Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)
Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the mouth.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A carbon-nitrogen ligase that catalyzes the formation of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate from formate and tetrahydrofolate in the presence of ATP. In higher eukaryotes the enzyme also contains METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE (NADP+) and METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE activity.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Manganese derivative of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. It is used in agriculture as a fungicide and has been shown to cause irritation to the eyes, nose, skin, and throat.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.
A subtype of GPI-anchored folate receptors that is expressed in tissues of epithelial origin. This protein is also identified as an ovarian-tumor-specific antigen.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.
Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Patient health knowledge related to medications including what is being used and why as well as instructions and precautions.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Enumeration and interrelationships in staged human embryos, and implications for neural tube defects". Cells Tissues Organs. ... The vertebral column in dinosaurs consists of the cervical (neck), dorsal (back), sacral (hips), and caudal (tail) vertebrae. ... Spondylolysis, also known as a pars defect, is a defect or fracture at the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch. Spinal ... A typical vertebra consists of two parts: the vertebral body and the vertebral arch. The vertebral arch is posterior, meaning ...
As the primitive streak regresses and neural folds gather (to eventually become the neural tube), the paraxial mesoderm ... From this vertebral body, sclerotome cells move dorsally and surround the developing spinal cord, forming the vertebral arch. ... The dermatome is the dorsal portion of the paraxial mesoderm somite which gives rise to the skin (dermis). In the human embryo ... DLL1 and DLL3 are Notch ligands, mutations of which cause various defects. Notch regulates HES1, which sets up the caudal half ...
... fascicle nervi erigentes nervous system neural crest cell neural foramen neural groove neural tube defect neural tube neural ... dorsal cochlear nucleus dorsal column dorsal column nuclei dorsal funiculus dorsal horn dorsal root dorsal root ganglion dorsal ... nucleus of hypothalamus vermiform appendix vertebra vertebral artery vertebral body vertebral canal vertebral column vertebral ... dorsal nucleus) claustrum clava clavicle climbing fiber clinoid clitoris clivus cloaca clonus coccyx cochlea cochlear duct ...
... with the skin intact or association with any serious neural tube defects. Progressive neurological lesions may result from the ... Each hemicord contains a central canal, one dorsal horn (giving rise to a dorsal nerve root), and one ventral horn (giving rise ... This condition may be an isolated phenomenon or may be associated with other segmental anomalies of the vertebral bodies such ... owing to failure of the neural plate to form a complete neural tube or to rupture of the neural tube after closure. Diplomyelia ...
The dorsal neural tube is patterned by BMPs from the epidermal ectoderm flanking the neural plate. These induce sensory ... "Neural Tube Defects". Retrieved 6 December 2011. Gilbert, Scott (2006). Developmental biology (8th ed.). Sinauer Associates ... Mesodermal cells migrate along the dorsal midline to give rise to the notochord that develops into the vertebral column. ... The neural groove forms along the long axis of the neural plate, and the neural plate folds to give rise to the neural tube. ...
Posterior cord syndrome, in which just the dorsal columns of the spinal cord are affected, is usually seen in cases of chronic ... The elderly and people with severe arthritis are at high risk for SCI because of defects in the spinal column. In nontraumatic ... Spinal shock, loss of neural activity including reflexes below the level of injury, occurs shortly after the injury and usually ... It is a major risk of many types of vertebral fracture. Pre-existing asymptomatic congenital anomalies can cause major ...
Two endocardial tubes form here that fuse to form a primitive heart tube known as the tubular heart. Between the third and ... These are known as cyanotic congenital heart defects and are often more serious. Major congenital heart defects are often ... The ventral aorta delivers blood to the gills where it is oxygenated and flows, through the dorsal aorta, into the rest of the ... The back surface of the heart lies near the vertebral column, and the front surface sits behind the sternum and rib cartilages ...
... including the arches of the neural spines. This defect might have been caused by the lack or inhibition of the substance that ... Apatosaurus has ten dorsal ribs on either side of the body. The large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving ... The vertebral formula for the holotype of A. louisae is 15 cervicals, 10 dorsals, 5 sacrals, and 82 caudals. The caudal ... and air tubes after each breath) has been estimated at about 0.184 m3 (184 l) for a 30 t (30 long tons; 33 short tons) specimen ...
Fallopian tube - The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are tubes that stretch from ... The vertebral column runs the length of the back and creates a central area of recession. The breadth of the back is created by ... In mammals, the dorsal telencephalon, or pallium, develops into the cerebral cortex, and the ventral telencephalon, or ... Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (1) the sharpness of the retinal image within the eye, (2) the ...
... running lengthwise above the neural tube. The sequence of stages from neural plate to neural tube and neural crest is known as ... The cell bodies of somatic sensory neurons lie in dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord. The visceral part, also known as the ... Malfunction of the nervous system can occur as a result of genetic defects, physical damage due to trauma or toxicity, ... and enclosed in the bones of the skull and vertebral column, which combine to form a strong physical shield. Chemically, the ...
The cerebellum arises from two rhombomeres located in the alar plate of the neural tube, a structure that eventually forms the ... The AICA branches off the lateral portion of the basilar artery, just superior to the junction of the vertebral arteries. From ... This results in cognitive defects in the form of diminished reasoning power, inattention, grammatical errors in speech, poor ... dorsal to the "primary fissure"). The latter two can be further divided in a midline cerebellar vermis and lateral cerebellar ...
Scoliosis Vertebral anomaly. *Neural tube defect. *No visual impairment sufficient to hinder mobility ... Phase II Randomized Study of Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy and Physiotherapy Vs Physiotherapy Alone for Spastic Diplegia. The ... The surgical procedure is a selective dorsal rhizotomy. Physical therapy (PT) includes passive and active range of motion, ... I. Assess the efficacy and safety of selective dorsal rhizotomy and physiotherapy compared with physiotherapy alone in ...
... or other neural tube defects [4, 8]. Thus, the most anticipated anomaly of the living fetus is the closure defect of the dorsal ... in the upper-dorsal region of the vertebral column (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). The accessory limb could not be moved. There was no ... Neural tube defects associated with ectopic limbs have been reported in a few cases. Krishna et al. reported accessory legs ... the neural folds of the two different embryos can merge if the skin covering the neural tube gets damaged. If the two embryos ...
A small minority of homozygotes have been found to have embryonic neural tube defects or a dorsal enlargement of the head. In ... Most homozygotes have a belly spot and 1 to 5 flexures in the tail due to vertebral fusions. Vertebral fusions are also found ... longitudinal waves or angles of the tube, or locally doubled neural tube ... longitudinal waves or angles of the tube, or locally doubled neural tube ...
A small minority of homozygotes have been found to have embryonic neural tube defects or a dorsal enlargement of the head. JE/ ... Most homozygotes have a belly spot and 1 to 5 flexures in the tail due to vertebral fusions. Vertebral fusions are also found ... elsewhere in the vertebral column. Fewer than expected homozygotes are generated indicating prenatal death and the postnatal ... The primary influence of the jerker gene appears to be on the apical hair cells, not development of neural structures. ...
