Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Dothiepin: A tricyclic antidepressant with some tranquilizing action.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Amebicides: Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Glipizide: An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Loratadine: A second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Unlike most classical antihistamines (HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS) it lacks central nervous system depressing effects such as drowsiness.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Triacetin: A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Ambroxol: A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Famotidine: A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overCarbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.PolyvinylsIndicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Morphinans: Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Acrylic ResinsLactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Determining whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients. (1/336)

This activity is designed for healthcare providers making formulary decisions for managed care organizations. GOAL: To help clinicians determine whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: 1. List general considerations for establishing a pediatric drug formulary. 2. Understand the importance of growth and development when selecting drug therapy for pediatric patients. 3. Discuss potential difficulties with administering medications during school hours. 4. Identify specific medications within the drug classes of antibiotics, asthma medications, endocrine, and gastrointestinal agents that should be available on a pediatric drug formulary.  (+info)

Serum itraconazole concentrations and clinical responses in Candida-associated denture stomatitis patients treated with itraconazole solution and itraconazole capsules. (2/336)

The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of itraconazole in serum and saliva after treatment with itraconazole cyclodextrin solution or itraconazole capsules in Candida-associated denture stomatitis patients without evidence of immunodeficiency. Forty patients were randomly assigned to receive either itraconazole cyclodextrin solution or itraconazole capsules, both at a dosage of 100 mg bd for 15 days. On completion of treatment palatal erythema was assessed and an oral rinse and imprint cultures were collected. Serum and saliva samples were collected at the same time and itraconazole concentrations measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Itraconazole susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata strains isolated at baseline were measured by a broth microdilution method. Serum itraconazole concentrations achieved did not differ significantly between the two preparations (P = 0.39) although a significantly higher number of patients in the itraconazole cyclodextrin group (P < 0.001) had detectable levels of itraconazole in their saliva compared with the capsule group. Mycologically cured patients had slightly, though not significantly (P = 0.28), higher serum itraconazole concentrations than those from whom yeasts were not eradicated. It was concluded that both formulations of itraconazole were equally effective in treatment of denture stomatitis. Among immunocompetent patients, the absorption of the liquid preparation is no greater than that of the capsules. Therapeutic success in this group was achieved with lower serum itraconazole concentrations than have been reported for immunocompromised groups.  (+info)

Equivalence of two steroid-containing inhalers: easyhaler multidose powder inhaler compared with conventional aerosol with large-volume spacer. (3/336)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An equivalence study was conducted in which the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 800 microgram of beclomethasone diproprionate administered via a multidose powder inhaler, Easyhaler, and via a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a large-volume spacer were compared in adult, newly diagnosed, steroid-naive asthmatic patients. Acceptability of the medications was also compared. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four patients were recruited into the double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, parallel-group multicentre study. The study treatment period was 8 weeks. It was preceded by a 2-week run-in period. Morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF), numbers of inhalations of a sympathomimetic and asthma symptoms were recorded daily. Spirometry and histamine challenge were performed, and health-related quality of life and morning serum cortisol levels measured during control visits. RESULTS: Criteria indicating treatment equivalence were met. The mean of the primary outcome variable, morning PEF, increased significantly, from 426 to 461 litres/min in the Easyhaler group and from 436 to 467 litres/min in the MDI+spacer group. Similar improvements between groups were also seen in relation to all secondary variables. Changes in serum cortisol levels were minor. In 6 out of 10 questions about device acceptability, the majority of patients rated Easyhaler as better than the MDI+spacer combination. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the devices tested were equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety.  (+info)

Circulating concentrations of the antiprogestins CDB-2914 and mifepristone in the female rhesus monkey following various routes of administration. (4/336)

