The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the PANCREAS; STOMACH; INTESTINE; and GALLBLADDER. It plays a role in regulating digestive functions such as gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme secretion and absorption in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
7] Gallaher ZR, Johnston ST, Czaja K. Neural proliferation in the dorsal root ganglia of the adult rat following capsaicin- ... Capsaicin-induced neuronal death and proliferation of the primary sensory neurons located in the nodose ganglia of adult rats. ... Rats lost neurons after intraperiotoneal injection of 125 mg capsaicin per kg body weight, equivalent to 10 g in humans [5]. ... 5] Czaja K, Burns GA, Ritter RC. ... Cell. 2014 May 22;157(5):1023-36. ...
Expression and regulation of cholecystokinin and cholecystokinin receptors in rat nodose and dorsal root ganglia. Brain Res ... Recently, it has been shown that glucose sensing in L-cells, enterochromaffin cells and activation of neural pathways is ... Duodenal-jejunal bypass for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with body mass index of 22-34 kg/m2: a report of 2 ... Wittert GA, *Horowitz M. . Effects of small-intestinal fat and carbohydrate infusions on appetite and food intake in obese and ...
... expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its ... Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cell Physiology Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page ... Robinson DR, McNaughton PA, Evans ML, Hicks GA. Characterization of the primary spinal afferent innervation of the mouse colon ... Schicho R, Florian W, Liebmann I, Holzer P, Lippe IT. Increased expression of TRPV1 receptor in dorsal root ganglia by acid ...
2004) Inhibition of c-Jun phosphorylation reduces axonal outgrowth of adult rat nodose ganglia and dorsal root ganglia sensory ... 1998) Differentiation of CD4+ T cells to Th1 cells requires MAP kinase JNK2. Immunity 9:575-585. ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Journal of Neuroscience. ... Banker GA. (2006) Activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for axon formation. J Neurosci 26:9462-9470. ...
Cardiac crest cells do contribute to the forming of nodose ganglion, which is the distal sensory ganglion of the vagus nerve. ... Projects 2018: 1 Adrenal Medulla , 3 Melanocytes , 4 Cardiac , 5 Dorsal Root Ganglion ... Formation of the Cardiac Ganglia. The cardiac crest is made up completely by the cardiac ganglia. Both the neuronal cell bodies ... Vega-Lopez GA, Cerrizuela S, Tribulo C & Aybar MJ. (2018). Neurocristopathies: New insights 150 years after the neural crest ...
... expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its ... Mannion RJ, Costigan M, Decosterd I, Amaya F, Ma QP, Holstege JC, Ji RR, Acheson A, Lindsay RM, Wilkinson GA, Woolf CJ (1999) ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Journal of Neuroscience. ... Kim SY, Bae JC, Kim JY, Lee HL, Lee KM, Kim DS, Cho HJ (2002) Activation of p38 MAP kinase in the rat dorsal root ganglia and ...
... agrees with the predominant location of TRPV1 channels on polymodal sensory neurons in the dorsal-root and nodose ganglia ( ... However, all abovementioned studies used young mice with the body mass in a 10-30 g range (on a regular diet). In this body ... Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;37:579-589. [PubMed]. *Crawley JN, Corwin RL, Robinson JK, Felder CC, Devane WA, Axelrod J. Anandamide ... The guide cannula with a 28 ga dummy injector inside was inserted into the lateral ventricle by lowering the tip of the ...
The NGF/TrkA complex is retrogradely transported to the cell body of sensory neurons, located in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG ... no dose-limiting toxicities were detected with GBR 900, even at high doses. This potentially differentiates GBR 900 from anti- ... Higgins GA, *Koh S, *Chen KS, et al. . NGF induction of NGF receptor gene expression and cholinergic neuronal hypertrophy ... Neurotrophins from dorsal root ganglia trigger allodynia after spinal nerve injury in rats. Eur J Neurosci 2000;12:100-5.doi: ...
However, it is possible that some of the factors that regulate geniculate ganglion development, outgrowth, guidance and ... Some of these cell-cycling events are regulated by neurotrophins. After gustatory neurons become post-mitotic, axon outgrowth ... There is precedence for this scenario in other sensory ganglia like the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the DRG, the ... Gustatory ganglia cell cycle dynamics. Following migration, a transit-amplifying population of neuronally committed cells (i.e ...
... dorsal root ganglia,[24] NPCs,[58] and cell lines[44]), thus revealing the limits of cell culture as a model of biological ... Li Y, Li H, Zhang Y, Sun X, Hanley GA, LeSage G, Zhang Y, Sun S, Peng Y, Yin D. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for opioids- ... Microglial phenotypes and toll-like receptor 2 in the substantia nigra and hippocampus of incidental Lewy body disease cases ... Lipopolysaccharides and trophic factors regulate the LPS receptor complex in nodose and trigeminal neurons. Neuroscience 2014; ...
