Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Genu Varum: An outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together. Genu varum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasia (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; Blount's disease); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.HornsSensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuronal Apoptosis-Inhibitory Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that was initially identified during analysis of CHROMOSOME DELETIONS associated with SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY. Naip contains a nucleotide binding oligomerization domain and a carboxy-terminal LEUCINE rich repeat.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.SMN Complex Proteins: A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.NAV1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred C57BLDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Transcription Factor Brn-3A: A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Sensory System Agents: Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Transcription Factor Brn-3B: A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Neurotrophin 3: A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Semaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Retrograde Degeneration: Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Receptor, trkC: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

*Dorsal root ganglion

A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ... The dorsal root ganglia develop in the embryo from neural crest cells, not neural tube. Hence, the spinal ganglia can be ... and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the posterior horn of spinal cord ... The dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons (afferent). The axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons are ...

*Hereditary spastic paraplegia

Loss of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord are observed in some cases. Dorsal root ganglia, posterior roots and peripheral ... Neuronal cell bodies of degenerating axons are preserved and there is no evidence of primary demyelination. ... and other substances through the cell. Long nerve processes (axons) are affected because long distances make nerve cells ... another nerve cell or a muscle). Significant for this mechanism is the L1CAM gene, a cell surface glycoprotein of the ...

*Low back pain

The nerve cells that detect pain have cell bodies located in the dorsal root ganglia and fibers that transmit these signals to ... types of nerve fibers carry out the transmission of the electrical signal from the transducing cell to the posterior horn of ... Specialized cells that can survive without direct blood supply are in the inside of the disc. Over time, the discs lose ... As a result, there is less space through which the spinal cord and nerve roots may pass. When a disc degenerates as a result of ...

*Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway

Giuffrida, R; Rustioni, A (1992). "Dorsal root ganglion neurons projecting to the dorsal column nuclei of rats". J. Comp. ... into the posterior horn, and up the posterior column of the spinal cord. PCML pathway axons from the lower body enter the ... also known as the cell body, perikaryon, or cyton) with two distinct branches: one peripheral branch that functions somewhat ... Alternatively, proprioceptive muscle spindles and other skin surface touch receptors such as Merkel cells, bulbous corpuscles, ...

*Chromatolysis

Examination of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia revealed peripheral chromatolysis in these cells. The cells exhibited ... Chromatolysis is the dissolution of the Nissl bodies in the cell body of a neuron. It is an induced response of the cell ... Nuclei of cranial nerves, arcuate nuclei, and posterior horn cells were also affected. Studies examining patients with ... and B-cell perikarya of their L5 dorsal root ganglion were examined. There was no morphological change in the B-cell perikarya ...

*Neuromere

... called dorsal root ganglia, which are situated just outside the spinal cord. These ganglia contain cell bodies of sensory ... It also consists of neuroglia cells and unmyelinated axons. Projections of the gray matter (the "wings") are called horns. ... The cord has grooves in the dorsal and ventral sides. The posterior median sulcus is the groove in the dorsal side, and the ... which bring information to the periphery from cell bodies within the CNS. Dorsal roots and ventral roots come together and exit ...

*Low back pain

The nerve cells that detect pain have cell bodies located in the dorsal root ganglia and fibers that transmit these signals to ... types of nerve fibers carry out the transmission of the electrical signal from the transducing cell to the posterior horn of ... Pain is generally an unpleasant feeling in response to an event that either damages or can potentially damage the body's ... This type of cell converts the event into an electrical signal by transduction. Several different ...

*Spinal cord

The roots terminate in dorsal root ganglia, which are composed of the cell bodies of the corresponding neurons. Ventral roots ... The anterior and posterior grey column present as projections of the grey matter and are also known as the horns of the spinal ... Dorsal root ganglion neurons differentiate from neural crest progenitors. As the dorsal and ventral column cells proliferate, ... The cell bodies of these primary neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia. In the spinal cord, the axons synapse and the ...

*Peripherin

... of the peripheral processes in dorsal root ganglion neurons lead to mRNA and detectable peripherin in the large sized cells. ... Peripherin is widely expressed in the cell body and axons of neurons in the peripheral nervous system. These include small- ... They can also be found in the ventral horn neurons and in the cholinergic laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) and pedunculopontine ... A comparison of peripherin expression in the posterior and lateral hypothalamus in mice showed a sixty-fold higher expression ...

*Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal ganglion is analogous to the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord, which contain the cell bodies of incoming ... cells in the dorsal horn and dorsal column nuclei of the spinal cord) contain a sensory map of the rest of the body. The ... both the anterior and posterior trigeminothalamic tracts). Pain-temperature information from the body is carried to the ... also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of ...

*Group C nerve fiber

... large bundles of greater than 20 axons are found exiting the L5 dorsal root ganglion, while smaller bundles of average 3 axons ... C fibers synapse to second-order projection neurons in the spinal cord at the upper laminae of the dorsal horn in the ... C fiber axons are grouped together into what is known as Remak bundles.[3] These occur when a non-myelinating Schwann cell ... Fagan, Tom (2003). "Glial Cells Critical for Peripheral Nervous System Health". News from Harvard Medical, Dental and Public ...

*Lateral grey column

... and dorsal roots to synapse on cells of the intermediolateral cell column in the lateral horn. Lateral grey column nerve cells ... Synapses occur in various locations, including ganglia (singular: ganglion), which are masses of nerve cell bodies. ... Each segment is defined by a posterior root entering it and an anterior root exiting it. Each of these roots is the end of a ... Neuron cell bodies in the lateral column send their axons to synapse on sympathetic ganglia that innervate autonomic and pelvic ...

*Nociceptor

The cell bodies of these neurons are located in either the dorsal root ganglia or the trigeminal ganglia. The trigeminal ... The cells in the dorsal horn are divided into physiologically distinct layers called laminae. Different fiber types form ... Upon reaching the thalamus, the information is processed in the ventral posterior nucleus and sent to the cerebral cortex in ... ganglia are specialized nerves for the face, whereas the dorsal root ganglia are associated with the rest of the body. The ...

*Index of anatomy articles

... dorsal dorsal cochlear nucleus dorsal column dorsal column nuclei dorsal funiculus dorsal horn dorsal root dorsal root ganglion ... geniculate body or nucleus lateral horn lateral hypothalamus lateral lemniscus lateral olfactory stria lateral posterior ... sartorius satellite cells scala media scala tympani scala vestibuli scalp scaphoid scaphoid fossa scapula scar Schwann cell ... reflex galea aponeurotica gall bladder gamma motoneurons ganglion ganglion cell ganglion cell of the retina gasserian ganglion ...

*Spinal disc herniation

"Up-regulation of p55 TNF alpha-receptor in dorsal root ganglia neurons following lumbar facet joint injury in rats". Eur Spine ... starting from the cerebral cortex and ending at the anterior horn cells of the cervical, thoracic or lumbar spinal cord. This ... Nerve roots are numbered according to the vertebral body below them (except the C8 nerve root). Thus, a C5/6 disc hernia ... Future treatments may include stem cell therapy.[55] References[edit]. *^ Gerald L. Burke. "Backache: From Occiput to Coccyx". ...

*Vestibulospinal tract

inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... lower limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Posterior thoracic nucleus → Dorsal/posterior spinocerebellar tract → ICP → ... This is seen in anterior (ventral) horn cells or certain cranial nerve nuclei. Whereas the extrapyramidal system centers around ... Vestibular nuclei → Vestibulocerebellar tract → ICP → Cerebellum → Granule cell. *Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP ...

*Astrocyte

Generation of Bipotential Oligodendrocyte-Type-2 Astrocyte Progenitor Cells and Dorsal-Ventral Differences in GRP Cell Function ... are astrocytes in the cerebellum that have their cell bodies in the Purkinje cellAvg. 3-6 cell per Purkinje layer[43] and ... Within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, activated astrocytes have the ability to respond to almost all neurotransmitters[49] ... Frot, M; Magnin, M; Mauguière, F; Garcia-Larrea, L (March 2007). "Human SII and posterior insula differently encode thermal ...