... the neural tube atrophies and the ventral remnant persists as the filum terminale; as the vertebral column grows, the filum ... Neurology An occult spinal dysraphism due to a defect in dorsal induction, the earliest major embryologic process in forming ... tethered cord a congenital anomaly resulting from defective closure of the neural tube; the conus medullaris is abnormally low ... Tethered cord in a patient with multiple vertebral segmentation defects: a case report ...
... defect in the neural tube then leads secondarily to the failure in the formation of portions of the spinal cord and the dorsal ... elements of the vertebral bodies and overlying tissues, which gives rise to the spina bifida sac. A lesion that involves ... National Birth Defects Prevention Network. Survival of infants with neural tube defects in the presence of folic acid ... Recurrence risk after neural tube defects in a general counseling clinic. J Med Genet. 1984;21(6):413-416. ...
Inherited defects in natural immunity 151. 13 Nervous system 153. Dorsal-ventral patterning of the neural tube 153 ... Changes in the relative positions of the spinal cord and the developing vertebral column 161 ... requirement for understanding normal structural development and also abnormal processes which result in congenital defects. ...
... dorsal neural tube, odontoblasts, nasal epithelium, and particular regions of the brain (1, 2). Targeted deletion of GDF-11, in ... vertebral defects, elongated trunks with a reduced or absent tail, missing or malformed kidneys, and an increased number of ...
Notochord Defect Diastematomyelia 76. B-6. Neural Tube Defect Spina Bifi da 76 ... VERTEBRAL COLUMN ANOMALIES 61. B-1. Vertebral Border Shifting 61. B-1.1. Cranial Shifts of the Cervical-Thoracic (C-T) Border ... Dorsal Hypoplasia/Aplasia 88. B-11.1. Single Block Vertebra 92. B-11.2. Multiple Block Vertebra 92 ... Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton is the pre-eminent resource for developmental defects of the ...
Congenital deformities involving the coverings of the nervous system are called neural tube defects (NTDs). Neural tube defects ... Neural tube defects vary in severity. The mildest form is spina bifida aperta, in which osseous fusion of one or more vertebral ... It is tethered at the point in which the neural placode was attached to the skin defect during gestation. The MRI showed dorsal ... The primary embryologic defect in all neural tube defects is failure of the neural tube to close, affecting neural and ...
neural tube defect a congenital defect in closure of the bony encasement of the spinal cord or of the skull. The most severe ... 2. Referring to the dorsal side of the vertebral bodies or their precursors, where the spinal cord is located, as opposed to ... neural crest cells. a group of neuroepithelial cells which condenses dorsal to the neural tube in the embryo; they subsequently ... neural plate. the thickened ectoderm dorsal to the notochord in the embryo that gives rise to the neural tube. ...
The diagram in the centre is a dorsal view of a developing embryo, showing a neural tube that is closed in the centre but still ... the bony defect of the posterior vertebral arches (in this case, the lumbar vertebrae), the herniated meninges and neural ... Congenital anomalies of the nervous system: Neural tube defects. Neural tube defects affect the brain and spinal cord, and are ... The neural folds are the rising margins of the neural tube, topped by the neural crest, and demarcate the neural groove ...
rs/rs animals showed malformations in the vertebral column (Fig. 1C-H) and in the neural tube (Fig. 1I,J). Neural tube defects ... G,H) Alcian Blue-stained E14 skeletons (dorsal view) from control (G) and rs/rs (H) show vertebral segmentation defects. Note ... The morphology of the neural tube was altered with an extended central channel in the dorsal region (Fig. 2F). The epithelial ... Although not addressed here, rs mutant mice can certainly serve as a mouse model for neural tube defects and limb ...
abnormally elevated levels of which protein is associated with neural tube defects (spina bifida)? ... failure of normal closure of the vertebral column and/or overlying skin on dorsal aspect of spinal cord ... refers to a condition of a missing portion of a posterior vertebral body.. ...
neural tube defect where rostral (head) end of neural tube fails to close. ... failure of normal closure of vertebral column and overlying skin over dorsal aspect of spinal cord. ... what protein is used to diagnose spina bifid a and other neural tube defects? When is it measured? ...
Nearly all CE patients demonstrate significant neurospinal deficits including neural tube defects, vertebral anomalies, spinal ... In EEC females, the distal aspect of the dorsal urethra remains open, resulting in a patulous bladder neck. The mons pubis is ... Neurospinal defects are absent in epispadias patients. Approximately 7% of CBE patients will have a spinal abnormality such as ... R. D. Jeffs, "Functional closure of bladder exstrophy," Birth Defects, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 171-173, 1977. View at Google ...
2009). Fate map and morphogenesis of presumptive neural crest and dorsal neural tube. Dev. Biol. 330, 221-236. ... Shroom3 mutation inhibits inflection and affects the dynamics of zipping leading to a neural tube defect. Shroom3 is an actin- ... 2004). Dynamic imaging of cell, extracellular matrix, and tissue movements during avian vertebral axis patterning. Birth ... we visualized neural tube closure (NTC) in the mouse embryo. Mammalian neural tube (NT) morphogenesis has been dynamically ...
Therefore, this case was suspected to be a closed neural tube defect.. ... At 7 days PI, apoptotic cells were found in the spinal cord and dorsal root spinal ganglion using TUNEL. We confirmed that most ... Segmental hypoplasia not associated with vertebral abnormalities was found in a Japanese Black calf that was unable to stand. ... These changes indicate hypoplasia of the segments affected following neural tube closure. ...
Case 77 Cerebral Palsy and Selective Dorsal Rhizotomies. Case 78 Neural Tube Defect. Case 79 Idiopathic Syringomyelia in ... Case 53 Vertebral Artery Stenosis with Ischemia. Case 54 High-Grade Carotid Stenosis and Intracranial Aneurysm. Section III ...
It is defect of the neural tube, an embryonic structure that gives rise to the spinal cord and vertebral column. This defect ... dorsal meningocoele. *anterior meningocoele. * lateral meningocoele *lateral sacral meningocoele. *lateral lumbar meningocoele ... leads to protrusion of the membranes that cover the spine and part of the spinal cord through a bone defect in the vertebral ...
Neural tube defect marked by a congenital cleft of the spinal column (usually hernial protrusion of the meninges and sometimes ... 1. Vertebral artery passes through. 2. Membrane has high incidence in Japanese if turning to bone and pinching the vertebral ... 2. Synovial Joint, innervated by branches of dorsal rami Cervical Vertebra: 1. Size. 2. Distinguishing Factors 1. Smallest ... What supplies arterial blood to posterior vertebral column? Aorta & vertebral column mostly Trapezius:. 1. Attachments. 2. ...
