The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
The first cervical vertebra.
Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.
A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The spinal or vertebral column.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.
Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
... cervical vertebrae 7-10; several posterior cervical ribs; several anterior dorsal vertebrae; most mid and posterior dorsal ... vertebrae; several dorsal ribs; the fifth sacral vertebrae; three chevrons; many partial and complete caudal vertebrae and ... When the type specimen was discovered, several long cervical ribs, of a supposed prosauropod dinosaur were found in the mouth ...
It contained elements including a left and partial right maxillae; basicranium; both dentaries; teeth; cervical, a dorsal, ... anteroposteriorly compressed cervical vertebrae, and robust, proportionally short hindlimbs with a tibia shorter than femur ... The combination of characteristics including a large skull, prominent supraorbital ridge above the dorsal aspect of the orbit, ... sacral and caudal vertebrae; haemal arches; ribs; ilia, pubis and proximal ischia; left and distal end of right femur; left ...
The spine comprised 10 cervical (neck) vertebrae; 14 dorsal (trunk) vertebrae; three sacral (hip) vertebrae; and ca. 50 caudal ... tail) vertebrae. In contrast to the later sauropods, the sides of the dorsal vertebrae did not show deep cavities caused by air ...
... a posterior cervical vertebra; cervical ribs; multiple dorsal vertebrae and dorsal ribs; the sacrum; 32 caudal vertebrae and 18 ... It includes a partial anterior cervical vertebra, multiple dorsal vertebrae and ribs, the sacrum, seven caudal vertebrae and ... the vertebrae have a triangular process that extends over the centrum towards each preceding vertebra. Just like modern ... The first vertebra of the tail has a ridge on its ventral surface called a keel. In the first third of the tail, the bases of ...
... cervical (neck), dorsal (back), and caudal (tail) vertebrae; ribs; a sternum; both scapulae (shoulder blades); both coracoids; ... The neural arches of the cervical vertebrae were not always sutured to the centra (the bodies of the vertebrae), and the neural ... the neural spines of the dorsal vertebrae changed from short and stout to tall and broad. One isolated dorsal neural spine was ... The cervical vertebrae of the neck tapered towards the head and became progressively longer front to back. Their zygapophyses ( ...
... two cervical vertebrae ZY007-40 and ZY007-41; partial dorsal neural arch and neural processes ZY007-36; two caudal vertebrae, ... some vertebrae including a series of 25 caudal vertebrae, one rib, one right humerus and several manual and pedal bones. ...
The cervical vertebrae were elongated. The first six dorsal vertebrae had fused into a notarium. Several pairs of belly ribs ...
The neck was short with seven or eight cervical vertebrae. Twelve or thirteen dorsal vertebrae are present and three sacrals. ... The tail vertebrae have not been preserved. The describers argue that Jeholopterus had a short tail, a feature seen in other ...
It includes two cervical, one dorsal and two caudal vertebrae; a right scapula; a left forelimb only lacking the carpus; a ... The holotype specimen represents a not fully-grown individual based on one unfused caudal vertebra, and therefore its adult ...
The last cervical is shaped more like the dorsal vertebrae. The dorsals are spool-shaped and all appear about the same as each ... The seven cervical vertebrae (in the neck) are all the same size as each other except for the last one, which is shorter and ... There are three sacral vertebrae, and the series attached to the pelvis by the first vertebra. The pelvis is reptilian, with ... of the cervical vertebrae is overall reptilian, permitting side-to-side movement of the head but restricting up-and-down motion ...
"Cervical and dorsal vertebrae, ribs, limb and girdle elements." List of dinosaur-bearing rock formations List of stratigraphic ...
There are tall neural spines on the cervical and dorsal vertebrae. The species was named and described by Hou Lianhai in 1997. ...
Cervical and sacral vertebrae are not known, only dorsal and caudal. The dorsal vertebrae have round centra which narrow ... The dorsal branch forms a strong pillar behind the orbit, which has a more pronounced crest than other rhynchosaurs. The ... The dorsal elements have fused to create a triangular opening. Many ribs are present, although partially fragmented, and show ... The ischium has a thick round dorsal margin and a curved blade. The femur is missing, but the remainder of the hindlimb is ...
