters chosen for the scan (Figure 6). (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • It was shown that by not including the effect from the patient table in radiation dose estimations, the radiation doses are overestimated by 5% to 23%, depending on the scan mode. (ki.se)
  • The fourth paper evaluated whether the standard LR can be replaced by a low-dose spiral scan, a so-called synthetic LR (SLR). (ki.se)
  • Estimated water equivalent diameters were more consistent when calculated from the low-dose spiral scan compared to the LRs. (ki.se)
  • The fifth paper was a continued investigation of the low-dose spiral scan, but with focus on intravenous CM dosage planning. (ki.se)
  • Altogether, 238 patients who had undergone PET/CT and ii for whom body metrics (height and weight) had been acquired were retrospectively analyzed, the CT number enhancement of the liver was measured, and body volumes of muscle and fat were calculated using the attenuation correction CT (low-dose spiral scan). (ki.se)
  • In this PhD Thesis, tools and insights were developed to improve the imaging stability of the CT scan by developing semi-automatic QC protocols and techniques to better estimate patient size and shape potentially reducing variation in image quality, radiation dose and CM enhancement among patients. (ki.se)
  • To identify factors that can decrease radiation dose among pediatric age group during brain CT scan examination. (com.pk)
  • Dose report was recorded by CT scan machine including: The Dose Length Peak (DLP), CTDI (CT dose index) automatically. (com.pk)
  • Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging provides CT (computed tomography) imaging services in a caring environment using the latest technology and radiation-dose-reduction techniques, and every scan is interpreted by a radiologist with specialty training. (massgeneral.org)
  • A total of 120 adult female and male patients randomly selected from 10 hospitals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip were investigated for organ and effective doses from abdominal computed tomography scan. (alquds.edu)
  • However, image quality in CT is highly dependent on the imaging task, scan technique, beam quality and radiation dose. (kth.se)
  • Dose indices are reported by CT scanners to indicate the level of radiation that has been utilized during a scan. (kth.se)
  • The computed tomography (CT) scanner can scan the entire heart during 10 heartbeats. (camc.org)
  • Hoag is working to improve patient safety by optimizing scan parameters that reduce patient dose as much as possible without compromising diagnostic quality. (hoag.org)
  • We included 434 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease referred for low-dose CCTA. (springer.com)
  • Given its increasing use, a number of dose saving algorithms have been implemented to CCTA to minimize radiation exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)" without compromising diagnostic image quality. (currentcardiologyreviews.com)
  • Objective: The purpose of this review is to outline the most recent advances and current status of dose saving techniques in CCTA. (currentcardiologyreviews.com)
  • Results: Sub-millisievert (mSv) radiation doses have been reported for CCTA due to a combination of strategies such as prospective electrocardiogram-gating, high-pitch helical acquisition, tube current modulation, tube voltage reduction, heart rate reduction, and the most recent novel adaptive iterative reconstruction algorithms. (currentcardiologyreviews.com)
  • Conclusion: Advances in radiation dose reduction without loss of image quality justify the use of CCTA as a non-invasive alternative to coronary catheterization in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. (currentcardiologyreviews.com)
  • Results: Mean effective whole-body dose of CCTA was 1.6 ± 0.4 mSv (range, 0.4-5.4) for the entire cardiac examination and 0.9 ± 0.3 mSv (range, 0.4-2.8) for individual prospective ECG-triggered high-pitch CCTAs. (edu.pl)
  • Conclusions: The prospective ECG-triggered high-pitch CCTA technique is feasible and promising in clinical routine with good to excellent image quality and minimal radiation dose. (edu.pl)
  • Carestream Dental is committed to educating oral health professionals on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), including its proper use, benefits and possible risks. (carestreamdental.com)
  • One of the most important innovations in dental diagnostics has been the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which has proven effective for many applications in oral healthcare. (carestreamdental.com)
  • Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics. (carestreamdental.com)
  • Aim: To calculate the effective dose (E) and detriment associated with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), following recommendations set forth by the International Comission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). (bvsalud.org)
  • For each patient examination Volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) should be collected from the dose report. (knowcancer.com)
  • Three cadavers were imaged using a reference protocol with a standard dose and FBP (volume CT dose index (CTDIvol): 29.4 mGy) and two ultra-low-dose protocols, LD1 and LD2 (CTDIvol: 0.53 and 0.29 mGy). (springermedizin.de)