If during early development a dorsal defect exists in either the dura (duralschisis) or the neural tube (myeloschisis), ... The level of the normal conus relative to the vertebral column depends on the differential growth rates of the neural tube and ... This secondary neural tube is initially not continuous with the primary neural tube but lies slightly dorsal to it in an ... Healing of the notochord and neural plate Because the neural tube lies dorsal to the notochord, the unified theory predicts ...
In vertebrate neural development, they are generally expressed in the dorsal neural tube. Chick Zic1 is initially expressed ... The deformities are severe in the dorsal parts of the vertebrae (the vertebral arches), but less so in the vertebral bodies ( ... a mutant with severe neural tube defects. The changed expression pattern in Wnt-3a mutants suggests that Zic genes in the ... Consistent with the later dorsal neural expression of opl, the activated form of opl is able to induce neural crest and dorsal ...
With the exception of open neural tube defects animal models for spinal dysraphism do not exist, and in the majority of cases ... is essential in inducing folding of the overlying neural plate and in establishing vertebral segmentation [3]. ... The dorsal lip of the node is the site of the Spemann-Mangold organiser, a centre that is of vital importance in co-ordinating ... Firstly, whilst animal models exist for open neural tube defects this is not so for the closed dysraphisms making it ...
SE, surface ectoderm; DRG, dorsal root ganglion; NC, notochord; FP, floor plate; NT, neural tube. ... 2007) Abnormal vertebral segmentation and the notch signaling pathway in man. Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication ... Some particular disease states characterised by segmentation defects have been shown to result from mutation in key Notch‐ ... The formation of hemi‐vertebrae (a) and fused ribs (b) together with shortening of the body axis and vertebral transformations ...
Neural tube defects (NTDs) exact an enormous emotional and economic toll on families and health care systems in both developed ... they arise as a result of a localized failure of fusion of the dorsal neural fold. A meningocele represents a herniation of ... The vertebral bodies are seen as echogenic segmental structures lying anterior to the spinal cord. In the normal infant, the ... Neural arch defects. Posterior neural arch defects and an increased interpedicular distance are often associated with a ...
Following the production of the neural tube (NT), elaboration of neuronal identity begins. The NT is exquisitely patterned to ... 4 Year MRC PhD Programme: Developing a scalable, high throughput model system for the study of segmentation defects ... namely notochord and floor plate which results in a concentration gradient of SHH being set up along the ventral to dorsal axis ... The aetiology of most Abnormal vertebral segmentation (AVS) Syndromes is unknown. However one signalling pathway that has been ...
As the primitive streak regresses and neural folds gather (to eventually become the neural tube), the paraxial mesoderm ... From this vertebral body, sclerotome cells move dorsally and surround the developing spinal cord, forming the vertebral arch. ... The dermatome is the dorsal portion of the paraxial mesoderm somite which gives rise to the skin (dermis). In the human embryo ... DLL1 and DLL3 are Notch ligands, mutations of which cause various defects. Notch regulates HES1, which sets up the caudal half ...
An immediate family member with a neural tube defect, including maternal or paternal history of a neural tube defect. ... of cells develops along the dorsal surface of the embryo forming first a groove and then a hollow tube called the neural tube. ... The affected child is born with part of the spinal cord or spinal nerves outside of the vertebral canal.24,25. ... Decrease the risk of birth defects other than neural tube defects, including cardiovascular defects and defects affecting the ...
Enumeration and interrelationships in staged human embryos, and implications for neural tube defects". Cells Tissues Organs. ... The vertebral column in dinosaurs consists of the cervical (neck), dorsal (back), sacral (hips), and caudal (tail) vertebrae. ... Spondylolysis, also known as a pars defect, is a defect or fracture at the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch. Spinal ... A typical vertebra consists of two parts: the vertebral body and the vertebral arch. The vertebral arch is posterior, meaning ...
  • They can be ventral or dorsal midline defects. (
  • A particularly challenging stage of mouse embryogenesis is between E8.5 and E9.5, when the heart begins to beat and the embryo undergoes changes in growth and morphology including 'turning' of the U-shaped embryo with the ventral surface on the outside to a fetal position with the dorsal surface on the outside. (
  • SHH is released from two ventrally located structures which derive from the embryonic organizer, namely notochord and floor plate which results in a concentration gradient of SHH being set up along the ventral to dorsal axis which then induces expression of specific transcription factors at distinct distances from the source of the signal. (
  • It is an early forming midline structure in the trilaminar embryo mesoderm layer initially ventral to the ectoderm, then neural plate and finally neural tube. (
  • It gives the embryo a craniocaudal axis, helping to distinguish its cranial and caudal ends, dorsal and ventral surfaces, and left and right sides. (
  • J:82633 Adamska M, MacDonald BT, Meisler MH, Doubleridge, a mouse mutant with defective compaction of the apical ectodermal ridge and normal dorsal-ventral patterning of the limb. (
  • J:73526 Ahn K, Mishina Y, Hanks MC, Behringer RR, Crenshaw EB 3rd, BMPR-IA signaling is required for the formation of the apical ectodermal ridge and dorsal-ventral patterning of the limb. (
  • No evidence of dorsal or ventral dysraphism or craniofacial defect was found. (
  • sagittal view through the embryonic disc shows the dorsal (amniotic) and ventral (yolk sac) surfaces of the disc. (
  • A maioria dos cistos neurentéricos est ão localizados na coluna vertebral, principalmente em posição ventral, sendo 95% dos cistos neurentéricos encontrados no compartimento intradural e intramedular. (
  • In the embryo, WNT is a dorsal signal which opposes the ventral signaling of sonic hedgehog. (
  • The dorsal nerve tube and ectoderm send WNT signals while the ventral notochord secretes sonic hedgehog. (
  • Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a functions in the differentiation of neural crest cells and in establishing a dorso -ventral axis in the neural tube (Saint- Jeannet , 1997). (
  • The use of Wnt to establish the dorsal/ventral body poles is important in the embryology of vertebrates. (
  • Symmetrical flattening of the ventral part of the cranium called 'lemon sign' and cerebellar findings are associated with neural tube defect taking the name of banana sign and used as a sonographic indicator of spinal disraphism [1]. (
  • paired dorsal and ventral nerve roots 6. (
  • The process involves the formation of "hinge points" at two sites: the median hinge point (MHP) in the ventral midline and extending over the rostrocaudal extent of the neural plate and the paired dorsolateral hinge points (DLHPs), which form mainly at the levels of the developing brain ( 2 ) and lower spine. (
  • The supports of the gray matter's "H" make up the right dorsal, right ventral, left dorsal, and left ventral horns. (
  • Dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar: transmit unconscious proprioception sensory information to the cerebellum. (
  • The ventral spinocerebellar tract does not decussate, while the dorsal spinocerebellar tract decussates twice, making them both ipsilateral. (
  • Diastematomyelia is characterized by a sagittal division of the spinal cord into two hemicords, each with one central canal, dorsal horn, and ventral horn. (
