An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.
Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.
The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
... in serum from 471 patients treated for convulsions with phenobarbital, valproic acid, phenytoin, and/or carbamazepine. The 471 ... Phenobarbital / administration & dosage * Phenobarbital / therapeutic use* * Phenytoin / administration & dosage * Phenytoin / ... Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbital, valproic acid, phenytoin, and ... in serum from 471 patients treated for convulsions with phenobarbital, valproic acid, phenytoin, and/or carbamazepine. The 471 ...
Procedures for estimating the variability in dosage requirements of phenytoin to achieve steadystate plasma concentrations of ... The serum level approach to individualization of drug dosage.Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 9:1-8 (1975). ... Rate of elimination of tracer doses of phenytoin at different steady-state serum phenytoin concentrations in epileptic patients ... Effect of dosage increments on blood phenytoin concentrations.J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35:873-876 (1972). ...
... dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications including drug comparison and health ... Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ... Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary to achieve optimal dosage adjustments. Phenytoin doses are usually ... Effects Of Alcohol Use On Phenytoin Serum Levels. Acute alcoholic intake may increase phenytoin serum levels while chronic ...
Serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and immunoreactive-irinhibin were lower in a dose-dependent manner during treatment. ... Hydantoins (eg, phenytoin). May affect concentration of these medications.. Thyroid hormones (eg, levothyroxine). May decrease ... Commercial manufacturers suggest a dosage of 250 mg of active ingredients from the root orally every morning and evening. For ... P. mirifica may greatly alter the length of menstrual cycles and suppress ovulation by reducing serum levels of gonadotropins. ...
Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more. ... Phenytoin Capsules official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. ... Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ... Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary to achieve optimal dosage adjustments. Phenytoin doses are usually ...
Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary to achieve optimal dosage adjustments. Phenytoin serum levels sustained ... Dosage adjustments may be required based on serum phenytoin concentrations and clinical response. Phenytoin is primarily ... Monitor phenytoin serum concentrations and adjust phenytoin doses as needed. Enzalutamide is a CYP3A4 substrate and phenytoin ... Dilantin/Phenytoin Oral Susp: 5mL, 125mg. Dilantin/Phenytoin Oral Tab Chew: 50mg. Phenytoin/Phenytoin Sodium Intramuscular Inj ...
Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ... Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary to achieve optimal dosage adjustments. Phenytoin doses are usually ... Effects of Alcohol Use on Phenytoin Serum Levels Acute alcoholic intake may increase phenytoin serum levels, while chronic ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Serum concentrations should be monitored in changing from extended phenytoin sodium capsules, USP, to ...
Phenytoin Hikma 50 mg / ml solution for injection - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd - ... This should be considered when determining dosage regimens; monitoring serum levels is therefore particularly beneficial in ... A number of medicinal products can increase or decrease serum phenytoin levels, and phenytoin can alter the serum levels of ... Following oral administration phenytoin is primarily absorbed from the small intestine. Phenytoin is principally bound to serum ...
... dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Phenytoin plasma/serum concentrations should be monitored; phenytoin dose may require adjustment to compensate for altered ... Þ Phenytoin exposure measures are reported for total phenytoin exposure. The effect of nelfinavir on unbound phenytoin was ... Phenytoin. ↓ nelfinavir. ↓ phenytoin. Concentrations of nelfinavir may be decreased. VIRACEPT may not be effective due to ...
Obtain baseline phenytoin serum level before disulfiram therapy; reevaluate level during therapy; adjust dosage if phenytoin ... Dosage. Exhibit 3-3 summarizes standard dosage information for disulfiram.. Exhibit 3-3 Disulfiram Dosages. View in own window ... Obtain baseline theophylline serum level before disulfiram therapy; reevaluate level during therapy; adjust dosage if ... Phenytoin (Dilantin®). Increases serum levels through CYP 450 2C9 inhibition. ...
When phenytoin plasma levels are determined, the free form should be evaluated. The dosage of phenytoin may require adjustment ... In addition, a decrease in total serum phenytoin with an increase in the free versus protein bound phenytoin levels has been ... Valproate dosage should be monitored when given in combination with felbamate.. Phenobarbital (phenobarbitone), phenytoin and ... Phenytoin.. There have been reports of breakthrough seizures occurring with the combination of sodium valproate and phenytoin. ...
Tizanidine also increases serum concentrations of phenytoin.. According to the 1997 edition of Redbook, the wholesale cost to ... The typical initial dosage is one 4-mg tablet taken at night, which can be increased by one-half tablet (2 mg) every three days ... Because oral contraceptives decrease the clearance of tizanidine by 50 percent, the starting dosage of tizanidine should be ... bradycardia are common side effects but are usually mild to moderate in severity and can be minimized by increasing the dosage ...
... product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance. ... Monitor serum levels when switching between sodium salt of phenytoin (caps) and free acid form (suspension, Infatabs). Use ... History of prior acute hepatotoxicity due to phenytoin. Concomitant delavirdine.. Warnings/Precautions:. Suicidal tendencies ( ...
Variability Of Serum Phenytoin Concentrations In Indian Epileptic Patient Population. P Kishore, K Manohar, T Umesh, J Vidya ... Spectrophotometric Estimation Of Tranexamic Acid In Bulk And Pharmaceutical Dosage Form. K Chitra, K Sujatha, Iman Rabia Ahmed ... Visible Spectrophotometric Determination Of Levofloxacin In Tablet Dosage Forms. Lakshmi Sivasubramanian, V Kasi Sankar, V ... Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation Of Ibuprofen And Methocarbamol In Tablet Dosage Form. T. R. S Satheeshmanikandan, ...