  • The lowest-dose protocol to demonstrate comparable measurements with a standard MDCT dose was CTDIvol 0.29 mGy with FBP. (springermedizin.de)
  • Patient demographic data, scanning parameters and dose indicators (including patient body mass index (BMI), milliampere-second (mAs), X-ray tube kilovoltage (kVp), computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP), manufacturer, name and type of operated CT scanner) were recorded for every examination. (alquds.edu)
  • It is usually derived from the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) by applying a conversion factor determined from manually measured anteroposterior and lateral skin-to-skin patient diameters at the midslice level on computed tomography (CT) localiser images, an awkward, time-consuming, and not highly reproducible technique. (ucc.ie)
  • The low-dose technology is beneficial for pediatric patients suffering from chronic conditions as it significantly reduces radiation exposure during CT and fluoroscopy procedures. (wesleymc.com)
  • The first part of the book provides a comprehensive approach to all the factors that influence the radiation dose and subsequently the risk induced by using MDCT in children and adult patients. (springer.com)
  • The CTDI and absorbed dose may differ by more than a factor of two for small patients such as children. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study describing radiation dose associated with the 11 most common types of diagnostic CT studies performed on 1119 consecutive adult patients at 4 San Francisco Bay Area institutions in California between January 1 and May 30, 2008. (nih.gov)
  • In the absence of techniques to measure organ doses directly from patients, the following methods based on patient phantoms and models to estimate organ and effective doses will be used in this project: Experimental measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. (irb.hr)
  • In an effort to decrease radiation doses patients receive during computed tomography imaging, scanner manufacturers have implemented a system called automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) that varies the x-ray beam output during a CT imaging exam given information on photon attenuation within the patient's anatomy seen at different positions and angles of the x-ray fan beam. (ufl.edu)
  • The study involved 27 adult patients, whose simulated organ doses were compared with those of the patient-dependent phantoms. (ufl.edu)
  • Despite universal consensus that computed tomography (CT) overwhelmingly benefits patients when used for appropriate indications, concerns have been raised regarding the potential risk of cancer induction from CT due to the exponentially increased use of CT in medicine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expiratory computed tomography (CT) provides physiologic information concerning regional lung function, and has been used to reveal air trapping in patients with airway diseases such as small-airway disease, diffuse interstitial lung diseases. (scirp.org)
  • One of the main challenges of computed tomography (CT) is to provide excellent image quality while exposing patients to the lowest possible dose of radiation. (hhmglobal.com)
  • Regional regulations sometimes require the dose applied to all patients to be documented. (siemens.com)
  • Radiation doses were estimated using MC, the image quality was compared in a prospective study of ten patients and the impact of miscentering was investigated with a phantom measurement of water equivalent diameters. (ki.se)
  • Severely injured trauma patients are exposed to clinically significant radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) imaging in the emergency department. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine some effects of a radiation dose reduction strategy for CT in severely injured trauma patients in the emergency department. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have proposed and implemented a radiation dose reduction strategy for severely injured trauma patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a radiation dose reduction strategy for CT in severely injured trauma patients in the emergency department through a comparison of retrospective data (from before the implementation of the radiation dose reduction strategy) and prospective data (from after implementation of the strategy). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Despite recent advances in recent years to reduce the radiation dose to patients from CT scanning, the current patient dose used in clinical practice is still very high. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Although CT image reconstruction routines have already allowed lowering the patient dose, it is important to continue decreasing the CT radiation dose to a patients. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Technology Overview: Dr. Avraham Dilmanian, Professor of Research in the Departments of Radiation Oncology and Neurology at Stony Brook University invented a CT technology that produces less radiation dose in the patients body compared to the existing CT scanners without decreasing the image quality. (technologypublisher.com)
  • The course covers justification and optimization of radiation dose, overviews of referral guidelines, explanations of the technical parameters of CT scanning, dose metrics, and specific CT protocols for body regions and for patients particularly vulnerable to radiation risk. (iaea.org)
