Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A tricyclic antidepressant with some tranquilizing action.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Relating to the size of solids.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
A second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Unlike most classical antihistamines (HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS) it lacks central nervous system depressing effects such as drowsiness.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Determining whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients. (1/336)

This activity is designed for healthcare providers making formulary decisions for managed care organizations. GOAL: To help clinicians determine whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: 1. List general considerations for establishing a pediatric drug formulary. 2. Understand the importance of growth and development when selecting drug therapy for pediatric patients. 3. Discuss potential difficulties with administering medications during school hours. 4. Identify specific medications within the drug classes of antibiotics, asthma medications, endocrine, and gastrointestinal agents that should be available on a pediatric drug formulary.  (+info)

Serum itraconazole concentrations and clinical responses in Candida-associated denture stomatitis patients treated with itraconazole solution and itraconazole capsules. (2/336)

The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of itraconazole in serum and saliva after treatment with itraconazole cyclodextrin solution or itraconazole capsules in Candida-associated denture stomatitis patients without evidence of immunodeficiency. Forty patients were randomly assigned to receive either itraconazole cyclodextrin solution or itraconazole capsules, both at a dosage of 100 mg bd for 15 days. On completion of treatment palatal erythema was assessed and an oral rinse and imprint cultures were collected. Serum and saliva samples were collected at the same time and itraconazole concentrations measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Itraconazole susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata strains isolated at baseline were measured by a broth microdilution method. Serum itraconazole concentrations achieved did not differ significantly between the two preparations (P = 0.39) although a significantly higher number of patients in the itraconazole cyclodextrin group (P < 0.001) had detectable levels of itraconazole in their saliva compared with the capsule group. Mycologically cured patients had slightly, though not significantly (P = 0.28), higher serum itraconazole concentrations than those from whom yeasts were not eradicated. It was concluded that both formulations of itraconazole were equally effective in treatment of denture stomatitis. Among immunocompetent patients, the absorption of the liquid preparation is no greater than that of the capsules. Therapeutic success in this group was achieved with lower serum itraconazole concentrations than have been reported for immunocompromised groups.  (+info)

Equivalence of two steroid-containing inhalers: easyhaler multidose powder inhaler compared with conventional aerosol with large-volume spacer. (3/336)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An equivalence study was conducted in which the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 800 microgram of beclomethasone diproprionate administered via a multidose powder inhaler, Easyhaler, and via a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a large-volume spacer were compared in adult, newly diagnosed, steroid-naive asthmatic patients. Acceptability of the medications was also compared. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four patients were recruited into the double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, parallel-group multicentre study. The study treatment period was 8 weeks. It was preceded by a 2-week run-in period. Morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF), numbers of inhalations of a sympathomimetic and asthma symptoms were recorded daily. Spirometry and histamine challenge were performed, and health-related quality of life and morning serum cortisol levels measured during control visits. RESULTS: Criteria indicating treatment equivalence were met. The mean of the primary outcome variable, morning PEF, increased significantly, from 426 to 461 litres/min in the Easyhaler group and from 436 to 467 litres/min in the MDI+spacer group. Similar improvements between groups were also seen in relation to all secondary variables. Changes in serum cortisol levels were minor. In 6 out of 10 questions about device acceptability, the majority of patients rated Easyhaler as better than the MDI+spacer combination. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the devices tested were equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety.  (+info)

Circulating concentrations of the antiprogestins CDB-2914 and mifepristone in the female rhesus monkey following various routes of administration. (4/336)

The overall aim of these studies was to investigate the oral and i.m. bioavailability of CDB-2914 in intact female rhesus monkeys, and to compare the serum concentrations of CDB-2914 with that of mifepristone following oral administration. In the first study, a 50 mg bolus of CDB-2914 per monkey was administered intravenously, orally or intramuscularly. The area under the serum concentration-time curve for 72 h (AUC(0-72)) following i.v. injection was 18 320 +/- 2718 ng/ml*h, and that for oral administration was 10 464 +/- 3248 ng/ml*h. Thus, the oral bioavailability of CDB-2914 equivalents was 56%. The AUC(0-168 h) following i.m. injection was 11 226 +/- 1130 ng/ml*h. Therefore, the i.m. bioavailability of CDB-2914 equivalents was 62%. In the second study, the serum concentrations of CDB-2914 and mifepristone equivalents were compared following an oral bolus dose in two different formulations. When administered at 5 mg/kg in aqueous suspending vehicle (ASV), the mean peak serum concentration (C(max)) of CDB-2914 equivalents (192 +/- 64 ng/ml) occurred at 5 +/- 1 h, whereas the C(max) of mifepristone equivalents (82 +/- 25 ng/ml) occurred at 3 +/- 1 h. Following administration in gelatin capsules (35 mg/monkey), the C(max) of CDB-2914 equivalents (129 +/- 24 ng/ml) occurred at 5 +/- 1 h, while the C(max) of mifepristone equivalents (31 +/- 8 ng/ml) occurred at 3 +/- 1 h. The serum concentration (AUC(0-120 h)) of CDB-2914 equivalents was 4.7- or 5. 3-fold greater than that of mifepristone equivalents when administered orally in ASV or gelatin capsules respectively. The serum protein binding characteristics of CDB-2914 were also studied. CDB-2914 bound to human alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG), but not with as high an affinity as mifepristone. In contrast, neither CDB-2914 nor mifepristone bound with high affinity to AAG, corticosteroid binding globulin or sex hormone binding globulin in monkey serum. Collectively, these results indicated that CDB-2914 was more efficiently absorbed than mifepristone following oral administration to female rhesus monkeys.  (+info)

A commentary on the effects of garlic extraction and formulation on product composition. (5/336)

The garlic (Allium sativa L.) bulb has been used as a food and condiment for centuries throughout the entire world and in Egypt for perhaps 5000 years. Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 by the U.S. Congress, it has been claimed that garlic dietary supplements possess health benefits. Support for this claim is not the primary objective of this publication. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that the prediction of a potential health benefit(s) from garlic is largely dependent on the process used to produce a product.  (+info)

HPLC method for the determination of oxytocin in pharmaceutical dosage form and comparison with biological method. (6/336)

Conditions have been established for the determination of oxytocin by the HPLC method; the method has been validated. The results of HPLC determinations are compared with those obtained by the biological method.  (+info)

Impact of prepackaging antimalarial drugs on cost to patients and compliance with treatment. (7/336)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which district health teams could reduce the burden of malaria, a continuing major cause of mortality and morbidity, in a situation where severe resource constraints existed and integrated care was provided. METHODS: Antimalarial drugs were prepackaged into unit doses in an attempt to improve compliance with full courses of chemotherapy. FINDINGS: Compliance improved by approximately 20% in both adults and children. There were 50% reductions in cost to patients, waiting time at dispensaries and drug wastage at facilities. The intervention, which tended to improve both case and drug management at facilities, was well accepted by health staff and did not involve them in additional working time. CONCLUSION: The prepackaging of antimalarials at the district level offers the prospect of improved compliance and a reduction in the spread of resistance.  (+info)

Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method to measure migration of semi-volatile compound, vanillin, in ipratropium bromide inhalation solution. (8/336)

Ipratropium bromide, a bronchodilator, is used as an inhalation solution. Commercial ipratropium bromide solution products are packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) vials, through which semivolatile compounds are reported to migrate. In this article, a specific reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay vanillin, a semivolatile compound, in ipratropium bromide solution is described. The method was validated for a concentration range for vanillin from 30 ng/mL to 1,600 ng/mL. Migration of vanillin was assessed in two commercial preparations, ATROVENT (ipratropium bromide) Inhalation Solution packaged in a secondary foil pouch and a generic ipratropium bromide inhalation solution packaged in a carton. Levels of vanillin detected in ATROVENT after 6 months of storage at 40 degrees C and 75% RH were below the limit of detection (11 ng/mL). Significant migration of vanillin was observed after 1 month in the generic product and reached 165 ng/mL to 999 ng/mL in three months under the same storage conditions. It is concluded that this method can be readily used to measure vanillin in commercial preparations of ipratropium bromide inhalation solution. The results strongly indicate that a protective secondary packaging material is critical in preventing migration of semivolatile compounds. This study result is in agreement with the FDA's recommendation to consider even the secondary packaging components as potential sources of contamination and the use of an overwrap (typically aluminum foil) to decrease the overall permeability.  (+info)

Why there is a need for dosage forms?. Dosage forms are manufactured to ensure safe administration and ease the administration of the drug to the required site of action. Following are the reasons:. 1. Parenteral e.g. Intravenous/inhalational dosage e.g. aerosols forms to achieve fast onset of action at the site during drug delivery.. 2. Solid dosage forms like capsules, tablets to mask the undesirable taste and odor.. 3. Dosage forms like coated tablets achieve the delayed action of the drug at a certain site or protect it from the gastric juices.. 4. Topical dosage forms like creams, gels, injections to bypass first-pass metabolism (concentration of drug reduces before it reaches the systematic circulation) for faster action.. 5. Sterile dosage forms like injections, eye drops for clear, particulate-free drug administration.. 6. The suspension dosage form of such drugs that are poorly water-soluble or insoluble.. ...