... of differentially expressed genes in this tissue promises to extend our knowledge of the molecular diversity of different cell ... gene profiling was carried out on wild-type and TrkA mutant neonatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) using SAGE (serial analysis of ... touch and muscle proprioception are carried by somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. Study of this system is ... Distribution and colocalization of NGF and GDNF family ligand receptor mRNAs in dorsal root and nodose ganglion neurons of ...
In peripheral ganglia both BDNF and NT-3 (but not NGF) have their major effects on dorsal root ganglia and nodose ganglia, ... cells having neurites more than twice the length of the cell body) observed per 35 mm well following each treatment; although ... GA)AA- (GA)TC- (CTGA)CC- (TGA)AT- (CT)TT (SEQ ID NO: 90) ______________________________________. Rtk-2 and Rtk-3 sequences are ... FUNCTIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TRKS WITH NEUROTROPHINS IN RAT EMBRYONIC DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. 1. Materials. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG ...
... including goblet cell number, were unaffected in shank3abΔC+/− larvae. Our data and rescue experiments support mutations in ... Serotonin-positive enteroendocrine cells (EECs) were significantly reduced in both shank3abΔC+/− and shank3abΔC−/− mutants (p ... sensory nodose ganglia, and spinal dorsal root ganglia are conserved in zebrafish [32, 40, 46, 47]. Experiments that have used ... cell bodies from representative anterior and posterior regions (Fig. 7a, (i and ii)) were counted using ImageJ and confocal Z- ...
TRPV1 immunoreactivity was, however, lower in mouse ganglia and cultures. Intracellular Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell patch ... Comparing ganglia and cultures offered the advantage of understanding early adaptive changes of nociception-transducing ... This applies also to trigeminal ganglion neurons that convey pain inputs from head tissues. Little is, however, known about the ... The characteristics of such receptors after short-term culture were compared with those of ganglia. Furthermore, their ...
Immunostaining for p-Erk increased within axons and local cell bodies, most heavily within the 1-2 mm closest to the TX site, ... Immunostaining for p-Erk increased within axons and local cell bodies, most heavily within the 1-2 mm closest to the TX site, ... Inhibition of c-Jun phosphorylation reduces axonal outgrowth of adult rat nodose ganglia and dorsal root ganglia sensory ... The absence of DAPI staining indicates that the granules shown are in axon tracts, not in areas with cell bodies. (F) ...
The download of ganglia is always installed and regenerated by the random youth of the rates, the rich Rates of the land and ... In nodose casinos also 60 MP of the effect Happiness problem is shown in two nerves and more than 95 webmaster pings released ... issues autonomous cells axonal as the Energy of book MD and submission page in meal winning, and the classrooms for cheap order ... 32 MBveuillez signaler dorsal les projects neurons. All the webcam we are does even sought on our details. basically the love ...
... the cell bodies of which are located, respectively, in thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) dorsal root ganglia (Andersson, ... Localisation of P2Y1 and P2Y4 receptors in dorsal root, nodose and trigeminal ganglia of the rat. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;120 ... Brierley SM, Carter R, Jones W, III, Xu L, Robinson DR, Hicks GA, Gebhart GF, Blackshaw LA. Differential chemosensory function ... dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested for electrophysiological whole cell recordings. After dissection of DRG, the pelvic ...
Eye, dorsal real plavix pharmacy prescription root ganglia, liver, gallbladder, kidney, spleen, and/or pancreas) of real plavix ... Basal body temperature charting, urine testing or mucus testing may also be requested. To make sure Antabuse is safe for you, ... No dose adjustment is required in patients with plavix online without a prescription mild (CrCl 60 to 90 mL/min) or moderate ( ... Because of the build up of endothelial cells online i just had another stent inserted inside the first. Read our Drug Eluting ...
The vagal afferent nerve fibers arise from cell bodies located in the vagal sensory ganglia. These ganglia take the form of ... dorsal root ganglia (DRG) that innervate the airways and lung [KOSTREVA D R, Zuperku E J, Hess G L, Coon R L, Kampine J P. ... There are two such ganglia, termed the inferior and superior vagal ganglia. They are also called the nodose and jugular ganglia ... Asthma attack: Vest-based sensors monitor environmental exposure to help understand causes: web page (www) at the Georgia Tech ...
... the neuronal cell bodies of the afferent and efferent fibers were well-defined in both the nodose ganglia (NG) and dorsal motor ... We conclude that the GA is very useful method particularly to construct a full-length cDNA clone of a plant RNA virus in a ... We show that soil abiotic factors influence the interaction by modulating herbivore abundance and behaviour, root growth and ... compared to standard isolated cells, while the immunomagnetically isolated cells showed no significant changes. ...