  • Patients who are taking diabetic medications should take the prescribed dose as normally done on that day, but discontinue the next doses for 48 hours AFTER their CT exam. (massgeneral.org)
  • iDose⁴ is an innovative solution that helps you personalize image quality based on your patients' needs at low dose. (philips.com)
  • Assessment of radiation doses was performed by using a commercially available Monte Carlo based software VirtualDose™ CT, a product of Virtual Phantoms, Inc. The software utilizes male and female tissue equivalent mathematical phantoms of all ages and sizes from new born up to morbidly obese patients. (alquds.edu)
  • The average organs doses per patient estimated for patients from all investigated hospitals were 13.1, 7.6 and 13.2 mGy for liver, stomach and colon, respectively. (alquds.edu)
  • In addition to demonstrating the merits of the low-dose CT screening program, our study has demonstrated, amongst the large number of patients, very low rates of migration from low lung-RADS classification to a higher risk category, the finding of more advanced stages of malignancies, and a preponderance of adenocarcinoma within the eight malignancies found. (amegroups.com)
  • CT scanners employ so called Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) to adapt the level of radiation dose to obtain consistent image quality across varying sized patients. (kth.se)
  • The NQF has recently endorsed the UCSF Computed Tomography (CT) Radiation Dose Patient Safety Measure (PSM-044-10), developed by UCSF Radiologist, Rebecca Smith-Bindman, MD. As part of the measure, medical institutions will voluntarily submit CT dose information for a sequential number of patients undergoing CT exams. (ucsf.edu)
  • Systems and methods are described for determining a minimum radiation dose for a computed tomography (CT) scanning device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This Report focuses on new but practical methods for the assessment of radiation dose and image quality for CT scanners. (elsevier.com)
  • As the level of radiation dose is a central aspect in optimization work, methods were deployed to verify the accuracy of CT dose indices for wide beam CT scanners in Paper II. (kth.se)
  • In conclusion, this thesis has resulted in a number of methods and utilities that can help unfold the complex relationship between image quality and radiation dose on a practical level in CT. (kth.se)
  • Organ dose estimation using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) is known to be a standard, although many other methods, such as simulation software, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, and photodiodes are still in use. (ac.ir)
  • This program examines the topics of radiation protection, radiation dose and methods that are currently being discussed to reduce the radiation dose to the general population and specifically to the pediatric population. (gehealthcare.ae)
  • The consequence of this trend is that CT, and in particular multidetector row CT (MDCT), is now responsible for about two-thirds of the total radiation dose delivered to the population for diagnostic purposes. (springer.com)
  • To assess the linear measurements of edentulous ridges recorded from multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) images obtained by a previously untested ultra-low dose in combination with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). (springermedizin.de)
  • ACCF/AHA clinical competence statement on cardiac imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance. (medscape.com)
  • ACCF/AHA clinical competence statement on cardiac imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American College of Physicians Task Force on Clinical Competence and Training. (medscape.com)
  • 4 This review discusses the various dose-reduction strategies available for cardiovascular CT and how these strategies can be employed in various clinical protocols. (appliedradiology.com)
  • However, a framework does not yet exist for balancing the immediate needs of the clinical task (image quality) with future risks due to the imaging procedure (dose). (umd.edu)
  • We found that current measures of dose are robust under current clinical conditions. (umd.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: The ability of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect stress-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities is of great clinical interest as a potential tool for the combined evaluation of coronary stenosis and its significance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This two-and-half day event will be accredited by EBAMP (European Board of Accreditation for Medical Physics) and is intended for practicing clinical Medical Physicists who are involved in Computed Tomography. (nvkf.nl)
  • Whether or not, the significantly higher GTV dose can increase killing of radioresistant tumor cells and offset the effect of tumor reoxygenation in single fraction BRT, requires further clinical investigation. (termedia.pl)
  • However, the considerable radiation dose associated with high-quality clinical images has greatly limited the use of CT for this application. (avhandlingar.se)