Controlled release drug delivery system (CRDDS) have been most extensively used to improve therapy of certain drugs, but several physiological difficulties faced with CRDDS is the inability to restrain and remain in the gastric region for several hours which limit the bioavailability of drug. Hence drug delivery systems with prolonged gastric residence time (GRT) are an approach to improve bioavailability of drugs, reduction in dose thereby leading to less side/toxic effects. Many approaches have been utilized in the development of gastric retention drug delivery systems (GRDDS) such as floating system, extended system, high density system, superporus system, bioadhesive system, and magnetic system etc. This review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the performance and application of GRDDS. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 1 562 573, based on European patent application No. 02786241.6, which was filed as international patent application published as WO 2004/043449, was granted with twenty claims.. Claim 1 as granted read as follows:. 1. A pharmaceutical dosage form comprising a plurality of pellets, wherein each pellet comprises:. a. a pellet core having a diameter within he range of 0.3-0.9 mm and comprising a tamsulosin hydrochloride, microcrystalline cellulose, a pharmaceutically acceptable water permeable acrylic polymer and water; and. b. an outer layer coat surrounding said core which comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable acid-resistant acrylic polymer, wherein wherein the mass of said outer layer coat, calculated on a dry pellet core basis, is within the range of 2.5-15%; and. wherein the plurality of pellets exhibits a dissolution release profile in simulated gastric fluid using Ph. Eur. basket method at 100 rpm which includes releasing less than ...
This invention relates to a pharmaceutical dosage form for the phase-controlled and chronotherapeutic delivery of at least one and, preferably, several pharmaceutically active ingredients. The dosage
The application discloses a process for making a polymeric powder which is readily dispersible in water to provide a composition useful for forming an enteric coating on pharmaceutical dosage forms and also a process for using the powder for its intended purpose.
It introduces a square wave voltammetric (SQV) technique for the determination of Nepafenac in pharmaceutical dosage form and human serum with accepte..
0076] The disclosed methods contemplate the use of any dosage form of an AMPK agonist or formulation thereof that delivers the agonist(s) and achieves a desired result. Dosage forms are commonly known and are taught in a variety of textbooks, including for example, Allen et al., Ansels Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, Eighth Edition, Philadelphia, Pa.:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 738 pages. Dosage forms for use in a disclosed method include, without limitation, solid dosage forms and solid modified-release drug delivery systems (e.g., powders and granules, capsules, and/or tablets); semi-solid dosage forms and transdermal systems (e.g., ointments, creams, and/or gels); transdermal drug delivery systems; pharmaceutical inserts (e.g., suppositories and/or inserts); liquid dosage forms (e.g., solutions and disperse systems); and/or sterile dosage forms and delivery systems (e.g., parenterals, and/or biologies). Particular exemplary dosage forms include aerosol ...
A composition comprising a high molecular weight, water soluble polymer having a cloud point from about 20 to about 90° C. and a gelling polymer is provided. The composition may be used as a component of a pharmaceutical dosage form, such as the shell of a dosage form, or as an edible matrix, i.e., a pharmaceutical dosage form per se.
0040] General techniques and compositions for making dosage forms useful in the present invention are described-in the following references: 7 Modern Pharmaceutics, Chapters 9 and 10 (Banker & Rhodes, Editors, 1979); Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets (Lieberman et al., 1981); Ansel, Introduction to Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms 2nd Edition (1976); Remingtons Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed. (Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985); Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences (David Ganderton, Trevor Jones, Eds., 1992); Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 7. (David Ganderton, Trevor Jones, James McGinity, Eds., 1995); Aqueous Polymeric Coatings for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Series 36 (James McGinity, Ed., 1989); Pharmaceutical Particulate Carriers: Therapeutic Applications: Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 61 (Alain Rolland, Ed., 1993); Drug Delivery to the Gastrointestinal Tract (Ellis Horwood Books in the Biological Sciences. Series in ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of imatinib mesylate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage. AU - Musmade, P.. AU - Vadera, N.. AU - Subramanian, G.. N1 - cited By 0. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. U2 - 10.1007/978-3-642-14025-9_6. DO - 10.1007/978-3-642-14025-9_6. M3 - Book. BT - Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of imatinib mesylate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage. ER - ...
Developing a modified release formulation of an existing immediate release oral solid dosage form is a common request. Often, modified release formulations offer patient compliance, marketing and exclusivity/patent benefits over their immediate release predecessor. What is not as obvious is that modified release dosage forms present their own unique set of complications, nuances and regulatory expectations that are not always apparent.. There are specific strategic decisions to be made with respect to the desired in vivo behavior and final dosage form that critically impact formulation strategy and process selection. For example, do you want a tablet or capsule? Once-a-day or twice-daily dosing? Sustained release or pulsatile? These decisions have multiple nuanced implications that can have significant impact on the development and approval timeline.. In addition, there are also key data elements to acquire during Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) characterization and preformulation that ...
Granulation is one of the most important unit operations in production of pharmaceutical oral dosage form. Granulation is defined as the size enlargement process in which fine and smaller particle are aggregated to form strong and stable particles called granules. A pharmaceutical organization uses different techniques such as direct compressing, wet-granulation, or dry granulation methods for the production of pharmaceutical products. The method of selection depends on the ingredients, individual characteristics and ability to flow properly, compresses, eject, and disintegrate. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties such as granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. apart from physical and chemical stability of the drug.
Potency is a required measurement to determine the amount of active ingredient contained in a preclinical dose formulation. Assessing potency ensures that the test system receives the appropriate amount of active ingredient based on predetermined specifications.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of solid state characterization in predicting stability of solid dosage forms. AU - Szabó, Péter. AU - Zelkó, Romána. AU - Antal, István. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Stability of a dosage form is its ability to preserve its quality attributes within preset limits. The time span over which these attributes remain within specifications is the shelf-life of the drug product. Stability is a very complex feature and is influenced not only by the stability of the drug substance but also by the stability of excipients and the interaction of the components within the system. Another important contributing factor is the packaging material, which is responsible for the protection of the drug product. Not only drug substances, but also excipients are susceptible to different degradation mechanisms. Amorphous polymers, a relatively frequently used group of excipients, are especially prone to physical instability. Through the process of physical ageing, a slow volume and ...
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Fast Dissolving/Disintegrating Dosage Forms (FDDFs) have been commercially available since the late 1990s. FDDFs were initially available as orodispersible tablets, and later, as orodipsersible films for treating specific populations (pediatrics, geriatrics, and psychiatric patients). Granules, pellets and mini tablets are among latest additions to these dosage forms, which are still in the development pipeline. As drug delivery systems, FDDFs enable quicker onset of action, immediate drug delivery, and sometimes offer bioavailability benefits due to buccal/sublingual absorption. With time, FDDF have evolved to deliver drugs in a sustained and controlled manner. Their current market and application is increasing in demands with advances in age adapted dosage forms for different patients and changing regulatory requirements that warrant mandatory assessments of new drugs and drug products before commercial availability ...