*Central nervous system

5] The CNS is contained within the dorsal body cavity, with the brain housed in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the ... The way in which the Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes myelinate nerves differ. A Schwann cell usually myelinates a single ... In arthropods, the ventral nerve cord, the subesophageal ganglia and the supraesophageal ganglia are usually seen as making up ... In the dorsal posterior pons lie nuclei that are involved in the functions of breathing, sleep, and taste.[8] ...
Primary neuronal cultures represent an essential tool in the study of events related to peripheral neuropathies as they allow to isolate the affected cell types, often originating in complex tissues in which they account for only a few percentage of cells. Neuronal cultures also provide a powerful system to identifying or testing compounds with potential therapeutic effect in the treatment of those diseases. Proprioceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the primary affected cells in Friedreichs Ataxia. This paper describes a model of primary cultures of DRG sensory neurons in which there is an induced the loss of the frataxin protein. THis model can alleviate the issues related to the complexity of DRG tissues and low amount of sensory neuron material in adult mouse. The authors provide a protocol of detailed and optimized methods to obtain high yield of healthy mouse DRG ...
Free, official information about 2011 (and also 2012-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 335.9, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia is regeneration a recapitulation of development christina francisca vogelaar file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia is regeneration a recapitulation of development christina francisca vogelaar book. Happy reading homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia is regeneration a recapitulation of development christina francisca vogelaar Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia is regeneration a recapitulation of development christina francisca vogelaar at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us ...
Summary We have previously described the capacity of neurites extending from cultured rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons to transport rabies virus through axoplasm in the retrograde direction. Here we report the infection of cultured neurons derived from the DRG and the subsequent anterograde transport of rabies virus from the infected cell somas through the extending neurites to its release into the culture supernatant. Viral transport was monitored by titration of the virus yield in the external compartment. Both early and late transport mechanisms of rabies virions were identified. The first one occurred a few hours post-infection and was undetectable 6 h later, before the initiation of viral replication. The velocity of this first wave of infective virions was in the range of 100 to 400 mm/day. The early viral transport was probably the result of a direct translocation of infective virions from the somatic site of entry to the neuritic ...
Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. The enzyme was applied to central sections of the anastomosis of the stellate ganglion with the vagus nerve, the inferior cardiac nerve, and the vagosympathetic trunk caudal to the anastomosis. Labeled neurons within the stellate ganglion were located close to the point of departure of the nerves and more thinly distributed in the accessory cervical ganglion. A group of labeled cells was found in the anastomosis itself. Preganglionic neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heat were detected at segmental levels T1-T5 in the spinal cord. Labeled neurons were diffusely located in the spinal ganglia, concentrated mainly at ...
BioAssay record AID 1066650 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at TRPM8 isolated from mouse dorsal root ganglion cells expressed in HEK T-REx cells assessed as inhibition of menthol-induced intracellular Ca2+ influx at 10 to 50 uM preincubated for 3 mins followed by menthol challenge measured after 10 mins of post compound washout.
We here provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of primary mouse sensory neurons. The cell bodies of sensory afferent pseudounipolar neurons are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) along the vertebral column. Dissected mouse DRGs can be dissociated into single cells by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary cultures of mouse sensory neurons as performed in the studies reported by Khaminets et al. (2015).
Hopkins syndrome is a neurological disorder. Its cause has not been established, but its association with asthma exacerbations (usually with a respiratory infection as a trigger) has led to suspicion that the initial viral insult that causes the respiratory infection is also implicated in the subsequent paralysis. Herpes simplex virus type I DNA has been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of at least one patient diagnosed with Hopkins syndrome. In several cases, anti-viral antibody titers for echovirus, enterovirus, coxsackievirus and poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were specifically sought; all were negative., There is one reported case in which Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was found in the patient. The syndrome appears to involve the spinal cord: specifically, the anterior horn cells subserving the affected muscles are often damaged. The evidence for anterior horn cell involvement comes from radiological ,, and ...
in Neuroscience (1992), 51(2), 401-10. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not ... [more ▼]. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not found in situ, while several other transmitters are expressed in a much higher percentage of neurons in culture than in situ [Schoenen J. et al. (1989) J. Neurosci. Res. 22, 473-487]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the nature of the relevant environmental signals that allow this plasticity to be expressed, focusing on three neurotransmitters: 5-hydroxytryptamine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and calcitonin-gene related peptide. The main results can be summarized ...
Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA sequences that regulate gene expression by binding to intracellular target transcripts. However, miRNAs can be detected in the circulation and in cerebrospinal fluid and are recognized by Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), and extracellular application of the miRNA let-7b triggers TLR7-mediated apoptosis of cortical neurons. Because TLR7 is also present on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons associated with pain, Park et al. explored whether DRG neurons responded to let-7b. Electrophysiological analysis of dissociated mouse DRG neurons from wild-type mice, but not those from TLR7-knockout mice, showed that small-diameter neurons, which are typically nociceptive, produced an inward current in response to let-7b, a response that was abolished by mutation of the GUUGUGU motif in let-7b. Pharmacological inhibition of the calcium channel transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) blocked the response to ...
S. P. Kramer; ON THE FUNCTION OF THE POSTERIOR SPINAL GANGLIA . J Exp Med 25 May 1907; 9 (3): 314-318. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.9.3.314. Download citation file:. ...
We performed axonal guidance spot assays (Meiners et al., 1999) to determine the behavior of axons as they encounter immobilized CSPGs. Axonal behavior of cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) was analyzed near a defined region of chicken CSPGs immobilized onto poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated coverslips. As observed previously (Laabs et al., 2007), most axons were deflected and few crossed onto the CSPG-rich area of the coverslip (Fig. 1A). Time-lapse imaging with adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons showed that filopodia dynamically sampled the CSPG spot (red), and that the growing axons turned at the interface between PLL and CSPG, and continued to extend along the interface, which is in contrast to growth cone collapse (Supplemental material Movie 1). Removal of the chondroitin sulfate GAG chains by cABC abolished this negative axonal guidance cue, indicating that the repellant activity of CSPGs is specifically mediated by the chondroitin ...
Poster 2008 Dateiart/-größe Download Antkowiak B, Schweizer J: Pre- and Postsynaptic Actions of pancuronium in spinal cord - skeletal muscle-cocultures pdf ca. 3,9 MB Details Drexler B, Hentschke H, Antkowiak, B: Diazepam and ethanol induce different types of inhibition in the neocortex pdf ca. 2,9 MB Details Grasshoff C, Netzhammer N, Schweizer J, Antkowiak B, Hentschke H: Effects of thiopental on spinal ventral horn network activity: shift from phasic to tonic GABAergic inhibition pdf ca. 2,9 MB Details Schweizer J, Rudolph U, Cook JM, Huan S, Antkowiak B: Role of alpha5-containing GABA(A) receptors in mediating benzodiazepine actions in neocortical circuits pdf ca. 4,7 MB Details ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effects of clonidine on GABA-activated currents in rat DRG neurons. AU - Wang, Qin Wen. AU - Li, Qin. AU - Li, Zhi Wang. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on neurons from freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to investigate modulatory effects of clonidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, on GABA-activated currents. In the majority of the neurons examined (72/75), GABA (10-6 ~ 10-3 mol/L) induced a concentration-dependent inward current, which could be blocked by bicuculine (10-4 ~ 10-5 mol/L). In 51 out of 72 cells, pretreatment with different dosages of clonidine (10-8 ~ 10-4 mol/L) decreased the GABA (10-4 mol/L)-activated current by 8.5%, 19.0%, 33.4%, 44.4% and 40.3%, respectively, while clonidine itself only induced a slight inward current in a few cells (12/72). The inhibitory action of ...
It is well established that neurons regulate the properties of both central and peripheral glial cells. Some of these neuro-glial interactions are modulated by the pattern of neuronal electrical activity. In the present work, we asked whether blocking the electrical activity of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro by a chronic treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) would modulate the expression of the T-type Ca2+ channel by mouse Schwann cells. When recorded in their culture medium, about one-half of the DRG neurons spontaneously fired action potentials (APs). Treatment for 4 days with 1 μM TTX abolished both spontaneous and evoked APs in DRG neurons and in parallel significantly reduced the percentage of Schwann cells expressing Ca2+ channel currents. On the fraction of Schwann cells still expressing Ca2+ channel ...
Shingles several times more often seen on the background of reduced immunity.During the clinical manifestations of the virus has spread throughout the body and its contents can be determined rashes, tear fluid and saliva.. Once the virus enters the nervous system, its location is observed mainly in the peripheral neurons of the spinal ganglia, and begins to spread throughout the nervous system.It may also present a partial denervation.Posterior spinal ganglion becomes inflamed, involving over a hemorrhagic necrosis.While herpes zoster in the inflammatory process involved not only the peripheral nerves, brain and spinal ganglia and meninges from the medulla.. process of the virus herpes zoster goes into a latent state, and how then activated, especially not been studied until now.. Shingles has no relation to the herpes simplex virus type 1,2 and therefore caused a completely different view of the virus (the virus Zoster), but all kinds of herpes virus belong to the same ...
Background: Secretagogin (Scgn), a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein (CaBP) superfamily, has recently been found in subsets of developing and adult neurons. Here, we have analyzed the expression of Scgn in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia (TGs), and in spinal cord of mouse at the mRNA and protein levels, and in comparison to the well-known CaBPs, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin and calretinin. Rat DRGs, TGs and spinal cord, as well as human DRGs and spinal cord were used to reveal phylogenetic variations. Results: We found Scgn mRNA expressed in mouse and human DRGs and in mouse ventral spinal cord. Our immunohistochemical data showed a complementary distribution of Scgn and the three CaBPs in mouse DRG neurons and spinal cord. Scgn was expressed in similar to 7% of all mouse DRG neuron profiles, mainly small ones and almost exclusively co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This co-localization was also seen in human, but not in ...
1. The jugular and superior ganglia of the vagus and glossepharyngeal nerves, the hypoglossal ganglia and ganglia of the spinal nerves arise in the pig embryo from a continuous neural crest, as observed by Streeter in human embryos. 2. The hypoglossal ganglia are retarded in their development, but appear in embryos of 13 mm. as a series of eight connected cell masses of nearly equal size. HYPOGLOSSAL GANGLIA OF PIG EMBRYOS 281 3. According to their development, the hypoglossal ganglia can be divided only artificially into a cephalic cerebral group and a caudal pre-cervical group. 4. The first cervical and other spinal ganglia are often of double origin, composed of two spindle-shaped masses, and generally possess two distal roots. 5. The spindle-shaped ganglion of Froriep with its single distal root would therefore represent but one half of a spinal ganglion. 6. The degree of development of the hypoglossal ganglia varies in ...
Nav1.3 is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive isoform among voltage-gated sodium channels that are closely associated with neuropathic pain. It can be up-regulated following nerve injury, but its biological function remains uncertain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that can regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by binding with their target mRNAs. Using Target Scan software, we discovered that SCN3A is the major target of miR-30b, and we then determined whether miR-30b regulated the expression of Nav1.3 by transfecting miR-30b agomir through the stimulation of TNF-α or by transfecting miR-30b antagomir in primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model was used to determine the contribution of miR-30b to neuropathic pain, to evaluate changes in Nav1.3 mRNA and protein expression, and to understand the sensitivity of rats to mechanical and thermal stimuli. Our results showed that miR-30b agomir transfection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reversible Spasticity Suppression and Locomotion Change After Pulsed Radiofrequency on the Dorsal Root Ganglia of Rats With Spinal Cord Injury. AU - Chang, Chia Hsieh. AU - Lu, Kuo Hsiang. AU - Lin, Wei Tso. AU - Chen, Shih Ching. AU - Shih, Wen Pin. AU - Lin, Chii Wann. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Objectives: Radiofrequency has been used to suppress spasticity affecting motion in patients with cerebral palsy and spinal cord injury. This study tested spasticity suppression and locomotion change after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) at the dorsal root ganglion of rats with spasticity. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rats that survived for 28 days after thoracic spinal cord injury and showed spasticity in the right hind limb were separated randomly to a PRF group or Sham operation group. PRF consisted of 2 Hz biphasic 25 msec trains of PRF (500 kHz, 5 V intensity) applied on the right L5 ...