... extremely low neural spines on the cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae; and strongly procoelous proximal caudal vertebrae. ... transverse ridges in the posterior cervical vertebrae and anterior dorsal vertebrae; strongly procoelous proximal and distal ... Unlike other titanosauriform sauropods it has thick-walled vertebrae with large pneumatic chambers (camerate-grade) as in basal ... With Turiasaurus it shares derived features of the braincase; bifurcated cervical (neck) ribs; ...
There were 5 cervical (neck) vertebrae and 24 dorsal (torso) vertebrae. This leads to a total of 29 presacral (pre-hip) ... There were three sacral (hip) vertebrae, although only the first two had large, flared ribs which connected to the ilia (upper ... Estimating from the length of missing portions of the tail, there may have been 58 caudal vertebrae in total. The forelimbs ... vertebrae, while other parareptiles typically had 26 or fewer. The presacrals were hourglass-shaped when seen from above and ...
... all cervical vertebrae, and all dorsal (12) and sacral vertebrae (5), as well as several cervical, dorsal and sacral ribs, a ... The series of dorsal vertebrae has a length of 372 centimetres. The thighbone is 165 centimetres long, and the tibia is 98 cm. ... both cervical vertebrae are relatively elongated; the sacricostal yoke excepts the first sacral rib; and an extremely robust ... Xinjiangtitan was diagnosed based on the following traits: the presence of a ventral keel on the penultimate cervical centrum ...
The specimen also includes several cervical, dorsal, sacral, and caudal vertebrae; several chevrons; some cervical and dorsal ... Also, two of the cervical vertebrae are fused, and another has additional bone growth. This could have been caused by another ... At the time of discovery, a complete cervical (neck vertebrae) series for Tyrannosaurus was not previously known, so it was ... He attributes the difference to the awkward spacing the mounted skeleton shows between its cervical vertebrae and its cranium. ...
The holotype is a nearly complete caudally located cervical vertebra (a cervical vertebra located near the base of the neck), ... In total, known material from the type locality includes: a left and a right maxilla; five cervical, five dorsal, and one ... described remains of an ornithopod from Catalonia, including a cervical vertebra, some partial dorsals, a humerus, and a ... Additional material from the type locality was collected in 1994 - including two maxillae, two dorsal vertebrae, a complete ...
... the atlas and eight other cervical vertebrae, along with eleven cervical ribs; eleven dorsal vertebrae, six dorsal ribs, and ... having relatively smooth bottom surfaces on its cervical vertebrae, having cervical ribs that do not prominently split into two ... The rear dorsal vertebrae in Mierasaurus are concave on both ends (amphicoelous), whereas the opposite (opisthicoelous) is true ... Mierasaurus does not have the prespinal laminae (ridges on the front of the spine) present in the rear dorsal vertebrae of ...
The holotype material is from a subadult and includes part of a skull; complete cervical, dorsal, sacral, and caudal vertebrae ... The genus is characterized by the dimension and shape of the neural spine of the proximal caudal vertebrae. The humerus is 143 ... consists of a single anterior caudal vertebra, while another (the holotype) consists of a partial skull with teeth and partial ...
Vertebrae: cervical 7, dorsal 12, lumbar 7, sacral 4, caudal 15 to 20. Ears are rather long and pointed. No dorsal hump is ...
This segment is thought to represent the cervical vertebrae and few following dorsal. The second segment is smaller and in ... Following this was nine vertebrae shown in dorsal view, with the last few shown in right lateral face. Pelvic girdle and ... The articulation of all the vertebrae together is very snakelike. Yet the construction of the vertebrae themselves are very ... The anterior vertebrae are smaller than the more posterior. The neural arches grow to be more swollen moving anterior to ...
The paratype specimen included three anterior cervical vertebrae, several weathered dorsal vertebrae, various caudal vertebrae ... The holotype specimen preserved eight posterior cervical vertebrae, 12 dorsal vertebrae, five sacral vertebrae, several caudals ... including 19 elongated cervical vertebrae which were almost entirely preserved, 12 dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, and ... Material included five dorsal vertebrae, 30 caudal vertebrae, rib fragments, dorsal neural spines, and chevrons. Fourteen neck ...