A solid dosage form designed to facilitate rapid and reliable oral, esophageal and GI transit has a surface area of the contact patch, i.e., the area of contact between the dosage form and the bodily
This third volume of the second edition offers information on specialized products such as emulsions, liposomes, polymers and polymeric pharmaceutical excipients. It explains the requirements for conducting clinical research and obtaining marketing approval for new drug products ...
Contents: 1. Parpati Kalpa. 2. General procedure of preparation of Parpati. 3. Some modern concepts. 4. Some Ayurvedic concepts. 5. Parpati preparations. From t
The invention provides a dosage form comprising at least one active ingredient, and first core and second cores surrounded by and separated by a shell. The dosage form provides a delay of at least one hour between the initial release of active ingredient contained in said first core and the initial release of active ingredient contained in said second core after contacting of the dosage form with a liquid medium.
The invention relates to a novel method of administering the natural female sex hormones, 17 β-estradiol and progesterone, to achieve enhanced bioavailability thereof. The invention further relates to novel dosage forms of 17 β-estradiol and/or progesterone which are adapted for nasal administration, such as solutions, suspensions, gels and ointments. The dosage forms containing a combination of 17 β-estradiol and progesterone are particularly useful as contraceptives, while the dosage forms containing only one of the hormonal components find utility in the treatment of conditions such as menopause, menstrual disorders, etc., which are known to respond to administration of a natural or synthetic female hormone.
Abstract Two spectrophotometric methods are presented for the simultaneous estimation of Zaltoprofen (ZLT) and Paracetamol (PAR) in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form without prior separation. Method (1) is simultaneous equation method (Vierodts method); which depends on the fact that absorbance of a mixture is the sum of the individual absorbance of the components. Method (2) is Q-Absorbance ratio method, which depends upon the fact that, the ratio of absorbance at any two wavelengths is a constant value independent of concentration or path length. Absorbances are measured at two wavelengths one being the λ max of ZLT (227.5 nm) and other being a wavelength of equal absorptivity of the two components (236 nm). Calibration curve of the two methods are linear over the concentration ranges of 4- 9μg/ml and 8-13μg/ml for PAR (247.5nm) and ZLT respectively. The two methods proved to be simple specific, accurate and precise. Solvent used is HPLC grade methanol. The two ...
Get this from a library! Guidance for industry : incorporation of physical-chemical identifiers into solid oral dosage form drug products for anticounterfeiting.. [Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (U.S.);]
WSP aids pharma company on a fast-track project, completing the concept design, detailed design, construction surveillance, and commissioning and validation of a new solid dosage form destined for North American and European markets.
An oral dosage form comprising pellets of a first composition and pellets of a second composition, each composition comprising 5-[4-[2-(N-methyl-N-(2 pyridyl)amino)ethoxy]benzyl]thiazolidine-2,4-dione
The present invention relates to a multiparticulate dosage form with difficult abuse, comprising at least one active substance with abuse potential (A), at least one synthetic or natural polymer (C), optionally at least one synthetic, semisynthetic or synthetic wax (D), at least one disintegrant (E) and optionally one or more other physiologically acceptable excipients (B), wherein the individual particles of the dosage form have a breaking strength of at least 500 N and an active ingredient release of at least 75% after 45 minutes measured according to Pharm. Eur. in the Blattrühepparatur with sinker in 600 ml of aqueous buffer solution with a pH of 1.2 at 37 ° C and 75 revolutions per minute.
This is a multiple vaccination study to find out if it is a safe treatment and what effects it has on the symptoms of early Alzheimers disease in male and female patients aged 50 to 80 years. Approximately 40 study sites in Europe will be involved. Patients will be randomized to receive either AFFITOPE AD02 or placebo. Each patients participation will last 1 year ...
The invention relates to methods for preparing individualized dosage forms of medicines, vitamins, mineral supplements and nutraceuticals in capsule or liquid form. The invention also relates to a system for preparing individualized dosage forms in which a processor is configured to identify a medicament formulation for an individual patients dosaging needs and communicates this formulation information to a dispensing station where a capsule or a formulation of pellets of small diameter size for reconstitution into a liquid or semi-solid is formed that is specific to the individuals dosaging needs.
Source: OXFORD, England, June 28, 2016 /PRNewswire/ - Glide Technologies today announced results from a successful clinical proof-of
A tamperproof dosage form for oral administration comprising a cap and a body each comprising an outer surface and an inner surface, the cap and body being arranged to telescopically engage with each other such that an overlap region is formed between a portion of the outer surface of the body and a portion of the inner surface of the cap, said overlap region comprising an overlap length extending parallel to a centerline of said dosage form, wherein an adhesive substance is comprised throughout at least a portion of the overlap length bonding said cap to said body. The adhesive substance being essentially free of organic solvent.
Disclosed in certain embodiments is a controlled release oral dosage form comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a drug susceptible to abuse together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients; the dosage form further including a gelling agent in an effective amount to impart a viscosity unsuitable for administration selected from the group consisting of parenteral and nasal administration to a solubilized mixture formed when the dosage form is crushed and mixed with from about 0.5 to about 10 ml of an aqueous liquid; the dosage form providing a therapeutic effect for at least about 12 hours when orally administered to a human patient.
A pharmaceutical dosage form comprising non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory drugs, in particular propionic acid derivatives such as ibuprofen, along with a second active ingredient having a shorter therapeutically effective plasma concentration duration, such as phenylephrine, and methods of administering the same are provided. This method provides improved therapeutic effect, in particular pain relief along with decongestant relief, over extended time periods.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently attracted a lot of interest in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry as a fast, contactless and non-destructive modality for quantifying thin film coatings on pharmaceutical dosage forms, which cannot be resolved easily with other techniques. In this topical review, we present an overview of the research that has been performed to date, highlighting key differences between systems and outlining major challenges ahead. ...
Two simple UV method was developed for the determination of sonidegib in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The method involves the Zero and First order derivative. Sonidegib has ?max 277nm in zero order. In first order the wavelength selected was 293nm. The methods were found to be linear between the range of 3-15µg/ml for Sonidegib in methanol. The Zero and First-order derivative methods shows good linearity in the above concentration range and correlation coefficient is 0.9994 and 0.9998, respectively.
Slow release pharmaceutical compositions comprising a combination of a higher aliphatic alcohol and a hydrated hydroxy-alkyl cellulose in ratio of from 2:1 to 4:1 parts by weight and comprising from 20 to 40 percent by weight of the composition; the method for making the same, and their inclusion in pharmaceutical dosage forms intended for oral administration, to provide a slow release of a therapeutically active compound during a predetermined period of time of from 5 to 10 hours, after oral ingestion by humans and animals.
FDA Update. Randy Levin, MD and William A. Hess, CAPT USPHS HL7 16th Annual Working Group Meeting Baltimore, MD October 2002. FDA Update. New Ingredient Dictionary Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms E2BM Data Elements Labeling Effort NDC. FDA Update. New Ingredient Dictionary History Need Slideshow 3336764 by zyta
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A simple and rapid potentiometric method for the estimation of isoniazid in dosage forms was developed. The method was based on treating isoniazid wit..
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 00 960 455.4, based on international patent application PCT/EP00/07934 and published as WO 01/12161, was refused by a decision of the examining division on the basis of Article 97(1) EPC 1973 for lack of novelty under Article 54 EPC 1973 with respect to claim 12 of the main request and lack of inventive step with respect to claim 12 of the auxiliary request under Article 56 EPC 1973.. The wording of claims 1 to 11 of the main request and independent claim 12 of the auxiliary request before the examining division was:. 1. A process for the manufacture of a solid dosage form which is rapidly dissolving in aqueous medium, which process comprises. (a) preparing a powder or granulate consisting of. (1) either the active substance - or part thereof - and all other ingredients of the solid dosage form; or. (2) all other ingredients of the solid dosage form except the active substance;. (b) dispensing. (1) either an auxiliary solvent ...