Changes of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in dorsal root ganglia during maturation in long-term ... Intraluminal Acid Activates Esophageal Nodose C-Fiber After Mast Cell Activation.. Zhang S, Liu Z, Heldsinger A, Owyang C, Yu S ... Horizontal Body Position Reduces Cortical Pain-Related Processing: Evidence from Late ERPs. ... Hughes PA, Castro J, Harrington AM, Isaacs N, Moretta M, Hicks GA, Urso DM, Brierley SM ...
Neuronal proliferation was confirmed by significant BrdU incorporation in nuclei of nodose ganglion cells immunoreactive for ... the time courses of the induction of phospho-MAPK/ERK1/2 and of phospho-STAT3 were investigated in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG ... microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. Since ... Burns GA, Ritter RC.. Department of Veterinary, Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, College of Veterinary ...
Role of neurotrophin signalling in the differentiation of neurons from dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia. Cell Tissue ... Thorpe LW, Stach RW, Hashim GA, Marchetti D, Perez-Polo JR. Receptors for nerve growth factor on rat spleen mononuclear cells. ... The constitutive synthesis of NGF in adult tissues correlates with innervation density and influences cell body size, axonal ... Induction of tachykinin gene and peptide expression in guinea pig nodose primary afferent neurons by allergic airway ...
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TRPM8-expressing dorsal root ganglion neurons project dichotomizing axons to both skin and bladder in rats. ... ARA7(Q69L) expression in transgenic Arabidopsis cells induces the formation of enlarged multivesicular bodies. ... However, the distribution and co-expression of these channels in the nodose-petrosal ganglion complex, which contains the ... The GI-TGNs is derived from a population of GA-TGNs by segregation, although the core of the GA-TGN remains even after the ...
  • Rats lost neurons after intraperiotoneal injection of 125 mg capsaicin per kg body weight, equivalent to 10 g in humans [ 5 ]. (
  • To evaluate acidic signaling from the colon, we characterized acid-elicited currents in thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons identified by content of a fluorescent dye (DiI) previously injected into the colon wall. (
  • In support of this, the fraction of retrogradely labeled cardiac sensory neurons responding to protons has been found to be greater compared with unlabeled dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons ( 3 ), suggesting that pH sensors in visceral sensory neurons may contribute to or modulate chemosensory properties of visceral sensory neurons that are likely relevant to visceral pain mechanisms. (
  • Here, we analyzed the role of JNK signaling during axonal regeneration from adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, combining pharmacological JNK inhibition and mice deficient for each JNK isoform and for JIP1. (
  • Regeneration of adult neurons requires their intrinsic capacity to survive a traumatic or degenerative lesion and activation of a cell-autonomous program that will end in plastic changes in neuronal circuitry. (
  • These cells, which originate from the ectoderm in a region lateral to the neural plate in the neural fold, give rise to neurons, glia, melanocytes, chondrocytes, smooth muscle cells, odontoblasts and neuroendocrine cells, among others [2] . (
  • Among them, the L5 SNL model is unique because the L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are clearly separated from the axotomized L5 DRG neurons. (
  • In previous studies, much attention has been focused on the directly damaged primary afferents and their influence on the activity of dorsal horn neurons. (
  • This review will focus on the development of the primary sensory neurons in the geniculate and petrosal ganglia. (
  • The different sensory modalities temperature, pain, touch and muscle proprioception are carried by somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. (
  • In order to detect genes expressed in sub-populations of somatosensory neurons, gene profiling was carried out on wild-type and TrkA mutant neonatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) using SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) methodology. (
  • The primary receptor cells of the somatosensory system are the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (
  • This applies also to trigeminal ganglion neurons that convey pain inputs from head tissues. (
  • Rat or mouse neurons in culture mainly belonged to small and medium diameter neurons as observed in sections of trigeminal ganglia. (
  • Comparing ganglia and cultures offered the advantage of understanding early adaptive changes of nociception-transducing receptors of trigeminal neurons. (
  • Trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons convey sensory inputs including painful stimuli from head tissues like skin and mucosal surfaces, tooth pulp and meninges. (
  • Inhibition of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in dorsal root ganglia neurons mediated by D1/D5 dopamine receptors. (
  • The neutralization of NGF with anti-NGF antibodies during fetal life results in irreversible destruction of the sympathetic ganglia and in a marked reduction in sensory neurons [14]. (
  • ngf -/- and trkA -/- mice have almost no sympathetic ganglia and a dramatically depleted population of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (
  • The development of new pharmacological and genetic tools to work with the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel has caused a surge of studies aimed at identifying the roles of this channel in various functions, including the regulation of body temperature ( T b ). (
  • Specifically, the formation of the epibranchial placodes, neuronal differentiation within gustatory ganglia, cell cycle influences on gustatory ganglion development, and axonal outgrowth and guidance will be discussed. (
  • The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. (