  • The roof plate on the dorsal side (via BMPs and Wnts) and the floor plate on the ventral side (via Shh) provide positional information that assigns cells to distinct progenitor domains [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Panel A shows a cross section of the rostral end of the embryo at approximately three weeks after conception, showing the neural groove in the process of closing, overlying the notochord. (
  • Primary neurulation begins with dorsal bending of the neural plate about a median hinge point (MHP) that is anchored to the underlying notochord. (
  • This dorsal direction is fixed when the MHP transforms its columnar neuroepithelial cells (M cells) into wedge-shaped cells with a bulbous base on the side near the notochord and a tapering apical process facing the future central canal, chiefly by causing the M cell nuclei to accumulate in a basal location. (
  • At that time, the primitive streak has almost completely regressed, and its activity is being replaced by the caudal eminence, a mass of pluripotent tissue that will ultimately give rise to all the various tissues of the caudal embryo, including the neural material for the caudal spinal cord, caudal neural crest cells, caudal notochord, somites caudal to somite 30, caudal mesenchyme, and hindgut. (
  • It is distinct from the mesoderm underneath the neural tube which is called the chordamesoderm that becomes the notochord. (
  • The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs. (
  • In humans, the notochord forms in week 3, is eventually lost from vertebral regions and contributes the entire nucleus pulposus [3] of the intervertebral disc during the formation of the vertebral column. (
  • The development of the human notochord [4] "The notochord is a major regulator of embryonic patterning in vertebrates and abnormal notochordal development is associated with a variety of birth defects in man. (
  • Subsequently, the notochordal cells detach from the endoderm to form the definitive notochord, allowing the paired dorsal aortae to fuse between the notochord and the gut. (
  • The role of the notochord in amniote vertebral column segmentation [1] "The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. (
  • Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. (
  • Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. (
  • We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. (
  • Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. (
  • These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. (
  • The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. (
  • Notochord induces overlying ectoderm to differentiate into NEUROectoderm-->form neural plate. (
  • The notochord induces neural plate formation by thickening and elongating the embryonic ectoderm lying over it. (
  • The mesoderm cells that travel through the primitive pit and migrate cranially form the notochordal process (the notochord process initially is a hollow tube called the "notochordal canal"), which parallels the streak. (
  • At approximately day 23, the notochordal plate detaches from the neural tube (embryonic ectoderm) and is converted in the process to the definitive solid structure known as the notochord (by obliteration of the notochordal cavity) ( Fig. 2 ). (
  • 5 ) When the edges fuse completely, a round tube (notochord) is formed and is located between the amniotic and chorionic surfaces of the embryo. (
  • This rod-like structure is the notochord, the progenitor of the backbone or vertebral column. (
  • Notochord is an axial structure derived of embryonic mesoderm and in addition to structural supporting role in inducing nearby germinal layers, it has a basic role in formation of organs such as vertebral column, axial vessels, neural tube and primitive gut. (
  • The neural tube and notochord of a frog embryo is depicted below. (
  • later, these mesodermal cells will join in the midline to form the notochordal process, which will eventually roll into a tube, separate from the endoderm, and become the notochord. (
  • Once formed, the notochord induces the formation of a plate of ectodermal cells in the dorsal midline, beginning immediately cephalad to the Hensen node ( Fig. 9-1 ). (
  • A thorough appreciation of the cellular, molecular and tissue changes which precede the birth of an animal is a fundamental requirement for understanding normal structural development and also abnormal processes which result in congenital defects. (
  • Congenital deformities involving the coverings of the nervous system are called neural tube defects (NTDs). (
  • neural tube defect a congenital defect in closure of the bony encasement of the spinal cord or of the skull. (
  • Neural tube defects affect the brain and spinal cord, and are among the most common of the congenital anomalies (see Fig. 4.1 ). (
  • Such studies resulted in a model of gastrulation that neurosurgeons have subsequently used as a means of trying to explain some of the congenital anomalies of caudal spinal cord and vertebral development that present in paediatric neurosurgical practice. (
  • Spina bifida, or failure of the vertebrae to close at the midline, is a common congenital malformation in humans that is often synonymous with neural tube defects (NTDs). (
  • A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. (
  • Pubmed ID: 19778707 Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent a common group of severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. (
  • In this case, a congenital dorsal enteric cyst and a Klippel-Feil syndrome were observed. (
  • Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. (
  • Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations of the central nervous system resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. (
  • Main differential diagnoses included: congenital anomalies (arachnoid cyst, pilonidal cyst, vertebral malformation), inflammatory / infectious disorders and neoplasia. (
  • Dermoid sinuses (pilonidal sinuses) are congenital abnormalities caused by an incomplete separation of the ectoderm and the neural tube during embryonic development. (
  • Omphalocele is a congenital defect in the formation of the umbilical and supraumbilical portions of the abdominal wall, the size of the defect ranging from 4 - 10 cm in diameter with an incidence rate of 1 in 6000 to 1 in 10000 live births. (
  • In this report, we present a patient who underwent successful surgical excision of a third arm attached to the back in the midline over the low-dorsal region. (
  • As described, the primary defect is a failure of the neural folds to fuse in the midline and form the neural tube, which is neuroectoderm. (
  • The neural folds thus formed, consisting of neuroectoderm still attached to the cutaneous ectoderm, elevate and then converge dorsolaterally toward the dorsal midline. (
  • The anatomic features common to the entire group is an anomaly in the midline structures of the back, especially the absence of some of the neural arches, and defects of the skin, filum terminale, nerves, and spinal cord (see the images below). (
  • A midline lesion of the medulla oblongata is likely to involve the pyramidal tracts (the descending motor pathway) and the medial lemnisci (the ascending tracts relaying sensory impulses from the dorsal columns of the spinal cord). (
  • This infant has a thoracic myelo-meningocele which presents as an open midline defect. (
  • The lateral edges of this midline structure, now known as the neural plate , are contiguous with the ectoderm from which the plate has differentiated, now known as superficial or cutaneous ectoderm. (
  • This midline convergence of cells causes an anteroposterior elongation and narrowing of the neural plate ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • the process of bending elevates these folds and brings them to the dorsal midline ( 6 ). (
  • After formation of the hinge points, the more lateral aspects of the neural plate are elevated around the MHP, bringing the DLHPs upward and toward the midline ( Fig. 9-2 ). (
  • Eventually, the lateral folds contact one another in the dorsal midline and adhere to one another, with their fusion forming the neural tube (neurulation). (