A sensitive, accurate, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established and validated for analysis of etoricoxib in both bulk drug and formulations. Chromatography is performed on aluminum-backed silica gel 60F254 plates with toluene-1,4-dioxane-methanol 8.5:1.0:0.5 (v/v) as mobile phase. This system furnished compact bands for etoricoxib (R F 0.24). Rofecoxib (RF 0.38) was used as internal standard. Densitometric analysis of etoricoxib was performed in absorbance mode at 235 nm. Linear regression data for the calibration plots showed there was a good linear relationship between response and amount of etoricoxib in the range 100-1500 ng per band; the correlation coefficient was 0.9922 ± 0.001. The mean values of the slope and intercept of the plot were 280.14 ± 0.26 and 320.01 ± 0.22, respectively. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness, and recovery. The limits of detection and quantitation were 30 and 100 ng per ...
Phospholipids have gained importance as formulation excipients due to their physicochemical diversity, biocompatibility, and capacity to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.1)2) The main techniques for transforming liquid or semi-solid lipid formulations into solid-based particles or granules are spray-cooling, spray-drying, adsorption onto solid carriers, melt granulation, melt extrusion, supercritical fluid-based methods and high pressure homogenization.3) However, few studies have evaluated conventional dosage forms such as tablets containing phospholipids. Studies on incorporation of phospholipids into solid oral dosage forms such as tablets and pellets are rare.. Tableting involves several energy intensive processes, which could be a challenge for processing of phospholipids due to their waxy nature. Furthermore, powder properties such as the flowability and density of phospholipids and their blends with common excipients are important factors for their potential ...
Abstract:. Introduction: An accurate, precise and rapid method for analysis and quantification of paclitaxel by reverse phase ultra-fast liquid chromatography (RP UFLC) was developed and validated. Paclitaxel in bulk and formulations were analyzed and quantified. Methods: Paclitaxel in bulk and formulations were analyzed on phenomenex C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) as stationary phase. Mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH 4.5 in the ratio 50:50 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Elutes were analyzed using PDA detector at a detection wavelength of 282 nm. The proposed method was validated by ICH harmonized Tripartite guidelines, Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology Q2 (R1). Results: In this study, the chromatographic peaks of paclitaxel showed good resolution with retention time of 6.5 min. Paclitaxel showed an excellent linearity with 0.994 of correlation coefficient. Other validation parameters including precision, specificity, ...
See on - Transparenc Market Research [108 Pages Premium Report] Pharma Excipients Market and Oral Solid Dosage Forms (OSDF) for Polymers (MCC, HPMC, CMC, Ethyl Cellulose, Povidone and Others), Alcohols (Glycerin, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Propylene Glycol), Minerals (Clay, Silicon Dioxide,...Transparency Market Researchs insight:Market Research Reports : Transparency Market Research published new market report Oral Solid…
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Oral drug delivery is the preferred route of administration for the majority of drugs. Solid dosage forms arewell-accepted because of ease of administration, accurate dosing and high degree of patient compliance. The orodispersible technology platform has attracted increasing interest. Fast disintegrating in the mouth before swallowing, orodispersible dosage forms like orodispersible tablets (ODTs) address the need for patient-compliant medicines. ODTs represent a convenient alternative to conventional tablets or capsules. ODTs are an interesting approach when a rapid onset of therapeutic action is important. So far, ODTs have often been considered as an innovative variant of conventional oral solid dosage forms. Still, the development of ODT formulations is typically assisted by compendial in vitro test methods. However, the techniques described in international pharmacopoeias are non-specific for ODTs. After administration, the dispersion of an ODT in the mouth may provide effects which might ...
Get information on Black Cohosh, Cimicifuga racemosa oral dosage forms including uses, dosage details, medication side-effects and drug interaction facts from Cleveland Clinics health library.
Information provided evidence for the therapeutic use of Zolpidem® in the treatment of insomnia. Several studies have emphasized the importance of using Zolpidem® in small doses, in the orodispersible form, in the treatment of insomnia. Accordingly, Biolab Sanus is developing a product in the form of orodispersible tablet containing 1.0 mg, 1.75 mg and 3.5 mg of Zolpidem®. Thus, it is intended to evaluate the efficacy of Zolpidem® Orodispersible 1.0 mg or 1.75 mg in women and Zolpidem Orodispersible 1.75 mg or 3.5 mg in men for the improvement of the maintenance insomnia disorder, through the evaluation of the Insomnia Severity Index, and using a Sleep Diary throughout the study, as well as to evaluate the latency of the sleep after a spontaneous or provoked wake up measured by polysomnography ...
Patient information for VALIOS 5 MG/10 MG/15 MG/20 MG ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS (INITIATION PACK) Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Parteck® SRP 80 is a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based excipient specifically designed for modified-release applications, for optimization of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as the bioavailability of actives.
Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect. They include CAPSULES; LINIMENTS; OINTMENTS; PHARMACEUTICAL SOLUTIONS; POWDERS; TABLETS; etc.
viagra 50 mg durata effetto paracetamolo compresse Uniformity of mass of doses taken with a measure from multidose container. Elixir: Spirit that has been sweetened and/or flavored. To protect ourselves and to funzionalita learn more about different diseases, tablet people try to find any information in the Internet. Powders : powders These are preparations consisting of solid side use dry patients particles of varying degree of fineness, containing one or more active ingredients, with or without excipients and coloring matter flavors. When mixed with liquid, release carbon dioxide, causing effervescence (bubbling) drug dosage forms (drug preparations) dogane Aqueous solutions: Drug(s) dissolve in - water or normal saline Alcoholic solutions: Drug(s) dissolve in alcohol drug dosage forms Aqueous solutions:.g. Not more than 2 deviate by 10 and none. A urethral suppository is called a - bougie. The free downloading is a great advantage for york our site. Compressed Tablet : Compressed Tablet ...
Dows excipients for oral liquid dosage forms include thickeners, stabilizers, binders, solubilizers, non-alcohol diluents, film-formers and products that help with water retention.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of water uptake and mechanical properties of blended polymer films for preparing gas-generated multiple-unit floating drug delivery systems. AU - Chen, Ying Chen. AU - Lee, Lin Wen. AU - Ho, Hsiu O.. AU - Sha, Chen. AU - Sheu, Ming Thau. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Among various strategies of gastroretentive drug delivery systems (DDSs) developed to prolong the gastric residence time and to increase the overall bioavailability, effervescent multiple-unit floating DDSs (muFDDSs) were studied here. These systems consist of drug (losartan)- and effervescent (sodium bicarbonate)-containing pellets coated with a blended polymeric membrane, which was a mixture of gastrointestinal tract (GIT)-soluble and GIT-insoluble polymers. The addition of GIT-soluble polymers, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, PEG 600, and Kollicoat® IR, greatly increased the water uptake ability of the GIT-insoluble polymers (Eudragit® NE, RS, and RL; ...
MULTIPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM THESIS - STP Pharma Sciences ; 4: Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended delivery of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
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Effervescent tablets are an interesting pharmaceutical dosage form, offering some unique advantages when compared with simple tablets. However, the manufacturing process involves some critical steps that need to be addressed carefully during formulation and factory design.
A new validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with rapid analysis time and high efficiency, for the analysis of erythromycin, azithromycin and spiramycin, under isocratic conditions with ODB RP18 as a stationary phase is described. Using an eluent composed of acetonitrile -2-methyl-2-propanol -hydrogenphosphate buffer, pH 6.5, with 1.5% triethylamine (33:7: up to 100, v/v/v), delivered at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Ultra Violet (UV) detection is performed at 210 nm. The selectivity is satisfactory enough and no problematic interfering peaks are observed. The procedure is quantitatively characterized and repeatability, linearity, detection and quantification limits are very satisfactory. The method is applied successfully for the assay of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms as tablets and powder for oral suspension. Recovery experiments revealed recovery of 97.13-100.28%.. ...