The overall aim of these studies was to investigate the oral and i.m. bioavailability of CDB-2914 in intact female rhesus monkeys, and to compare the serum concentrations of CDB-2914 with that of mifepristone following oral administration. In the first study, a 50 mg bolus of CDB-2914 per monkey was administered intravenously, orally or intramuscularly. The area under the serum concentration-time curve for 72 h (AUC(0-72)) following i.v. injection was 18 320 +/- 2718 ng/ml*h, and that for oral administration was 10 464 +/- 3248 ng/ml*h. Thus, the oral bioavailability of CDB-2914 equivalents was 56%. The AUC(0-168 h) following i.m. injection was 11 226 +/- 1130 ng/ml*h. Therefore, the i.m. bioavailability of CDB-2914 equivalents was 62%. In the second study, the serum concentrations of CDB-2914 and mifepristone equivalents were compared following an oral bolus dose in two different formulations. When administered at 5 mg/kg in aqueous suspending vehicle (ASV), the mean peak serum concentration (C(max)) of CDB-2914 equivalents (192 +/- 64 ng/ml) occurred at 5 +/- 1 h, whereas the C(max) of mifepristone equivalents (82 +/- 25 ng/ml) occurred at 3 +/- 1 h. Following administration in gelatin capsules (35 mg/monkey), the C(max) of CDB-2914 equivalents (129 +/- 24 ng/ml) occurred at 5 +/- 1 h, while the C(max) of mifepristone equivalents (31 +/- 8 ng/ml) occurred at 3 +/- 1 h. The serum concentration (AUC(0-120 h)) of CDB-2914 equivalents was 4.7- or 5. 3-fold greater than that of mifepristone equivalents when administered orally in ASV or gelatin capsules respectively. The serum protein binding characteristics of CDB-2914 were also studied. CDB-2914 bound to human alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG), but not with as high an affinity as mifepristone. In contrast, neither CDB-2914 nor mifepristone bound with high affinity to AAG, corticosteroid binding globulin or sex hormone binding globulin in monkey serum. Collectively, these results indicated that CDB-2914 was more efficiently absorbed than mifepristone following oral administration to female rhesus monkeys.  (+info)

A commentary on the effects of garlic extraction and formulation on product composition. (5/336)

The garlic (Allium sativa L.) bulb has been used as a food and condiment for centuries throughout the entire world and in Egypt for perhaps 5000 years. Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 by the U.S. Congress, it has been claimed that garlic dietary supplements possess health benefits. Support for this claim is not the primary objective of this publication. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that the prediction of a potential health benefit(s) from garlic is largely dependent on the process used to produce a product.  (+info)

HPLC method for the determination of oxytocin in pharmaceutical dosage form and comparison with biological method. (6/336)

Conditions have been established for the determination of oxytocin by the HPLC method; the method has been validated. The results of HPLC determinations are compared with those obtained by the biological method.  (+info)

Impact of prepackaging antimalarial drugs on cost to patients and compliance with treatment. (7/336)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which district health teams could reduce the burden of malaria, a continuing major cause of mortality and morbidity, in a situation where severe resource constraints existed and integrated care was provided. METHODS: Antimalarial drugs were prepackaged into unit doses in an attempt to improve compliance with full courses of chemotherapy. FINDINGS: Compliance improved by approximately 20% in both adults and children. There were 50% reductions in cost to patients, waiting time at dispensaries and drug wastage at facilities. The intervention, which tended to improve both case and drug management at facilities, was well accepted by health staff and did not involve them in additional working time. CONCLUSION: The prepackaging of antimalarials at the district level offers the prospect of improved compliance and a reduction in the spread of resistance.  (+info)

Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method to measure migration of semi-volatile compound, vanillin, in ipratropium bromide inhalation solution. (8/336)

Ipratropium bromide, a bronchodilator, is used as an inhalation solution. Commercial ipratropium bromide solution products are packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) vials, through which semivolatile compounds are reported to migrate. In this article, a specific reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay vanillin, a semivolatile compound, in ipratropium bromide solution is described. The method was validated for a concentration range for vanillin from 30 ng/mL to 1,600 ng/mL. Migration of vanillin was assessed in two commercial preparations, ATROVENT (ipratropium bromide) Inhalation Solution packaged in a secondary foil pouch and a generic ipratropium bromide inhalation solution packaged in a carton. Levels of vanillin detected in ATROVENT after 6 months of storage at 40 degrees C and 75% RH were below the limit of detection (11 ng/mL). Significant migration of vanillin was observed after 1 month in the generic product and reached 165 ng/mL to 999 ng/mL in three months under the same storage conditions. It is concluded that this method can be readily used to measure vanillin in commercial preparations of ipratropium bromide inhalation solution. The results strongly indicate that a protective secondary packaging material is critical in preventing migration of semivolatile compounds. This study result is in agreement with the FDA's recommendation to consider even the secondary packaging components as potential sources of contamination and the use of an overwrap (typically aluminum foil) to decrease the overall permeability.  (+info)