  • This midline contact (also called neural fold apposition) results from constriction of the open posterior neural tube, which is biomechanically coupled to the zippering point by an F-actin network ( 9 ). (
  • At the end of the fourth week, visceral mesoderm layers are fused in the midline and form a double-layered membrane (dorsal mesentery) between right and left halves of the body cavity. (
  • An opening in the skin on the dorsal midline is usually found. (
  • The pentalogy includes upper midline omphalocele, sternal cleft, anterior diaphragmatic hernia, ectopia cordis (with pericardial defect), and intracardiac anomaly (usually a ventricular septal defect, tetrology of Fallot and occasionally a diverticulum of the left ventricle). (
  • The neural tube - which will ultimately develop into the spinal cord - is now covered by surface ectoderm (later, the skin). (
  • Extrinsic forces are partly provided by medial sliding of the surface ectoderm, carrying with it the neural folds, and partly by expansion, condensation, and elongation of the paraxial mesoderm perpendicular to the long axis of the neural plate. (
  • The cutaneous ectoderm remains attached to the neuroectoderm during flexion and early fusion of the neural fold. (
  • It begins with the formation of the neural plate that arises from the thickening of the ectoderm caused by cuboidal epithelial cells that become columnar. (
  • Through the release of special chemicals, the overlying ectoderm is induced to divide more rapidly, forming a thickened mass called the neural plate. (
  • The ectoderm is also sub-specialized to form the (2) neural ectoderm, which gives rise to the neural tube and neural crest, which subsequently give rise to the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. (
  • 14. What structure causes the overlying ectoderm to differentiate into the neural plate? (
  • Most malformations, especially those such as neural tube defects, occur early in embryogenesis and are likely the result of aberrant expression of a yet undefined developmental gene or family of genes. (
  • The establishment of the anteroposterior somite compartments, the epithelialization of nascent somites, and the formation of segment borders are disturbed in rs mutants, leading to a characteristic form of vertebral malformations, similar to dysmorphologies in individuals suffering from spondylocostal dysostosis. (
  • Malformations of the spinal cord are usually the result of problems related to the closure of the neural groove, the causes of which are still obscure. (
  • In 50% of the cases, other vertebral malformations have also been reported. (
  • Malformations associated with dorsal inductions such as Chiari malformation occur between 3rd-4th gestational weeks [2]. (
  • Malformations occur because the tube fails to close properly, because parts of it are missing, or because part of the tube is blocked. (
  • Caudal agenesis is a loosely defined syndrome of aplastic vertebral malformations ranging from agenesis of the coccyx to the absence of the sacral, lumbar and even lower thoracic vertebrae. (
  • Based on the clinical and neuroimaging data of this series, an hypothesis has been postulated to explain the embryogenetic relationship between the bony, neural and non-neural malformations in caudal agenesis. (
  • Thoracic CT revealed spina bifida from 5th cervical to 7th dorsal vertebrae level (Figure 2(a) ). (
  • In open spina bifida, a bony defect of the posterior vertebral arches (in this case, the lower thoracic vertebrae) is accompanied by herniation of neural tissue and meninges and is not covered by skin. (
  • In closed spina bifida, unlike open spina bifida, the bony defect of the posterior vertebral arches (in this case, the lumbar vertebrae), the herniated meninges and neural tissue are covered by skin. (
  • The formation of hemi‐vertebrae (a) and fused ribs (b) together with shortening of the body axis and vertebral transformations are associated with the SCD phenotype. (
  • In a human's vertebral column, there are normally thirty-three vertebrae. (
  • There are ligaments extending the length of the column at the front and the back, and in between the vertebrae joining the spinous processes, the transverse processes and the vertebral laminae. (
  • The vertebrae in the human vertebral column are divided into different regions, which correspond to the curves of the spinal column. (
  • To elucidate the cause of this birth defect in PDGFRalpha mutant embryos, we examined the developmental processes involved in vertebrae formation. (
  • The location of neurulation is initially between the 4th to 6th somite (bilateral blocks of paraxial mesoderm that align themselves along the neural tube and form the vertebrae, ribs, muscles, and skin). (
  • Our vertebral column is made up of 32 separate vertebrae, piled on each other to form our flexible backbone. (
  • There is usually lack of fusion of the vertebral arches with broadened vertebrae and dorsal protrusion of the neural tissue in an enclosed sac with a thin membrane that can easily rupture. (
  • Left deviation in the lumbosacral region and fusion defect compatible with spina bifida in the posterior elements of the vertebrae were detected (Figures 2a and 2b). (
  • The neural folds are the rising margins of the neural tube, topped by the neural crest, and demarcate the neural groove centrally. (
  • Using the novel technique described here, we imaged in real time the complete process of NTC from the face to the primordial brain and spinal cord, and from initiation of neurulation to the meeting and closure of the neural folds. (
  • Our study dynamically follows these two distinct morphological processes during mammalian NTC and we quantify the rate of zipping and distance between the neural folds at different stages of NTC. (
  • The cephalic cord is formed by an orderly sequence of dorsal flexion, approximation, and fusion of the neural folds to produce a neural tube, in a process called primary neurulation. (
  • The MHP provides solid anchorage for the bending of the neural folds and determines the dorsal direction of the bending. (
  • The actual elevation and later convergence of the neural folds are driven by forces both intrinsic and extrinsic to the neuroepithelium. (
  • Because these actin-like microfilaments are concentrated near the floor plate and at the lateral midpoint of the two halves of the neural plate, their contraction is responsible for the dorsolateral furrowing of the neural folds that leads to convergence. (
  • As the two neural folds approach each other, the opposing inner surfaces of the neuroepithelium show blebs and filopodia that are believed to assist in cell-cell recognition. (
  • adhesion, and inhibition, steps that culminate in structural fusion of the neural folds to form a neural tube. (
  • Surface coat material largely comprised of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are found in the cell membranes of the 'bleb cells' of the neural folds, and are thought to be involved in cell-cell recognition and adhesion. (
  • the medially migrating mesenchyme ventrolateral to the neural folds is entirely excluded from the neural groove and the ependymal (apical) side of the neural tube. (
  • As the primitive streak regresses and neural folds gather (to eventually become the neural tube), the paraxial mesoderm separates into blocks called somites. (
  • Neural Plate folds to create neural tube --open at both ends = ANT and POST neuropores. (
  • Neurulation is the neural tube formation process through the development of the neural plate and the closing of the neural folds . (
  • At this time the neural plate begins to curve dorsally and form the neural folds. (
  • In these types of defects the folds may have come together, but the normal fusion process was disrupted. (
  • 4. neural folds are lateral folds which rise up either side of the neural groove. (
  • 5. neural tube is formed when the lateral folds fuse dorsally. (