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Goal 1: Demonstrate acquisition of knowledge of fundamental concepts in pharmaceutics/industrial pharmacy.. 1.1 List and explain physical and chemical properties of solvents and solutes that affect solubility, stability, and other biopharmaceutic properties/behaviors used in the development of dosage forms.. 1.2 Describe the important factors necessary for the design, manufacture and evaluation of various dosage forms and other drug delivery systems.. 1.3 Develop, validate and apply different instrumental analytical techniques toward the analysis of drug substances in various dosage forms.. 1.4 Identify and explain the principles that govern absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drug substances, and the factors that influence these processes.. Goal 2: Integrate advanced knowledge and concepts in pharmaceutical sciences.. 2.1 Demonstrate the ability to interpret and analyze data.. 2.2 Design, manufacture and evaluate dosage forms and other drug delivery systems.. 2.3 Characterize ...
For a detailed understanding of the market, the excipients market has been divided into overall excipients and oral solid-dosage-form (OSDF) The report comprises a detailed analysis and forecast of the excipients market on a global as well as regional level. On a global level, the forecast demand is based on volume (tons) and revenue (USD million) for the period ranging from 2012 to 2018. For an insightful understanding of the market on a regional level, the demand has been forecasted based on volume (tons) and revenue (USD million). The study consists of drivers and restraints of the excipients market and their impact on the growth of the market over the forecast period. In addition, the study takes into account opportunities available on a global and regional level and its effect on the market over the forecast period ...
Abstract A selective, accurate, HPLC method was developed by this study for the determination of rifabutin in bulk and capsule dosage form. This method was developed by SHIMADZU LC-2010 HT using C18 column in solvents methanol: acetonitrile: ammonium acetate buffer (50: 45: 05) as mobile phase. At 1.0 ml/min flow rate the mobile phase was pumped, and the sample was detected at 278 nm. For standard rifabutin the retention time was 4.8 min. The method was validated for analytical standards such as linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. In a wide range of 5-25 (µg/ml) the linearity was observed. The method was validated, and a recovery study indicates accuracy of this method.. ...
The research is focused on the development of innovative drug dosage forms (mainly solid dosage forms) for human application as well as for veterinary use. These dosage forms are based on pharmaceutical accepted excipients used as such or as mixtures to impart specific drug release properties (immediate, controlled or sustained release) to the formulation ...
SUPAC-SS: Nonsterile Semisolid Dosage Forms; Scale-Up and Post-Approval Changes: Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls; In-Vitro Release Testing and In Vivo Bioequivalence
Pris: 639 kr. E-bok, 1997. Laddas ned direkt. Köp Development of Biopharmaceutical Parenteral Dosage Forms av Cosimo Prantera, Burton I Korelitz på
What is this medicine? VALERIAN (vuh LEER ee uhn) is an herbal or dietary supplement. It is promoted to help relaxation, sleep and stress.
Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
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The direct pelletization process is a fast and flexible operation with the potential to produce high quality particles appropriate for sophisticated oral solid dose formulations where a narrow particle size distribution is required. Traditional methods are too slow or subjective and therefore may be an unacceptable risk for use as an in-process control in a control strategy. An at-line direct imaging method with automated high-speed image analysis can be practically used during processing to accurately predict the process end-point with fast objective PSD data, supported by particle images, to significantly improve process optimisation and control.. ...
Both pediatric and geriatric patients present with similar concerns regarding medication intake, most notably, difficulty in swallowing a tablet or capsule, or the requirement for a lower dosage strength than is commercially available. Such a challenge places compounding in high demand as a means to achieve alternate dosage strengths and dosage forms in order to meet the unique needs of these patient populations. The most common dosage form prescribed to pediatric and geriatric patients are oral liquids because they circumvent the challenges of swallowing a tablet or capsule and allow for flexible dosing. Alternatively, child-friendly dosage forms, such as gummies, offers a unique avenue that the compounding pharmacist can take.. In this laboratory training, participants will be exposed to detailed procedures required to uphold exceptional compounding quality in the niche area of pediatric and geriatric therapy. With the implementation of innovative technologies and techniques, compounders will ...
Dose dumping is defined as Unintended, rapid drug release in a short period of time of the entire amount or a significant fraction of the drug contained in a modified release dosage form1. A sustained/extended/controlled release dosage form is intended to release the drug in desired concentrations for a prolonged period of time. A dosage form is said to be dose dumped when there is an excess release of drug at a particular time interval other than the stated or required amount. This results in higher systemic drug concentrations that may result in toxicity. ...
Early phase pharmaceutical development. Almacs formulation scientists can develop a range of oral dose formulations for early stage clinical trials.
... dosage forms come in several types. These include many kinds of liquid, solid, and semisolid dosage forms. Common dosage forms ... Media related to Dosage forms at Wikimedia Commons Dosage From Development (Commons category link is on Wikidata, Dosage forms ... for drug delivery is dependent on the dosage form of the substance in question. Various dosage forms may exist for a single ... A liquid dosage form is the liquid form of a dose of a chemical compound used as a drug or medication intended for ...
A summary of these forms of dosage compensation is illustrated below. However, there are also other less common forms of dosage ... The role of the DCC in this form of dosage compensation was postulated by Barbara J. Meyer in the 1980s, and its individual ... These findings suggest that platypuses may employ a hybrid form of dosage compensation that combines feature from mammals as ... Casci, T. (2011). "Dosage compensation: What dosage compensation?". Nature Reviews Genetics. 12 (1): 2. doi:10.1038/nrg2921. ...
... dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage). Sustained-release dosage forms are dosage forms designed ... Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), ISMP "do not crush" list: Oral dosage forms that should not be crushed (PDF) ... Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its ... Bass, DM; Prevo, M; Waxman, DS (2002). "Gastrointestinal safety of an extended-release, nondeformable, oral dosage form (OROS: ...
"Finished Dosage Forms". Eurofins BioPharma Product Testing NL. n.d. Retrieved 16 May 2022. Robbins, Rebecca; Mueller, Benjamin ... Finished dose forms are "drug products in the final form for delivery to patients with a specific mixture of active- and ... Aspen built an Oral Solid Dosage drug facility in Port Elizabeth producing stavudine, Africa's first generic antiretroviral. ... They own 23 facilities, 7 of which produce active pharmaceutical ingredients and 16 produce "finished dose forms". ...
Awad, Atheer; Trenfield, Sarah J.; Basit, Abdul W. (2021). "Solid oral dosage forms". Remington: The Science and Practice of ... highlighting the need for extra bioequivalence studies when switching dosage forms. It is dangerous to swallow an effervescent ... They are products of compression of component ingredients in the form of powders into a dense mass, which is packaged in ... There are several categories of active ingredients that may be best administered in the form of effervescent preparations: ...
Leszek Krówczyński (1987). Extended Release Dosage Forms. CRC Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-8493-4307-0. Progestogens. [...] ...
Tablet (pharmacy) Schwartz, Joseph; Lieberman, Herbert A.; Lachman, Leon (1989). Pharmaceutical dosage forms--tablets. New York ... To form a tablet, the granulated powder material must be metered into a cavity formed by two punches and a die, and then the ... solid oral dosage forms. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-5460-3. "Punches and Dies for Tabletting". PharmaCMC. UXM. ... A tablet is formed by the combined pressing action of two punches and a die. In the first step of a typical operation, the ...
Lieberman, Herbert A.; Lachman, Leon; Schwartz, Joseph B. (1990). Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets. New York: Dekker. p. ... The aragonite form can be prepared by precipitation at temperatures above 85 °C; the vaterite form can be prepared by ... forming caverns, and leads to hard water in many regions. An unusual form of calcium carbonate is the hexahydrate ikaite, CaCO3 ... The thermodynamically stable form of CaCO3 under normal conditions is hexagonal β-CaCO3 (the mineral calcite). Other forms can ...