... there were 10 cervical vertebrae, 30 dorsal vertebrae, and 2 sacral vertebrae. The body of the dorsal vertebrae presents a ... There are 29 dorsal vertebrae with large ribs. Compared to the cervical vertebrae, the neural arch of the dorsal vertebrae is ... This can infer that the distinction between the cervical and dorsal vertebrae was between vertebrae 10 and 11. The neural arch ... It had 10 cervical, 29 dorsal, and at least 65 caudal vertebrae. It had a unique feature called pachyostosis, an anatomical ...
"isolated posterior cervical vertebra" Metriacanthosaurinae indet. - "a nearly complete left tibia" Metriacanthosaurinae indet ... informally known as Siamodracon altispinus) - "single dorsal vertebra" Sunosuchus indet. - "isolated remains" Rhamphorhynchidae ... The Phu Kradung Formation is considered, on the basis of recent vertebrae fossil discoveries, to be Late Jurassic in age. ...
The cervical (neck) vertebrae had shorter centra (main components) than the dorsal (back) vertebrae. A small pit (subcentral ... The neural spines (spinous processes) of the dorsal vertebrae are characteristically tall and rectangular compared to most " ... The centra are at their maximum length and the neural spines are at their maximum height at the vertebrae directly in front of ... At least 21 vertebrae were present, all from the neck, back, and hip; the tail is missing. ...
Three cervical and twelve dorsal vertebrae are preserved, although none are in good condition. Those that have reasonably- ... but the neural canals are quite large in all the cervical vertebrae. The axis vertebra is in poor condition, missing both ... The premaxilla has a large dorsal portion which frames the external nares and fits between the maxilla and the nasal bone, ... The tail, hindlimbs, ribcage and most of the vertebrae remain unknown. The snout is known from a large fragment stretching from ...
The neck is long, consisting of 8 or 9 cervical vertebrae. These vertebrae are elongated but seemingly lack visible cervical ... 13 or 14 dorsal (back) vertebrae were present, a condition similar to most diapsids. The first few dorsals were short and ... While the first dorsal rib was quite short, at least the next 8 (termed 'thoracolumbar ribs') were very long. They had robust ... The longest ribs were attached to the third and fourth vertebrae, after which they started to decrease in size. At their ...
... had relatively short cervical vertebrae compared to Feilongus. Several of the dorsal vertebrae are fused into a ... the shorter cervical vertebrae, and the weaker feet of these two genera. This concept was later followed by Brian Andres and ...
The vertebral column of Scipionyx probably includes ten cervical vertebrae and thirteen dorsal vertebrae; due to the fact the ... Below the ninth dorsal vertebra the location of the stomach is shown by a cluster of bones of prey animals, the organ itself ... The tail vertebrae are platycoelous with low spines and backward slanting chevrons. There are at least twelve pairs of dorsal ... From the ninth cervical vertebra to the back, the vertebral joints show the remains of articular capsules. Between the spines ...
... the extra movement afforded by the beluga's unfused cervical vertebrae allows a greater range of apparent expression.[136] ... They have no dorsal fin to prevent collision with pack ice.[16] Physeterids and Kogiids consist of sperm whales. Sperm whales ... Most species have a dorsal fin.[43][44] Whales are adapted for diving to great depths. In addition to their streamlined bodies ... Whale ribs loosely articulate with their thoracic vertebrae at the proximal end, but they do not form a rigid rib cage. This ...
For example, structures at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra may be abbreviated as "C4", at the level of the fourth ... Dorsal and ventral[edit]. These two terms, used in anatomy and embryology, describe something at the back (dorsal) or front/ ... For example, in a fish, the pectoral fins are dorsal to the anal fin, but ventral to the dorsal fin. ... and dorsal is the back of the hand. For example, the top of a dog's paw is its dorsal surface; the underside, either the palmar ...