  • This procedure was evaluated in clinical routine and resulted in substantially reduced radiation doses with maintained accuracy in the volume determination. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Detectability of a small solid lung nodule (3.2 mm diameter, -37 HU, typically the smallest nodule of clinical significance in screening and surveillance) was evaluated as a function of dose, patient size, reconstruction filter, and slice thickness by means of nine-alternative forced-choice (9AFC) observer tests to quantify nodule detectability. (elsevier.com)
  • This tool will be of paramount importance for the determination of the optimal chest CT protocol based on the relation between clinical indication, required image quality and lowest achievable dose. (med-physics.com)
  • DoseAware delivers real-time visualization, display, and tracking of clinical staff's X-ray dose exposure your staff perform lengthy interventional procedures, while reducing fluoroscopy time and managing their radiation exposure - on the spot. (philips.com)
  • This course is aimed at providing practical approaches to reduce radiation dose in the use of CT in a real-world clinical setting. (mdct.net)
  • In light of current news coverage, please refer to the content below to learn more about Carestream Dental's point of view regarding CBCT and radiation dose. (carestreamdental.com)
  • The company regularly sponsors education on 3D imaging, such as the recent 3D Symposium event, "The Right Image for the Right Task: Managing Dose and Risk in CBCT Imaging," presented by Dr. John Ludlow from the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry. (carestreamdental.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Regadenoson stress MDCT imaging can detect hypoperfused myocardium even when imaging settings are optimized to provide a significant reduction in radiation and contrast doses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A novel protocol using 256-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) may allow dose reduction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion: Prosthetic heart valve evaluation using MDCT with prospective triggering achieves dose reduction and provides detailed anatomical information. (ahajournals.org)
  • Assessment of patient and occupational dose in established and new applications of MDCT fluoroscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This quantity is analogous to the dose-area product (DAP) used in planar radiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though CT is associated with substantially higher radiation exposure than conventional radiography, typical doses are not known. (nih.gov)
  • In comparison to the chest radiography, radiograph computed tomography (CT) is not hindered by the superimposition of anatomical structures and has a better contrast resolution. (ebme.co.uk)
  • Iterative reconstruction is a new CT reconstruction technique that reduces image noise, which then allows radiation dose to be decreased. (medscape.com)
  • Objectives Iterative reconstruction (IR) allows for dose reduction with maintained image quality in CT imaging. (uu.nl)
  • For this reason, Siemens Healthcare has developed 'Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space (IRIS)' to generate high-quality images, acquired with smaller radiation doses. (hhmglobal.com)
  • To reduce radiation dose in children, several strategies and techniques are currently available, including iterative reconstruction techniques. (medscape.com)
  • Iterative reconstruction techniques and personalized acquisition control address your high IQ, low dose needs. (philips.com)
  • Mean effective radiation dose was 1.7 ± 0.6 mSv. (springer.com)
  • These technological advances allow significant radiation dose savings, often resulting in effective radiation doses of less than one millisievert (mSv). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and specificity of CTKUB for diagnosing urolithiasis remains high, even when the effective radiation dose is lowered. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the two groups as well as the effective radiation dose (ED) was finally assessed. (clinicalimagingscience.org)
  • Over the last decade, the use of computed tomography (CT) scanning has approximately doubled, and CT scanning represents approximately two thirds of the total effective radiation dose in the United States [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effective radiation dose was calculated for each patient. (edu.pl)
  • Computed tomography has experienced a number of significant technological advances over the past decade, and these have had pronounced impacts on the accuracy of radiation dosimetry and the assessment of image quality. (elsevier.com)
  • The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is a commonly used radiation exposure index in X-ray computed tomography (CT), first defined in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased use of Computed Tomography as an imaging modality is of concern because of the growing body of evidence linking radiation exposure to cancer incidence. (umd.edu)
  • Purpose: Imaging of prosthetic heart valves (PHV) with computed tomography may provide detailed imaging of periprosthetic tissues at the expense of significant radiation exposure. (ahajournals.org)
  • The dose report is a feature of Utilization Management (UM) that keeps users aware of the data regarding total radiation exposure and dose usage on a monthly or a multi-monthly basis. (siemens.com)