The technology's first commercial application was in August, 1993, when a new dosage form of Pepcidine (famotidine) from Merck ... A new formulation of Pepcidine (famotidine), utilizing R P Scherer's Zydis fast-dissolving dosage form technology, has been ... Rathbone, Michael J.; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Roberts, Michael S. (2002). "The Zydis Oral Fast-Dissolving Dosage Form". Modified- ... Allen, Lloyd (2014). "Tablets". Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p ...
Dosage forms varied for santonin; in the 19th-20th centuries, santonin lozenges or suppositories designed for single-dosage ... The bicyclic decalin ring system is formed via the eudesmyl cation followed by hydroxylation at C1. Further oxidation at C3 ... When heated to 170 °C. (338 °F.), santonin melts, and forms, if rapidly cooled, an amorphous mass, which instantly crystallizes ... Germacratrien-12-oic acid is then hydroxylated at C6 subsequently followed by lactonization forming (+)-costunolide. It was ...
Pharmaceutical dosage forms 250-252.........................................Commercial preparations. Patent medicines 355-356 ... Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs 648-665.........................................Diseases of the endocrine glands ...
The rate of dissolution is a key target for controlling the duration of a drug's effect, and as such, several dosage forms that ... Additionally, slow-release dosage forms may maintain concentrations within an acceptable therapeutic range over a long period ... The drug travels by some route of administration (oral, topical-dermal, etc.) in a chosen dosage form (e.g., tablets, capsules ... Specifically, crystalline forms dissolve slower than amorphous forms, since they require more energy to leave lattice during ...
doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-382184-3.00013-1. ISBN 978-0-12-382184-3. "Nuvaring dosage, forms, and strengths". SingleCare. July 25, ... Since the vaginal ring is a different form of birth control, there are certain advantages and disadvantages when compared to ... When compared to other forms of contraception (combined oral contraceptives, contraceptive patch), the contraceptive vaginal ... other forms. The ring offers better adherence from its longer duration effect as it needs to be changed at the very most once a ...
... is an emulsion semisolid dosage form that is used for skin external application. Most of the topical ... "Semisolid Dosage Form - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". Retrieved 2021-04-01. "Formulation of ... Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K. (2015-11-17). "Comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug ... Cream, together with gel and ointment, are semisolid dosage forms intended for topical application. They have different ...
There are many different dosage forms of PGE2. The pharmacokinetic properties vary between dosage forms and should not be ... PGE2 comes in many dosage forms with varying pharmacokinetic properties. For example PGE2 can come in a gel formulation that ... "Dinoprostone dosage forms confused" (PDF). Institute for Safe Medication Practices. 18 (17). 2013. "Prostaglandin E2". American ... The aerosol form of PGE2 serves as a bronchodilator, but its use in this setting is limited by the fact that it also causes ...
Chemical stability in dosage forms". In Aulton, Michael E.; Taylor, Kevin M.G. (eds.). Aulton's pharmaceutics : the design and ... and other similar forms of haemoglobin mutation). The substance causes defunct cells to sickle (through a complex ... causing it to degrade and form epinephrine sulphonate. In combination with sodium hydrosulfite it is used as a rust-stain ...
Baxter, Thomas; Prescott, James (2 January 2009). Developing Solid Oral Dosage Forms. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-444-53242-8. " ... Blackshields, Caroline A.; Crean, Abina M. (3 July 2018). "Continuous powder feeding for pharmaceutical solid dosage form ... Depending on the solvents used, emulsions can form, and the time needed for the layers to separate can be extended if the ... blended together with the active pharmaceutical ingredient to create the final blend used to manufacture the solid dosage form ...
Blue 88 Depressant Tuinal Winek, Charles L. (1965-02-01). "Dosage Form Names and Product Identification". American Journal of ... Amobarbital undergoes both hydroxylation to form 3'-hydroxyamobarbital, and N-glucosidation to form 1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)- ... Amobarbital was once manufactured in the US by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Amytal in capsule form. It was ...
"Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor". Federal Register. 20 May 2014. "Oral Dosage Form ... It is because of this that stanozolol is also sold in tablet form. Stanozolol is one of the AAS commonly used as performance- ... Unlike most injectable AAS, stanozolol is not esterified and is sold as an aqueous suspension, or in oral tablet form. The drug ... 166-. ISBN 978-3-540-79088-4. The oral form is marketed for human use whereas an aqueous suspension for injection is used in ...
"CDMO for APIs & finished dosage forms". Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 14 ... These include many Old English words not found in other forms of Modern English, such as bairn for child (see Scots language ... About a quarter of the county forms the Northumberland National Park, an area of outstanding landscape that has largely been ... From the county council's forming in 1889 until 1981, Newcastle was the county town, being the temporary county town of two ...
The smaller the size of the particle, the better the physical stability of the dosage form owing to the Brownian motion of the ... Particle size and surface area influence the release of a drug from a dosage form that is administered orally, rectally, ... Clinically, the particle size of a drug can affect its release from dosage forms that are administered orally, parenterally, ... Carstensen, Jens Thurø (1993). Pharmaceutical principles of solid dosage forms. Lancaster, Pa: Technomic Pub. p. 211. ISBN 0- ...
Rathbone MJ, Hadgraft J, Roberts MS (2002). "The Zydis Oral Fast-Dissolving Dosage Form". Modified-Release Drug Delivery ... To induce lactation, domperidone is used at a dosage of 10 to 20 mg 3 or 4 times per day by mouth. Effects may be seen within ... Its use is now restricted to the relief of nausea and vomiting and the dosage and duration of use have been reduced. It should ... Domperidone is available for use by oral administration in the form of tablets, orally disintegrating tablets, and suspension, ...
Rathbone MJ, Hadgraft J, Roberts MS (2002). "The Zydis Oral Fast-Dissolving Dosage Form". Modified-Release Drug Delivery ... The drug was approved in June 1997, by the FDA as Imodium Multi-Symptom Relief in the form of a chewable tablet. A caplet ... In 2013, loperamide in the form of 2-mg tablets was added to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines. In 2020, it was ... loperamide also existed in the form of drops (Imodium Drops) and syrup. Initially, it was intended for children's usage, but ...
"Solid dosage form that promotes reliable oral, esophageal and GI transit". US Patent Office. Archived from the original on 2019 ... MacDonald, Gareth (April 7, 2011). "Fuisz develops Easier to Swallow Dosage Form". In-PharmaTechnologist. Archived from the ... It is a formulation of the Buprenorphine and is used for the treatment of opioid addiction in higher dosages, and to control ... "MonoSol LLC and Kosmos Pharma Form MonoSolRX LLC to Commercialize Oral Film Strip Pharmaceutical Products". Pharmaceutical ...
Armstrong NA, James KC (1980). "Drug release from lipid-based dosage forms. I". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 6 (3-4 ... The preceding dosage of estradiol undecylate corresponds to much greater estrogenic exposure than the dosage of ... It has been used at a dosage of 100 mg every 3 to 4 weeks (or once a month) by intramuscular injection for this indication. ... It has been used for this indication at a dosage of 50 to 100 mg by intramuscular injection once every 3 to 4 weeks. Estradiol ...
Wu L, Janagam DR, Mandrell TD, Johnson JR, Lowe TL (July 2015). "Long-acting injectable hormonal dosage forms for contraception ...
A tablet (also known as a pill) is a pharmaceutical oral dosage form (oral solid dosage, or OSD) or solid unit dosage form. ... The compressed tablet is the most popular dosage form in use today. About two-thirds of all prescriptions are dispensed as ... An orally disintegrating tablet or orodispersible tablet (ODT), is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the ... Tablets may be defined as the solid unit dosage form of medicament or medicaments with suitable excipients. It comprises a ...
