Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Hemifacial Spasm: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMobius Syndrome: A syndrome of congenital facial paralysis, frequently associated with abducens palsy and other congenital abnormalities including lingual palsy, clubfeet, brachial disorders, cognitive deficits, and pectoral muscle defects. Pathologic findings are variable and include brain stem nuclear aplasia, facial nerve aplasia, and facial muscle aplasia, consistent with a multifactorial etiology. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1020)Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Pacinian Corpuscles: Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Mononeuropathies: Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ISCHEMIA; traumatic injury; compression; CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS; and other conditions.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsNAV1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Herpes Zoster Oticus: A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Mice, Inbred C57BLLumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Sensory System Agents: Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Glomus Jugulare Tumor: A paraganglioma involving the glomus jugulare, a microscopic collection of chemoreceptor tissue in the adventitia of the bulb of the jugular vein. It may cause paralysis of the vocal cords, attacks of dizziness, blackouts, and nystagmus. It is not resectable but radiation therapy is effective. It regresses slowly, but permanent control is regularly achieved. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1603-4)Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Neurotrophin 3: A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
The sensory ganglia are directly correspondent to dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves and are known as cranial sensory ganglia ... is found just after the nerve enters the facial canal; it contains the cell bodies of the sensory fibers of the facial nerve. ... Sensory ganglia exist for nerves with sensory function: V, VII, VIII, IX, X. There are also parasympathetic ganglia, which are ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ...
... where the afferent fibers enter the S2-S4 sensory (dorsal root) ganglia followed by the spinal cord. The course of GVA fibers ... The cranial nerves that contain GVA fibers include the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve. Generally ... These afferent fibers, instead, follow the path of parasympathetic efferent fibers back to the vertebral column, ... which follows the ventral root into the spinal column, by following the dorsal root into the dorsal root ganglion, where the ...
Cranial nerves Olfactory nerve Optic nerve Oculomotor nerve Trochlear nerve Trigeminal nerve Sensory root Trigeminal ganglion ... The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are long fibers that connect the CNS to ... Inferior anal nerves Perineal nerves Posterior labial nerves Posterior scrotal nerves Dorsal nerve of clitoris Dorsal nerve of ... Parasympathetic part Cranial part Ciliary ganglion Short ciliary nerves Pterygopalatine ganglion Nerve of pterygoid canal ...
... cranial cranial autonomic ganglia cranial bone cranial nerve ganglia cranial nerve lesion cranial nerve nuclei cranial nerves ... dorsal dorsal cochlear nucleus dorsal column dorsal column nuclei dorsal funiculus dorsal horn dorsal root dorsal root ganglion ... tongue terminal vein tertiary sensory neuron testicle testis thalamic fasciculus thalamogeniculate artery thalamostriate fibers ... facial artery facial bone facial colliculus facial nerve facial nucleus facial vein falciform ligament Fallopian tube false ...
... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in ... In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey ... parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion. *inferior. Trochlear. *Nucleus. *Branches *no significant branches ... Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X. ...
Sensory root[edit]. Its sensory root is derived from two sphenopalatine branches of the maxillary nerve; their fibers, for the ... Parasympathetic root[edit]. Its parasympathetic root is derived from the nervus intermedius (a part of the facial nerve) ... most part, pass directly into the palatine nerves; a few, however, enter the ganglion, constituting its sensory root. ... cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (V, VII) ...
... a cranial nerve present in amniotes, the other part being the vestibular nerve. The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ... spinal cord: Vestibulospinal tract (Medial vestibulospinal tract, Lateral vestibulospinal tract). *thalamus: Ventral ...
Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve: Somatic sensory fibers from the middle ear ... Extra-cranial course and final innervations Upon exiting the skull, the lesser petrosal nerve synapses in the otic ganglion, ... The glossopharyngeal fibers travel just anterior to the cranial nerves X and XI, which also exit the skull via the jugular ... It supplies parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland via the otic ganglion. ...
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers ... parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion. *inferior. Trochlear. *Nucleus. *Branches *no significant branches ... The olfactory nerves consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the ... Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve. *Solitary nucleus. Accessory. *Nuclei *nucleus ambiguus. *spinal accessory nucleus ...
... cranial root of accessory nerves). *spinal root of accessory nerve(英语:spinal root of accessory nerve) ... 軀體神經系統中的感覺神經纖維 (sensory nerve fibers) 可將身體各部份的感覺器官所搜集到的視覺、嗅覺、味覺、觸覺等資訊傳送到大腦或脊髓。而運動神經纖維 (motor nerve fibers) 則負責將中樞神經系統所下達的命令
顏面神經管(英語:facial canal)內. *大岩部神經(英語:greater petrosal nerve) *翼顎神經節(英語:pterygopalatine ganglion) ... 睫狀神經節副交感根(英語:parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion)/睫狀神經節 ... PSN(英語:Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve). *脊髓核(英語:Spinal trigeminal nucleus) ... 趾背神經(英語:dorsal digital nerves of foot
What is ganglion of intermediate nerve? Meaning of ganglion of intermediate nerve medical term. What does ganglion of ... Looking for online definition of ganglion of intermediate nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ganglion of intermediate nerve ... of sensory neurons that form nodular enlargements on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and on the sensory roots of cranial ... a ganglion of the intermediate nerve fibers conveyed by the facial nerve, located within the facial canal at the genu of the ...