  • With the increasing concerns about radiation exposure with the use of CT, several groups have proposed that guidelines should be established for a more selective use of CT and low-dose radiologic CT techniques [ 7 , 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lung cancer mortality has been found to decrease significantly with low-dose (LD) computed tomographic (CT) screening among current or former smokers. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The potential benefit is enormous if computed tomography screening truly reduces mortality and extends survival from this disease. (ebme.co.uk)
  • Computed tomography (CT) screening of the chest has shown promise for early detection of lung cancer, but evidence for a reduction in lung cancer mortality by CT screening is not available. (nih.gov)
  • Until mortality trials are completed, low-dose CT screening should be considered an investigative tool rather than the standard of care. (nih.gov)
  • Considering that cancer risk is cumulative over a lifetime and each CT examination contributes to the lifetime exposure, there is a need for a better understanding of radiation-induced cancer incidence and mortality, and better dose estimates. (radioprotection.org)
  • In an effort to reduce lung cancer mortality, many major medical societies have recommended annual low-dose CT screenings for high-risk individuals. (amegroups.com)
  • specifically, these shields can reduce radiation dose to the breast when the shields are located between the x-ray beam and the breast (ie, in anteroposterior projections of CT, but not in posteroanterior projections). (appliedradiology.com)
  • Although bismuth shielding has been found to reduce radiation dose to the breast by 29% to 57%, 6,7 such shielding is also associated with degradation of image quality because of increased pixel attenuation values from beam-hardening effects, higher levels of image noise, streak artifacts, and internally scattered radiation. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The effects of bowtie filter and beam collimation on dose and risk were small compared to the effects of helical pitch and tube potential. (duke.edu)
  • If the pitch is smaller than 1, the X-ray beam profiles overlap and the absorbed dose increases. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • If the pitch is larger than 1, the X-ray beam profiles do not overlap, there are gaps in the acquisition and the absorbed dose decreases. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • In Paper I, fundamental image quality metrics were modeled whereby the effect of radiation dose/beam quality on these metrics could be estimated. (kth.se)
  • The applications of these models were demonstrated by estimating the de- tectability of low contrast details across different radiation doses/beam qual- ities using a mathematical model observer. (kth.se)
  • In the second part, guidelines are proposed for optimization of the radiation dose in order to obtain an image quality sufficient for appropriate diagnostic performance while restricting the dose delivered. (springer.com)
  • Lecturers identified by COCIR will give insides on the technical solution adopted by manufacturers in the relevant elds of CT dose reduction and optimization. (nvkf.nl)
  • Other CT administrators like to have an overview as a basis for dose optimization. (siemens.com)
  • International Commission on Radiological Protection introduced three basic principles of radiation protection, namely justification, optimization, and dose limit. (ac.ir)
  • Medical exposure has no dose limits, and generally, diagnostic reference levels are used as a tool for optimization of patient protection. (ac.ir)
  • Use of computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic evaluation has increased dramatically over the past 2 decades. (nih.gov)
  • To determine if a very low tube voltage of 80kVp is feasible to further minimize radiation dose and maintain diagnostic image quality of coronary CTA. (ahajournals.org)
  • The key element of all dose reduction efforts is to reduce radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic accuracy. (duke.edu)
  • Over a nodule detectability (product of nodule peak contrast and display diameter to noise ratio) range of approximately 52-374 mm with an average of 143 mm, tube current or dose had a weak effect on the diagnostic accuracy of lung nodules. (duke.edu)
  • Keeping radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable, consistent with the diagnostic task, remains the most important strategy for decreasing this potential risk. (semanticscholar.org)
  • X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a non-destructive imaging technique originally designed for diagnostic medicine, which was adopted for rhizosphere and soil science applications in the early 1980s. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which radiation dose can be minimized while maintaining diagnostic performance through knowledgeable selection of reconstruction techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, the use of smoother reconstruction filters may permit lower-dose protocols without trade-off in diagnostic performance. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Comparative analysis shows that using a 640-slice CT with a 51 SD protocol, it is possible to reduce the mean radiation dose while maintaining good diagnostic image quality. (clinicalimagingscience.org)