Pharmacists in China are responsible for the preparation of the dosage forms of drugs, such as tablets, capsules, and sterile ... Ingenious methods have been devised to test the bioavailability of dosage forms. Although such in vitro, or test-tube, methods ... Research in pharmacy also includes formulation of dosage forms of medicaments and study of their stability, methods of assay, ... The selection of the ingredients and forms of preparations, production procedures (including the form modification), quality ...
Wu L, Janagam DR, Mandrell TD, Johnson JR, Lowe TL (2015). "Long-acting injectable hormonal dosage forms for contraception". ... NETE is not available in any form in the United States. NETE was studied by Schering for use as a progestogen-only injectable ... Each dose of this form lasts two months with only up to two doses typically recommended. Side effects include breast pain, ... It is used both as a form of progestogen-only injectable birth control and in combined injectable birth control formulations. ...
Health Canada (2004). "Validation Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (GUIDE-0029)". Retrieved 12 July 2009. Food and ... Requirements for greenhouse gas validation and verification bodies for use in accreditation or other forms of recognition ...
Plants should form a mantle or thick mulch that protect soil from detachment. Living mulches intercept raindrops and reduce ... This study suggested that the timing and dosage of herbicide should be carefully considered. Living mulches were tested in a no ...
The pills are created from sulfate salts and are sold in dosages of 100, 200, 333, and 400 mg of indinavir. It is normally used ... Unboosted indinavir requires a very precise dosing of 400 mg every eight hours to thwart HIV from forming drug-resistant ... "Crixivan (Indinavir Sulfate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Retrieved 2018-11-08. Cohen J (June ... that are necessary for the HIV virions cannot form. Eventually, the viral load decreases because of the lack of reproduction. ...
The medication is used at a lower dosage of 150 mg once per day or at a higher dosage of 200 mg twice per day, depending on the ... The free acid form of elagolix has a molecular formula of C32H29F5N3O5 and a molecular weight of 631.60 g/mol. Elagolix was ... and the lowest effective dosage should be used. Elagolix can be used for up to 24 months at the 150 mg once per day dosage and ... Other forms of birth control, such as non-hormonal birth control, can be used instead. Elagolix is not contraindicated in women ...
... problem of concern is physical dependence which appears in the form of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome after the dosage ... Some "Withdrawal Symptoms" can emerge despite a constant dosage with the body needing extra dosage in order to feel normal. ... Some sleep disturbance in the form of rebound insomnia can, however, occur even after short-term usage of 7 days. Those with a ... Psychological dependence can manifest itself as a reliance on a drug to cope with everyday life or in the form of craving. ...
These dosage forms possess different absorption mechanisms and consist of different active ingredients. Common active ... It is generally prepared in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is kept in the saliva after spitting out the mouth ... Topical fluoride is available in a variety of dose forms, for example, toothpaste, mouth rinses, varnish and silver diamine ... These fluorides are often manufactured in the form of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, or sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). ...
Genital tubercle forms the penis Urethral folds forms the urethra Genital swelling forms the scrotum On the other hand, if ... Utilizing sex steroids as hormonal therapy is deemed controversial with concerns of its duration of initiation, dosage and ... Genital tubercle forms the clitoris Urethral folds forms the labia minora Genital swelling forms the labia majora However, in ... Gonadal development disorders form a wide spectrum, classified by their cytogenetic and histopathological features. However, ...
Low dosages of radiation can also be used to kill insects living in harvested crops, as the radiation will stunt the insects' ... Since it is hard to isolate bacteria, many cultures of different bacteria are able to form. To identify a particular bacteria ... and spore forming organisms. Done properly, this process will greatly extend the shelf life of food products and can allow them ... such as serology tests that find antibodies formed in organisms as a response to infection. In contrast, chromogenic ...
Fungal skin infections Nystatin in the forms of creams, ointments or powders can also be used to treat fungal infections of the ... Topical antifungals are generally safe to use in adults, seniors and children, Different dosages may be required for patients ... Econazole Econazole in the form of creams and nail lacquers is often used to treat fungal skin and nail infections respectively ... It is available in the form of pessaries, liquid, creams, and spray. Common side effects of clotrimazole are skin irritations, ...
It is a physical barrier to germination, not a true form of dormancy (Quinliven, 1971; Quinliven and Nichol, 1971). Seed ... effective dosages of which would seem to be a function of sublethal stress, which results in stimulation of ethylene production ... Recent research has characterized the bacterial cytoplasm as a glass forming fluid approaching the liquid-glass transition, ... and antibiotics by forming endospores, cysts, or states of reduced metabolic activity lacking specialized cellular structures. ...
Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N. J. (15 September 2015). "Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence ... DoSaGE)". Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 39 (1): 93-111. doi:10.1007/s10919-014-0200-6. PMC 4319117. PMID 25667563. Ravignani, ... "A Coding System with Independent Annotations of Gesture Forms and Functions during Verbal Communication: Development of a ...
Dosages vary according to the age groups and the individual condition of the person, body weight, and compliance to the ... Thyroxine was first isolated in pure form in 1914, at the Mayo Clinic by Edward Calvin Kendall from extracts of hog thyroid ... Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4). It is used to treat ... It is also used to treat myxedema coma, which is a severe form of hypothyroidism characterized by mental status changes and ...
PE3P has been available in the form of ampoules containing 50 to 80 mg in 1 or 2 mL aqueous solution. PE3P is similar to ... PE3P has been used at a dosage of 40 to 80 mg by intramuscular injection once every 4 to 8 weeks in menopausal hormone therapy ... Dosage: 80 mg every 4-8 weeks I.M. Precautions/Warnings: Biliary tract disease; endometriosis; uterine fibroma; hypercalcemia ... Das östriolmolekül wurde mittels Phosphorsäurebrücken in die polymere Form gebracht, und das Molekül ent-hält eine grosse Zahl ...
... is available in the form of 5 mg oral tablets. It is typically used at a dosage of 5 to 40 mg/day. In Japan, a 25 ... At a dosage of 50 mg/day, allylestrenol has been found to suppress circulating testosterone levels by 78% in men with BPH. This ... Allylestrenol has been commonly used in Japan at high dosages, typically 50 mg/day but as much as 100 mg/day, to treat BPH in ... The biological half-life of allylestrenol has been reported to be "several hours" or, presumably in its active form, reportedly ...
There are many forms in which herbs can be administered, the most common of which is a liquid consumed as a herbal tea or a ( ... Standardization of purity and dosage is not mandated in the United States, but even products made to the same specification may ... Many herbs are applied topically to the skin in a variety of forms. Essential oil extracts can be applied to the skin, usually ... Salves, oils, balms, creams, and lotions are other forms of topical delivery mechanisms. Most topical applications are oil ...
Dosage or medication adjustments may be necessary in each case. Oxycodone, a semi-synthetic opioid, is a highly selective full ... The author concluded that the controlled-release form is a valid alternative to morphine and a first-line treatment for cancer ... Oxycodone, sold under various brand names such as Roxicodone and OxyContin (which is the extended release form), is a strong, ...
At pH below 2, the majority of the chlorine in the solution is in the form of dissolved elemental Cl 2. At pH greater than 7.4 ... ISBN 978-0-8342-1657-0. Wilhelm N, Kaufmann A, Blanton E, Lantagne D (February 2018). "Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household ... Solutions burn the skin and cause eye damage, especially when used in concentrated forms. As recognized by the NFPA, however, ... In the process, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are formed when chlorine is passed into cold dilute ...
SPLIMAGE is for image files of oral solid dosage forms that are submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with SPL ... dosage forms, routes of administration, appearance, DEA schedule) and the packaging (package quantity and type). Since October ... studied the imaging of a broad range of oral solid dosage forms for pharmaceutical products. This study allowed the NLM to make ... PhRMA HL7 Task Group formed the SPL Working Group in January 2004 to further the work of the initial development team. The ...