The sensory ganglia are directly correspondent to dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves and are known as cranial sensory ganglia ... is found just after the nerve enters the facial canal; it contains the cell bodies of the sensory fibers of the facial nerve. ... Sensory ganglia exist for nerves with sensory function: V, VII, VIII, IX, X. There are also parasympathetic ganglia, which are ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ...
What is sphenopalatine ganglion? Meaning of sphenopalatine ganglion medical term. What does sphenopalatine ganglion mean? ... Looking for online definition of sphenopalatine ganglion in the Medical Dictionary? sphenopalatine ganglion explanation free. ... of sensory neurons that form nodular enlargements on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and on the sensory roots of cranial ... supplying nerve fibers to the viscera supplied by that artery; sensory and parasympathetic fibers also pass through the ganglia ...
T1-L2 spinal nerves). In the cranium, the PSN originate from cranial nerves CN III (oculomotor nerve), CN VII (facial nerve), ... Like regular somatic sensory neurons, parasympathetic afferent cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglion. While the ... mandibular nerve CN V3). The vagus nerve does not participate in these cranial ganglion as most of its PSN fibers are destined ... Just after the facial nerve geniculate ganglion (general sensory ganglion) in the temporal bone, the facial nerve gives off two ...
... where the afferent fibers enter the S2-S4 sensory (dorsal root) ganglia followed by the spinal cord. The course of GVA fibers ... The cranial nerves that contain GVA fibers include the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve. Generally ... These afferent fibers, instead, follow the path of parasympathetic efferent fibers back to the vertebral column, ... which follows the ventral root into the spinal column, by following the dorsal root into the dorsal root ganglion, where the ...
Study Intro to Cranial Nerves flashcards from Howard Sanders ... In the PNS, they are found in dorsal root ganglion.. In the CNS ... Which cranial nerves have preganglionic parasympathetic fibers that piggyback on them? On which cranial nerve do postganglionic ... Are all cranial nerves both sensory and motor like spinal nerves are? Explain. ... They first enter the facial canal through the internal acoustic meatus, then split up. One pathway travels anteriorly to the ...
It contains motor and sensory fibers and, because it passes through the neck and thorax to the abdomen, has the widest ... The vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve. ... laryngeal nerves carry parasympathetic fibers from the dorsal ... The vagus nerve is joined by the cranial root of the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI), just below the inferior ganglion. (See ... Fibers from the dorsal motor nucleus X pass through the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract, emerging from the medulla ...
geniculate ganglion contains primary sensory cells of taste. - greater petrosal nerve contains parasympathetic fibers. - chorda ... composed of a cranial root and spinal accessory root. - cranial root emerges from the ventral medulla (between the olive and ... passes into the facial canal, forms the geniculate ganglion, greater petrosal nerve branch, nerve to stapedius muscle, and then ... emerges from the DORSAL midbrain just caudal to the inferior colliculus. - passes through the cavernous sinus and enters the ...
Spinal Cord. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. ... Spinal Nerve (PNS). 31 pairs of spinal nerves attach to the spinal cord by dorsal(sensory) and ventral(motor) roots. ... Types of Nerves. Sensory- Afferent only Motor- Efferent only Mixed- Both. Cranial Nerve. 12 pairs of cranial nerves attached ... Intermediate layer of connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, surrounding each bundle of nerve fibers. ...
nerve answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... A peripheral nerve that contains axons of the dorsal root ganglia or the cranial ganglia, i.e., somatic sensory nerves, or ... chain that convey sympathetic fibers and visceral afferents or from S2-S4 spinal nerves that convey parasympathetic fibers and ... The greater petrosal nerve leaves the facial nerve in the facial canal near the geniculate ganglion. It runs forward in the ...
Cranial nerves and spinal nerves, nerve plexuses & ganglia ~10% (10 ... brain and spinal cord ~90% (90 Bil) of all neurons in body are in CNS PNS = ... nerve plexuses dorsal root ganglia = cell bodies of sensory neurons autonomic chain ganglia = cell bodies, dendrites & synapses ... 7 III (oculomotor) VII (facial) IX (glossopharyngeal) X (vagus) and fibers in some sacral (S2-S4) spinal nerves no chain ...
ganglion answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... parasympathetic ganglion; SEE: sympathetic ganglion. 2. A dorsal root (spinal) ganglion. SEE: dorsal root ganglion. 3. A benign ... geniculate ganglion. The sensory ganglion of the facial nerve (CN VII). The ganglion lies inside a bend in the facial canal (at ... Neurons in the ganglion send somatic sensory fibers to the dura of the posterior cranial fossa, to the skin behind the ear, and ...