  • The main aim of all radiological investigations especially in children is maximum diagnostic benefit and less radiation dose and to achieve that it is worth while to consider adjustment of pediatric protocols, equipement modification and lower radiation dose settings. (com.pk)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. (lww.com)
  • The third paper was on radiation dose estimation uncertainties coupled to the patient table. (ki.se)
  • In most commercial radiation dose estimation software packages for CT, the patient table is not included. (ki.se)
  • ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Computed Tomography. (medscape.com)
  • The effect of heart rhythm on patient radiation dose with dual-source cardiac computed tomography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. (uu.nl)
  • Lung cancer screening chest computed tomography contains additional, potentially useful information. (uu.nl)
  • Over the past decade, computed tomography (CT) has emerged as an important noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Malignancy prediction models based on participant-related characteristics and imaging parameters from low-dose computed tomography (CT) may improve decision-making regarding nodule management and diag. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We sought to examine the possibility of reducing the contrast medium dosage in dual-energy imaging using a saline-mixed injection with a virtual monochromatic energy method of dual-source computed tomography (CT). (hindawi.com)
  • While oral health professionals have long relied on 2D imaging for diagnosis and treatment planning, this technology typically requires multiple exposures and, with them, multiple doses of radiation. (carestreamdental.com)
  • LOCAT (low-dose computed tomography for appendicitis trial), a multi-institution randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, aims to compare low-dose computed tomography and standard-dose computed tomography as the first-line imaging tests for adolescents and young adults, and therefore to test the generalizability of the previous single-institution trial results. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the study protocol, we elaborate on several challenging or potentially debatable components of the study design, including the broad eligibility criteria, choice of the primary end point, potential effect of using advanced imaging techniques on study results, determining and adjusting the radiation doses, ambiguities in reference standards, rationale for the non-inferiority margin, use of the intention-to-treat approach and difficulties in defining adverse events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low-dose imaging protocols in chest CT are important in the screening and surveillance of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules. (elsevier.com)
  • The details include patient demographics, study information, imaging technique and geometry and all typical dose metrics (e.g. (siemens.com)
  • But it should be noted that these low expansion data are not comprehensive enough for finding a reasonable relationship between phantom size and effective dose except in chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) imaging. (radioprotection.org)
  • Radiation dose in medical imaging is an important topic of discussion. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation with CT imaging is a major health concern due to the potential risk of radiation-associated malignancy. (currentcardiologyreviews.com)
  • When used in combination with the advanced technologies of the iCT, Ingenuity, and Brilliance scanner families, this provides a unique approach to managing important factors in patient care - low energy, low dose, and low injected contrast imaging. (philips.com)
  • Philips MicroDose mammography SI with single-shot spectral imaging delivers proven dose efficiency, outstanding image quality, and non-invasive spectral applications in one fast and comfortable mammogram and is designed to be the platform for future advanced applications such as spectral tomosynthesis. (philips.com)
  • Single shot spectral imaging with unique Philips photon counting technology delivers excellent dose efficiency. (philips.com)
  • However, contrasted imaging may adversely influence the prescribed SBRT dose distribution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The authors concluded that appropriate scanning techniques can reduce the radiation dose to the orbit whilst imaging the temporal bone. (elidee.com)
  • Using the data gathered at an international level, the NQF will provide each institution with a report (audit) detailing site performance in comparison to regional, national, and international levels of radiation dose in CT imaging. (ucsf.edu)
  • Computed tomography and radiation dose: Is the technique appropriately used for imaging in children? (edu.au)
  • A Monte Carlo program was developed and validated for dose simulation in a state-of-the-art CT system. (duke.edu)
  • This goal of this work was to develop a robust Monte Carlo methodology to prospectively calculate patient organ doses for exams with ATCM for a wide variety of patient body morphometry, and to quantify the accuracy of the approach. (ufl.edu)
  • Radiation dose was measured via Farmer chamber and MOSFET dosimetry. (elsevier.com)