The chemical name of doxepin is (E/Z)-3-(dibenzo[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine and its free base form ... The researchers suggested that in order to achieve equivalent exposure, based on an average dose of 100%, the dosage of doxepin ... The major active metabolite of doxepin, nordoxepin, is formed mainly by CYP2C19 (>50% contribution), while CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 ... In individuals with neuroendocrine dysregulation in the form of nocturnal melatonin deficiency presumably due to chronic ...
Dosage of mushrooms containing psilocybin depends on the psilocybin and psilocin content of the mushroom which can vary ... A Psilocybe species known to the Aztecs as teōnanācatl (literally "divine mushroom": agglutinative form of teōtl (god, sacred) ... The mind-altering effects of psilocybin-containing mushrooms typically last from three to eight hours depending on dosage, ... complex open and closed eye visuals of form constants or images, objects that warp, morph, or change solid colours; a sense of ...
It is a common form of dementia, but the prevalence is not known accurately and many diagnoses are missed. The disease was ... Decreasing the dosage of dopaminergic or atypical antipsychotic drugs may be needed with orthostatic hypotension, and high ... The Lewy body dementias are as a group the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after AD as of 2021. DLB ... When these clumps of protein form, neurons function less optimally and eventually die. Neuronal loss in DLB leads to profound ...
... in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Parenteral Medications, S. Nema and J.D. Ludwig, Editors. 2019. Turpin, G. S. Practical ... At the tip of the pipe the so-called drawing onion is formed, from which the glass tube is drawn off in the free sag on a ... This slot is formed between the round outlet nozzle of the feeder and a height-adjustable hollow needle (also a mandrel). Here ... Here, the glass tube is not formed by a mandrel but is drawn off from the free bath surface. A nozzle protrudes from below into ...
In Merret's eight-page paper "Some observations concerning the ordering of wines", which he presented to the newly formed Royal ... adding a dosage and post-disgorgement ageing. Stevenson also tests out nine Riedel glasses on 100 different Champagnes and ...
Dosage de l'ammoniaque de l'air, absorption de l'azote de l'air par les plantes, Third edition. Préface de Stanislas Meunier- ... The subject garnered enough interest in the scientific community that the French Academy of Sciences formed a committee to ...
... then the dosage quotient DQ = (a/b) / (A/B). Although dosage quotients may be calculated for any pair of amplicons, it is ... Each probe will be formed by two parts that have at least: a target sequence, which is a region that contains the sequence ... Dosage quotient analysis is the usual method of interpreting MLPA data. If a and b are the signals from two amplicons in the ... "Dosage analysis of cancer predisposition genes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification". Br. J. Cancer. 91 (6): ...
... is available in many dosage forms and under many trade names worldwide. An emerging indication for desloratadine ...
The information on 866 species of multi-component drugs, their classification dosage forms and therapeutic groups was ...
Barbiturates showed some hydrolytic problems in regard to formulation of liquid dosage forms. The difficulty is -OH catalyzed ... Several efficient benzodiazepines offer choices about dosage form, length of action, metabolic interaction and safety. ... S(-) form of barbiturate have shown more depressant activity while the R(+) isomers have an excitatory effect. According to ... The second and third transmembrane domains of the β subunit appear to be critical; binding may involve a pocket formed by β- ...
Learn about the drugs dosage, form, strength, and more. ... Learn about the drugs dosages, form, strengths, and more.. ... They will determine the best dosage to fit your needs.. Dosage for alcohol dependence. The recommended dosage of Vivitrol for ... Does Vivitrol come in an oral form, such as a pill? If so, what is the drugs oral dosage?. Vivitrol does not come in an oral ... How will my dosage change?. If youre switching from an oral treatment to Vivitrol, your dosage may change. Be sure to talk ...
1994)‎. Dissolution test for solid oral dosage forms. World Health Organization. ...
Find out what the recommended dosages are, how to take the drug, and more. ... Tarceva is used to treat certain forms of lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. ... Tarceva is available in a generic form called erlotinib.. Dosage summary. The following chart summarizes Tarcevas dosage. Your ... Your doctor will determine the best dosage to fit your needs.. Dosage for non-small cell lung cancer. The recommended dosage of ...
Basic tests for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Pt. 3,  World Health Organization. Division of Drug Management and Policies (‎ ... Dissolution test for solid oral dosage forms  World Health Organization. Division of Drug Management and Policies (‎World ... 1, General requirements and testing methods for dosage forms  World Health Organization. Pharmaceuticals Unit (‎World Health ... Basic tests for pharmaceutical dosage forms  World Health Organization (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, ...
Learn about the drugs dosages, form, strengths, and more. ... What factors can affect my dosage?. The dosage of Pristiq ... The maximum dosage of Pristiq is 400 mg per day.. If you have liver or kidney problems, your maximum dosage of Pristiq may be ... The recommended dosage for Pristiq is 50 mg taken by mouth once per day. But the dosage can range from 50 mg to 400 mg per day. ... This article describes the dosages of Pristiq, including its form, strengths, and how to take the drug. To learn more about ...
This tool is also available in liquid form. This variant has a dosage of 0.1 to 0.25 ml. It is essential that you change the ... How to take Clenbuterol: Dosage and Forms. Because of its incredible capabilities, Clenbuterol has been widely used in sports ... The Clenbuterol daily dosage (mcg). 1 Day - 20. 2 Day - 40. 3 Day - 60. 4 Day - 80. 5 days - 100. 6-12 Days - 120. 13 days - 80 ...
COVID-19 UpdateAnalyticsDosage FormsDrug DevelopmentManufacturingOutsourcingQuality Systems. ... COVID-19 UpdateAnalyticsDosage FormsDrug DevelopmentManufacturingOutsourcingQuality Systems ... Drug Solutions Podcast: Oral Solid Dosage Forms: A Look Back at Challenges and Innovations ...
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There was no change in the physical appearance of the oral liquid dosage forms or pH values during the study. There was, ... Tablets in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (available commercially) in water were used to prepare the dosage forms. The effects of ... Related Keywords: Ethacrynic acid, dosage forms of, oral liquid, Ethacrynic acid, stability of, oral liquid dosage forms ... Formulation Development of Modafinil Sprinkle Dosage Form: Study on the Effect of Food on Dosage. Kumaravelrajan Rajagopal, ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Routes of Administration and Dosage Forms. Find specific details on this topic and related ... Special Dosage Form Considerations with Intra-articular Injections: The dosage forms used in intra-articular administration are ... Special Dosage Form Considerations with Recombinant Proteins and Peptides: * Special Dosage Form Considerations with Live ... Specialized Topical Dosage Forms and Delivery Systems for Transdermal Drug Delivery: * Specialized Topical Dosage Forms, ...
RE: The tariff classification of Lubeluzole (CAS# 144665-07-6), imported in bulk and injection dosage forms, from Belgium. Dear ... this office will provide classifications for dosage form Lubeluzole both before and subsequent to the awaited approval. The ... For injection dosage vials containing NDA-approved Lubeluzole as the active ingredient, the applicable subheading will be ... Use of the drug classification for the injection dosage vials containing Lubeluzole may result in a request by the Port of ...
Finally, consideration should be made in how the nanosuspensions can be incorporated in the final market image dosage form per ... Below is an example of QTPPs and CQAs for a sterile nanosuspension dosage form. ...
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MilliporeSigmas broad experience within the area of liquid dosage form technology make it possible to provide our customers ... A vast portfolio of top-quality raw materials for all dosage forms in line with ophthalmic industry standards and needs ... As we take pride in supporting our customers beyond the supply of excipients for liquid dosage forms, our comprehensive ... When formulating an oral liquid dosage form, there are numerous aspects to consider: storage stability and potential ...
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Eur.) Commission is undertaking a review of the mandatory dosage form monographs. As part of this process, its Group of... ... Eur.) Commission is undertaking a review of the mandatory dosage form monographs. As part of this process, its Group of experts ... For transdermal patches, the requirement to comply with the Test on uniformity of dosage units (2.9.40) or the Uniformity of ...
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