Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Complementarity Determining Regions: Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Rats, Inbred F344Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Mice, Inbred C57BLCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Mice, Inbred BALB CRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.CarboxyhemoglobinAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.SmokeRespiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Mice, Inbred ICRAnti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.HydrocarbonsCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Drug Dosage Calculations: Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
... inhalation, and rectal means). It can be performed in various dosage forms such as pills, tablets, or capsules. There are many ... Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; ... require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have ... In the U.S., the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration, and the 1938 ...
... maximum recommended dosage is 250 mg per day. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved loxapine inhalation powder ... At lower dosages its propensity for causing extrapyramidal side effects appears to be similar to that of atypical ... The typical starting dosage is 10 mg twice daily; usual dose range 30-50 mg twice daily; ...
A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration. In hospice care, a specialized rectal catheter, ... Inhalation by smoking a substance is likely the most rapid way to deliver drugs to the brain, as the substance travels directly ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes nasal administration (through the nose) can be used ...
Routes of administration, dosage forms. Oral. Digestive. tract (enteral). Solids. *Pill. *Tablet ... Inhalation of air[edit]. Inhalation of air, as part of the cycle of breathing, is a vital process for all human life. As such, ... Examples of accidental inhalation includes inhalation of water (e.g. in drowning), smoke, food, vomitus and less common foreign ... Inhalation begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity. ...
First, the drug needs to be introduced via some route of administration (oral, topical-dermal, etc.) and in a specific dosage ... The fastest route of absorption is inhalation, and not as mistakenly considered the intravenous administration. Absorption is a ... The rate of dissolution is a key target for controlling the duration of a drug's effect, and as such, several dosage forms that ... Additionally, slow-release dosage forms may maintain concentrations within an acceptable therapeutic range over a long period ...
Absorption rate and bioavailability of phenobarbital and its sodium salt from rectal dosage forms." International Journal of ... Other ROAs that bypass first-pass metabolism include inhalation (smoking, vaporizing, etc.), intravenous injection (IV), ... Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the ... Finally, rectal administration can allow patients to remain in the home setting when the oral route is compromised. Unlike ...
Lethal dosage often varies depending on the method of administration; for instance, many substances are less toxic when ... for inhalation, or degree of clothing for skin penetration. The concept of Ct was first proposed by Fritz Haber and is ... TCID50 Tissue Culture Infective Dosage EID50 Egg Infective Dosage ELD50 Egg Lethal Dosage Plaque forming units (pfu) What is an ... A comparable measurement is LCt50, which relates to lethal dosage from exposure, where C is concentration and t is time. It is ...
... and via inhalation by smoking, vaporization and insufflation ("snorting"). The efficiency of each method of administration ... Dosage The first factor, dosage, has been a truism since ancient times, or at least since Paracelsus who said, "Dose makes the ... ACM 34205, afcca.law.af.mil United States Food and Drug Administration. CDER Data Standards Manual. Retrieved on May 15, 2007. ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authority over all drugs, including psychoactive drugs. The ...
A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration. In hospice care, a specialized rectal catheter, ... Inhalation by smoking a substance is likely the most rapid way to deliver drugs to the brain, as the substance travels directly ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. *nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ' ...
... contraindication and lack of detail in dosage and administrations instructions. In 2000 the definition of a prescription error ... inhalation, and rectal means).[9] ... Administration is the process by which a patient takes a ... require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have ... It can be performed in various dosage forms such as pills, tablets, or capsules. The drug may contain a single or multiple ...
Lethal dosage often varies depending on the method of administration; for instance, many substances are less toxic when ... for inhalation, or degree of clothing for skin penetration. The concept of Ct was first proposed by Fritz Haber and is ... The dosage is given per unit of bodyweight (typically stated in milligrams per kilogram) of a substance known to have resulted ... One form of measuring LD is to use animals like mice or rats, converting to dosage per kilogram of biomass, and extrapolating ...
The former means dosage or amount of dose administered to a person, whereas the latter means the time-dependent concentration ( ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration also has guidance to elucidate dose-response relationships during drug development. Dose- ... or grams per kilogram of body-weight for oral exposures or milligrams per cubic meter of ambient air for inhalation exposures) ... of the drug after its administration. Studying dose response, and developing dose-response models, is central to determining " ...
Lethal dosage often varies depending on the method of administration; for instance, many substances are less toxic when ... human, oral, inhalation, absorption through skin/eyes 140 µg/kg (estimated) 0.00014 [79]. ... In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without ... A comparable measurement is LCt50, which relates to lethal dosage from exposure, where C is concentration and t is time. It is ...