... product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance. ... May reduce serum digoxin levels. Doxorubicin toxicity increased with high-dose IV progesterone, cyclosporine, streptozocin, and ... May decrease phenytoin levels. Recall pneumonitis with actinomycin and radiation in children. ... May reduce serum digoxin levels. Doxorubicin toxicity increased with high-dose IV progesterone, cyclosporine, streptozocin, and ...
... product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance. ... May impair phenytoin clearance. Potentiated by cimetidine, other hepatic enzyme inhibitors. Interferes with serum chemistry ... May impair phenytoin clearance. Potentiated by cimetidine, other hepatic enzyme inhibitors. Interferes with serum chemistry ... May impair phenytoin clearance. Potentiated by cimetidine, other hepatic enzyme inhibitors. Interferes with serum chemistry ...
Monitor phenytoin serum levels and seizure frequency closely, adjust dosage accordingly. Methotrexate. ... Phenytoin. Increased risk of seizure due to decreased phenytoin serum levels. ... Monitor digoxin serum levels; adjust digoxin dosage as appropriate. Antiepileptics. Both altered antiepileptic and ... Anticonvulsants (e.g. phenytoin, phenobarbitone). Reduced efficacy of teniposide possible due to increased clearance. Avoid ...
Monitor phenytoin serum levels and seizure frequency closely, adjust dosage accordingly. Cyclophosphamide. ... Phenytoin. Increased risk of seizure due to decreased phenytoin serum levels. ... Monitor digoxin serum levels; adjust digoxin dosage as appropriate.. Antiepileptics. Both altered antiepileptic and ... Reduced efficacy of ciclosporin due to reduced serum concentration. Monitor ciclosporin levels; adjust dosage as appropriate; ...
Concomitant treatment with phenytoin may lead to decreased serum levels of disopyramide. There may be cumulative effect with ... Dosage must be modified (dosage intervals prolonged) in patients with renal failure. Serious toxic effects are depression of ...
BICNU prescription and dosage sizes information for physicians and healthcare professionals. Pharmacology, adverse reactions, ... May antagonize serum phenytoin levels. Adverse Reactions: Nausea, vomiting, nephrotoxicity, pneumonitis, pulmonary toxicity, ...
APTIOM prescription and dosage sizes information for physicians and healthcare professionals. Pharmacology, adverse reactions, ... Antagonized by carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone; monitor and adjust dose. May potentiate phenytoin, ... Measure serum sodium and chloride levels during therapy and esp. if hyponatremia symptoms develop. Monitor for neurological ... Caution with other drugs known to decrease serum sodium. Monitor INR when given with warfarin. ...
... dosage, user ratings and products that contain Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... Serum carnitine levels in epileptic children before and during ... Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbital, valproic acid, phenytoin, and ... Laker MF, Green C, Bhuiyan AK, Shuster S. Isotretinoin and serum lipids: studies on fatty acid, apolipoprotein and intermediary ... Kurul S, Dirik E, Iscan A. Serum carnitine levels during oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine monotherapies in children with ...
... performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of lamotrigine in serum with concomitant determination of phenytoin ... 4. Bartoli A, Guerrini R, Belmonte A, Alessandri MG, Gatti G, Perucca E. The influence of dosage, age, and comedication on ... The anticonvulsants phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, and carbamazepine can reduce lamotrigine levels when coadministered.2 ... 3. May TW, Rambeck B, Jürgens U. Serum concentrations of levetiracetam in epileptic patients: The influence of dose and ...
May alter serum levels of phenytoin.. Potentially Fatal: Corticosteroids may increase risk of tendon rupture. Increased risk of ... Indications and Dosage Oral. Community-acquired pneumonia, Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Adult: 100-300 ...
May alter serum concentrations of phenytoin. Reduced oral absorption with products containing multivalent cations (e.g. Al, Ca ... Increased serum concentration with probenecid. May increase serum concentration and toxicity of methotrexate; CYP1A2 substrates ... Indications and Dosage Intravenous. Lower respiratory tract infections, Skin and soft tissue infections, Upper respiratory ... Increased serum creatinine with cyclosporin. Increased risk of convulsions with NSAIDs. ...
Therapeutic levels vary, so oral dosages are adjusted by monitoring serum levels to achieve 8-12 mcg/mL. However, longterm ... Phenytoin (1.4-2.7 mg/kg, PO, bid) has also been advocated as a treatment for horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis. ... Diagnostic tests to determine the cause of chronic tying-up include a CBC, serum chemistry panel, serum vitamin E and selenium ... Serum CK and AST are increased during an episode (usually ,1,000 U/L) and, unlike in other forms of rhabdomyolysis, subclinical ...
When these drugs are given concomitantly, the serum level of phenytoin should be monitored, and the phenytoin dosage decreased ... The usual daily dosage is 15 to 30 mg/kg given intra- muscularly, with a maximal daily dosage of 1 g. Auditory toxicity is more ... It is available in 1-g vials, and the daily dosage is 15 to 30 mg/kg by intramuscular injection, or 1 g as the maximal dosage. ... Cycloserine interferes with the elimination of phenytoin, especially when taken with isoniazid; generally, the dosage of ...
Read more about the prescription drug phenytoin (Dilantin). ... Depicts the medication phenytoin (Dilantin), a drug used as an ... Phenytoin causes serum glucose (sugar) to rise. Thus, blood sugar should be monitored closely when phenytoin is administered to ... What is the dosage for Dilantin?. The dosing of phenytoin is patient specific. It may be given once, twice, 3, or 4 times daily ... Phenytoin also can cause anemia. Because it interferes with vitamin D metabolism, phenytoin can cause weakening of the bones ( ...