  • For companies involved in the pharmaceutical dosage formulation industry, improvements to and development of new dosage forms and processes is a continuous goal in meeting patient and client demands in this highly competitive market. (
  • It introduces a square wave voltammetric (SQV) technique for the determination of Nepafenac in pharmaceutical dosage form and human serum with accepted accuracy and precision to be applied for routine analysis of nepafenac. (
  • Carbon paste (CPE) electrode is modified with carbon multiwalled nanotube (CMWNT), 1-n-butyl-3-methylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate ion crystal (BMH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), [(CMWNT-BMH-SDS) electrode], for determination of NPF in bulk powder, pharmaceutical dosage form and biological fluid. (
  • New Ingredient Dictionary Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms E2BM Data Elements Labeling Effort NDC. (
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently attracted a lot of interest in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry as a fast, contactless and non-destructive modality for quantifying thin film coatings on pharmaceutical dosage forms, which cannot be resolved easily with other techniques. (
  • WSP assists a pharma company expand its range of products, providing all the engineering services needed to support the launch of its new solid dosage form for North American and European markets. (
  • It is the earliest science which has given full freedom to design and develop wide variety of dosage forms depending on the requirement of the condition of the patient and the disease demands, by saying what ever the number of drug preparations mentioned in the classics are only small. (
  • Finally, modified release dosage forms are subject to specific health authority expectations for Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (CMC) and clinical data that differ from those for immediate release dosage forms. (
  • Functional changes within the solid dosage form associated with instability include changes in mechanical properties, homogeneity and drug release characteristics, discoloration, phase separation or changes in melting time of suppositories. (
  • Our Deliver Ease preparations are a line of unique dosage-forms that help owners to give-and pets to take-the medicines they need. (
  • We've developed the Deliver Ease line of unique dosage-forms with one goal in mind: improving compliance. (
  • That's why pharmacy compounding is a common practice in veterinary medicine because it provides unique dosage forms to different animals. (
  • Bachem and ISA Pharmaceuticals B.V. today announced the conclusion of an agreement for the manufacture of the active ingredients and the supply of finished dosage forms of ISA Pharmaceutical's immunotherapeutic HPV-SLP® product. (
  • Considering our capabilities to deliver comprehensive engineering services for mainstream and unconventional projects, especially with respect to both commissioning and validation, WSP was selected to support the development of the concept design for the new dosage form, which would entail the partial refurbishment of an existing building for the production facility and an extension to facilities for bulk storage, mechanical rooms, and receiving and shipping. (
  • Their current market and application is increasing in demands with advances in age adapted dosage forms for different patients and changing regulatory requirements that warrant mandatory assessments of new drugs and drug products before commercial availability. (
  • This reference is ideal for pharmacology students at all levels seeking information about this specific form of drug delivery and formulation. (
  • Application of Kwatha's nano-drug delivery systems have a promising potential to enhance operation and resolve issues related to classical dosage forms. (
  • This review examines the benefits of the nano-drug delivery system, its properties, its drawbacks, forms of nanoparticles, their preparation methods, and various herbal nano medicines. (
  • Sometimes only certain doses and dosage forms of a particular drug, or specific combinations are discontinued. (
  • Our professional pharmacists can help by obtaining the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and compounding the needed drug in the most appropriate dose, dosage form, and flavor for each patient. (
  • The products of decomposition and excipients present in the dosage forms did not interfere with the developed assay method. (
  • The decomposition product and the excipients present in the dosage form did not interfere with the assay procedure. (
  • 12. The dosage form of claim 10 , wherein the first shell portion comprises a film forming water soluble polymer, and a release modifying excipient selected from water swellable cellulose derivatives. (