Patients use one ampule with inhalation solution a day, four times a day at least four hours apart. The oral form of ... Dosage adjustments may be undertaken more often if tolerated. There is little experience with doses >40 ng/kg/min. Abrupt ... sodium chloride solution prior to administration. The infusion rate is normally initiated at 1.25 ng/kg/min for new patients, ... Treprostinil (marketed under the trade names Remodulin for infusion, Orenitram for oral, and Tyvaso for inhalation) is a ...
Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; ... It can be performed in various dosage forms such as pills, tablets, or capsules. ... inhalation, and rectal means).[9] ... There are many variations in the routes of administration, ... require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have ...
In 1966 the Task Group on Lung Dynamics, concerned mainly with the hazards of inhalation of environmental toxins, proposed a ... were their ability to deliver larger dosages at a faster rate, especially in acute asthma; however, recent data suggests actual ... delivered medicine is more effective than administration of the same medicine with a nebulizer. European Respiratory Society ... Sanders M (April 2007). "Inhalation therapy: an historical review" (PDF). Prim Care Respir J. 16 (2): 71-81. doi:10.3132/pcrj. ...
... is available in different dosage forms for different indications: Solution for inhalation (Assist, Mucomyst, ... Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores. - Glutathione, along with oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ... Although both IV and oral acetylcysteine are equally effective for this indication, oral administration is poorly tolerated ... sometimes in a sustained release formula sold as a nutritional supplement Capsules The IV injection and inhalation preparations ...
The administration can be given by injection: intravenously, intramuscularly, intrathecally, subcutaneously, or by inhalation. ... Diabetics and health care professionals use bolus to refer to a dosage of fast-acting insulin with a meal (as opposed to basal ... In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a discrete amount of medication, drug, or other compound ... The article on routes of administration provides more information, as the preceding list of ROAs is not exhaustive. The ...
BFS is used for the filling of vials for parenteral preparations and infusions, eye drops, and inhalation products. Generally ... Thus this technology can be used to aseptically manufacture sterile pharmaceutical liquid dosage forms. The process is multi- ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the packaging of pharmaceutical and healthcare products. The basic concept of BFS is that ...
By using this machine, the dentist can administer a mild inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen, in order to keep ... Anesthesia machines are used to support the administration of anaesthesia. The most common type of anaesthetic machine in use ... low Flow meters oxygen nitrous oxide Updated vaporizers to provide accurate dosage control when using volatile anaesthetics ... A free transparent reality simulation of the checklist recommended by the United States Food & Drug Administration is available ...
It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better-absorbed, following oral administration, than other β- ... omeprazole and others in varying amounts and dosage schedules. It is also used to treat Lyme disease in children under eight- ... Amoxicillin is used in post-exposure inhalation of anthrax to prevent disease progression and for prophylaxis. It is effective ... and as the sodium salt for intravenous administration. Amoxicillin is most commonly taken orally. The liquid forms are helpful ...
For nasal congestion, the dosage is listed as four inhalations (two inhalations per nostril) every two hours for adults and ... While propylhexedrine is limited in a number of administration routes, attempts to extract the drug from the nasal inhaler and ... Each inhalation delivers 0.4 to 0.5 milligrams (400 to 500 μg) in 800 millilitres of air. Historically, it has also been used ... The slow vaporization of free base propylhexedrine allows it to be administered via inhalation. Acid salts of propylhexedrine ( ...
Dosage formsEdit. Acetylcysteine is available in different dosage forms for different indications:. *Solution for inhalation ( ... Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores.[49]. - Glutathione, along with oxidized glutathione ( ... Some reviews found that prior administration of acetylcysteine decreases radiocontrast induced kidney disease,[22][23] whereas ... The IV injection and inhalation preparations are, in general, prescription only, whereas the oral solution and the effervescent ...
0.5-1.0 mg/kg can be a lethal dosage for adult humans, and 0.1 mg/kg for children. However the widely used human LD50 estimate ... The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2013: "There are no significant safety concerns associated with using more ... Calls to US poison control centers related to e-cigarette exposures involved inhalations, eye exposures, skin exposures, and ... Treatment is mainly supportive and further care can include control of seizures with the administration of a benzodiazepine, ...
Inhalation of an agonist for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor, such as Salbutamol, Albuterol (US), is the most common treatment ... Some people are able to 'trip' by taking up to three times the dosage, yet some users may not be able to negate tachyphylaxis ... sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration, i.e. a rapid and short-term onset of drug tolerance. It can ... is more apparent in Arg-16 individuals because their receptors have not been downregulated prior to agonist administration. ...