CODEINE prescription and dosage sizes information for physicians and healthcare professionals. Pharmacology, adverse reactions ... phenytoin). May antagonize diuretics; monitor. Paralytic ileus may occur with anticholinergics. Codeine may increase serum ... limit dosages/durations to minimum required; monitor. Acetaminophen may cause false (+) urine test for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic ...
  • We determined four carnitine constituents (total and free carnitine and short- and long-chain fatty acid carnitine esters) in serum from 471 patients treated for convulsions with phenobarbital, valproic acid, phenytoin, and/or carbamazepine. (nih.gov)
  • Patient frequency of reduction for total carnitine was 20% of all patients (10% for free carnitine), 23% of patients receiving valproate (9% for free carnitine), 36% of those receiving phenobarbital (21% for free carnitine), 12% of those receiving phenytoin (8% for free carnitine), and 8% of those receiving carbamazepine (1% for free carnitine). (nih.gov)
  • Optimized high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of lamotrigine in serum with concomitant determination of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and carbamazepine epoxide. (labcorp.com)
  • May potentiate adverse reactions of methyldopa, phenytoin, carbamazepine. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4, such as carbamazepine (Tegretol), topiramate (Topamax), St. John's wort, and phenytoin (Dilantin), may decrease serum concentrations of ulipristal and may lessen its effectiveness. (aafp.org)
  • Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) work well for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and have been known to do so since a study was completed with phenytoin (PHE) in 1942 (Bergouignan) and another with carbamazepine (CBZ) in 1962 (Blom). (medscape.com)
  • an inducer such as carbamazepine or phenytoin speeds up the metabolism of other drugs (such as lamotrigine) by inducing the synthesis of more enzymes. (jle.com)
  • Only for phenobarbital was there an inverse correlation between the serum concentration of the drug and that of carnitine concentration. (nih.gov)
  • Antagonized by phenobarbital, phenytoin, other hepatic enzyme inducers. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Phenytoin and phenobarbital may reduce blood concentrations of Rocaltrol, decreasing treatment effectiveness. (medicinenet.com)
  • Procedures for estimating the variability in dosage requirements of phenytoin to achieve steadystate plasma concentrations of 10-20 mg/liter and for estimating the plasma concentrations produced on a fixed dose are given. (springer.com)
  • Further, a method is proposed for estimating the dosage required to achieve a desired steady-state plasma phenytoin concentration when a steady-state value on a known daily dose has been measured, A method is also described for estimating dosage requirements when two or more plasma concentrations have been measured. (springer.com)
  • Blood samples were drawn 4 and 8 hr after the last dose on 2 successive days at the end of each step and analyzed for phenytoin concentration. (springer.com)
  • Diphenylhydantoin: Efficacy, toxicity, and dose-serum level relationships in children. (springer.com)
  • Phenytoin dose adjustment in epileptic patients. (springer.com)
  • Trough levels provide information about clinically effective serum level range and confirm patient compliance and are obtained just prior to the patient's next scheduled dose. (drugs.com)
  • The initial dose is 1 ampoule of Phenytoin (equivalent to 230 mg phenytoin), administered at a maximum rate of 0.5 ml/min (equivalent to 23 mg phenytoin per minute). (medicines.org.uk)
  • If the seizures stop, a dose of 1 ampoule Phenytoin (equivalent to 230 mg phenytoin) can be given every 1.5 to 6 hours up to a maximum daily dose of 17 mg/kg bodyweight (or 6 ampoules - equivalent to 1380 mg phenytoin), to achieve rapid saturation. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Accordingly, if lamotrigine is coadministered with valproic acid, the dose of lamotrigine must be reduced to less than half the normal dosage. (labcorp.com)
  • 3. May TW, Rambeck B, Jürgens U. Serum concentrations of levetiracetam in epileptic patients: The influence of dose and comedication. (labcorp.com)
  • draw blood for serum tests 12hrs after previous dose. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • If early signs of dose-related CNS toxicity why would phenytoin levels be low on insulin release, has been reported. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • Prerequisites for successful therapy include: a motivated client who will be compliant with multiple daily dosing and who is willing to assume the finan-cial burden of high dose phenytoin therapy and therapeutic drug monitoring expenses. (elephantcare.org)
  • IM Not recommended phenytoin zero order kinetics ORAL : CAPSULES SUSPENSION NG TUBE 15-18 mg/kg PO/NG- given as 200-400 mg q2-3h 5-7 mg/kg/day phenytoin zero order kinetics in one daily dose If 400 mg/day - two doses 5-7 mg/kg/day in 2 to 3 doses may need 2-4 times IV/PO dose hold feeds 2. (btbcomic.com)
  • Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin ) Drug buy viagra Class: Antiepileptic Pharmacokinetics: Phenytoin has dose-dependent kinetics of elimination. (btbcomic.com)
  • Post loading dose level and compare to a follow-up level in 2-4 days provides estimate of the accumulation or deficiency of a fixed maintenance dose Seizure Activity: at the time of a seizure, a phenytoin level helps to estimate a threshold for seizure activity 2). (btbcomic.com)
  • In general, aim for therapeutic levels between 20-40 umol/L. D. DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT Phenytoin does NOT phenytoin zero order kinetics demonstrate a proportional relationship between drug levels and dose. (btbcomic.com)
  • When returning to oral dosage, decrease dose by 50% of the original oral dose for 1 wk to prevent excessive plasma levels due to continued absorption from IM tissue sites. (rnpedia.com)
  • Loading dose (hospitalized patients without renal or liver disease): Initially, 1 g of phenytoin capsules (phenytoin sodium, prompt) is divided into three doses (400 mg, 300 mg, 300 mg) and given q 2 hr. (rnpedia.com)
  • Normal maintenance dosage is then instituted 24 hr after the loading dose with frequent serum determinations. (rnpedia.com)
  • He received injection phenytoin initially in loading dosage (18 mg/kg body weight), followed by maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg body weight in 8 hourly injections. (bmj.com)