  • Part Three discusses sample preparation method development for different types of dosage forms including addressing drug excipient interactions and post extraction considerations, as well as method validation and applying Quality by Design (QbD) principles to sample preparation methods. (
  • One of the first modifications to conventional forms of ophthalmic drugs was introducing polymers to formulation, which enabled longer contact time of active ingredient and the corneal surface, thus increasing its bioavailability. (
  • Next possibility to modify the ophthalmic forms active ingredients' bioavailability involved introducing excipients to formulation, which enhanced drugs' penetration into the eyeball. (
  • The invention also relates to a system for preparing individualized dosage forms in which a processor is configured to identify a medicament formulation for an individual patient's dosaging needs and communicates this formulation information to a dispensing station where a capsule or a formulation of pellets of small diameter size for reconstitution into a liquid or semi-solid is formed that is specific to the individual's dosaging needs. (
  • About other unusual dosage forms, I am enlisting few more along with its reference 1) Medicated Lipsticks (Shaikh S, Bhise K. Formulation and evaluation of medicated lipstick of allantoin. (
  • Once the dosage form and design criteria have been decided, the product developer must determine the appropriate combination of compendial grade excipients based on their function and performance in the formulation. (
  • Therefore, most of recent formulation strategies attempting practical dosage forms have involved efforts to avoid exposing proteins to water-oil interfaces, water-air interfaces, cross-linking reagents, and hydrophobic environment of the polymer matrix of sustained-release systems ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • For companies involved in the pharmaceutical dosage formulation industry, improvements to and development of new dosage forms and processes is a continuous goal in meeting patient and client demands in this highly competitive market. (
  • The formulation should be such that a patient with reasonable mobility is able to self-administer the drug (e.g., oral dosage form). (
  • 2. The method of claim 1 that is repeated until individualized dosage forms are prepared to provide for each dosage time in one day for the medicament that is desired for therapeutic effect for the individual patient. (
  • Novelty in terms of dosage form designing is needed for several reasons like taste masking, better therapeutic efficacy etc but the primary objective is better patient compliance. (
  • We are pursuing new dosage form classification for these next generation shapes in order to properly recognize their therapeutic value and to maximize the life cycle management benefit to our partners. (
  • Patients consuming ibuprofen oral suspension reached the therapeutic effect at a quicker rate and were in that period for a longer duration compared to the other dosage forms. (
  • A dosage of 25 mg or 50 mg per day is the initial therapeutic dosage . (
  • This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. (
  • The newer drug forms, on which in recent years research has been conducted in order to achieve a controlled release of drug to eyeball tissues, include multicompartment carrier systems, inserts, collagen shields, contact lenses, and the so-called in situ gels [ 1 - 3 , 5 ]. (
  • In deciding whether to buffer the drug in this form, one should take into account the stability of active ingredient and the tissue tolerance to the preparation [ 7 - 9 ]. (
  • The dosage form provides a delay of at least one hour between the initial release of active ingredient contained in said first core and the initial release. (
  • 3. The dosage form of claim 1 , which provides modified release of at least one active ingredient contained in said second core upon contact of the dosage form with a liquid medium. (
  • 4. The dosage form of claim 1 , which provides release of at least one active ingredient contained in said first core within 30 minutes after contacting of the dosage form with a liquid medium. (
  • 14. The dosage form of claims 1 , 5 , or 10 , which provides immediate release of at least one active ingredient from said first core upon contacting of the dosage form with a liquid medium, followed by a time delay, followed by release of at least one active ingredient from said second core. (
  • At least one pharmaceutically active ingredient in the form of a disc is embedded in the platform and, once the polymer of the platform has degraded, the disc is released and releases its ingredient in the same location as that of the platform or it travels to another region of the body where it releases its ingredient. (
  • Said dosage forms prohibit the exposure of the risedronate active ingredient to the epithelial and mucosal tissues of the buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach and thereby protects said tissues from erosion, ulceration or other like irritation. (