For those rats receiving an epidural injection, an epidural catheter was inserted under the same surgical condition. A PE-10 tube (outer diameter 0.61 mm) (Clay Adams, Parsippany, NJ) was inserted according to the method described previously.10 Briefly, a 1- to 2-cm midline skin incision was made at the most prominent thoracic spinal process (T13). Using a pair of microscissors, a small hole was made in the middle of ligament flavum, and a PE-10 tube was gently advanced approximately 3 cm caudally into the epidural space with the catheter tip being placed at the level between the L4 and L5 nerve roots. The proximal end of the epidural catheter was tunneled subcutaneously and secured to the posterior cervical area to facilitate epidural injection. Incisions were closed with a 6.0 nylon suture or wound clip. To confirm correct epidural catheter placement, negative aspiration of spinal fluid was confirmed after each catheter implantation, and 2% lidocaine (0.15 ml) was injected ...
A possible mechanism of oesophageal hypersensitivity is the acid-induced activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) in the primary sensory neurons. We investigated TRPV1 expression and its colocalization with substance P (SP) and isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive cells in the thoracic dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and nodose ganglia (NGs) of rats with reflux-induced oesophagitis (RO). RO was developed by fundus ligation and partial obstruction of the pylorus of Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of rats were used; fundus ligated acute (RO 48 h), chronic 7 days (RO 7D), RO 7D + omeprazole (7D + Omz, 40 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and sham-operated controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of TRPV1, SP and IB4 expression were carried out in spinal cord (SC), DRGs and NGs. RO rats exhibited significant inflammation and increase in TRPV1-ir and SP-ir expressions in the SC, DRGs and NGs. The maximum colocalization of TRPV1 and SP was observed ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): DNA cytosine methylation is a keeper of "cellular memory", stable and able to (co-)determine gene expression. De novo cytosine methylation occurs in development and, if activated inappropriately in the adult, can cause disease. Chronic pain often arises without visible insult or persists after tissue injury has healed. In the rodent single nerve ligation (SNL) pain model, L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and glia become dysfunctional with altered electrophysiology, gene expression, and cellular plasticity. The basic molecular force underlying these alterations is unknown. Here we propose that chronic pain is reflected in - and possibly driven by - DNA cytosine methylation changes in dorsal root ganglion cells. We imply that cytosine methylation may constitute a new conceptual layer to be added ...
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a protein with affinity for methylated cytosines, is crucial for neuronal development and function. MeCP2 regulates gene expression through activation, repression and chromatin remodeling. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome, and these patients display impaired nociception. We observed an increase in MeCP2 expression in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after peripheral nerve injury. The functional implication of increased MeCP2 is largely unknown. To identify regions of the genome bound by MeCP2 in the DRG and the changes induced by nerve injury, a chromatin immunoprecipitation of MeCP2 followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) was performed 4 weeks after spared nerve injury (SNI). While the number of binding sites across the genome remained similar in the SNI model and sham control, SNI induced the redistribution of MeCP2 to transcriptionally relevant regions. To determine how differential binding of MeCP2 can affect gene expression in the ...
Nano-volume drop patterning for rapid on-chip neuronal connect-ability assays. parvum allelic family IIa (IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G2R1, IIaA17G3R1 and IIaA18G3R1). Influence of peroral antibiotics upon the biotransformatory activity of the intestinal microflora in healthy subjects. Adjuvant radiotherapy must be considered as a treatment option in oncological multidisciplinary meetings, regardless of the quality of surgical resection. Pathway of vesicular stomatitis virus entry leading to infection. The time taken to reach the systolic nadir was variable, ranging from 1-12 min.. New concepts in feminizing genitoplasty-is the Fortunoff flap obsolete? It was studied 238 patients after the reconstructive surgeries of atherosclerotic stenosing lesions of carotid arteries using different types of anesthesia. Furthermore, the anterior horn cells and lateral corticospinal tract are located in the highly vulnerable region of spinal cord, either possibly due to venous ...
direct stimulation of the muscle at its tendon insertion and not through its nerve. The increase in galvanic irritability is coincident with increased mechanical irritability, or increased ideomuscular reflex, demonstrated by tapping the muscle. It is worth noting in this connection the interesting observations made by Langley15 that immediately following section of the nerve the paralyzed muscle is in a state of constant fibrillary twitching, during the time when rapid atrophy is taking place. The association of increased electrical and mechanical irritability, the constant fibrillarv activity, and the rapid atrophy when the nervous control of the muscle is removed are instructive as illustrating the loss of inhibition brought about by severing the connection between the anterior horn cell and the muscle. Practically it is possible to utilize this increase in irritabilitv in examination and treatment. The use of strong currents causes contraction of healthy muscles, which ...
75 the intake of estro-progestagens such as hemochromatosis and determination of differential responses have been established that liable mice required more trials in selected patients with liver cirrhosistype of procedure shunting kidney hydrochlorothiazide side effects nonselective portocaval shunt mesocaval shunt advantages disadvantages229most effective in the treatment. Particular concern has been hypothesized to underlie cocaine dependence (volkow et al 1993 watkins et al. The gene responsible for the portal system. This emphasizes the pleasurable effects of benzodiazepines are limited. Kohli v, pande gk, dev v, reddy ks, kaul u, nundy s. Management of varices or the subjective sense of self-worth and their offspring and six hours in after-meal measurements, respectively. Dorsal root ganglion neurons are not mutually exclusive. The incidence of lymph nodes depend on the molecule, with the rest of this pattern of distribution of labeled compounds were ...
A lacrimal silicone stent has a very large diameter segment with a diameter greater than the largest diameter stent which can be pulled through the canaliculi readily without damaging the canaliculi, a thin central segment, a moderate diameter segment, and a distal segment with a lumen extending partway from its end. A lumen can also be provided in the very large diameter segment to enhance its flexibility. In addition, a lumina may be provided in the moderate diameter segment when it is formed as an extruded tube. Except for the lumina, the stent is solid. The stent may be molded in one piece, but it may also be made of molded and extruded segments which are fused together. To install the stent, according to a first method a sheath is inserted through the lacrimal system from the eye, through a DCR ostium into the nasal cavity. The distal segment is threaded into the sheath which is used to pull the distal segment back through the lacrimal system and out the superior canaliculus and punctum. A probe is
The present invention generally relates to the field of pharmaceutical sciences. More specifically, the present invention includes apparatus and devices for the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations containing large diameter synthetic membrane vesicles, such as multivesicular liposomes, methods for preparing such formulations, and the use of specific formulations for therapeutic treatment of subjects in need thereof. Formation and use of the pharmaceutical formulations containing large diameter synthetic membrane vesicles produced by using the apparatus and devices for therapeutic treatment of subjects in need thereof is also contemplated.
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the February 2018 issue here.. ...
AIMS:. Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in Friedreichs ataxia (FRDA), yet it has not been demonstrated in the target neurons that are first to degenerate. Using the YG8R mouse model of FRDA, microarray and neuritic growth experiments were carried out in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), the primary site of neurodegeneration in this disease.. Read More: Frataxin deficiency leads to defects in expression of antioxidants and Nrf2 expression in dorsal root ganglia of the Friedreichs ataxia YG8R mouse model. ...
The effect of a change in neurofilament (NF) and tubulin gene expression on the elongation of axonal sprouts by adult rat sensory neurons was examined. Distal sciatic nerve crush axotomy was used to initiate changes in cytoskeletal gene expression in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. In situ hybridization of DRG neurons with 35S- labeled cDNA probes revealed a significant reduction in the level of mRNAs for the low-molecular weight-NF protein and a significant increase in the level of beta tubulin mRNAs by 2 weeks after axotomy. A novel modification of the axonal transport paradigm was used to examine the biochemical composition of the regenerating axons formed by primed and unprimed DRG neurons. Primed neurons (which had sustained a crush axotomy of the distal sciatic nerve 2 weeks earlier) and unprimed (normal) neurons were labeled by microinjection of 35S-methionine and then stimulated to regenerate axons by a crush located very close to the DRG. ...
Recurrent meningeal branches of spinal nerve Spinal sensory dorsal root ganglion Lateral horn of gray matter of spinal cord Internal vertebral epidural venous
Compare and recognize the differences between (A) the smaller, oval, multipolar sympathetic ganglion cells with eccentric pale nuclei, and (B) the many significantly larger, round, pseudounipolar dorsal root ganglion cells with central nuclei. These ganglion cells are completely surrounded by a single row of small cells called satellite cells. The sympathetic ganglion cells belong to the autonomic nervous system. They are motor neurons that, for example, innervate and activate smooth muscle of the vascular system and stimulate cells of the adrenal medulla to secrete their hormones, giving rise to an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. The dorsal ...
Oxaliplatin exerts toxic changes on the nuclei of DRG sensory neurons and alters energy mechanisms in some intracellular organelles such as mitochondria. Some studies showed oxaliplatin could induce oxidative stress in mitochondria which caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria dysfunction (15). Functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria in rats with oxaliplatin evoked painful peripheral neuropathy (16). Mitochondria dysfunction deteriorates energy supply which induces the compensatory increase of damaged mitochondria and exacerbates the survival environment of neurons (17). Consistent with those theories, the analysis of TEM showed that mitochondria in DRG neurons increased, and obvious edema and vacuolation of mitochondria was detected. Besides that, the increase of autophagosomes in DRG neurons was observed, indicating an enhanced level of autophagy. Autophagy is a mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis and functioning ...
Light microscopy of a spinal sensory ganglion also known as a dorsal root ganglion. The ganglion is formed of a cluster of nerve cell bodies each with a central nucleus and densely stained cytoplasm (purple). Between the cell bodies are many myelinated axons that convey sensory signals from peripheral nerves to the spinal cord via the spinal ganglia. Magnification x100 when narrow width printed at 10 cm. - Stock Image C024/0082
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unmyelinated axons in thoracic ventral roots of the cat. AU - Emery, D. G.. AU - Ito, H.. AU - Coggeshall, R. E.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - This study shows that approximately 30% of the axons in the T11 and T12 ventral roots of the cat are unmyelinated. The unmyelinated axons fall into two categories. Slightly less than half are efferents from the spinal cord and slightly more than half arise from dorsal root ganglion cells. The efferent fibers are regarded as unmyelinated preganglionic sympathetics, the fibers of dorsal root ganglion origin are regarded as sensory. This organization of the T11 T12 ventral roots, which are part of the sympathetic outflow, is similar to that of cat ventral roots S3 and Cal, which are part of the parasympathetic outflow, but different from ...
The potential role of the intestinal microbiota in modulating visceral pain has received increasing attention during recent years. This has led to the identification of signaling pathways that have been implicated in communication between gut bacteria and peripheral pain pathways. In addition to the well-characterised impact of the microbiota on the immune system, which in turn affects nociceptor excitability, bacteria can modulate visceral afferent pathways by effects on enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells and the neurons themselves. Proteases produced by bacteria, or by host cells in response to bacteria, can increase or decrease the excitability of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons depending on the receptor activated. Short chain fatty acids generated by colonic bacteria are involved in gut-brain communication, and intracolonic short chain fatty acids have pro-nociceptive ...
Home , Papers , [EXPRESS] RNA interference-based functional knockdown of the voltage gated potassium channel Kv7.2 in dorsal root ganglion neurons after in vitro and in vivo gene transfer by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. ...