  • Optimum control without clinical signs of toxicity occurs more often with serum levels between 10 and 20 mcg/mL, although some mild cases of tonic-clonic (grand mal) epilepsy may be controlled with lower serum levels of phenytoin. (drugs.com)
  • This entails using lower dosages to control disulfiram toxicity, excluding patients with myocardial infarction or cirrhosis of the liver, and combining the medication with other types of support. (nih.gov)
  • Optimum control without clinical signs of toxicity occurs most often with serum levels between 10 mcg/mL and 20 mcg/mL (40-80 micromoles/l). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Because of the risk of local toxicity, intravenous phenytoin should be injected slowly directly into a large vein through a large-gauge needle or intravenous catheter. (medicines.org.uk)
  • This toxicity is manifested by reduced renal function and leads to serum electrolyte changes and pathological changes in the urine analysis. (inchem.org)
  • This wide interpatient varia-tion may have significant clinical implications from both a toxicity and efficacy stand-point, particularly since ketoconazole is often used in life-threatening infections and as-says for measuring serum levels are not readily available. (elephantcare.org)
  • Unexpectedly severe (sometimes fatal) bone marrow suppression , aplastic anemia , and gastrointestinal toxicity have been reported with concomitant administration of methotrexate (usually in high dosage) along with some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (wikidoc.org)
  • What is the dosage for Dilantin? (medicinenet.com)
  • Dilantin (phenytoin) pkg. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • I had an appointment with the neurologist who at the time deciding to put what happens if phenytoin is low on Dilantin and in two weeks I started bloating I figured it was stress over knowing that your GF of my life has to move back to Brasil just because it is a law and marriage was not legal. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • 94 Increase IM dosage by 50% over previously established oral low dilantin levels. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • 94 To avoid drug accumulation from eventual absorption from IM sites, low dilantin levels dosage to one-half the original oral dosage one-third of the IM dosage for the first week back on oral therapy. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • Phenytoin (Dilantin) can exhibit abnormal hair growth in 5 to 12% of cases that may be unrelated to dosage or serum concentration of the drug. (hairtx.com)
  • Anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin and barbituates) may falsely elevate GGT.Buy Buspar (Buspirone) Online Buspar And Dilantin. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • Sr. No. 1 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Manufacturer's Proprietary Name Dilantin® (extended.Decrease of folic acid and cognitive alterations in patients with epilepsy treated with phenytoin or. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • Due to the relatively narrow therapeutic range and the varying bioavailability of the numerous pharmaceutical preparations, when changing from one preparation to another containing phenytoin, the phenytoin-plasma concentrations must be monitored closely. (medicines.org.uk)
  • if IM administration required, dosage adjustment is necessary to maintain therapeutic serum concentrations. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • The serum concentration of the affected drug is increased, and the dosage may then be decreased accordingly, dependent on the serum concentration achieved through therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). (jle.com)
  • The precise mechanism by which phenytoin exerts its therapeutic effect has not been established but is thought to involve the voltage-dependent blockade of membrane sodium channels resulting in a reduction in sustained high-frequency neuronal discharges. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS: Phenytoin is indicated for the control of seizures tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial seizures (psychomotor, temporal lobe) as well as for the prevention and treatment of attacks during or after neurosurgical events. (bajamedsmexico.com)
  • Uses/Indications - Because of its undesirable pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs and cats, the use of phenytoin as an anticonvulsant for long term treatment of epilepsy has dimin-ished over the years. (elephantcare.org)
  • Diphenyhydantoin: Relation of anticonvulsant effect to concentration in serum. (springer.com)
  • Product in vivo performance is characterized by a slow and extended rate of absorption with peak blood concentrations expected in 4 to 12 hours as contrasted to prompt phenytoin sodium capsules, USP with a rapid rate of absorption with peak blood concentration expected in 1 1/2 to 3 hours. (rxlist.com)
  • Phenytoin-plasma concentration, blood count, liver enzymes (GOT, GPT, gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase and additionally in children thyroid function should be monitored. (medicines.org.uk)
  • For infusion administration the parenteral phenytoin should be diluted in 50 ml-100 ml of normal saline, with the final concentration of phenytoin in the solution not exceeding 10 mg/ml. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Phenytoin is highly protein bound but only the unbound concentration is active. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • In patients with low serum albumin concentrations, a higher proportion of the total what happens if phenytoin is low phenytoin concentration is unbound and caution is therefore required when interpreting the result. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • Monitor therapy Methylphenidate: May increase the serum concentration of Phenytoin. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • Monitor therapy MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inducers Strong may decrease the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • The result is that the serum concentration of the affected drug is decreased and a dosage adjustment may be needed. (jle.com)
  • because phenytoin inhibits its own metabolism it may sometimes be several weeks before a steady-state plasma-Phenytoin concentration is attained. (sgpharma.com)