Dosage of alcohol intensifies these effects of myopia.[11] ... Routes of administration *Alcohol enema. *Alcohol inhalation. * ...
... albuterol and body tight albuterol 2mg dosages albuterol aerosol treatments albuterol 2mg albuterol aerosolized dosages ... disadvantages of albuterol albuterol and aggression albuterol 0.82 2 albuterol mdi albuterol 0.83 aerosol albuterol inhalation ... 4mg albuterol allergic reaction albuterol 30 day cost albuterol active ingredients albuterol and alcohol administration of ... solution albuterol a cappella device albuterol 17gm 90 mg albuterol 0.5 inh sol 20ml albuteral albuterol albuterol 0.083 dosage ...
Co-administration of a suboptimal dose of L-DOPA (2.5mg/kg p.o.) with threshold doses of the dopamine agonists enhanced their ... A blood sample from each rat was obtained via tail vein in the afternoon after the daily inhalation exposure period once every ... In early PD, this may avoid dose escalation or allow a reduction in dopamine agonist dosage without a loss of efficacy and ... Administration of istradefylline (10mg/kg p.o.) alone resulted in a decrease in motor disability and increase in ON time but ...
... dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. The recommended dose of BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is one 15 mcg unitdose ... The daily dosage of BROVANA Inhalation Solution should not exceed one unit-dose vial (15 mcg) by inhalation twice daily (30 mcg ... Long-term studies were conducted in mice using oral administration and rats using inhalation administration to evaluate the ...
... dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Dosing Information. The recommended dose of CAYSTON for both adults and pediatric patients 7 years ... Instructions for CAYSTON Administration. CAYSTON is administered by inhalation using an Altera Nebulizer System. CAYSTON should ... CAYSTON is not for intravenous or intramuscular administration.. Patients should use a bronchodilator before administration of ...
Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more. ... Bethkis Inhalation Solution official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. ... Bethkis Inhalation Solution Dosage and Administration. Dosing Information. The recommended dosage for patients six years of age ... Administration. BETHKIS is administered by oral inhalation. Do not use by any other route. ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. The recommended dose of BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution for COPD patients is 15 ... Long-term studies were conducted in mice using oral administration and rats using inhalation administration to evaluate the ... The daily dosage of BROVANA should not exceed one ready-to-use vial (15 mcg) by inhalation twice daily (30 mcg total daily dose ... arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution IMPORTANT USE INFORMATION * BROVANA is for use with a standard jet nebulizer machine ...
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS 5.1 Deterioration of ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The recommended dose of YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution is one 175 mcg unit‑dose vial ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION For oral inhalation use only. Do not swallow YUPELRI. ... DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Inhalation solution in a unit-dose vial for nebulization. Each vial contains 175 mcg/3 mL solution ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... No dosage adjustment necessary.. Administration. Inhalation: For oral inhalation only.. Dry powder inhaler (capsule): Do not ... Dosage form specific issues:. • Appropriate use: Not indicated for the initial (rescue) treatment of acute episodes of ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Inhalation:. Dry powder inhaler (capsule): One capsule (15.6 mcg) inhaled twice ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION •. For oral inhalation only. (2). •. Maintenance treatment of COPD: 1 inhalation of INCRUSE ELLIPTA ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. INCRUSE ELLIPTA (umeclidinium 62.5 mcg) should be administered as 1 inhalation once daily by the ... DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Inhalation powder: Inhaler containing a foil blister strip of powder formulation for oral inhalation ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS. 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS. 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS. 5.1 Deterioration ...
Administration, Inhalation * Aged * Albumins / analysis * Androstadienes / administration & dosage * Androstadienes / ...
Administration, Inhalation * Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage * Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use* ...
Halothane* / administration & dosage, pharmacokinetics. Heart Rate / drug effects. Humans. Isoflurane* / administration & ... Anesthesia, Inhalation*. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Electroencephalography / drug effects*. Female. ... dosage, pharmacokinetics. Male. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pulmonary Alveoli / metabolism*. Spine / ...
Anesthesia, Inhalation. Bupivacaine / administration & dosage. Hernia, Inguinal / surgery*. Humans. Infant, Low Birth Weight*. ... In one infant, analgesic to T4, whose surgery was inadvertently delayed for four hours, inhalation anaesthesia was needed to ...