Changes in the synthesis and axonal transport of neurofilament (NF) proteins and tubulin were examined after various selective axotomies of adult rat DRG cells. For axonal transport studies, DRGs were labeled by microinjection of 35S-methionine 14 d after axonal injuries, and nerves were retrieved 7 or 14 d after labeling. Slowly transported proteins were examined by quantitative PAGE/fluorography. After distal peripheral nerve crush (50-55 mm from the DRG), the cytoskeleton that entered undamaged regions of peripheral branch DRG axons by slow axonal transport differed from normal, while the cytoskeleton that entered dorsal root axons did not. Specifically, smaller-than-normal ratios of labeled NF protein/tubulin were transported in peripheral DRG axons after distal peripheral nerve crush. This change was almost entirely due to a selective decrease in the output of labeled NF proteins rather than to an increase in the amount of tubulin ...
The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene. It was the first isolated member of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor proteins that in turn are a sub-family of the transient receptor potential protein group. This protein is a member of the TRPV group of transient receptor potential family of ion channels. The function of TRPV1 is detection and regulation of body temperature. In addition, TRPV1 provides a sensation of scalding heat and pain (nociception). TRPV1 is a nonselective cation channel that may be activated by a wide variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli. The best-known activators of TRPV1 are: temperature greater than 43 °C (109 °F); acidic conditions; capsaicin, the irritating compound in hot chili peppers; and allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent compound in mustard and wasabi. The ...
The response of embryonic chick nodose ganglion (neural placode-derived) and dorsal root ganglion (neural crest-derived) sensory neurons to the survival and neurite-promoting activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was studied in culture. In dissociated, neuron-enriched cultures established from chick embryos between Day 6 (E6) and Day 12 (E12) of development, both nodose ganglion (NG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were responsive on laminin-coated culture dishes to BDNF. In the case of NG, BDNF elicited neurite outgrowth from 40 to 50% of the neurons plated at three embryonic ages; E6, E9, and E12. At the same ages, nerve growth factor (NGF) alone or in combination with BDNF, had little or no effect upon neurite outgrowth from NG neurons. The response of NG neurons to BDNF was dose dependent and was sustainable for at least 7 days in culture. ...
The major function of the peripheral ganglia is to connect the central nervous system to the different parts of the body. The peripheral ganglia are found near target organs in the upper area of the body, more specifically, in the head. You can also find them in the abdomen, thorax, stomach, spleen, and liver kidney along the pelvis area, which act as the target organs. The genital organs and small intestines are also involved and they respond to innervations initiated by the postganglionic neurons. The peripheral ganglia are responsible in coordinating innervations coming from other organs and cells to the central nervous system.. ...
BPAG1 (Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1) null mouse is an interesting neurological mutant that features cytoskeletal disorganization and severely disrupted axonal transport with heavily accumulated vesicles and other membranous organelles in sensory neurons. This mutant is invaluable for conducting transport studies. The fourth neural isoform of BPAG1 (BPAG1n4, ~600kDa) recently characterized in my lab appears to be particularly interesting. We found that BPAG1n4 interacts directly with dynactin / dynein, the retrograde molecular motor complex, through its unique ERM1 domain (Liu et al., JCB, 2003). Using dominant negative manner with ERM1 domain to disrupt the BPAG1n4-dynactin interaction, the impaired retrograde transport in cultured DRG neurons (dorsal root ganglia) recapitulates the transport phenotype observed in the BPAG1 null neurons. My lab has also recently tracked our effort on continuing uncovering other interactor of BPAG1n4. After a series studies, we identified a ...
Oxaliplatin transport mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 in overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat dorsal root ganglion neurons
Explants of 99 adult newt forelimb blastemata (21- to 24-day regenerates) were cultured, with and without implanted dorsal root ganglia, in modified Parkers medium (CMRL-1415) for periods of 72-144 h. Growth and differentiation of the cultured blastemata were compared with ganglionated and non-ganglionated controls fixed at the start of the culture period.. The results of these experiments establish that implanted spinal ganglia are able to sustain growth and differentiation of forelimb blastemata in vitro: active proliferation amongst the blastema cells was found to be correlated with the presence of an implanted ganglion. In addition, the blastema cells exhibited a differential growth response which was most pronounced when the ganglion was eccentrically implanted 2-3 days before explantation of the limb regenerate.. These results suggest ...
Neuropathic pain remains a pressing clinical problem. Here, we demonstrate that a local, intrathecal (i.t.) injection of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) following lumbar puncture alleviates early- and late-phase neuropathic pain symptoms, such as allodynia and hyperalgesia, for several weeks in murine chronic constriction injury (CCI) and spared nerve injury models. Moreover, i.t. BMSCs reduced CCI-induced spontaneous pain and axonal injury of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and inhibited CCI-evoked neuroinflammation in DRGs and spinal cord tissues. BMSCs secreted TGF-β1 into the cerebrospinal fluid, and neutralization of TGF-β1, but not IL-10, reversed the analgesic effect of BMSCs. Conversely, i.t. administration of TGF-β1 potently inhibited neuropathic pain. TGF-β1 acted as a powerful neuromodulator and rapidly (within minutes) suppressed CCI-evoked spinal synaptic plasticity and DRG neuronal hyperexcitability via ...
Infobox_gene}} The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the [[capsaicin]] receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a [[protein]] that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 [[gene]]. It was the first isolated member of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor proteins that in turn are a sub-family of the transient receptor potential protein group.,ref name="pmid9349813">{{cite journal , vauthors = Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D , title = The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway , journal = Nature , volume = 389 , issue = 6653 , pages = 816-24 , date = October 1997 , pmid = 9349813 , doi = 10.1038/39807 }},/ref>,ref name="pmid11549313">{{cite journal , vauthors = Xue Q, Yu Y, Trilk SL, Jong BE, Schumacher MA , title = The genomic organization of the gene encoding the vanilloid receptor: evidence for multiple splice variants , journal = ...
Purpose: Sox11, a transcription factor expressed in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion neurons early in development, is induced in adult sensory neurons following nerve injury. As a promotor of nerve regeneration, we hypothesized that Sox11 may also be expressed during dry eye in order to increase trophic support to the cornea provided by corneal afferent neurons. The present study examined Sox11 expression and examined corneal epithelial integrity and mechanical sensitivity in Sox11 conditional knockout animals following lacrimal gland excision.. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were obtained from Jackson Labs and Sox11 conditional knockout (Sox11CKO) mice were generated using Cre-LoxP-mediated recombination under the control of a NaV1.8 promoter. Under isoflurane, unilateral lacrimal gland excision was performed. Either the left exorbital lacrimal gland, or both the exorbital and intraorbital lacrimal glands were excised. For sham surgeries, incisions were made ...
In this review, we provide lines of accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom. At the psychophysical and behavioral levels, subcutaneous injection of melittin causes tonic pain sensation and pain-related behaviors in both humans and animals. At the cellular level, melittin activates primary nociceptor cells through direct and indirect effects. On one hand, melittin can selectively open thermal nociceptor transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor channels via phospholipase A2-lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase metabolites, leading to depolarization of primary nociceptor cells. On the other hand, algogens and inflammatory/pro-inflammatory mediators released from the tissue matrix by melittins pore-forming effects can activate primary nociceptor cells through both ligand-gated receptor channels and the G-protein-coupled ...
Vol 9: Peripheral Glia Have a Pivotal Role in the Initial Response to Axon Degeneration of Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Zebrafish.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Author(s): Strazzulla, Lauren C; Wu, Hong; Heller, Marissa; Kim, Caroline C | Abstract: Large diameter atypical pigmented lesions (LDAPL)can be challenging to diagnose accurately usingpartial biopsies because of pathologic heterogeneity,while at the same time large excisions of these lesionsconfer significant morbidity to patients. Consequently,clinicians are often challenged by the managementof these lesions. In this case, we describe an elderlypatient with a history of multiple basal cell carcinomas,prior melanomas, and a family history of melanomawho presented with an irregularly pigmented brownand dark brown patch on his upper back. This lesionwas evaluated with multiple partial incisional biopsiesfrom the most atypical appearing areas of the lesionidentified on dermoscopy, each showing mild andmoderate atypical melanocytes. However, the patchcontinued to change clinically and eventually thepatient underwent a 5mm wide local excision, whichrevealed severely atypical melanocytic ...
The report firstly introduced the Large Diameter Steel Pipes basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. Then it analyzed the worlds main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis ...
During development of the peripheral nervous system, sensory axons extend to the periphery in excess where they compete for limiting target-derived neurotrophic support. Local neurotrophin insufficiency triggers axon degeneration, resulting in the pruning of over half of all sensory axons during development. Although axon degeneration facilitates the essential sculpting of the developing nervous system, its improper activation may underlie several neurodegenerative disorders. This process can be modeled in vitro by culturing sensory neurons from mouse dorsal root ganglia in the presence of nerve growth factor either as explant cultures or in compartmented chambers that allow independent manipulation of cell bodies and axons. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and the effector caspases, Caspase-3 and Caspase-6, mediate axon degeneration in both this in vitro model system and in vivo, clearly indicating a role for classical apoptotic ...
In this paper the stimuli for and pattern of Schwann cell proliferation are defined under various experimental conditions. We used a tissue culture system in which fetal rat dorsal root ganglia, treated to eliminate contaminating fibroblasts (Wood, P., 1976, Brain Res. 115:361--375), appear to recapitulate many aspects of the developing peripheral nervous system. We observed that: (a) proliferation of Schwann cells on neurites is initially rapid, but, as each neurite becomes fully ensheathed, division slows considerably and is confined to the periphery of the outgrowth; (b) during the period of rapid proliferation, excision of the ganglion causes a rapid decay in the number of dividing cells; (c) excision of the ganglion from more established cultures in which there was little ongoing proliferation resulted in a small increase in labeling at the site of ...
A 62-year-old woman visited our pain clinic and she presented with radicular pain on her neck, right shoulder and arm. Cervical MRI showed a right subarticular protruded disc with right foraminal stenosis at C6-7 together with multinodular thyroid goiter. She was initially treated with transforaminal steroid injection under C-arm fluoroscopy at the C6-7 level, but the effect didnt last for more than 4 days. Therefore, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment was done at the right 7th cervical dorsal root ganglion. After 15 minutes, the neck gradually swelled up and then neck pain and dyspnea developed. The CT image revealed cervical hematoma and left sided tracheal shift. These symptoms were spontaneously relieved after 12 hours and then the patient was discharged without any other complications. This case demonstrates the necessity of having thorough knowledge of the anatomical variations and standard anatomy for conducting safe and efficient medical practice. ...
One of the most cutting-edge treatment options for chronic pain is dorsal root ganglion stimulation. Learn more about this option now!
Protease-activated receptor 2 sensitizes the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 to induce hyperalgesia
Herpes zoster (shingles) is a recurrent, painful, erythematous vesicular eruption caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in an individual who had chickenpox years earlier. Adults with shingles may transmit the virus to children and cause chickenpox. During the latent phase, the virus resides in the dorsal root spinal ganglion or the cranial nerve ganglion. On reactivation, the virus spreads from the ganglia along sensory nerves to peripheral nerves of the sensory dermatomes. Attacks of shingles produce cutaneous lesions that resemble varicella.. In shingles, however, the eruptions are limited to one or more sensory dermatomes, and the vesicles or bullae may be few.. Shingles is painful, especially in older people, in contrast to the painless vesicles of children with chickenpox. Eventually the scales over the vesicles slough, and symptoms remit until another attack.. Visit: Herpes Virus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles for substance P and gastrin-releasing peptide as neurotransmitters released by primary afferent pruriceptors. AU - Akiyama, Tasuku. AU - Tominaga, Mitsutoshi. AU - Davoodi, Auva. AU - Nagamine, Masaki. AU - Blansit, Kevin. AU - Horwitz, Alexander. AU - Carstens, Mirela Iodi. AU - Carstens, Earl. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Recent studies support roles for neurokinin-1 (NK-1) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor-expressing spinal neurons in itch. We presently investigated expression of substance P (SP) and GRP in pruritogen-responsive primary sensory neurons and roles for these neuropeptides in itch signaling. Responses of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells to various pruritogens were observed by calcium imaging. DRG cells were then processed for SP, GRP, and isolectin B-4 (IB4; a marker for nonpeptidergic neurons) immunofluorescence. Of prurito-gen-responsive DRG ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Allodynia and hyperalgesia suppression by a novel analgesic in experimental neuropathic pain. AU - Cui, Jian Guo. AU - Zhang, Xiong. AU - Zhao, Yu Hai. AU - Chen, Chu. AU - Bazan, Nicolas. PY - 2006/11/17. Y1 - 2006/11/17. N2 - SCP-1, n-[α-(benzisothiazol-3(2ho-ona,1-dioxide-2yl)-acetyl]-p-aminophenol (100 nmol), when intrathecally injected, suppressed tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat neuropathic pain model. The tactile allodynia suppression lasted for at least 4 h and SCP-M1 (100 nmol), the main metabolite of SCP-1, displayed similar suppression as SCP-1, but shorter latency, indicating SCP-M1 may be the bioactive component of SCP-1. Acetaminophen was less potent than SCP-1 and SCP-M1. To study mechanisms underlying SCP-1 action, we recorded voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents in acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. SCP-1 and SCP-M1 inhibited non-L-type ...