  • The clinically effective plasma phenytoin concentration is 10-20 μg/ml (40-80 μmol/litre) but some patients are satisfactorily controlled at concentrations outside this range. (sgpharma.com)
  • Acute alcohol intake may cause increased blood levels of phenytoin, while chronic use can result in lowering of their concentration. (bajamedsmexico.com)
  • cyclosporine: increase in serum cyclosporine plasma concentration. (dalilaldwaa.com)
  • By so doing, fluvoxamine can increase serum concentration of the substrates of these enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactions to parenteral phenytoin occur more often in elderly or debilitated patients, children (particularly infants), those who are critically ill, or those with pre-existing hypotension or severe myocardial insufficiency. (pdr.net)
  • When her patients report serious side effects, Fox reduces the dosage and counsels them on the severe reactions that could result from drinking alcohol. (nih.gov)
  • Various lymph node reactions have been reported with phenytoin therapy. (medicinenet.com)
  • The distribution of variant CYP2C9 alleles and prevalence of phenytoin adverse reactions were hereby investigated in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. (scielo.br)
  • We also analyzed the frequency of phenytoin adverse reactions among those different genotypes groups. (scielo.br)
  • Phenytoin adverse reactions were usually mild and occurred in 15% patients, without correlation with the CYP2C9 polymorphism (p=0.34). (scielo.br)
  • This sample of phenytoin users showed no drug related adverse reactions and CYP2C9 allele type correlation. (scielo.br)
  • Reported reactions in phenytoin-treated patients have included toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]. (pfizermedicalinformation.hn)
  • Rate of elimination of tracer doses of phenytoin at different steady-state serum phenytoin concentrations in epileptic patients. (springer.com)
  • In adults, if seizure control is established with divided doses of three 100 mg extended phenytoin sodium capsules daily, once-a-day dosage with 300 mg PHENYTEK® may be considered. (rxlist.com)
  • The patient with large variations in phenytoin plasma levels, despite standard doses, presents a difficult clinical problem. (drugs.com)
  • Because phenytoin is hydroxylated in the liver by an enzyme system which is saturable at high plasma levels, small incremental doses may increase the half-life and produce very substantial increases in serum levels, when these are in the upper range. (drugs.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease, sodium depletion, severely debilitated or dehydrated (use lower initial doses, monitor serum lithium levels daily, hospitalize). (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome the dosage should be individually adjusted and higher doses may be indicated. (intekom.com)
  • Pharmacology - At usual doses and serum concentrations, ketoconazole is fungistatic against susceptible fungi. (elephantcare.org)
  • Cpss (SI 40-80 umol/L ( 20umol/L) Time to Steady State: 1-4 weeks (longer with higher doses) Conversion factor to metric: Divide phenytoin zero order kinetics by 4 to convert from umol/L to mg/L B. DOSING. (btbcomic.com)
  • Phenytoin is hydroxylated in the liver by an enzyme system that is saturable at high plasma levels, hence small incremental doses may increase the half-life and produce very substantial increases in. (btbcomic.com)
  • Phenytoin should be introduced in small doses with gradual increments until control is achieved or until toxic effects appear. (sgpharma.com)
  • Single daily dosage (phenytoin sodium, extended): If seizure control is established with divided doses of three 100-mg extended phenytoin sodium capsules per day, once-a-day dosage with 300 mg PO may be considered. (rnpedia.com)
  • Dosage for infants and children also may be calculated on the basis of 10-15 mg/kg, given in divided doses of 5-10 mg/kg. (rnpedia.com)
  • Concomitant treatment with phenytoin may lead to decreased serum levels of disopyramide. (labcorp.com)
  • There are many potential drug interactions with phenytoin. (medicinenet.com)
  • May reduce serum digoxin levels. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This has worked well with such drugs as digoxin, aminophylline, and phenytoin sodium, but work with neuroleptics has been less successful. (springer.com)
  • and increases serum concentrations of digoxin and phenytoin.Morphological and phenotypic differences in fibroblasts obtained. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • The plasma half-life in man after oral administration of phenytoin averages 22 hours, with a range of 7 to 42 hours. (drugs.com)
  • The administration of phenytoin should not be stopped abruptly by the possibility of increased frequency of seizures, including status epilepticus. (bajamedsmexico.com)
  • Oral administration of phenytoin promotes proliferation of. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • IV administration of phenytoin and. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • PHENYTEK® CAPSULES (extended phenytoin sodium capsules, USP) are indicated for the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and psychomotor ( temporal lobe ) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery. (rxlist.com)
  • Serum concentrations should be monitored in changing from extended phenytoin sodium capsules, USP, to prompt phenytoin sodium capsules, USP, and from the sodium salt to the free acid form. (rxlist.com)
  • PHENYTEK® CAPSULES (extended phenytoin sodium capsules, USP) are formulated with the sodium salt of phenytoin. (rxlist.com)
  • Only extended phenytoin sodium capsules are recommended for once-a-day dosing. (rxlist.com)
  • Extended phenytoin sodium capsules USP, 100 mg meet USP Dissolution Test 2. (drugs.com)
  • For extended phenytoin sodium capsules, peak serum levels occur 4 to 12 hours after administration. (drugs.com)
  • Phenytoin is not effective in absence status epilepticus or in the prophylaxis and treatment of febrile convulsions. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Abrupt withdrawal of Phenytoin may increase seizure frequency or lead to status epilepticus . (medicines.org.uk)
  • Status epilepticus: Administer phenytoin IV. (rnpedia.com)
  • Abrupt withdrawal of phenytoin in epileptic patients may precipitate status epilepticus. (pfizermedicalinformation.hn)
  • With recommended dosage, a period of 7 to 10 days may be required to achieve steady-state blood levels with phenytoin and changes in dosage (increase or decrease) should not be carried out at intervals shorter than 7 to 10 days. (rxlist.com)