  • Accordingly, the said dosage forms effect the delivery to the lower gastrointestinal tract of said human or other mammal of a safe and effective amount of the risedronate active ingredient, and substantially alleviate the esophagitis or esophageal irritation which occasionally accompanies the oral administration of risedronate active ingredients. (
  • Said novel dosage forms are enteric-coated and delay the release of the risedronate until the lower gastrointestinal tract is reached, thereby protecting the epithelial and mucosal tissues of the mouth and the buccal cavity, the pharynx, the larynx, and the esophagus from erosion, ulceration, or other like irritation suffered by direct contact of these tissues with the risedronate active ingredient which may sometimes result from the oral administration of risedronate. (
  • c) combining the pellets into a single capsule to prepare an individualized dosage form that alone or in integral multiples provides the desired dosage amount for the individual patient at the dosage time. (
  • The latest generation CFS 1500 capsule filling and sealing machine, which incorporates proprietary Fusion technology, has been installed, and the proprietary lipid expert system has been incorporated into the team's finished dosage form development process. (
  • A number of fast disintegrating tablet such as salbutamol sulphate, and cetirizine hydrochloride in tablet/capsule dosage form for respiratory disorders (bronchitis, asthma, and coughing) are formulated for pediatric and geriatric patients, due to their difficulty or discomfort in swallowing. (
  • Through coating an active pharmaceutical ingredient around an inert core, and layering it with insoluble substances to form a microsphere one can obtain more consistent and replicable dissolution rates in a convenient format that can be mixed and matched with other instant release pharmaceutical ingredients in to any two piece gelatin capsule. (
  • These forms are sterile and isotonic. (
  • This Guidance document has been prepared to provide guidance to the pharmaceutical industry in dealing with validation issues for sterile and non-sterile dosage forms, biologicals, and radiopharmaceuticals. (
  • This document provides guidance on issues and topics related to systems, equipment qualification, product and process validation for sterile and non-sterile dosage forms. (
  • The objective of this work is to present a review of computational tools and models for pharmaceutical processes, specifically those for the continuous manufacture of solid dosage forms. (
  • The use of Multivariate Image Analysis (MIA) and Texture Analysis (MTA) has been proposed to analyze the elegance of materials involved in the manufacture of solid oral dosages, including the final product (García-Muñoz, Gierer 2010;Garcia-Munoz, Carmody 2010). (
  • Since they do not technically get ingested (absorption occurs in the mouth), some have argued they are not "ingested" oral dosage forms (which are listed above as being "eaten" or "taken by mouth. (
  • Method A is based on the nucleophillic substitution product with Folin's reagent to form colored chromogen exhibiting absorption maximum at 454 nm with apparent molar absorptivity of 3.99×10 4 l/ and obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml. (
  • Method A involves nucleophillic substitution product with Folin s reagent to form colored chromogen exhibiting absorption maximum at 454 nm against reagent blank. (
  • In three aeknil price cerebral hcemorrhage who have lived beyond the maturity aeknil dosage paracetamol aeknil indication ble origin that is although they may be assimilated and modi aeknil paracetamol the fatal results of the want of appreciation of the importance aeknil dosage form in which scurvy consists. (
  • There is a learning curve with these novel dosage forms in terms of product stability, ingredient interaction, supply chain considerations, and overall efficacy of the product. (
  • Does combining antiretroviral agents in a single dosage form enhance quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients? (
  • Combining various antiretroviral agents into one single dosage form has been a strategy to reduce pill burden and enhance medication adherence among human immunodeficiency virus /AIDS (HIV/AIDS) patients. (
  • For more than 100 years, Capsugel has produced innovative dosage form solutions for encapsulating products that meet the evolving needs of the health and nutrition market. (
  • For adults and pediatric patients, subsequent dosages may be increased in case of an inadequate response in 25 to 50 mg per day increments once a week, depending on tolerability, up to a maximum of 200 mg per day. (
  • The dosage form has a carrier platform which,--preferably, is a polymer having known biodegradable characteristics. (
Innovative dosage forms
Innovative dosage forms (
Omeprazole - Wikipedia
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