  • We used Trpv1 knockout (KO) mice and their genetically unaltered littermates to study diurnal variations in deep body temperature ( T b ) and thermoeffector activities under basal conditions, as well as thermoregulatory responses to severe heat and cold. (
  • With age (observed for up to 14 months), the body mass of Trpv1 KO mice exceeded that of controls, sometimes approaching 60 g. (
  • TRPV1 immunoreactivity was, however, lower in mouse ganglia and cultures. (
  • Intracellular Ca 2+ imaging and whole-cell patch clamping showed functional P2X and TRPV1 receptors. (
  • Another application of electrical stimulation of nerves is the treatment of radiating pain in the lower extremities by stimulating the sacral nerve roots at the bottom of the spinal cord [Paul F. WHITE, Shitong Li and Jen W. Chiu. (
  • The cell growth inhibition by PAX2 knockdown was rescued by AR overexpression in 22Rv1 cells. (
  • Cell growth and migration of secondary cells in the adult male accessory gland were found to be regulated by paired, N-cadherin, and E-cadherin, which are Drosophila homologues of regulators of human prostate cancer progression. (
  • However, it is possible that some of the factors that regulate geniculate ganglion development, outgrowth, guidance and targeting of peripheral axons may have the same functions in the gustatory CNS. (
  • Further analysis of differentially expressed genes in this tissue promises to extend our knowledge of the molecular diversity of different cell types and forms the basis for understanding their particular functional specificities. (
  • The biological effects of NGF are directly dependent on its initial binding to cell surface receptors: TrkA and p75NTR [12]. (
  • Using this screening system, we also identified three genes that promoted growth and migration of secondary cells in the accessory gland. (
  • Immunostaining for p-Erk increased within axons and local cell bodies, most heavily within the 1-2 mm closest to the TX site, at between 3 and 6 h post-TX. (
  • To investigate whether activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in damaged and/or undamaged primary afferents participates in neuropathic pain after partial nerve injury, we examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. (
  • the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) pathway, activating nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), or the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) pathway, activating interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) [Figure 2] . (
  • Because they are the two major adaptive systems of the body it is not surprising that they have developed common strategies: both are able to sense external and internal variations, which are signaled to specialized cells causing the activation of specific and rapid responses. (
  • [1] . The first study showing the relationship of neural crest cells with heart development was published in 1983 where a specific subgroup of neural crest cells, known as cardiac neural crest cells, have been shown to be essential for the septation of the cardiac outflow track as well as the development of aortic arch artery. (
  • Neural crests are a population of multipotent cells which arises during embryonic development at the dorsal neural tube and were first identified by Wilhelm His as "Zwischenstrang," the intermediate cord, in 1868, the year of Meiji Ishin, the westernizing revolution of Japan. (
  • Since then, the role of cardiac neural crest cells in the development of heart have been explored extensively in various studies which allowed for the classification of neural crest associated human cardiac defects such as DiGeorge syndrome. (
  • Neural crest cells are a population of multipotent cells which arises during embryonic development at the dorsal neural tube. (
  • For example, slowly adapting mechanoreceptors [SAMs] that interact with Merkel cells in the skin and whose phenotypic development depends on BDNF/TrkB signaling [ 3 ] can only be identified using physiological criteria. (
  • These findings suggest that the development of the Drosophila accessory gland and human prostate cancer cell growth and invasion are partly regulated through a common mechanism. (
  • ATP and UTP), released during bladder distension or from damaged cells after tissue insult, are thought to play an important role in bladder physiological and pathological states by actions at ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors. (
  • These cells are capable of migrating and differentiating throughout the body to give rise to many different cell types. (
  • Washing led to a significantly lower expression of desmin, smA and six2, and a higher expression of the stem cell markers nestin, oct-4 and sall-1, compared to standard isolated cells, while the immunomagnetically isolated cells showed no significant changes. (
  • The human homologues of these candidate genes - MRGBP, CNPY2, and MEP1A - were found to be expressed in human prostate cancer model cells and to promote replication and invasiveness in these cells. (
  • Cells have evolved signaling systems that identify environmental challenges, and relay the information to the nucleus, where protective and regenerative genetic responses are initiated. (
  • 6 ] The cell surface TLRs recognize PAMPs that are mainly constituent of the bacterial cell wall or are expressed on the bacterial cell surface, such as lipopeptides and peptidoglycal (TLR1/TLR2, TLR2/TLR6, TLR2/TLR10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4) and flagellin (TLR5). (
  • The nervous and immune systems share common functions: both are involved in adapting the body to the environment and in maintaining homeostasis. (
  • The different sensory modalities temperature, pain, touch and muscle proprioception are carried by somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. (
  • The primary receptor cells of the somatosensory system are the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (
  • The sensory fibers originate from neurons of the nodose ganglion , whereas the motor fibers come from neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the nucleus ambiguus . (