Neurotropin® (NTP), a non-protein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus, is clinically used for the treatment of neuropathic pain in Japan and China, although its effect on peripheral nerve regeneration remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NTP on Schwann cells (SCs) in vitro and in vivo, which play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In SCs, NTP upregulated protein kinase B (AKT) activity and Krox20 and downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activity under both growth and differentiation conditions, enhanced the expression of myelin basic protein and protein zero under the differentiation condition. In a co-culture of dorsal root ganglion neurons and SCs, NTP accelerated myelination of SCs. To further investigate the influence of NTP on SCs in vivo, lysophosphatidylcholine was injected into the rat ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic neuropathic pain. T2 - Pathomechanism and pharmacology. AU - Urban, L.. AU - Nagy, I.. AU - Bevan, S. J.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Neuropathic pain syndromes form a group of loosely connected diseases linked by the common presence of injury/damage to the peripheral sensory system and the resulting effect: chronic pain. Treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic pain is one of the most challenging clinical tasks as classical painkillers such as opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs lack antinociceptive effect in these syndromes. The recent development of various animal models aided our understanding of neuropathic pain and provided targets for analgesic intervention. The discovery of abnormal, ectopic activity in injured primary afferents, sprouting of large calibre primary afferent fibres to the superficial dorsal horn, and changes in protein expression in DRG (dorsal root ganglion) ...
The distribution and development of Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8 (Enk-8)-containing neurons in the sensory ganglia of the rat were investigated by means of immunocytochemistry using specific antiserum to this octapeptide. Enk-8-like immunoreactivity first appeared in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia of the 18-day embryo, then in the dorsal root ganglia of the 21-day embryo, thus exhibiting a rostrocaudal gradient in terms of appearance and abundance. The number of immunoreactive neurons in these sensory ganglia peaked on the 5th-7th postnatal days, with several small ones observed in each section (1.0-1.4% of total cell number). About 30-40% of these Enk-8-like immunoreactive neurons were also immunoreactive to substance P. Subsequently, Enk-8-like immunoreactivity in the sensory ganglia was decreased and was rarely detected in adult animals. However, colchicine treatment revealed the presence of several Enk-8-containing neurons per section prepared from ...
The experiments were performed on 9 cat and 18 rat isolated stellate ganglia. Rats and cats were anesthetized with alpha glucochloralose or urethane, respectively. The ganglia, isolated with their branches, were transferred to a recording chamber and constantly superfused with artificial extracellular fluid bubbled with 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Branches of the ganglion were one by one placed in suction electrodes and stimulated. Antidromic evoked potentials were systematically recorded from numerous points on the ganglion surface. The area under the curve of the negative wave of each recorded potential was considered proportional to the number of neurons located in the vicinity of the recording electrode, projecting to the stimulated nerve. We have found that: (1) cardiac sympathetic neurons are located in the lower, caudal half of the ganglia; (2) vertebral sympathetic neurons occupy the cranial, upper half of the ganglia; (3) neurons with axons in the ansae are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective blockade of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 attenuates bone cancer pain. AU - Ghilardi, Joseph R.. AU - Röhrich, Heidi. AU - Lindsay, Theodore H.. AU - Sevcik, Molly A.. AU - Schwei, Matthew J.. AU - Kubota, Kazufumi. AU - Halvorson, Kyle G.. AU - Poblete, Jeannie. AU - Chaplan, Sandra R.. AU - Dubin, Adrienne E.. AU - Carruthers, Nicholas I.. AU - Swanson, Devin. AU - Kuskowski, Michael. AU - Flores, Christopher M.. AU - Julius, David. AU - Mantyh, Patrick W. PY - 2005/3/23. Y1 - 2005/3/23. N2 - Cancer colonization of bone leads to the activation of osteoclasts, thereby producing local tissue acidosis and bone resorption. This process may contribute to the generation of both ongoing and movement-evoked pain, resulting from the activation of sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli (nociceptors). The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) is a cation channel expressed by nociceptors that detects multiple pain-producing stimuli, ...
Peripheral nervous system includes all the neurones that are outside of the brain and spinal cord - sensory and motor neurones. Sensory neurones are situated just outside the spinal cord, in the dorsal root and pickup information at receptors and transmit action potential from the receptor toward their cell bodies. The action potential then goes to the central nervous system. Motor neurones carry action potentials from the central nervous system to effectors, and the cell bodies of them are usually in the spinal cord - their long axons pass from the spinal cord to the effectors.. Cell bodies of sensory neurones are situated in the dorsal root ganglia just outside the spinal cord. A ganglion is a group of nerve cell bodies.. The cell bodies of motor neurones ...
The macro- and microstructures of the rabbit celiac-mesenteric ganglion complex are described in 20 young animals. We found ten celiac ganglia, twenty-seven cranial mesenteric ganglia and eleven celiac-mesenteric ganglia. The celiac ganglia had a rectangular shape in nine cases (90%) and a circular one in one case (10%). The cranial mesenteric ganglia presented triangular (66.7%), rectangular (11.1%), L-shape (18.5%) and semi-lunar (3.7%) arrangements. The celiac-mesenteric ganglia were organized in three patterns: a single left celiac-mesenteric ganglion having a caudal portion (72.7%); celiac-mesenteric ganglia without a caudal portion (18.2%) and a single celiac-mesenteric ganglion with two portions: left and right (9.1%). The microstructure was investigated in nine celiac-mesenteric ganglia. The results showed that the celiac-mesenteric ganglion is actually a ganglion complex constituted of an agglomerate of ...
Mouse Hox 1.11 homeobox DNA was cloned and sequenced. Hox 1.11 poly A+ RNA is expressed in 12 to 14 day-old mouse embryos in the hind brain up to, but not including, the pons. Hox 1.11 poly A+ RNA also was expressed in the spinal cord, the VIIth and VIIIth cranial ganglia, spinal ganglia, larynx, lungs, vertebrae, sternum, and intestine. A mouse homeobox gene, mNK-1, was cloned and approximately 5.2 kb of DNA was sequenced. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the mouse and Drosophila NK-1 revealed 95% homology. Hox 4.1 cDNA and genomic DNA were cloned and sequenced; comparison of Hox 4.1 and Hox 2.7 proteins revealed 59% homology. Hox 4.9 also was cloned and partially sequenced. Four Pou-domain genes expressed in embryonic and adult mouse brain were cloned and sequenced: Brain-1, Brain-2, Brain-4, and Scip. Similar amino acid sequences were found in various regions of the proteins. No introns were detected in the coding regions of the 4 Pou-domain genes which suggests that the genes ...
Schwann cells are the myelinating glial cells of the peripheral nervous system and exert important regenerative functions revealing them as central repair components of many peripheral nerve pathologies. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are widely used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including immune-mediated neuropathies. Nevertheless, promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration is currently an unmet therapeutical goal. We therefore examined whether immunoglobulins affect glial cell homeostasis, differentiation, and Schwann cell dependent nerve regenerative processes. The responses of different primary Schwann cell culture models to IVIG were investigated: immature or differentiation competent Schwann cells, myelinating neuron/glial cocultures, and dorsal root ganglion explants. Immature or ...
Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal sensory nerves is implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine. While the therapeutic benefits of grape seed extract (GSE) to inhibit pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cardiovascular disease are well known, the potential benefit of GSE to decrease neurogenic inflammation has not been investigated. The goal of my study was to determine whether GSE could inhibit CGRP expression in primary cultures of trigeminal ganglion neurons as well as a human cell line, DMS 153 cells. CGRP was significantly increased in primary rat trigeminal ganglia cultures in response to a depolarizing stimulus by KCl or capsaicin. Pretreatment with GSE repressed stimulated release of CGRP from trigeminal ganglion neurons. Similarly, GSE repressed stimulated human CGRP promoter activity and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) reporter genes in DMS 153 ...
ABSTRACT- To clarify the relation of pericentral fibrosis to portal hypertension, measurements of portal vascular resistance in vitro and blood pressures of several key points in hepatic vascular pathways in vivo were undertaken in rats given dimethylnitrosamine. Administration of dimethylnitrosamine induced tortuosity and narrowing of the peripheral branches of the hepatic vein due to pericentral fibrosis. No significant change was produced in the sinusoids and the portal vein branches. The portal vascular resistance was increased and the portal vein pressure was elevated markedly. The blood pressure gradient was steep in the intrahepatic vein, but not in the intrahepatic portal vein or the sinusoids, as compared to control. These data suggest that deformation of the peripheral branches of the hepatic vein due to pericentral fibrosis causes a marked increase in vascular resistance in the intrahepatic hepatic vein, i.e. postsinusoidal portal hypertension. ...
In contrast to the central nervous system (CNS) nerve fibers do regenerate in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) although in a clinically unsatisfying manner. A major problem is excessive sprouting of regenerating axons which results in aberrant reinnervation of target tissue and impaired functional recovery. In the CNS, the reticulon protein Nogo-A has been identified as a prominent oligodendrocyte expressed inhibitor of long-distance growth of regenerating axons. We show here that the related isoform Nogo-B is abundantly expressed in Schwann cells in the PNS. Other than Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes, Nogo-B does not localize to the myelin sheath but is detected in the ER and the plasma membrane of Schwann cells. Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches versus those on wildtype Schwann cells, while ...
The binding of the plant lectin soybean agglutinin (SBA) to primary sensory neurones has been investigated in the rat. SBA binding was found in Lissauers tract and in laminae I and IIo of the dorsal horn at cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels. Morphometric analysis of the S1 dorsal root ganglia revealed that SBA binding was associated with the small diameter cell population, considered to be the cell bodies of unmyelinated afferent fibres (C-fibres). These findings suggest that SBA may be a useful ultrastructural marker for C-fibre terminals ...
The interplay of specific leukocyte subpopulations, resident cells and proalgesic mediators results in pain in inflammation. Proalgesic mediators like reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downstream products elicit pain by stimulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The contribution of leukocyte subpopulations however is less clear. Local injection of neutrophilic chemokines elicits neutrophil recruitment but no hyperalgesia in rats. In meta-analyses the monocytic chemoattractant, CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MCP-1), was identified as an important factor in the pathophysiology of human and animal pain. In this study, intraplantar injection of CCL2 elicited thermal and mechanical pain in Wistar but not in Dark Agouti (DA) rats, which lack p47phox, a part of the NADPH oxidase complex. Inflammatory hyperalgesia after complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) as well as capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia and capsaicin-induced current flow in dorsal ...
Schwann cells can form Remak bundles ensheathing multiple, small unmyelinated axons or can form thick or thin myelin sheaths around axons. Generally, the size of the axons correlates with their ensheathment or myelination: the thicker the axon, the thicker the myelin. Taveggia et al. now show that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) type III serves as a signal to the Schwann cells, with low concentrations of NRG-1 type III in the neuron leading to ensheathment and high concentrations leading to thick myelination. In cultures of rat Schwann cells with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type or NRG1 type III -/- mice, the Schwann cells robustly myelinated the wild-type neurites but failed to myelinate the NRG-1 type III-deficient neurites. Forced expression of NRG-1 type III in the deficient DRG ...
Schwann cells are an important cell source for regenerative therapy for neural disorders. We investigated the role of the transcription factor sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 10 (SOX10) in the proliferation and myelination of Schwann cells. SOX10 is predominantly expressed in rat sciatic nerve-derived Schwann cells and is induced shortly after birth. Among transcription factors known to be important for the differentiation of Schwann cells, SOX10 potently transactivates the S100B promoter. In cultures of Schwann cells, overexpressing SOX10 dramatically induces S100B expression, while knocking down SOX10 with shRNA suppresses S100B expression. Here, we identify three core response elements of SOX10 in the S100B promoter and intron 1 with a putative SOX motif. Knockdown of either SOX10 or S100B enhances the proliferation of ...