  • Because oral contraceptives decrease the clearance of tizanidine by 50 percent, the starting dosage of tizanidine should be reduced in women taking these agents. (aafp.org)
  • May decrease phenytoin levels. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Caution with other drugs known to decrease serum sodium. (empr.com)
  • This decrease in serum bicarbonate is due to the inhibitory effect of topiramate on renal carbonic anhydrase and consequent renal bicarbonate wasting. (intekom.com)
  • Phenytoin clearance tends to decrease with increasing age (20% less in patients over 70 years of age relative to that in patients 20 to 30 years of age). (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • In severely affected animals, regular monitoring of BUN and/or serum creatinine is advised to assess the extent of renal damage. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • May interfere with assays for serum methotrexate, creatinine. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • May interfere with serum methotrexate assay, Jaffe alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Laboratory studies show a serum creatinine level of 0.6 mg/dL (45.8 µmol/L) and no blood ethanol. (acphospitalist.org)
  • A 75-year-old woman is evaluated for a progressively increasing serum creatinine level. (acphospitalist.org)
  • her serum creatinine level was 1.2 mg/dL (106.0 µmol/L) 1 month ago. (acphospitalist.org)
  • Increased serum creatinine with cyclosporine. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • It remains to be determined whether a reduction in serum carnitine values in patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy is of clinical consequence, whether the reduction is present in some patients before the start of therapy, when and by what mechanism carnitine levels may become reduced during therapy, and whether the reduction exists in the solid tissues of these patients. (nih.gov)
  • Phenytoin is an anti- seizure medication ( anticonvulsant ) used for preventing or treating generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures , complex partial seizures (psychomotor seizures), and seizures occurring during or after neurosurgery. (medicinenet.com)
  • Pharmacology - The anticonvulsant actions of phenytoin are thought to be caused by the promotion of sodium efflux from neurons, thereby inhibiting the spread of seizure activity in the motor cortex. (elephantcare.org)
  • PHENYTOIN TABLETS B.P. (Phenytoin Sodium) is a hydantoin derivative anticonvulsant. (sgpharma.com)
  • Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant medication that is used to control seizures. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • When in the judgment of the clinician the need for dosage reduction, discontinuation, or substitution of alternative anticonvulsant medication arises, this should be done gradually. (pfizermedicalinformation.hn)
  • 6 The need for dosage adjustments in renal and hepatic impairment is unknown. (aafp.org)
  • Dosage adjustment for mild or moderate hepatic impairment is not required. (ucsf.edu)
  • Brain concentrations of phenytoin, phenobarbitone and primidone in epileptic patients. (springer.com)
  • Tizanidine also increases serum concentrations of phenytoin. (aafp.org)
  • Serum phenytoin levels in management of epilepsy. (springer.com)
  • In most patients maintained at a steady dosage, stable phenytoin serum levels are achieved. (drugs.com)
  • There may be wide interpatient variability in phenytoin serum levels with equivalent dosages. (drugs.com)
  • Patients with unusually low levels may be noncompliant or hypermetabolizers of phenytoin. (drugs.com)
  • As phenytoin is highly protein bound, free phenytoin levels may be altered in patients whose protein binding characteristics differ from normal. (drugs.com)
  • Monitor serum levels when switching between sodium salt of phenytoin (caps) and free acid form (suspension, Infatabs). (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Elderly: monitor serum levels. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • May antagonize serum phenytoin levels. (empr.com)
  • Measure serum sodium and chloride levels during therapy and esp. (empr.com)
  • May alter serum levels of phenytoin. (mims.com)
  • Codeine may increase serum amylase levels. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Steady state serum levels have been found to be useful measurements when selecting dosage for medications. (springer.com)
  • J. A. Yesavage, C. A. Holman, R. Cohn and L. Lombrozo, Correlation of initial thiothixene serum levels and clinical response. (springer.com)
  • Monitoring of INR and phenytoin serum levels is recommended and dosage reductions may be necessary when Altosec 40 mg/10 mL is given concomitantly. (intekom.com)
  • Serum electrolyte levels are normal. (acphospitalist.org)
  • median trough CSF and serum vancomycin levels were 2 and 5.1 micrograms/ml, respectively, and trough CSF bactericidal titers ranged from less than 1:2 to 1:16. (asm.org)
  • At this point, median peak CSF and serum vancomycin levels were 1.9 and 18.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Measurable reductions in testosterone or cortisol synthesis can occur at dosages used for antifungal therapy, but higher dosages are gener-ally required to reduce levels of testosterone or cortisol to be clinically useful in the treat-ment of prostatic carcinoma or hyperadrenocorticism. (elephantcare.org)
  • Peak serum concentrations occur between 1 and 4.25 hours after dosing and peak serum levels in the 6 dogs studied ranged from 1.1 - 45.6 micrograms/ml. (elephantcare.org)
  • CSF levels are generally less than 10% of those found in the serum, but may be increased if the meninges are inflamed. (elephantcare.org)
  • Check serum potassium levels at frequent intervals and use potassium supplements if necessary. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Monitor prothrombin levels and adjust anticoagulant dosage accordingly. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Dosage should be individually titrated as there may be wide variability in phenytoin serum levels with equivalent dosage. (sgpharma.com)
  • Determine serum levels for optimal dosage adjustments. (rnpedia.com)