In marsupials and placental mammals, the cervical and lumbar ribs are found only as tiny remnants fused to the vertebrae, where ... Not all species possess both types of rib, with the dorsal ribs being most commonly absent. Sharks, for example, have no dorsal ... The head of the rib lies next to a vertebra. The ribs connect to the vertebrae with two costovertebral joints, one on the head ... Mammals usually also only have distinct ribs on the thoracic vertebra, although fixed cervical ribs are also present in ...
The trachea lies ventrally to the cervical vertebrae extending from the larynx to the syrinx, where the trachea enters the ... and lie in a depression in the pelvic cavity of the dorsal wall.[76] They are covered by peritoneum and a layer of fat.[61] ...
സുഷുമ്നയുടെ ഗ്രൈവ (cervical) ഭാഗത്തുനിന്നുള്ള നാഡീസമൂഹം കഴുത്തിലെയും നെഞ്ചിലെയും പേശികളെ നാഡീകരിക്കുന്നു. ഭുജ (brachial) ... നട്ടെല്ലിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന പുരോ നാഡീമൂലവും (ventral nerve root) പൃഷ്ഠ നാഡീ മൂലവും (dorsal nerve root) സംയോജിച്ചാണ് ... Vertebra · Pelvis · Sternum) · തരുണാസ്ഥി ... dorsal nerve root) എന്നിവയിൽ നിന്നാണ് സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡികൾ ...
... it runs up on the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae in the interval between the anterior ... terminal (supraorbital, supratrochlear, dorsal nasal). ocular group: central retinal *ciliary (short posterior, long posterior ... The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... The ascending cervical artery gives twigs to the neck muscles and these anastomose with branches of the vertebral arteries. One ...
... Cervical Vertebrae ... ഓരോ കശേരുകഖണ്ഡവും താഴെ പറയുന്ന ഭാഗങ്ങൾ ചേർന്നതാണ്: ഒരു അധര (ventral) ഭാഗവും ഒരു പൃഷ്ഠ (dorsal) ഭാഗവും; അധരഭാഗത്തെ മുൻഭാഗമെന്നും ... Human: Lumbar Vertebra 5 ... Vertebrae of ...
Corresponding roughly to the area located between the 4th and 6th cervical vertebrae, the superior boundary of the ... Horses are unable to breathe through the mouth as the free apex of the rostral epiglottis lies dorsal to the soft palate in a ...
Dorsal root ganglion inflammation Small-cell lung cancer and, less often, cancer of the breast, colon or ovary may produce ... Seventy percent of cases involve the thoracic, 20 percent the lumbar, and 10 percent the cervical spine; and about 20 percent ... Lumbar puncture In lumbar puncture a needle is inserted between two lumbar vertebrae, through the dura mater and arachnoid ... inflammation of the dorsal root ganglia (fig. 5), precipitating burning, tingling pain in the extremities, with occasional " ...
The dorsal ribs are not fused or tightly attached to their vertebrae, instead being loosely articulated.[8] Ten dorsal ribs are ... The caudal vertebra number was noted to vary, even within a species. The cervical vertebrae were stouter than other diplodocids ... "Sauropod Vertebra Picture of the Week. Retrieved 2015-06-18.. *^ "Did You Ever Think You'd See The Day? The Brontosaurus Exists ... the first specimen of Apatosaurus where a skull was found articulated with its cervical vertebrae was described. This specimen ...
... some dorsal osteoderms, the cervical and caudal vertebrae, and one skull bone). In 2016, Peter Malcolm Galton and Kenneth ... consists of four posterior dorsal vertebrae.[56] Although Averianov et al. did not consider the vertebrae diagnostic to genus, ... "Siamodracon" is an extinct genus of invalid stegosaurid dinosaur known from a single dorsal vertebra found in Thailand's Phu ... Fossils include a hyoid bone, cervical vertebrae, a supposed skull and a supposed jaw bone. "Ichabodcraniosaurus" was named by ...
In humans, the esophagus generally starts around the level of the sixth cervical vertebra behind the cricoid cartilage of the ... whereas fibers that supply the smooth muscle and lower esophageal sphincter have bodies situated in the dorsal motor nucleus.[5 ... The esophagus is innervated by the vagus nerve and the cervical and thoracic sympathetic trunk.[5] The vagus nerve has a ... The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum. Seen from behind. ...