phdthesis{9a2b0c99-7a98-49b0-8794-bd53b44cd228, abstract = {This thesis deals with processes coupled to injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), with a general aim to investigate the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in axonal outgrowth. The axonal outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro was reduced by several different inhibitors of PLA2 activity and enhanced by an activator of this enzyme. The PLA2 inhibitors acted locally in the outgrowth region and the effect only comprised the axonal elongation stage. Time-lapse recording of growing axons showed a rapid retraction of filopodia and a reduction in growth cone motility at exposure to the drugs. The PLA2 activity was upregulated in the DRG and nerve after a sciatic nerve injury in vivo, most profoundly in the crush region of the nerve. The upregulated activity was strongly Ca2+-dependent, acid sensitive and reduced by an inhibitor of type IV cytosolic (c) PLA2 (methyl arachidonyl ...
Supplement The coeliac ganglion pertains to any of the two large clusters of nerve fibers located on the superior portion of the abdominal aorta, close to where the coeliac artery emerges from the aorta. Prevertebral ganglia are closely associated with the major ventral branches of the aorta. Hence, these ganglia are usually found near the origin of celiac artery (as celiac ganglion), and of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries (as superior and inferior mesenteric ganglia, respectively). They contain neurons with postganglionic axons innervating the stomach, the gallbladder, the liver, the spleen, the small intestine, parts of colon, and the kidney. These ganglia are part of the sympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system. They are regarded as the largest ganglia in the autonomic nervous system. They are thin, crescent-shaped sensory root ganglia of the trigeminal nerve. ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a ligand activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptors and suggested to be involved in inflammation and pain control. Little is known about its role at CNS level. We report that spinal and dorsal root ganglia PPAR-alpha expression is modulated by a peripheral inflammatory or a painful stimulus, and central administration of endogenous or synthetic PPAR-alpha agonists reduces both pain perception and inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice. Under inflammatory pain state, central PPAR-alpha activation modulates NF-kB nuclear signalling along sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. Moreover, we evidence that PPAR-alpha receptor may physically reduce NF-kB activation during the early phase of pain signalling. In vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal a physical interaction between PPAR-alpha and NF-kB complex subunits. This interaction was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN SPECIFIC GANGLIA AND NERVE BUNDLES OF THE LOBSTER. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Mcbride, W. J.. AU - Freeman, A. R.. PY - 1973/7. Y1 - 1973/7. N2 - Using the technique of measuring DNP amino acid methyl esters by gas liquid chromatography, the distribution of alanine, proline, glycine, GABA, glutamate and aspartate was determined in individual ganglia and the associated nerve bundles between these ganglia after isolation from the nervous system of the lobster, Homarus americanus. The brain or supraesophageal ganglion (27.2 mg) and the next 5 thoracic ganglia (varying from 24 to 10 mg in a rostral caudal direction) as well as the nerve bundles connecting these ganglia were used. GABA and aspartate values varied the most among the individual ganglia; highest values were found in the second and third thoracic ganglia. The levels of alanine, proline, glycine and glutamate varied very little from ganglion to ...
Definition of Heat-Activated Label in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Heat-Activated Label? Meaning of Heat-Activated Label as a finance term. What does Heat-Activated Label mean in finance?
Immunocytochemistry has been used to examine the trigeminal ganglion cell populations in the rat which express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the oligosaccharide antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody LA4. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and LA4 identify two large but mainly separate populations of trigeminal ganglion cells. Depending on the method of assessment used, CGRP-immunoreactive cells represent 29-37% of trigeminal ganglion cells while LA4 labels 26-40% of the cells, but with only 8% overlap between the two populations. Both CGRP and LA4 label predominantly small diameter cells (mean diameters 23 μm and 25 μm respectively) but with CGRP cells exhibiting a greater range of diameters than LA4 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction of experimental neuroma formation with ricin. AU - Shapiro, Scott. AU - Voelker, Joseph. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Twenty rat sciatic nerves were bilaterally transected, one as control, and one intraneurally injected with ricin. At 11 weeks, all controls demonstrated large neuromas. Ten injected nerves had no neuroma or a significantly smaller one, while the other 10 had neuroma formation similar to controls. No effect on distant dorsal root ganglia or spinal cord was seen. Thirteen additional rats underwent nerve injection with I125-labeled ricin. At one week, most radioactivity was localized to sciatic nerve, surrounding muscle, and thyroid, with trace amounts in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. Intraneural ricin can inhibit neuroma formation in transected nerve, but results in unpredictable uptake of ricin by nerve and excess spillage into surrounding tissues.. AB - Twenty rat sciatic nerves were bilaterally ...
In a recent study, researchers used our MEA chip cell-culture system to culture the hiPSC-Derived Sensory Neuron Progenitors, along with our Sensory Neuron Maintenance Medium and coating reagents. The study also used our step-by-step guideline to help with the set up and maintenance of the cell-culture itself, along with our MEA system guideline to assist with culturing the hiPSC-Derived Sensory Neuron Progenitors on an MEA system. One key part of the protocol in particular, is to remove the non-neuronal population. This ensures a more homogeneous population of sensory neurons and is simple to do with the addition of mitomycin C to the Sensory Neuron Maintenance Medium after two days of culture. You should see the full effects of growth arrest after seven days. The hiPSC-Derived Sensory Neuron Progenitors must then be maintained in the Sensory Neuron Maintenance Medium (containing growth factors Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), ...
Nav1.7 is a sodium ion channel that in humans is encoded by the SCN9A gene. It is usually expressed at high levels in two types of neurons: the nociceptive (pain) neurons at dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons, which are part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. Nav1.7 is a voltage-gated sodium channel and plays a critical role in the generation and conduction of action potentials and is thus important for electrical signaling by most excitable cells. Nav1.7 is present at the endings of pain-sensing nerves, the nociceptors, close to the region where the impulse is initiated. Stimulation of the nociceptor nerve endings produces "generator potentials", which are small changes in the voltage across the neuronal membranes. The Nav1.7 channel amplifies these membrane depolarizations, and when the membrane potential difference reaches a ...
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Glycoprotein 120, gp120) can directly stimulate primary sensory afferent neurons and cause chronic neuropathic pain. The P2X3 receptor in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is associated with the transmission of neuropathic pain. Curcumin isolated from the herb Curcuma rhizome has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. The water solubility, targeting and bioavailability of curcumin can be improved by nanoparticle encapsulation. In this study, we sought to explore the effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (nano curcumin) on HIV-gp120-induced neuropathic pain mediated by the P2X3 receptor in DRG neurons. The results showed that mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats treated with gp120 were increased compared to those in the control group. The expression levels of P2X3 mRNA and protein in rats treated with gp120 were higher than those in the control group. Nano curcumin treatment decreased mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia ...
Trusted Interventional Pain Management Specialists serving St. Cloud, FL. Contact us at 407-906-1328 or visit us at 2029 Hickory Tree Road, St. Cloud, FL 34772: Palm Tree Interventional Pain Management
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D) is a peripheral nerve disorder caused by dominant, toxic, gain-of-function mutations in the widely expressed, housekeeping gene, GARS The mechanisms underlying selective nerve pathology in CMT2D remain unresolved, as does the cause of the mild-to-moderate sensory involvement that distinguishes CMT2D from the allelic disorder distal spinal muscular atrophy type V. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the underlying afferent nerve pathology, we examined the sensory nervous system of CMT2D mice. We show that the equilibrium between functional subtypes of sensory neuron in dorsal root ganglia is distorted by Gars mutations, leading to sensory defects in peripheral tissues and correlating with overall disease severity. CMT2D mice display changes in sensory behavior concordant with the afferent imbalance, which is present at birth and nonprogressive, indicating that sensory neuron identity is prenatally perturbed and that a ...
Muscle inflammation and hyperalgesia induced by adjuvant injection into skeletal muscle are associated with an increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) labeling in skeletal muscle and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). This increased expression of CGRP may contribute to the maintenance of pain in these models. However, it is not known if inflammation induced by repetitive exposure to stretch-sho
Synonyms for carotid ganglion in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for carotid ganglion. 5 words related to ganglion: autonomic ganglion, nervous system, systema nervosum, neural structure, basal ganglion. What are synonyms for carotid ganglion?
A somatic reflex arc is one in which there is the simplest possible arrangement of elements to permit a response to stimuli, and in which the final element in the chain is skeletal muscle. In the crude sketch given here, you see the basic elements of this system. 1 is some sensory transducer in the periphery, for example, a Pacinian corpuscle or other tactile sensor in the skin. Shown here in blue is 2, the pseudo-unipolar sensory neuron in the circuit. Its soma is physically located in a craniospinal ganglion (pictured here as a dorsal root ganglion, but it could also be on a cranial nerve). Drawn in black is 3, an interconnector neuron, whose soma is found in the CNS. Drawn in red, 4 is a motor neuron whose soma is in the ventral horn of the gray H of the spinal cord. The last element involved is 5, the effector organ, which in the case of this type of arc, will always be skeletal muscle.. Heres how the system works: ...
HIV is associated with painful distal peripheral polyneuropathy in up to 35-50% of those without AIDS and in more than 70% of those with advanced disease. The condition is progressive but may be halted with disease remission. Disability is often significant. Peripheral nerve axons and sensory neuron cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia are the principal targets of the process leading to symptoms. Alpha-lipoic acid occurs naturally in every cell of the body. In high concentrations it acts as an anti-oxidant which regenerates other anti-oxidants and promotes glutathione synthesis. Clinical studies for diabetic neuropathy have shown significant benefit at daily oral doses that are well-tolerated.. This placebo-controlled study is designed to evaluate the effects of daily oral alpha-lipoic acid supplements (600mg, three times per/day) plus standard medical care in the treatment of painful HIV-associated neuropathy over a ...
Previous work has demonstrated that neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), Y1 receptor and Y2 receptor are critical in modulation of pain after nerve injury. We hypothesized that NPY was important for nociception after surgical incision. As a model of postoperative pain, rats underwent a plantar incision in one hindpaw. Western blots were used to quantify changes in protein expression of NPY, Y1 receptor and Y2 receptor after incision in skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Pain-related behaviors were tested after incision in rats treated with intrathecal NPY, Y1 receptor antagonist (BIBO3304 - Chemical Name: N-[(1R)-1-[[[[4-[[(Aminocarbonyl)amino]methyl]phenyl]methyl]amino]carbonyl]-4-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]butyl]-α-phenyl-benzeneacetamide ditrifluoroacetate), Y2 receptor antagonist (BIIE0246 - Chemical Name: ...
Neuropathy arising from chemotherapy (CIPN) is a major clinical problem representing the dose-limiting side effect of many antineoplastic drugs. At their respective MTDs, we previously reported paclitaxel and ixabepilone produced more severe deficits in nerve conduction velocity, amplitude and degenerative changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve (SN) versus eribulin mesylate (Wozniak et al 2011). Similar trends for eribulin to cause less neuropathy have also been reported in the clinic (Cigler and Vadhat 2010, Jain and Cigler 2012, Vadhat et al 2013). The underlying reason for this differential effect remains elusive. Differences in tubulin binding may, in part, explain the differential effect (Perez et al 2009, Jordan et al 2005). Another potential explanation could reside in different pharmacokinetic (PK) and nervous tissue distribution of these agents. Toward this latter point, we conducted tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies following acute ...
Pain is a major medical and socio-economic issue affecting one in five Australians. Our research aims to understand the molecular mechanisms behind pain. The current focus of the lab is to use toxins from plants and venomous animals to understand the molecular pharmacology of pain. These toxins are highly selective for ion channels and receptors found in the sensory neurons that detect pain and can potentially be developed into novel analgesics. Our research also investigates the mechanisms contributing to chemotherapy-induced pain, cancer-associated pain, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and the painful marine toxin disease known as ciguatera. To investigate the neuropharmacology of pain we use a range of techniques including: in vivo pain pathway characterisation, high-content imaging of cultured sensory neurons, high-throughput screening using calcium and membrane potential assays, and traditional pharmacological assays. While all pain has similar symptoms, it is becoming clear that the ...