  • Check standards are used by the NIST Ionizing Radiation Division to monitor the performance of the alanine dosimetry system that is central to its high-dose. (nist.gov)
  • A calibrated pencil-shaped ionization chamber, standard head and body CT dosimetry phantoms and a radiation monitor were used to determine and calculate Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and Dose Length Product (DLP). (ac.ir)
  • This study aimed at directly measuring mean organ doses to the selected organs in the head/neck, chest, and abdominal regions from four computed tomography (CT) units in Lagos, south-west of Nigeria. (ac.ir)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for the use of body mass index (BMI) as a size-related metrics alternative to the midslice effective diameter (DE) to obtain a size-specific dose (SSDE) in abdominal CT. (ucc.ie)
  • The ratio between the internal and the external abdominal diameters (DRATIO) was also measured to assess correlation with radiation dose. (ucc.ie)
  • Evaluation of Prediction Models for Identifying Malignancy in Pulmonary Nodules Detected via Low-Dose Computed Tomography. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of annual screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (CT) and the characteristics of identified lung cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Implementing Decision Coaching for Lung Cancer Screening in the Low-Dose Computed Tomography Setting. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Moscow Screening: Lung Cancer Screening With Low-Dose Computed Tomography. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Performance of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT in Gejiu, Yunnan: A population-based, screening cohort study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Brodersen J, Rasmussen JF, Heleno B. Screening for Lung Cancer With Low-Dose Computed Tomography. (annals.org)
  • A systematic review and lessons learned from early lung cancer detection trials using low-dose computed tomography of the chest. (nih.gov)
  • The method includes receiving a first input indicative of a selected minimum detectable contrast and a second input indicative of an estimate of a size of a subject to be exposed to the radiation dose. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The minimum radiation dose is determined at least in part by a power law model relating the size of the subject, a lesion size, and a minimum detectable contrast. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The power law model is defined as MDC=A(L) d B(L) Dose C(L) , wherein (i) MDC is the selected minimum detectable contrast, (ii) d is lesion size, (iii) Dose is radiation dose, (iv) A(L), B(L), and C(L) are pre-determined fitted parameters, and (v) L is the estimate of the size of the subject. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine the effects of reduced tube voltage and contrast dose on the ability to detect perfusion abnormalities. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The optimal conditions for reducing the contrast medium dose were a mixing ratio of 6:4 and 55 keV of energy. (hindawi.com)
  • Both non contrast-enhanced and enhanced studies comparing reference dose with reduced dose were included. (uu.nl)
  • The median reported local reference dose of contrast-enhanced chest CT with FBP was 2.6 (range 1.5-21.8) mSv. (uu.nl)
  • With non contrast-enhanced chest CT the dose decreased from 3.4 (range 0.7-7.8) mSv to 0.9 (range 0.1-4.5) mSv. (uu.nl)
  • Conclusion Radiation dose can be reduced to less than 2 mSv for contrast-enhanced chest CT and non contrast-enhanced chest CT is possible at a submillisievert dose using IR algorithms. (uu.nl)
  • To investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) using hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) contrast on dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data indicate that though the differences in dose calculation between contrast phases are not clinically relevant, dose underestimation (IE, delivery of higher-than-intended doses) resulting from CT using PVP contrast is larger than that resulting from CT using HAP contrast when compared against doses based upon non-contrast CT in SBRT treatment of liver cancer using VMAT, IMRT or 3D-CRT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To quantify the influence of contrast on dose calculation, two modes of investigation have been used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The highest estimated patient organ doses were 25 mGy for liver, 20 mGy for stomach and 30 mGy for colon for a male patient with BMI of 30 kg/m2 and 90 kg of weight. (alquds.edu)
  • Estimated range in the lifetime attributable risk of cancer if a 20-year-old woman underwent one of several types of CT studies using the distribution in radiation dose exposure from our report. (nih.gov)
  • In: Workshop on European Population Doses from Medical Exposure. (julkari.fi)
  • This exposure control procedure could be applied to achieve dose reduction in most CT applications. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Here we aimed to i) highlight the need for more consistent reporting of X-ray CT parameters for dose to sample, ii) to provide an overview of previously reported impacts of X-rays on soil microorganisms and plant roots and iii) present new data investigating the response of plant roots and microbial communities to X-ray exposure. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Dose SR contains comprehensive data for each irradiation event, including the accumulated dose and basic information about the context of the exposure. (siemens.com)