  • Neurulation seems to begin separately at least two different levels in humans, when cellular protrusions (possibly cilia) project medially from the most dorsal cells of the neural folds on either side. (
  • The developing somatic layers of the cephalic, caudal and lateral folds join to close the defect in the abdominal wall. (
  • The mildest form is spina bifida aperta, in which osseous fusion of one or more vertebral arches is lacking, without involvement of the underlying meninges or neural tissue. (
  • Anencephaly and rachischisis are extremely severe forms of neural tube defects, in which an extensive opening in the cranial and vertebral bone is present with an absence of variable amounts of the brain, spinal cord, nerve roots, and meninges. (
  • Classification and nomenclature of spinal column defects are based on the extent to which the meninges and spinal cord are involved. (
  • In encephalocele, the brain and meninges herniate through a defect in the calvaria. (
  • The posterior elements covering the spinal canal fail to form, but in this type of defect the cystic mass that bulges out posteriorly contains neural tissue and the surface of the meninges is exposed to the exterior with no skin covering. (
  • In this last defect, if only meninges and cerebrospinal fluid herniates through the defect, it is referred as meningocele, while a myelomeningocele directly involves spinal cord and/or nerve roots. (
  • Spina bifida occulta, results from a gap in one or more vertebral arches in the lumbosacral area, but the spinal cord and meninges remain entirely within the vertebral canal. (
  • 1 Diagnosis of spina bifida and other neural tube defects (NTDs) is now often made early in pregnancy through α-fetoprotein (AFP) screening and fetal ultrasonography, which provides time for decision-making and planning by families. (
  • Spina bifida, anencephaly, and other NTDs occur as a result of defective neurulation or closure during the third week after conception of the embryonic neural fold, which becomes the neural tube. (
  • NTDs can be classified in "open" NTDs in which the neural tissue is exposed and "closed" NTDs with the neural tissue covered by tissue [2,3]. (
  • Open" NTDs include craniorachischisis resulting from a total failure of neurulation with most of the brain and the entire spinal cord remaining open, anencephaly when the defect occurs in the cranial region and spina bifida cystica when the defect is localized in the lumbosacral area. (
  • Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida and anencephaly can arise if the tubes do not close effectively. (
  • However, the subsequent defect is the maldevelopment of the mesoderm, which, in turn, forms the skeletal and muscular structures that cover the underlying neural structures. (
  • The mesoderm at either side of the neural tube is called paraxial mesoderm. (
  • None of these molecules causes dorsal mesoderm formation when expressed alone. (
  • however, it plays an important role in the induction of the vertebral bodies (via the para-axial mesoderm) and of the neural tube. (
  • Lateral plate mesoderm is further classified into parietal mesoderm and visceral mesoderm, which give rise to the limb skeleton and muscular wall of the gut tube, respectively. (
  • g Dorsal mesoderm shows leftward tilt. (
  • The key event leading to formation of the dorsal mesentery is the division of the lateral plate mesoderm into its somatic and splanchnic components, creating the coelom or body cavity, at around weeks 3-4 of gestation (Fig. 1 a-g). (
  • anencephaly is a major defect in which the brain is absent and there is only an exposed vascular mass with no bony covering. (
  • Craniorachischisis is characterized by anencephaly accompanied by a contiguous bony defect of the spine and exposure of neural tissue. (
  • The purpose of this study has been to assess the risk of central nervous system trial formations to sibs of individuals born in British Columbia with either anencephaly or spina bifida cystica, two related central nervous system defects. (
  • The empiric risk of anencephaly or spina bifida cystica to all sibs of individuals born in British Columbia with either of these defects was 2.4%, about fifteen times the population incidence. (
  • Brothers and sisters of index cases had the same risk of either anencephaly or spina bifida cystica, and there were equal proportions of each defect among sibs. (
  • This defect leads to protrusion of the membranes that cover the spine and part of the spinal cord through a bone defect in the vertebral column. (
  • Myelograms in a 5-year-old patient show the dorsal region of the spine and an anterior thoracic meningocele. (
  • The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. (
  • The vertebral arch is formed by a pair of pedicles and a pair of laminae, and supports seven processes, four articular, two transverse, and one spinous, the latter also being known as the neural spine. (
  • Sinuses can be observed as fistulous tracts on the skin surface dorsal to the spine, extending below the skin to variable depths. (
  • Vertebral and rib abnormalities are noted in the lower thoracic spine. (
  • Increases of abdominal pressure produce a concomitant elevation of the lumbar spine pressure and so the symptoms related to the neural tube size in relation to the diameter of the vertebral canal, may be exacerbated. (
  • As detected by in situ hybridization, GDF-11 is expressed in diverse regions of the mouse embryo: tailbud, somitic precursors, limbs, mandibular and branchial arches, dorsal neural tube, odontoblasts, nasal epithelium, and particular regions of the brain (1, 2). (
  • A slightly more severe form of spina bifida, which is discussed in detail in this article, is spina bifida cystica, or myelomeningocele, in which a saclike casing is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, and nerve roots that have herniated through a defect in the vertebral arches and dura, as shown below. (
  • Owing to the pigmentation defect observed in the zebrafish morphants, and because the majority of the head skeleton derives from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) that migrate from the dorsal aspect of the neural tube into the frontonasal process and the pharyngeal arches, we next investigated whether CL-K1 and MASP-1 proteins were involved in CNCC migration. (
  • In vertebrates, much of the head skeleton is derived from neural crest precursors that migrate into the pharyngeal arches from the midbrain and specific rhombomeres of the hindbrain (Langille and Hall, 1988, 1993). (
  • Laminae of vertebral arches 3. (
  • The diagram in the centre is a dorsal view of a developing embryo, showing a neural tube that is closed in the centre but still open at the cranial and caudal ends. (
  • We demonstrate the advantages of this imaging system by following the dynamics of neural tube closure during mouse embryogenesis and reveal extensive movements of the cranial neural tissue that are independent of neural fold zipping. (
  • Unlike the cranial defects, which are usually lethal at or before birth, spina bifida is compatible with postnatal survival. (
  • After the neural plate is formed, it is shaped into an elongated structure that is broad at the anterior (cranial) end and narrow at the posterior (caudal) end. (
  • The neural tube develops into the brain and spinal cord, while the neural crest cells formed during this process migrate away from the neural tube to form a variety of cell types, including pigment cells and neurons. (
  • J:222437 Aoto K, Sandell LL, Butler Tjaden NE, Yuen KC, Watt KE, Black BL, Durnin M, Trainor PA, Mef2c-F10N enhancer driven beta-galactosidase (LacZ) and Cre recombinase mice facilitate analyses of gene function and lineage fate in neural crest cells. (
  • Together these data suggest that CL-K1 and MASP-1 likely behave as early guidance cues to direct the migration of neural crest cells during embryonic development. (
  • Specific populations of neural crest cells that contribute to the skeletal elements in the head have been identified in mapping studies (Couly et al. (
  • Neural Crest cells form dorsal root ganglia and connective tissue in the head and neck. (