The vertebral column is divided into four sections of vertebrae: cervical (11-25) (neck), trunk (dorsal or throacic) vertebrae ... caudal vertebrae. 17. pygostyle. 18. synsacrum. 19. scapula. 20. dorsal vertebrae. 21. humerus. 22. ulna. 23. radius. 24. ... 2. cervical vertebrae. 3. furcula. 4. coracoid. 5. uncinate processes of ribs. 6. keel. 7. patella. 8. tarsometatarsus. 9. ... Birds also have more cervical (neck) vertebrae than many other animals; most have a highly flexible neck consisting of 13-25 ...
First and fifth lumbar vertebra.. SII Second sacral vertebra.. 1. Dura mater.. 2. Lower part of subarachnoid cavity.. 3. Lower ... is about 15 cm long and reaches as far as the lower border of the second sacral vertebra. It is continuous above with the pia ... the coccygeal nerve leaves the spinal cord at the level of the conus medullaris via respective vertebrae through their ...
... the broad belly scales and rows of dorsal scales correspond to the vertebrae, allowing scientists to count the vertebrae ... had regional specializations consisting of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic), and caudal ... Tail vertebrae are comparatively few in number (often less than 20% of the total) and lack ribs, while body vertebrae each have ... Neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are very reduced in number (only 2-10 lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are present), while only a ...
The number of dorsal vertebrae to which it is attached varies from four to eight; the number of costal attachments varies; ... The latissimus dorsi is innervated by the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves through the thoracodorsal (long ... Spinous processes of vertebrae T7-L5, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inferior 3 or 4 ribs and inferior angle of scapula. ...
... consisting of three cervical vertebrae, all eleven dorsal vertebrae (with attached ribs), a complete sacrum with a right ilium ... two dorsal vertebrae, a scapulocoracoid, humerus and phalanx, as well as two dermal plates. Three posterior caudal vertebrae ... and the first five caudal vertebrae, all articulated. An additional dorsal vertebra and dermal plate were referred to the taxon ... Its dorsal plates were at first thought to have been much rounder or flatter than other stegosaurids,[7] but Maidment ...
কশেরুকা (Vertebra) *গ্রীবাদেশীয় কশেরুকা (Cervical vertebra). *বক্ষদেশীয় কশেরুকা (Thoracis vertebra). *কটিদেশীয় কশেরুকা ( ... Mesenchyme of dorsal mesogastrium. ধমনী. Splenic artery. শিরা. Splenic vein. স্নায়ু. Splenic plexus. ...
Only a few remains of cervical and dorsal vertebrae are preserved, though the last four dorsals remain articulated and fifteen ... The cervical vertebrae, for example, are all but one preserved in their natural pose. Analysis of these vertebrae led Dames to ... Faint imprints of several dorsal vertebrae are also observed, and four actual rib fragments in articulation with the vertebrae ... It is also one of the least complete specimens, consisting mostly of limb bones and isolated cervical vertebrae and ribs.[117] ...
A syrinx may then develop in the cervical region of the spinal cord. Here, symptoms usually begin between the ages of 25 and 40 ... These include Chiari malformation, spinal arachnoiditis, scoliosis, spinal vertebrae misalignment, spinal tumors, spina bifida ... syringomyelia spares the dorsal column/medial lemniscus of the spinal cord, leaving pressure, vibration, touch and ... Furthermore, evidence also suggests that impact injuries to the thorax area highly correlate with the occurrence of a cervical- ...
... vertebrae. The presacrals are divided into cervical (neck) and dorsal (back) vertebrae, with around 10 cervicals and 17 dorsals ... The first cervical vertebra is the axis bone, which is connected and often fused to the atlas bone. Farther posteriorly, the ... and the transverse processes become more elevated dorsal. The sacrum of S. stenops includes four sacral vertebrae, but one of ... In Stegosaurus stenops there are 27 bones in the vertebral column anterior to the sacrum, a varying number of vertebrae in the ...