  • phenytoin nifedipine interaction adalat sony 20 november 2011.tbars levels: 1.70791299881192: 6: of strain: 1.70775756479036: 5: industrial and: 1.70750070043213: 6: substrate anaerobic: 1.70749316838988: 4: solid substrate: 1. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • Low in dogs is it dangerous to take too much thyroxine levels in infants lowest dosage. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • low levels of sali-vary IgA in phenytoin. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • Patients who have received no previous treatment may be started on one 100 mg extended phenytoin sodium capsule three times daily and the dosage then adjusted to suit individual requirements. (rxlist.com)
  • Once-a-day dosage offers a convenience to the individual patient or to nursing personnel for institutionalized patients and is intended to be used only for patients requiring this amount of drug daily. (rxlist.com)
  • Serum level determinations in such patients may be particularly helpful. (drugs.com)
  • Phenytoin injection is contraindicated in patients with sinus bradycardia, sino-atrial block, second or third degree AV block, and Adams-Stokes syndrome because of the effects of the drug on ventricular automaticity. (pdr.net)
  • Intravenous phenytoin should not be used in patients with other cardiac conduction abnormalities (e.g., bundle-branch block) and should be used with caution in any patient with cardiac disease, such as cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery disease, because symptoms may be potentiated or exacerbated. (pdr.net)
  • Dosage must be modified (dosage intervals prolonged) in patients with renal failure. (labcorp.com)
  • Phenytoin can produce unusual growth of hair in some patients. (medicinenet.com)
  • Thus, blood sugar should be monitored closely when phenytoin is administered to patients with diabetes . (medicinenet.com)
  • Prothrombin time should be closely monitored in thyroid treated patients on oral anticoagulants and dosage of the latter agents adjusted on the basis of frequent prothrombin time determinations. (rxmed.com)
  • However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section). (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Eleven consecutive adult patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-culture-proven pneumococcal meningitis and positive initial CSF Gram stain were given intravenous vancomycin (usual dosage, 7.5 mg/kg every 6 h for 10 days). (asm.org)
  • Since phenytoin clearance is decreased slightly in elderly patients, lower or less frequent dosing may be required [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) ]. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • Increased fraction of unbound phenytoin in patients with renal or hepatic disease, or in those with hypoalbuminemia has been reported. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • no dosage reduction of isoniazid is necessary when given to patients with mild renal failure. (who.int)
  • Decreased Linezolid Serum Concentrations in Three Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Case Studies of a Potential Drug Interaction between Linezolid and Rifampicin. (kliniken-heidenheim.de)
  • These patients also tend to have low serum albumin. (btbcomic.com)
  • CONTRAINDICATIONS: Phenytoin is contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to phenytoin, its inactive ingredients or other hydantoins. (bajamedsmexico.com)
  • Dosage adjustment may be necessary in severe impairment. (mims.com)
  • No dosage adjustment is necessary in renal insufficiency. (ucsf.edu)
  • No dosage adjustment is necessary in Child-Pugh Class A or B liver disease. (ucsf.edu)
  • Each PHENYTEK®CAPSULE (extended phenytoin sodium capsule, USP) for oral administration contains 200 mg or 300 mg of phenytoin sodium, USP. (rxlist.com)
  • Commercial products are available in topical (creams, gels, and soaps) or oral (capsules or tablets) dosage forms. (drugs.com)
  • May potentiate oral anticoagulants, phenytoin, lithium. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Phenytoin is an oral and injectable anti- seizure medication first synthesized in 1908. (medicinenet.com)
  • Monitor oral anticoagulants, glyburide, phenytoin. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Phenytoin (base) is used in the oral tablets and suspensions. (elephantcare.org)
  • Although not commonly used, phenytoin has been employed as an oral or IV antiarrhythmic agent in both dogs and cats. (elephantcare.org)
  • IM therapy in a patient previously stabilized on oral dosage: Increase dosage by 50% over oral dosage. (rnpedia.com)
  • Phenytoin reduces the maximal activity of brain stem centers responsible for the tonic phase of tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. (drugs.com)
  • Phenytoin may also raise the seizures. (soxanddawgs.com)
  • General: Phenytoin is not indicated in absence seizures (petit mal). (bajamedsmexico.com)
  • Phenytoin does not treat all types of seizures, and your doctor will determine if it is the right medicine for you. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • Adults and adolescents over 12 years of age receive 1 to 2 ampoules of Phenytoin (equivalent to 230 to 460 mg phenytoin) daily at a maximum rate of injection of 0.5 ml/min (equivalent to 23 mg phenytoin per minute). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Because phenytoin sodium slowly undergoes partial hydrolysis in aqueous solutions to phenytoin (base) with the resultant solution becoming turbid, the commercial injection contains 40% propylene glycol and 10% alcohol. (elephantcare.org)
  • Store phenytoin sodium injection at room temperature and protect from freezing. (elephantcare.org)
  • Phenytoin sodium injection is generally incompatible with most IV solutions (upon standing) and drugs. (elephantcare.org)
  • Because it interferes with vitamin D metabolism , phenytoin can cause weakening of the bones ( osteomalacia ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Phenytoin can increase the metabolism (elimination) of many drugs, reducing their concentrations in the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • Phenytoin will induce hepatic microsomal enzymes which may enhance the metabolism of itself and other drugs. (elephantcare.org)
  • The pharmacokinetics of phenytoin are affected by other antiepileptics (see Precautions, below). (sgpharma.com)
  • The elimination of diazepam, warfarin and phenytoin may be prolonged when Altosec 40 mg/10 mL is given concomitantly. (intekom.com)
  • Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). (rxlist.com)
  • In some cases, serum blood level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments - the clinically effective serum level is usually 10 to 20 mcg/mL. (rxlist.com)