  • The exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) is a rare spectrum of defects affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, musculoskeletal system, pelvic floor musculature, and bony pelvis. (
  • Intraoperatively, intradural teratoma was found coming extradurally both posteriorly between the 2 spurs and anteriorly into the posterior mediastinum above the bony spurs through a defect in the vertebral body of 2 cm diameter. (
  • Encephalocele is a defect of the bony skull through which part of the brain herniates. (
  • The production of the caudal spinal cord by secondary neurulation thus begins with the laying down of neural tissues from the caudal eminence as the solid neural cord. (
  • Neural Crest Formation during Neurulation. (
  • Neurulation refers to the folding of the neural plate. (
  • Targeted deletion of GDF-11, in mice, results in a spectrum of abnormalities including palatal malformation, vertebral defects, elongated trunks with a reduced or absent tail, missing or malformed kidneys, and an increased number of neurons in the olfactory epithelium (2-5). (
  • arnold-chiari malformation is commonly associated with what other defects? (
  • Although the cause of neural tube defects and Chiari malformation is not completely known, it is thought to be caused by a problem that leads to abnormal brain formation during fetal development. (
  • The classification of caudal agenesis is based primarily on the vertebral malformation. (
  • Prenatal detection of some major open neural tube defects is possible through ultrasonic scanning of the uterus and laboratory evaluation of the amniotic fluid. (
  • Small open neural tube defects may be overlooked despite careful examination. (
  • The somites appear on both sides of the neural tube simultaneously. (
  • 2. Morphogenic, secreting sonic hedgehog a protein which regulates the development of surrounding tissues (neural plate, somites , endoderm and other organs). (
  • In dorsal somites , WNT signaling induces growth arrest specific gene 1 (Gas1) which antagonizes the action of sonic hedgehog (Lee, 2001). (
  • 190523 derivatives somites of 150 to 700 dinosaurs - tube times that become first not to support in a plate and long few to up be the embryo need. (
  • The cellular precursors of skeletal muscle originate in somites that form along the dorsal side of the organism. (
  • The primary defect in the neural tube then leads secondarily to the failure in the formation of portions of the spinal cord and the dorsal elements of the vertebral bodies and overlying tissues, which gives rise to the spina bifida sac. (
  • CL-K1 is highly expressed in embryonic murine craniofacial cartilage, heart, bronchi, kidney and vertebral bodies. (
  • The majority of patients had two vertebral bodies involved and required an average of a four-body fusion. (
  • Written by one of the most consulted authorities on the subject, Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton is the pre-eminent resource for developmental defects of the skeleton. (
  • Minor vertebral anomalies may show increased radionuclide uptake because of abnormal stresses and reactive changes. (
  • Mutant embryos exhibit a range of phenotypes including exencephaly and spina bifida, craniofacial dysmorphism, digit anomalies, cardiac anomalies and somite patterning defects. (
  • Vertebral anomalies are often minor and usually cause no clinical signs. (
  • Mesodermal anomalies involve failure of vertebral separation orfusion. (
  • The M cells also become much shorter than the cells of the lateral neural plates (L cells), and so further specify the dorsal direction of neural fold elevation. (
  • We cannot Thank travel Neural cells Lateral. (
  • The most common grading system for spondylolisthesis is the meyerding grading system for severity of slippage, which categorizes severity based upon measurements on lateral X-ray of the distance from the posterior edge of the superior vertebral body to the posterior edge of the adjacent inferior. (
  • There is a high chance of neural dysfunction and defects during the fetal neural development particularly due to the long development time frame and the need of certain nutrients such as folic acid to successfully close the tubes. (
  • Teratology is the study of birth defects, and a teratogen is something that either induces or amplifies abnormal embryonic or fetal development and causes birth defects. (
  • It is defect of the neural tube , an embryonic structure that gives rise to the spinal cord and vertebral column. (
  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, both derived from the embryonic neural tube. (
  • Exogenous retinoic acid during gastrulation induces cartilaginous and other craniofacial defects in Fundulus heteroclitus. (
  • The neural plate, in turn, gives rise to the neuroectoderm that forms the central nervous system . (
  • Homozygous rs mice, many of which are remarkably viable, exhibit a combination of multiple Wnt-deficient phenotypes, including dysmorphologies of the axial skeleton, digits and the neural tube. (
  • The Sd mutation causes severe defects in development of the axial skeleton, urogenital, and gastrointestinal systems [3] . (
  • Asymmetric conjoined twinning which is located dorsally in the vertebral column (rachipagus) is the most probable diagnosis of our patient. (
  • On physical examination, a malformed accessory extremity, resembling a rudimentary structure like a tiny arm, was attached to the back, in the upper-dorsal region of the vertebral column (Figures 1(a) and 1(b) ). (
  • Vertebral fusions are also found elsewhere in the vertebral column. (
  • The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord. (
  • There are about 50,000 species of animals that have a vertebral column. (
  • The human vertebral column is one of the most-studied examples. (
  • The vertebral column is curved in several places, a result of Human bipedal evolution. (
  • Posterior vertebral column subtraction osteotomy: a novel surgical approach for the treatment of multiple recurrences of tethered cord syndrome. (
  • This lesion may produce signs of an upper motor-neuron lesion and dorsal column-type sensory loss at all levels below the medulla. (
  • Spinal column was intact, there was no fusion defect. (
  • A large muscle lying on either side of the vertebral column extending from the sacrum to the head. (
  • It forms the base of the vertebral column and, with the coccyx, forms the posterior boundary of the true pelvis. (
  • Myelography revealed dorsal displacement of the spinal cord at T3-T4, caused by an intradural-extramedullary lesion in the dorsal contrast column. (
  • The spinal cord is a vital aspect of the central nervous system housed in the vertebral column of the spinal column. (
  • Dorsal column: contains the gracile fasciculus and cuneate fasciculus, which together are the dorsal funiculus. (
  • The dorsal column is responsible for pressure and vibration sensation as well as two-point discrimination, movement sense, and conscious proprioception. (
  • The dorsal column decussates at the superior portion of the medulla oblongata and forms medial lemniscus. (
  • The primary influence of the jerker gene appears to be on the apical hair cells, not development of neural structures. (
  • The primary embryologic defect in all neural tube defects is failure of the neural tube to close, affecting neural and cutaneous ectodermal structures. (
  • Specifically, the amniotic fluid can have a caustic and destructive effect on the open neural structures. (
  • These neural tube defects can be open (neural structures that communicate with the atmosphere) or closed (skin covered). (
  • This rapidly growing class of conditions, now known as ciliopathies, impact the development of a diverse range of tissues including the neural axis, craniofacial structures, skeleton, kidneys, eyes and lungs. (
  • They all involve abnormal holes in the vertebral bones, sometimes exposing the usually protected nerve structures to the rest of the body's influence and interactions. (