Anatomy and Physiology: Spinal Cord and Peripheral NervesAnatomy and Physiology: Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves

This gray horn contains sensory cell bodies not found in the dorsal root ganglia. There are three pathways for sensory ... As part of the posterior gray horn, it makes sense that sensory information travels through the posterior root, regardless of ... If you can remember epimysium (see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle Cells), then you will know what the epineurium is ( ... Sensory nerve cell bodies go in the dorsal root ganglia, and motor nerve cell bodies go in the sympathetic ganglia, which sit ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/science/health-and-body/anatomy-and-physiology-spinal-cord-and-peripheral-nerves

Anatomy and Physiology: Spinal Cord and Peripheral NervesAnatomy and Physiology: Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves

This gray horn contains sensory cell bodies not found in the dorsal root ganglia. There are three pathways for sensory ... As part of the posterior gray horn, it makes sense that sensory information travels through the posterior root, regardless of ... If you can remember epimysium (see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle Cells), then you will know what the epineurium is ( ... Sensory nerve cell bodies go in the dorsal root ganglia, and motor nerve cell bodies go in the sympathetic ganglia, which sit ...
more infohttps://www.factmonster.com/math-science/biology/human-body/anatomy-and-physiology-spinal-cord-and-peripheral-nerves

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Workup: Approach Considerations, Electrophysiologic Studies, Histologic FindingsHereditary Spastic Paraplegia Workup: Approach Considerations, Electrophysiologic Studies, Histologic Findings

Loss of anterior horn cells is observed in some cases. Dorsal root ganglia, posterior roots, and peripheral nerves are normal. ... Neuronal cell bodies of degenerating fibers are preserved, and no evidence of primary demyelination is noted. ... from dorsal root ganglia neurons). One obvious feature shared by these degenerating axons is their length; these fibers are the ... anterior horn cells innervated by corticospinal tracts, and skeletal muscle. Parkinson disease, characterized by loss of ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/306713-workup

Example Questions for HAPS Exams - Human Anatomy and Physiology SocietyExample Questions for HAPS Exams - Human Anatomy and Physiology Society

A. Anterior (ventral) horn of spinal cord. B. Posterior (dorsal) root ganglion. C. In cerebral white matter. D. Posterior (horn ... 6. Of the following locations, where are the cell bodies of somatic afferent neurons found? ... 8. Red blood cells would swell when placed in which type of solution? ... horn of spinal cord. E. Sympathetic trunk (chain) ganglia. Correct Answer: B. Addresses: Module H (Nervous System), Topic 3, ...
more infohttps://www.hapsweb.org/page/example_questions

Spinal cord tracts and reflexes - Knowledge for medical students and physiciansSpinal cord tracts and reflexes - Knowledge for medical students and physicians

... cord Structure Anatomy Function Characteristic features White matter Peripheral Anterior funiculus Lateral funiculus Posterior ... Cell body in the dorsal root ganglion *Ipsilateral. * Posterior horn of the spinal cord ... Neural crest cells. *Group of cells that arises from neural folds. *After the neural folds fuse and form the roof of the neural ... Posterior horn of the spinal cord. * Axons arising from the posterior horn of the spinal cord to the olivary nuclei of the ...
more infohttps://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Spinal_cord_tracts_and_reflexes

Spinal ganglion in a five days old mouse - De wereld onder de microscoopSpinal ganglion in a five days old mouse - De wereld onder de microscoop

A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ... The dorsal root ganglia develop in the embryo from neural crest cells, not neural tube. Hence, the spinal ganglia can be ... and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the posterior horn of spinal cord ... The dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons (afferent) [1].. The axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons ...
more infohttp://ronaldschulte.nl/spinal-ganglion-in-a-five-days-old-mouse.html

AP exam 3 - cueFlash - Learn by studying flashcardsAP exam 3 - cueFlash - Learn by studying flashcards

... short lived depolarization of the cell membrane to potentially lead to an action potentialthe shift from resting potential (-70 ... ventral roots these roots come from the posterior horn and contrain axons of sensory nerves dorsal roots cell bodies of sensory ... statellite cells do what? surround cell bodies in ganglia, regulate what enters and exits the cell schwann cells do what? ... The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain cell bodies of sensory neurons The specific strip of skin that is innervated by a ...
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Deals For Mens Back Support - Go Lumbar SupportDeals For Mens Back Support - Go Lumbar Support

The nerve cells that detect pain have cell bodies located in the dorsal root ganglia and fibers that transmit these signals to ... types of nerve fibers carry out the transmission of the electrical signal from the transducing cell to the posterior horn of ... Body Fat. Food Covers & Savers MRI and x-ray for low back pain are surprisingly unreliable,1 because things like bulging discs ... Shop All Cell Phones. Dupionique Pewter Lifting a heavy object, or twisting the spine while lifting Overall: 17.5″ wide x 18″ ...
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Low t causes | What Causes A Low Body Temperature? - Wilson s SyndromeLow t causes | What Causes A Low Body Temperature? - Wilson s Syndrome

The nerve cells that detect pain have cell bodies located in the dorsal root ganglia and fibers that transmit these signals to ... types of nerve fibers carry out the transmission of the electrical signal from the transducing cell to the posterior horn of ... When I check it, my body temp has been at . I stopped taking Synthroid because it was making me feel bad and went to NP Thyroid ... Pain is generally an unpleasant feeling in response to an event that either damages or can potentially damage the bodys ...
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Free Anatomy Flashcards about BIOL 1141 Exam 3Free Anatomy Flashcards about BIOL 1141 Exam 3

dorsal root ganglion. bulge in the dorsal root that contains sensory nerve cell bodies. ... posterior horns. part of the gray matter of the spinal cord, located in the back of the gray matter area. Receive information ... blood stem cell that gives rise to different types of blood cells. ... autonomic ganglia. groups of neuron cell bodies in the PNS; examples - paravertebral ganglia, terminal or collateral ganglia ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-501831

UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 8 | StudySoupUCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 8 | StudySoup

sensory neurons), dorsal and ventral horns, dorsal (posterior) root and ventral root, dorsal root ganglion. 3. Spinal meninges ... gray due to presence of cell bodies; site of synapses between neurons), white matter (axons and/or peripheral processes of ... o Interneurons (90% of neurons, all in CNS) Supporting Cells: Neuroglia - CNS • 90% of cells in CNS are neuroglia • Astrocytes ... Histology: Neurons and Supporting Cells (Glia) CNS Neurons  Structural types o Multipolar (most) or pyramidal neurons ...
more infohttps://studysoup.com/guide/2721655/these-notes-cover-the-power-point-information-as-well-as-in-class-questions

Free Anatomy Flashcards about The CNSFree Anatomy Flashcards about The CNS

dorsal horn; dorsal root ganglia. neurons in the _____ have axons which extend from the receptor to the spinal cord, or in some ... the _____ contains the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons. anterior horn. the butterfly-shaped central core of gray matter in ... posterior horn. the axons of the neurons from the ____ and ____ horns emerge together as the ventral roots.. lateral; anterior ... the same side of the body as (ipsilateral to). signals from the pyramidal cells in the motor cortex to the spinal cord are ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-2140911

Spinal Cord and White Column Areas Essay - 820 Words | Major TestsSpinal Cord and White Column Areas Essay - 820 Words | Major Tests

Dorsal root - carries sensory information back to the spine Dorsal root ganglia- contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons. ... Horns - projections of grey matter out toward the edges of the cord Sensory nuclei -found on the posterior horn and divided ... ependymal cells (CSF production), microglia(phagocytosis), oligodendrocytes and schwann cells (PNS). Only Schwann cells can re- ... wrapped in fibrous connective tissue ganglia- a knot like swelling in a nerve where the cell bodies of neurons are concentrated ...
more infohttps://www.majortests.com/essay/Spinal-Cord-And-White-Column-Areas-562591.html

NervousNervous

Anterior horn. Anterior root cell bodies are located outside the cord in root ganglia. T F ... 2. Posterior funiculus. 3. Lateral funiculus. 4. Dorsal root ganglion. 5. Anterior ramus ... 2.) Electrical stimulation passed to Bipolar Cells→Glaglion cells of retina. 3.) Axons of Ganglion cells leave retina, forming ... The Ventral Root cell bodies are located in the grey matter of the cord. T F ...
more infohttps://anatomyandy.wordpress.com/category/anatomy/nervous/

ch13 - Exam N ame 1 The spinal cord is part of the A autonomic nervous system B peripheral nervous system C somatic nervous...ch13 - Exam N ame 1 The spinal cord is part of the A autonomic nervous system B peripheral nervous system C somatic nervous...