Dosage and administration. Inhalation only. Asthma: Adults and adolescents 12 years and over: Seretide Accuhaler - one ... Avoid concomitant administration of ketoconazole or other potent (e.g. itraconazole, telithromycin, ritonavir) and moderate ( ... COPD: one inhalation b.d. of Seretide 500 Accuhaler (salmeterol 50mcg/fluticasone propionate 500 mcg). ... Seretide 100 Accuhaler (salmeterol 50 mcg/fluticasone propionate 100 mcg) one inhalation b.d. Regularly review patients and ...
Dosage and Administration. Antiseptic for cattle, swine, goats, sheep, horses, cats, dogs and exotic animals: Apply topically a ... Avoid inhalation of vapours. Avoid contact with eyes, eyelids and mucous membranes. Active Ingredients. Isopropyl alcohol, USP ...
Routes of administration. Inhalation use Dosage and administration details. 400 μg twice-daily (BID) ...
... administration & Equipment Design; Evidence-Based Medicine; Glucocorticoids /administration & Humans; Inhalation Spacers; ... dosage; dosage; dosage; dosage ... drug administration time; convenience and durability; and ... Adrenergic beta-Agonists /administration & Anti-Asthmatic Agents /administration & Cholinergic Antagonists / ...
... product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance. ... Inhalation anesthetic.. Interactions:. Caution with desiccated CO2 absorbents; replace before administration. Hyperkalemia with ... Daily online exclusives cover late breaking oncology news, safe handling and administration of chemotherapy drugs, side effect ...
NYSE and TASE: TEVA) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved QVAR® RediHale ... Reduction in Bone Mineral Density (BMD): Decreases in bone mineral density have been observed with long-term administration of ... To minimize the systemic effects, titrate to the lowest dosage that effectively controls symptoms ... Teva Announces FDA Approval of QVAR® RediHaler™ (Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA) Inhalation Aerosol Maintenance Treatment ...
Dosage Form. Inhalation, powder for. Route of administration. Inhalation. Medicine schedule. 10 capsules + 1 device (sample ... Seebri Breezhaler Powder for inhalation - myDr.com.au. Seebri Breezhaler Powder for inhalation - Consumer Medicines Information ... Seebri Breezhaler 50 microgram powder for inhalation, 30 capsules. Consumer Medicine Information leaflet:. This leaflet may ...
Learn about dosage, side effects, alternatives, and more. ... hours after inhalation and 3.9 hours after IV administration.. ... Combivent Respimat dosage. The Combivent Respimat dosage your doctor prescribes will depend on how severe your chronic ... The half-life of ipratropium bromide after inhalation or intravenous administration is approximately two hours. Albuterol ... However, be sure to take the dosage your doctor prescribes for you. Your doctor will determine the best dosage to suit your ...
Influenza antiviral drug dosage recommendations by age group, intended use (chemoprophylaxis or treatment), and medical ... levels of zanamivir that were substantially higher than those resulting from administration of zanamivir by oral inhalation at ... The recommended dosage of zanamivir for treatment of influenza is 2 inhalations (1 5-mg blister per inhalation for a total dose ... Oseltamivir is available for oral administration in 30 mg, 45 mg, and 75 mg capsules and liquid suspension. Dosage and schedule ...
... product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance. ... See literature for administration of aerosol. Nebulization-face mask, mouth piece, tracheostomy: 1-10mL of 20% soln or 2-20mL ... Diagnostic bronchograms: Two or three administrations of 1-2mL of 20% soln or 2-4mL of 10% soln should be given by nebulization ... Increased volume of bronchial secretions may occur after administration, airway must be maintained open. Asthma; monitor for ...
The Purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of three strengths of the FF/GW642444 Inhalation Powder in s... ... Dose administration manoeuvres and patient care in tobramycin dry powder inhalation therapy. ... FF/GW642444 Inhalation Powder, GW642444 Inhalation Powder. Location. GSK Investigational Site. Birmingham. Alabama. United ... Oxygen Inhalation Therapy. Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas ...
A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration. In hospice care, a specialized rectal catheter, ... Inhalation by smoking a substance is likely the most rapid way to deliver drugs to the brain, as the substance travels directly ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. *nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ...