  • Patients diagnosed with having any symptoms related to their bifida development are highly encouraged to seek care and advice from a specialist in the dorsal structures, be it a spinal neurologist or a spinal orthopedist. (
  • The neural tube eventually becomes the spinal structures and in the case of bifida conditions, grows with an abnormal opening. (
  • These structures are located on the dorsal (chorionic) surface of the bilaminar embryonic disc. (
  • On occasion however, some arachnoid cysts enlarge and put pressure on adjacent neural structures such as the optic nerves, brainstem or cerebral cortex and require surgical drainage. (
  • Developmental defects of the neural tube tend to run in families and are believed by most authorities to occur during early development of the embryo. (
  • Panel B shows a cross section of the middle portion of the embryo after the neural tube has closed. (
  • To demonstrate the novelty and advantages of our system, we visualized neural tube closure (NTC) in the mouse embryo. (
  • The distribution of RA in the embryo is heterogeneous and the concentration is both limiting and critical because patterning defects can be induced by both RA excess (Holder and Hill, 1991) and RA deficiency (Schuh et al. (
  • The dorsal apple otkazhetsya ot iphone 7 na 16 gb of the exocoelom is the travel, which is the challengingto embryo of the embryo. (
  • The neural placode was circumnavigated and placed in the neural canal. (
  • In the evaluation of the spinal canal, ultrasonography is limited to the neonatal period, though a spinal defect covered with soft tissue may be imaged well into adult life. (
  • Continuation of the vertebral canal in the sacrum. (
  • The condition represents a disorder of neural tube fusion with the persistence of mesodermal tissue from the primitive neurenteric canal acting as the septum or cleft. (
  • We demonstrate that ependymal cells express Foxj1a from their birth in the embryonic neural tube and that Foxj1a activity is required for the final positioning of the ependymal canal. (
  • No increased risk of any other central nervous system defect was observed in the families of the index cases. (
  • Due to the vulnerable and complex anatomic nature of the spinal cord, maximal resection of the tumors can be achieved with the aid of appropriate intraoperative neural monitoring and meanwhile preserve nervous function. (
  • Some will endure a complete loss of nerve function below the defect, entailing a complete paralysis condition. (
  • Methods of closing a defect in an anulus fibrosus of an intervertebral disc using a barrier are also provided. (
  • refers to a condition of a missing portion of a posterior vertebral body. (
  • During gastrulation, ventrolateral cells of has2 morphant embryos fail to develop lamellipodia and to migrate dorsally, resulting in a blockage of dorsal convergence, whereas extension of the dorsal axis is normal. (
  • Folic acid helps cells develop and reduces the risk of some birth defects . (
  • Veratrum alkaloids and distal inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis have been studied for more than 30 years as potent teratogens capable of inducing cyclopia and other birth defects. (
  • A cervical magnetic resonance imaging of the neck was performed showing a dorsal homogeneous cystic intradural extramedullary lesion with high signal intensity on T2. (
  • There is a broad range of skeletal defects including rib, vertebral and shoulder anomalities. (
  • Yet the molecular regulation of neural differentiation in Hydra is largely unknown. (
  • J:76132 Aruga J, Tohmonda T, Homma S, Mikoshiba K, Zic1 promotes the expansion of dorsal neural progenitors in spinal cord by inhibiting neuronal differentiation. (
  • Taken together, these results indicate that PDGFRalpha downstream effectors, especially PI3K, are essential for cell migration of a somite-derived dorsal mesenchyme and disruption of receptor signaling in these cells leads to spina bifida. (
  • In embryos from day 8 through approximately day 10, PTEN expression was minimal in tissues such as yolk sac (YS), neural tube (NT), somite (S), amnion (A), body wall (BW), optic vesicle (OV), and embryonic gut (G), yet was routinely positive in placenta (P) ( a-d ). (
  • Antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated knockdown of zebrafish Has2 leads to the loss of HA, and severe migratory defects during gastrulation, somite morphogenesis and primordial germ cell migration. (
  • On General Aviation Aircraft Design book' Share Review by linasLeo on 12 share 2018 somite answer Share Review by linasLeo on 12 floor 2018 tube Text Share Review by linasLeo on 12 libel 2018 LinkedIn linkedin Share Review by linasLeo on 12 node 2018 was this f lovely? (
  • Note the gross dorsal kyphosis. (
  • CASE REPORT: The authors describe the case of a 2-year-old child who presented with dorsal kyphosis and a dermal sinus. (
  • Zebrafish morphants for either gene develop pigmentary defects and severe craniofacial abnormalities.Finally, we show that CL-K1 serves as a guidance cue for neural crest cell migration.Together, these findings demonstrate a role for complement pathway factors in fundamental developmental processes and in the etiology of 3MC syndrome. (
  • Zebrafish morphants for either gene develop pigmentary defects and severe craniofacial abnormalities. (
  • The aetiology of most Abnormal vertebral segmentation (AVS) Syndromes is unknown. (
  • A good general rule states that the higher the deformity exists on the back and the larger the abnormal vertebral openings, the greater the chance of suffering some ill effects from the condition. (
  • Furthermore, we identified a migration defect in the sclerotome as the cause of the abnormal vertebral development. (
  • A small minority of homozygotes have been found to have embryonic neural tube defects or a dorsal enlargement of the head. (
  • The spinal cord develops from the embryonic neural tube, an initially homogeneous neuroepithelium. (
  • Together, we propose that Lrp6 is one of the key genetic components for the pathogenesis of vertebral segmentation defects and of osteoporosis in humans. (
  • Some particular disease states characterised by segmentation defects have been shown to result from mutation in key Notch‐regulated components of somitogenesis. (
  • Two transverse processes and one spinous process are posterior to (behind) the vertebral body. (
  • what do the cells of the neural plate do? (
  • This elevation is accomplished by a poorly understood process called apical constriction, in which columnar cells of the neural tube are converted into wedge-shaped cells ( 8 ). (
  • Although myelomeningoceles occur most commonly at the lumbosacral level, they may affect the neural tube at any level. (
  • Lamina VII is composed of homogenous medium-sized multipolar neurons, and contains, in individual segments, well-defined nuclei, including the intermediolateral nucleus (T1-L1), which has autonomic functions, and the dorsal nucleus of Clarke (T1-L2), which make up the dorsal spinocerebellar tract. (
  • 17. The method of claim 1 , wherein the step of implanting the biocompatible support member comprises implanting the biocompatible support member to reduce the flow of material from the nucleus into the defect. (
  • The central role of primary cilia in health and disease has become prominent in the past decade with the recognition of a number of human syndromes that result from defects in the formation or function of primary cilia. (
  • In flies, Dpp functions with wingless in the formation of the heart tube. (
  • The cells change in shape and adhesion, creating a rise that finally meets in the middle to form the neural tube. (
  • Conclusions The intraspinal neurenteric cysts are rare lesions that must be included in the differential diagnosis of a dorsal, intradural cystic structure. (
  • J:232560 Anderson MJ, Schimmang T, Lewandoski M, An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension. (
  • During development, progenitor cells in the neural tube acquire different identities depending on their position along the dorsoventral axis. (