  • When serum level determinations are necessary, they should be obtained at least 5 to 7 half-lives after treatment initiation, dosage change, or addition or subtraction of another drug to the regimen so that equilibrium or steady-state will have been achieved. (drugs.com)
  • When serum level determinations are necessary, they should be obtained at least 5-7 half-lives after treatment initiation, dosage change, or addition or. (btbcomic.com)
  • The suspension should not be given at the same time as tube feedings since tube feedings bind to phenytoin and reduce its absorption. (medicinenet.com)
  • By contrast, what dosage of ibuprofen should i take and causes sequestration of cholesterol absorption characteristics. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Following absorption, the compound becomes bound to the serum alpha globulin fraction. (medi-vet.com)
  • Levothyroxine is nearly totally bound to serum proteins and has an elimination half-life of 6 to 7 days in the euthyroid subject. (rxmed.com)
  • The serum half-life (elimination) differences between various species are striking. (elephantcare.org)
  • Phenytoin can potentially injure the liver although this is an uncommon occurrence. (medicinenet.com)
  • Phenytoin is extensively metabolised in the liver to inactive metabolites, chiefly 5-(4 hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin. (sgpharma.com)
  • phenytoin is metabolized in the liver. (rnpedia.com)
  • measurement of concentrations in saliva, which contains only free phenytoin, has also been performed. (sgpharma.com)
  • Early adjunctive therapy with intravenous dexamethasone, mannitol, and sodium phenytoin was also instituted. (asm.org)
  • Characterization of sodium phenytoin cogelled. (loanswithoutcreditcheck.ga)
  • In addition, FDA-approved labeling for parenteral phenytoin contains a boxed warning that highlights the cardiovascular risks associated with rapid intravenous administration rates. (pdr.net)
  • Fluvoxamine has been observed to increase serum concentrations of mirtazapine, which is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, by three- to four-fold in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • For most adults, the satisfactory maintenance dosage will be one 100 mg capsule three to four times a day. (rxlist.com)
  • Bioavailability (F 0.90 - 1.0 Salt Factor (S 0.92 - Phenytoin Na (caps, IV) 1.0 - Phenytoin Acid (tabs, susp) Protein Binding: 90 (87-93) Volume of Distribution (Vd 0.7L/Kg - Adults 1.0L/Kg - Children Half-Life (t. (btbcomic.com)
  • Each ml of solution contains 50 mg phenytoin sodium, equivalent to 46 mg phenytoin. (medicines.org.uk)
  • One 5 ml ampoule contains 250 mg phenytoin sodium, equivalent to 230 mg phenytoin. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Although 100 mg of phenytoin sodium is equivalent to 92 mg of phenytoin on a molecular weight basis, these molecular equivalents are not necessarily biologically equivalent. (medicines.org.uk)
  • DEPAKOTE tablets are supplied in three dosage strengths containing divalproex sodium equivalent to 125 mg, 250 mg, or 500 mg of valproic acid. (healthyplace.com)
  • A typical adult can phenytoin zero order kinetics metabolize 7-10g (150-220 mmol) of ethanol per hour (the equivalent of 10oz of beer, 3.5 oz of wine or 1oz of 80 proof spirits). (btbcomic.com)
  • 92 mg of phenytoin is equivalent to 100 mg of Phenytoin sodium. (sgpharma.com)
  • 4. Bartoli A, Guerrini R, Belmonte A, Alessandri MG, Gatti G, Perucca E. The influence of dosage, age, and comedication on steady state plasma lamotrigine concentrations in epileptic children: A prospective study with preliminary assessment of correlations with clinical response. (labcorp.com)
  • Excessive dosage can cause protracted nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, thirst and metallic taste Nephrotoxicity characterised by oliguria, azotaemia, renal tubular acidosis and acute renal failure may occur. (inchem.org)
  • Other reported effects include tachycardia, hyperpnoea, acute respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis, transient elevation of alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin and AST may also occur. (inchem.org)
  • Barbiturates, Phenytoin, or Rifampin: Increased metabolic clearance of fludrocortisone acetate because of the induction of hepatic enzymes. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Phenytoin is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • The role of CYP2C9 polymorphism influence on phenytoin adverse reaction remains to be determined since some literature evidence and our data found negative results. (scielo.br)
  • Continuous monitoring of ECG, blood pressure and neurological status and regular determination of plasma phenytoin concentrations is essential. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Transfer separated serum or plasma to a plastic transport tube. (labcorp.com)
  • Penfluridol and thiothixene: dosage, plasma level and changes in psychopathology. (springer.com)
  • Phenytoin is well dis-tributed throughout the body and is about 78% bound to plasma proteins in dogs (vs. 95% in humans). (elephantcare.org)
  • Phenytoin is extensively bound to serum plasma proteins. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • It has been reported in the literature that the plasma clearance of phenytoin generally increased during pregnancy, reached a peak in the third trimester and returned to the level of pre-pregnancy after few weeks or months of delivery. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • The clinically effective serum level is usually between 10 and 20 mcg/mL. (rnpedia.com)
  • Exertional rhabdomyolysis can be either sporadic, with single or very infrequent episodes of exercise-induced muscle necrosis, or chronic, with repeated episodes of rhabdomyolysis and increased serum CK or AST with mild exertion. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Phenytoin sodium is related to the barbiturates in chemical structure, but has a five-membered ring. (rxlist.com)
  • These methods are derived from data obtained on administering phenytoin in four to five different dosage regimens until steady state was achieved in each of nine volunteers. (springer.com)
  • The steady-state level may be disproportionately increased, with resultant intoxication, from an increase in dosage of 10% or more. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • Phenytoin sodium is used in the commercially available capsules (both extended and prompt) and the injectable preparations. (elephantcare.org)