  • The China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state also focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Global China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Industry research report also provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Inhalation & Nasal Spray is a kind of drug used to relieve sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Market Report is a meticulous investigation of current scenario of the global market, which covers several market dynamics. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market research report is a resource, which provides current as well as upcoming technical and financial details of the industry to 2022. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Global China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market report provides key statistics on the market status of the China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs industry. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The report provides a basic overview of the China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs industry including definitions, segmentation, applications, key vendors, market drivers and market challenges. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Market including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and import/export. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • This report focuses on the Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. (medgadget.com)
  • There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market. (medgadget.com)
  • Other methods include compounded medications for oral inhalation, nasal administration, topical/transdermal, and rectal use. (thecompounder.com)
  • Catalent combines decades of project with all pulmonary dosage forms including pMDIs, DPIs, nasal sprays and solutions/suspensions for inhalation. (catalent.com)
  • Our inhalation-manufacturing operations have a track-record of regulatory excellence, and we routinely manufacture pMDIs, DPIs, and nasal formulations for clients around the globe. (catalent.com)
  • The surface-active excipient, PEG-32 stearate, studied for particle engineering, in general did not benefit the CQAs of the spray dried powders for inhalation. (jove.com)
  • BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is a sterile, clear, colorless, aqueous solution of the tartrate salt of arformoterol, the (R,R)-enantiomer of formoterol. (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is supplied as 2 mL of arformoterol tartrate solution packaged in 2.1 mL unit-dose, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) unit-dose vials. (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution is not indicated to treat acute deteriorations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • The test material is corrosive and therefore exposure of animals via inhalation or the dermal route to the high concentrations as required for an acute inhalation or dermal study is expected to cause severe pain and distress. (europa.eu)
  • Excessive dosage can cause protracted nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, thirst and metallic taste Nephrotoxicity characterised by oliguria, azotaemia, renal tubular acidosis and acute renal failure may occur. (inchem.org)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved loxapine inhalation powder 10 mg (Adasuve, Alexza Pharmaceuticals) for the acute treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • QVAR ® RediHaler™ differs from conventional metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) as it delivers medication via a breath-actuated MDI, eliminating the need for hand-breath coordination during inhalation. (businesswire.com)
  • Avoid administration of YUPELRI with other anticholinergic-containing drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Daily online exclusives cover late breaking oncology news, safe handling and administration of chemotherapy drugs, side effect management, and new developments in specific cancers. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This can lead to the increased possibility of higher blood levels of the sedative drugs even when the calculated dosage is reduced from the adult dose based on reduced weight. (dentalcare.com)
  • A registration number assigned to physicians by the Drug Enforcement Administration for prescribing or dispensing controlled drugs. (studystack.com)
  • A control output responsive to the physiological parameter or a metric derived from the physiological parameter causes a drug administration device to affect the treatment of a person, such as by initiating, pausing, halting or adjusting the dosage of drugs administered to the person. (google.de)
  • a drug administration device responsive to one or more control outputs so as to affect the treatment of the living being including at least one of initiating, pausing, halting or adjusting the dosage of administered drugs. (google.de)
  • There are, however, some special characteristics of the gastric environment that may cause difficulties for the administration of certain drugs. (rutgers.edu)
  • A number of treatments involving the administration of single drugs are currently recommended for relief of pain including neurological pain. (google.nl)
  • The single administration of narcotic analgesics, gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs such as gabapentin, pregabalin and baclofen, antidepressants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to display pain alleviating properties in the clinic and in various animal models. (google.nl)
  • Throughout history, pharmacists have had to compound drugs for individualized dosages for patients when they were prescribed by physicians. (thecompounder.com)
  • In the early 1900s, however, the pharmaceutical industry began manufacturing a myriad of drugs and dosage forms for patients and the need for compounding diminished. (thecompounder.com)
  • Traditional anti-fungal drugs are ineffective in treating tumours because the solid colonies can be attacked only on the surface of their volume, and after the first administrations they become resistant. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Indications for con- ing within 2-4 hours.scious sedation include anxiety, patient preference, spastic dis- Adult dosage: 5-15 mg approximately 1 hour prior to ap-orders of nerve and muscle, moderately difficult or long pro- pointmentcedures, trismus, or persistent gagging. (slideshare.net)
  • Diagnostic bronchograms: Two or three administrations of 1-2mL of 20% soln or 2-4mL of 10% soln should be given by nebulization or by instillation intratracheally, prior to procedure. (empr.com)
  • Further analyses also examined the influence of patient age, therapy duration, dosage, and illness severity on the effect of BPD on growth. (york.ac.uk)
  • Effects of illness severity: greater dosages of BDP tended to be used in more severe cases though the trend was not significant (p=0.159). (york.ac.uk)
  • Dosage is individual and adjusted according to disease severity. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • An exception is topical administration , which generally means that both the application location and the effect thereof is local. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, and sometimes merely as a local application location regardless of location of the effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage. (nih.gov)