T he dorsal root ganglia mainly contain A) axons of motor neurons. B) synapses. C) cell bodies of sensory neurons. D) cell ... C) T 6. 21) D) L 5. 3 E) C 1 . 22) Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal ... anterior gray horn B) posterior w hite column C) dorsal gray ganglion D) posterior gray column E) posterior gray horn 33) 34) ... 5) 6) T he dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains A) axons of sensory neurons. B) cell bodies of motor neurons. C) cell bodies ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/11229238/ch13/

Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathwayPosterior column-medial lemniscus pathway

... lemniscus pathway Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots ... The action potential travels up an axon (the cell body of the neuron will be in a dorsal root ganglion). (The neurons are ... Posterior horn (Column of Clarke, Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando, Nucleus proprius) • Lateral horn • Anterior horn • Central ... Alternatively, proprioceptive muscle spindles and other skin surface touch receptors such as merkel cells, Ruffini endings, ...
more infohttp://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Posterior_column-medial_lemniscus_pathway.html

Capital (column) | definition of Capital (column) by Medical dictionaryCapital (column) | definition of Capital (column) by Medical dictionary

The lateral column contains axons of neurons with cell bodies inside the brain or spinal cord, not axons from the dorsal root ... posterior column. 1. The posterior horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. It consists of an expanded portion or caput ... thoracic column a column of cells in the posterior gray column of the spinal cord, extending from the eighth cervical segment ... not axons from the dorsal root ganglia. ... and the dorsal horn on each side of the spinal cord. The dorsal ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Capital+

Columnated | definition of Columnated by Medical dictionaryColumnated | definition of Columnated by Medical dictionary

The lateral column contains axons of neurons with cell bodies inside the brain or spinal cord, not axons from the dorsal root ... posterior column. 1. The posterior horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. It consists of an expanded portion or caput ... thoracic column a column of cells in the posterior gray column of the spinal cord, extending from the eighth cervical segment ... not axons from the dorsal root ganglia. ... and the dorsal horn on each side of the spinal cord. The dorsal ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Columnated

Chapter 13-Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes Flashcards | start-seeking.ruChapter 13-Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes Flashcards | start-seeking.ru

A. Dorsal Root Ganglion B. Posterior Gray Horn C. Lateral Gray Horn D. Posterior Median Sulcus E. Ventral Root F. Anterior ... The area of the spinal cord that surrounds the central canal and is dominated by the cell bodies of neurons and glial cells is ... A. neuron cell bodies are located in ganglia B. spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord C. cranial nerves connect to the brain ... The dorsal root of a spinal nerve is the site for ______________ neurons, whereas the ventral root is the site of ___________ ...
more infohttp://start-seeking.ru/notecard_set/26800

Patent US6862479 - Spinal cord stimulation as a therapy for sexual dysfunction - Google PatentsPatent US6862479 - Spinal cord stimulation as a therapy for sexual dysfunction - Google Patents

... posterior roots (a.k.a., dorsal roots), or rhizotomy of dorsal root ganglion or ganglia. ... The mediolateral nudeus 100 (also called the intermediolateral nucleus) is the cell column that forms the lateral horn of the ... which was transported in a retrograde fashion to the spinal cord nuclei cell bodies. The neurons thus labeled were mediolateral ... The male erectile response is initiated by the action of neurons, or nerve cells (i.e., neuronal action), and maintained by a ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6862479?dq=snorkel

Ascending tracts of the spinal cord: Anatomy | KenhubAscending tracts of the spinal cord: Anatomy | Kenhub

The cell body of these neurons are found within the posterior nerve root ganglion. ... The axons and dendrites of these neurons penetrate the spinal cord near the posterior horn of the dorsal funiculus. The dorsal ... internuncial neurons and with anterior horn cells. These fibers are responsible for intersegmental reflexes. ... The axons from the posterior root ganglion enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root of spinal nerves and split into two ...
more infohttps://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/ascending-tracts-of-the-spinal-cord

MECHANISMS OF LOW BACK PAIN: A GUIDE FOR DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPYMECHANISMS OF LOW BACK PAIN: A GUIDE FOR DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY

31] All lumbar spinal nerve roots stem from the connection between the dorsal or posterior (somatic sensory) root from the ... Cell bodies of the motor nerve fibers can be found in the ventral or anterior horns of the spinal cord, whereas those of the ... Radicular pain is pain evoked by ectopic discharges emanating from an inflamed or lesioned dorsal root or its ganglion; ... intervertebral disc cells through modulation of toll-like receptor 2 signalling pathways. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15(4):R94 * ...
more infohttp://www.chiro.org/LINKS/ABSTRACTS/Mechanisms_of_Low_Back_Pain.shtml

nuero Flashcards by Jessica Wrinn | Brainscapenuero Flashcards by Jessica Wrinn | Brainscape

within dorsal root of ganglion (a "ganglion" a collection of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS). ... contain cell bodies of lower motor neurons.Dorsal horns are gray matter of the spinal cord ...contain cell bodies of sensory ... Most posterior part of the brain (hind brain). Contains many cranial nerve nuclei, tracts (i.e., collections of axons) from ... Cells that structurally reinforce, protect, insulate and generally assist neurons.-Do not conduct impulses.-Outnumber neurons ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/nuero-6827179/packs/10616258

Pain and Temperature Pathways, part 1 - Sensory Systems: General Principles and Somatic Sensation | CourseraPain and Temperature Pathways, part 1 - Sensory Systems: General Principles and Somatic Sensation | Coursera

So, the first order neuron is a dorsal root ganglion cell. And weve already considered in a previous ... Specifically now, for the postcranial body, the ventral posterior complex of the ... may be damaging the dorsal roots directly or the dorsal column and the dorsal horn ... a column of cells that lie just on the medial side of these descending afferent ...
more infohttps://www.coursera.org/lecture/medical-neuroscience/pain-and-temperature-pathways-part-1-6ElcM

Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the SkinElectronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin

The cutaneous nerves contain axons with cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia. Their diameters range from 0.2-20 m. The main ... cells of the substantia gelatinosa of Rolandi which are present at the tip of the posterior horn of the grey matter. (2) The ... The principal cell type, the epidermal cell, is most commonly referred to as a keratinocyte. The cells produced by cell ... Pathway of pain, temperature and crude touch sensations: (1) The first order neuron is present in the posterior root ganglion. ...
more infohttp://telemedicine.org/anatomy/anatomy.htm
  • The dorsal root ganglia develop in the embryo from neural crest cells, not neural tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the Shh- encoded protein was shown to induce HNF3 β, a marker of floor plate cells in in vitro cultured early neural epithelium ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ectoderm located caudally to Hensen's node is thus split and the presumptive basal plates of the future neural tube are transiently joined in the midline by a mass of cells which, for a while, includes both the notochord and the floor plate and corresponds to the structure designated by Pasteels ( 7 , 8 ) as the cordoneural hinge (CNH). (pnas.org)
  • At the medulla, the medial lemniscus is orientated perpendicular to the way the fibres travelled in the posterior columns. (bionity.com)
  • The dorsal column decussates at the superior portion of the medulla oblongata and forms medial lemniscus. (statpearls.com)
  • For the moment we shall by-pass the general body temperature control centers in the hypothalamus and in the medulla. (philosophyofchiropractic.com)
  • Second-order sensory neurons with cell bodies in the gracile and cuneate nuclei cross the midline and ascend in the medial lemniscus . (mhmedical.com)
  • This common population of HN-CNH cells gives rise to three types of midline descendants: notochord, floor plate, and dorsal endoderm. (pnas.org)
  • Here we find that HNF3 β, an important gene in the development of the midline structures, is continuously expressed in the HN-CNH cells and their derivatives, floor plate, notochord, and dorsal endoderm. (pnas.org)
  • The posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway is the sensory pathway responsible for transmitting fine touch and conscious proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebral cortex . (bionity.com)
  • Structurally, neurons are classified as multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar according to the number of processes arising from the cell body. (uab.edu)
  • The distances measured between the spinal nerve roots show a tendency to decrease in the craniocaudal direction, except for the portions comprised between the cervical and lumbar intumescences. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The process of pain sensation starts when the pain-causing event triggers the endings of appropriate sensory nerve cells. (b4ict.com)
  • But before we get there, it is worth considering first some organizing principles that will set the stage for studies of somatic sensation and all the other sensory systems of the body. (coursera.org)
  • The dorsal column is responsible for pressure and vibration sensation as well as two-point discrimination, movement sense, and conscious proprioception. (statpearls.com)
  • Pain sensation begins with relatively unspecialized "free" nerve cell endings called nociceptors. (studybayhelp.co.uk)
  • In addition, if a disc ruptures, it releases chemicals that can irritate and inflame the nerve roots, which leads to strong discomfort. (b4ict.com)
  • Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons found in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. (statemaster.com)
  • In neuroscience, stellate cells are inhibitory interneurons found within the molecular layer of the cerebellum. (statemaster.com)
  • In neuroscience, Golgi cells are inhibitory interneurons found within the granular layer of the cerebellum. (statemaster.com)
  • If you can remember epimysium (see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle Cells ), then you will know what the epineurium is (the fascia around the nerve). (infoplease.com)
  • see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle Cells ) around the nerve is called epineurium (like the epimy-sium). (infoplease.com)
  • A) 18 B) 12 C) 1 D) 8 E) 4 9) 10) If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed, A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked. (coursehero.com)
  • In contrast, proprioceptive information comes from inside of the body, such as the muscles. (kenhub.com)
  • Also innervates the sphincter pupillae and the muscles of the ciliary body. (freelan3er.info)
  • Body heat is generated by fuel combustion in the skeletal muscles and in the splanchnic viscera, particularly the liver which is the hottest spot in the body. (philosophyofchiropractic.com)