  • Today, in industrialized countries, the radiation dose level from medical exposure is in the same range as the annual natural background radiation of 3.1 mSv. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • Detriment was estimated by multiplying E by the probability coefficient for stochastic effects after exposure to low doses of radiation: 5.7 x 10-2 Sv-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • GBI Research's report: "Computed Tomography Systems Market to 2019 - Lower Radiation Dose and Improved Workflow in Advanced CT Systems to Increase Adoption Rates" looks at the market, competitive landscape, and trends for three computed tomography systems segments: high slice computed tomography systems, mid slice computed tomography systems and low slice computed tomography systems. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • Computed tomography is widely used to diagnose acute appendicitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schindera, Sebastian 2018-05-28 00:00:00 Objectives A nationwide survey was performed assessing current practice of dose data analysis in computed tomog- raphy (CT). (deepdyve.com)
  • 2018). Single fraction computed tomography-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and metastatic lung tumors? (termedia.pl)
  • his Hirsch-index is cited with a 69 (ISI-Web of Knowledge, 2018) Twelve out of 286 original scientific papers: [1] Kalender WA, Klotz E, Süß C. An integral approach to vertebral bone mineral analysis by X-ray computed tomography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data is provided in electronic format that can be sent to any system which receives, stores or processes dose information, such as conventional PACS or workstations for further analysis. (siemens.com)
  • The total effective doses of conventional CT scanners were compared with those of Spiral CT by the CTdosimetry software. (elsevier.com)
  • With the new dose report, operators obtain an overview of the total number and the percentage split of all selected protocols, as well as the available dose information for the dedicated period. (siemens.com)
  • PTAS CTA protocols using second-generation dual-source CT for aortic valve evaluation are feasible at low doses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results: Protocols that employed a larger FOV resulted in an increase of the effective dose and detriment. (bvsalud.org)
  • the use of low dose protocols and special computer hardware and software which allow for the highest-quality images to be taken with the lowest dose of radiation to the patient. (camc.org)
  • Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities using ultra-low radiation dose regadenoson stress multidetector computed tomography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Machine learning approaches to radiogenomics using low-dose perfusion breast CT is a useful noninvasive tool for predicting prognostic biomarkers and molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • The relationship between the accuracy of the volume measurement and the radiation dose to the patient was analysed. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Accuracy versus echocardiography and radiation doses were assessed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results indicate that radiation dose can be reduced below the current low-dose (5 mGy) and ultralow-dose (1 mGy) levels with knowledgeable selection of reconstruction parameters. (elsevier.com)
  • On SOMATOM scanners, the reporting of established dose parameters such as Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and dose length product (DLP) has been implemented since 1990. (siemens.com)
  • The collected parameters were used to calculate the organ and effective doses for every patient. (alquds.edu)
  • Validation of the designed phantoms was below ± 20% kVp and mAs parameters among the CT units, which was statistically different with regard to the observed dose discrepancies. (ac.ir)
  • Accordingly, some authors estimated organ and effective dose in reference phantoms, but still there is a critical need to expand these data to larger groups of non-reference children. (radioprotection.org)
  • As an initial step to address this issue, in this study organ and effective doses were calculated in common CT procedures in non-reference pediatric phantoms and were compared with those of reference phantoms with the similar ages. (radioprotection.org)
  • This patient correspondent organ doses were 14, 9 and 14 mGy for the liver, stomach and colon, respectively. (alquds.edu)
  • Both effective dose and organ doses increase with BMI and body weight. (alquds.edu)
  • Organ Dose Measurement in Computed Tomography Using Thermoluminescence Dosimeter in Locally Developed Phantoms', Iranian Journal of Medical Physics , 16(2), pp. 126-132. (ac.ir)
  • This study was conducted on locally constructed inhomogeneous phantoms to measure mean organ doses to the head/neck, chest, and abdominopelvic regions from CT units in the Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. (ac.ir)
  • Generally, a one-way ANOVA showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the investigated mean organ dose (P = 0.043). (ac.ir)