... its cranial root joins the vagus nerve; its spinal root arises from upper levels of the cervical spinal cord and courses ... motor to muscles of facial expression; special sensory (taste) to anterior 2/3 of the tongue; secretomotor (parasympathetic) to ... largest salivary gland; innervated by postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion via the auriculotemporal n. ... site of origin for cranial nerves V-XII (except spinal part of the accessory nerve); contains the fourth ventricle; also known ...
Spinal Nerve Ganglia (or Dorsal Root Ganglia = DRG). - Periaqueductal Gray matter (PAG) ... The smallest of the 12 cranial nerves and the only cranial nerve to emerge posteriorely (dorsally) in the brainstem and to be ... Visceral motor to parotid gland: Inferior Salivatory nucleus (parasympathetic). *Visceral sensory functions to carotid body and ... spinal, pontine, mesencephalic), facial and finally to the ganglion of the vagus and trigeminal nerve.. We will also see the ...
Study Flashcards On cranial nerves at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to ... what kinds of fibers does the facial nerve contain? all three. motor, sensory, parasympathetic preganglionic fibers ... 1. leaves cranial cavity via internal auditory meatus. 2. passes geniculate ganglion, sensory ganglion of facial nerve. 3. runs ... skin over soft part of cheek and mandible EXCEPT for angle of mandible - thats sensory innervated by cervical spinal nerves ...
The stimulation portion of the probe may be implanted in contact with a peripheral nerve dorsal root ganglia, cranial nerve or ... The probe has a stimulation portion implanted in communication with a predetermined peripheral nerve site. ... intermediate part of the facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, or vagal nerve. Other peripheral nerves are spinal nerves such ... "cochlear nerve" are interchangeable and refer to the nerve fibers along which the sensory cells of the ear communicate ...
Nerves. Nerve. Source. Branches. Motor. Sensory. Notes. accessory. cranial root: medulla - nucleus ambiguus; spinal root: ... medulla: dorsal motor nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic); inferior ganglion (GVA); nucleus ambiguus (SVE); superior ... facial nerve (VII). ascending pharyngeal a.. facial nerve innervates both the stylohyoid m. and the posterior belly of the ... preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-T5. ...
pons: trigeminal motor nucleus (SVE) to motor root; spinal trigeminal nucleus from trigeminal ganglion (GSA) via sensory root. ... also known as: CN V, 5th cranial nerve; some brs. carry pre- or postganglionic parasympathetic fibers; divides into three ... facial nerve (VII). facial nerve innervates both the stylohyoid m. and the posterior belly of the digastric m. shortly after ... anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves from mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (V). a powerful chewing muscle. ...
cranial nerve XI. spinal nerves arise from spinal cord as rootlets. the ventral root consists of what type of fibers. efferent ... the dorsal root consists of what type of fibers. afferent (sensory). the unilateral area of skin innervated by the fibers of a ... the facial, scalp & external ear muscles. the parasympathetic nerve of the facial nerve innervates. mucous glands of the nose ... collection of nerve cell bodies outside the cns ganglion. which fibers convey neural impulses to the cns from the sense organs ...
... at the level of the dorsal root ganglion, dorsal sensory nerve roots, spinal cord, or brain. The underlying conditions may be ... sympathetic nerves via the sympathetic trunk and parasympathetic nerves via the vagus nerve) and in addition voluntary nerves ( ... and eliminate the root cause of Acid Reflux Disease.. Post-facial (7th cranial) nerve palsy synkinesis (hemifacial spasms), ... Vasomotor nerve fibers descend in the spinal cord and emerge in the ventral horns and roots. These fibers pass the dorsal root ...
... where the afferent fibers enter the S2-S4 sensory (dorsal root) ganglia followed by the spinal cord.[4] ... The cranial nerves that contain GVA fibers include the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve.[3] ... These afferent fibers, instead, follow the path of parasympathetic efferent fibers back to the vertebral column, ... which follows the ventral root into the spinal column, by following the dorsal root into the dorsal root ganglion, where the ...
General Organization of Spinal Cord Gray Matter. General Organization of Cranial Nerve Gray Matter. Sensory Cranial Nerves and ... Transverse Section Through Facial Genu with MRI Transverse Section Through Vestibulocochlear Nerve Root with Vessel Territories ... Spinal Cord Arteries to Spinal Cord (Diagrammatic) Segmental Arterial Supply of Spinal Cord (Diagrammatic) Fiber Bundles ... Brain Stem, Diencephalon, Basal Ganglia, and Cerebellum; Arteries and Cranial Nerves -Anterolateral Aspect Brain Stem, ...
The accessory nerve (cranial nerve IX) arises by the union of a cranial and a spinal part. The cranial roots emerge from the ... the tympanic and greater petrosal nerves, the ciliary ganglion (pupillodilator fibers), and the anterior and middle cerebral ... 6. Tonsillar branches are sensory to the mucosa. 7. Lingual branches supply taste and general sensory fibers to the posterior ... and efferent fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle as well as parasympathetic preganglionic secretomotor fibers to the parotid ...
Unlike spinal nerves whose roots are neural fibers from the spinal grey matter, cranial nerves are composed of the neural ... Cranial nerve X is the vagus nerve. The parasympathetic efferents (GVE) fibers from the dorsal vagal nucleus to the thoracic ... facial), IX (glossopharyngeal), and X (vagus), are functionally mixed (sensory and motor) (Figure 1A). Damage to the cranial ... These fibers travel with cranial nerve III to synapse in the ciliary ganglion within the orbit. The post-ganglionic sympathetic ...
Parasympathetic fibers exit the CNS via cranial nerves (CN) III, VII, IX, and X, as well as through the S2-4 nerve roots. There ... Truncal neural crest cells contribute to the dorsal root of the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. The parasympathetic ... Up to 80% of vagal fibers are sensory and innervate nearly all major organs. Parasympathetic ganglia have been found to express ... and facial anhidrosis secondary to sympathetic nerve damage in the oculosympathetic pathway.[46] This damage may have a central ...
  • Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of Anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). (wikipedia.org)
  • The trochlear nerve is the only crossed cranial nerve. (blogspot.com)
  • The trochlear nerve then curves ventrally between the posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries. (blogspot.com)
  • What accompanies the optic nerve through the optic canal? (brainscape.com)
  • A small autonomic ganglion lying on the outside of the optic nerve in the rear portion of the orbit. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • what hole does the optic nerve come out of and what CN is it? (cram.com)
  • Therefore, regions of the visual field are retinotopically organized within the optic nerve and at their synapses in the LGN. (statpearls.com)
  • It is dense and white and continuous with the cornea anteriorly and the dural sheath of the optic nerve posteriorly. (blogspot.com)
  • Across the posterior scleral foramen are bands of collagen and elastic tissue, forming the lamina cribrosa, between which pass the axon bundles of the optic nerve. (blogspot.com)
  • From the retina of the eye, the visual impulses are transmitted to the diencephalon via the optic nerve. (lecturio.com)
  • where does the accessory nerve come out of the skull and what CN number is it? (cram.com)
  • The accessory nerve (external branch) is tested by asking the subject to shrug the shoulders (trapezius) and then to rotate the head (sternomastoid). (dartmouth.edu)
  • The most important contents of the posterior triangle are the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI), brachial plexus, third part of the subclavian artery, and lymph nodes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The accessory nerve (external branch), which crosses the transverse process of the atlas, either pierces or runs deep to the sternomastoid, which it supplies. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The spinal accessory nerve enters the sternocleidomastoid muscle approximately at the junction of the upper and middle third of the muscle. (ormedmedical.us)
  • Sometimes a branch from the second cervical nerve can be seen joining the spinal accessory nerve before its entrance into the sternocleidomastoid muscle. (ormedmedical.us)
  • Identifying spinal sensory pathways activated by noxious esophageal acid. (numpor.org)
  • Scheme showing pathways of a typical spinal nerve. (omicsgroup.org)
  • This text includes clearly labeled details of all parts of the brain, color illustrations and diagrams of nerve pathways, and easy navigation with color coding and brain-section markers on each page. (books-express.ro)
  • The invention involves the use of an energy source comprising magnetic and/or electrical energy that is transmitted non-invasively to, or in close proximity to, a selected nerve to temporarily stimulate, block and/or modulate the signals in the selected nerve such that neural pathways are activated to release inhibitory neurotransmitters in the patient's brain. (justia.com)
  • It descends through the upper part of the neck along with the internal jugular vein and internal carotid artery, to reach the posterior border of the stylopharyngeus muscle (to which it supplies motor somatic fibers to). (freezingblue.com)
  • The nerve cell that bears receptors for neurotransmitters released into the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic neuron. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The circuit begins with sensory receptors in the skin that are activated by harmful levels of heat: a special type of molecular structure embedded in the membrane causes heat to change the electrical field across the membrane. (freelan3er.info)
  • Charles Sherrington discovered nociceptors which are pain receptors, most of which have free nerve endings that respond to stimuli that brings damage to the tissue . (ijbms.com)