For example, structures at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra may be abbreviated as "C4", at the level of the fourth ... Dorsal and ventralEdit. These two terms, used in anatomy and embryology, refer to back (dorsal) and front or belly (ventral) of ... For example, in a fish the pectoral fins are dorsal to the anal fin, but ventral to the dorsal fin. ... a b GO 2014, "dorsal/ventral axis specification" (GO:0009950). *^ a b Miller, S. A. General Zoology Laboratory Manual McGraw- ...
The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins (all ... At the anterior of the shell there may be a cervical scute (sometimes incorrectly called a nuchal scute) however the presence ... The evolution of the turtle's shell is unique because of how the carapace represents transformed vertebrae and ribs. While ... The carapace is the dorsal (back), convex part of the shell structure of a turtle, consisting of the animal's ossified ribs ...
Cervical vertebrae. *Uncinate process of vertebra. *Transverse foramen. *Anterior tubercle. *Carotid tubercle ... In adults, red marrow is mostly found in the bone marrow of the femur, the ribs, the vertebrae and pelvic bones.[11] ... Cancellous bone is typically found at the ends of long bones, near joints and in the interior of vertebrae. Cancellous bone is ... Dorsal surface *posterior sacral foramina. *Median sacral crest. *Medial sacral crest. *Lateral sacral crest ...
It covers the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the scapula. Its origin is the neural spines of the cervical vertebrae and its ... Cats have seven cervical vertebrae like almost all mammals, thirteen thoracic vertebrae (humans have twelve), seven lumbar ... The origin is from the first nine or ten ribs and from part of the cervical vertebrae. ... Its origin is via apoeurosis following the length of the mid-dorsal line, and its insertion is the dorsal portion of the last ...
... not from the addition of more vertebrae. Each cervical vertebra is over 28 cm (11 in) long.[52]:71 They comprise 52-54 per cent ... which are anchored by long dorsal spines on the anterior thoracic vertebrae, giving the animal a hump.[8][71] ... deemed diagnostic of thoracic vertebrae, and because exceptions to the mammalian limit of seven cervical vertebrae are ... between the cervical and thoracic vertebrae of giraffes is shifted to lie between the first and second thoracic vertebrae (T1 ...
... one nearly complete cervical centrum and two partial cervical centra, three pectoral centra with neural arches, fifteen dorsal ... funkei preserve mostly different regions of the skeleton and overlap only by cervical vertebrae. Nevertheless, these cervical ... It shows "type III" retroarticular process and autapomorphic (unique) traits of the cervical vertebrae, which had a smooth ... The referred specimen is represented by five partial cervical centra, one partial dorsal centrum, and a partial skull including ...
The sacral region of the spinal cord is fourth segment (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar being the first three) of vertebrae in ... The sacral region of the spinal cord is fourth segment (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar being the first three) of vertebrae in ... the spinal cord which consists of the vertebrae 26-30.[1] This small group of neural cells is located between S1 and S2 or S2 ... the spinal cord which consists of the vertebrae 26-30.[1] While working in New York City in 1899, Bronislaw Onuf-Onufrowicz ...
caudal vertebrae; 17. pygostyle; 18. synsacrum; 19. scapula; 20. dorsal vertebrae; 21. humerus; 22. ulna; 23. radius; 24. ... 1. skull; 2. cervical vertebrae; 3. furcula; 4. coracoid; 5. vertebral ribs; 6. sternum and its keel; 7. patella; 8. tarsus; 9 ... 8). These accessory muscles of inhalation are muscles that extend from the cervical vertebrae and base of the skull to the ...
cervical vertebrae. . The trunk had 12 dorsal. and four sacral vertebrae. . The tail comprised more than 37 caudal vertebrae. . ... vertebrae. . The dorsal vertebrae had multiple small air-filled internal chambers, a feature typical of later more-derived ... The small skeleton consists of 14 vertebrae (some articulated), including all neck vertebrae as well as some back vertebrae. ... The cervical vertebrae were similar to those of Jobaria and Cetiosaurus. Their centra were approximately 3.1 times as long as ...
USE - For the surgical rectification of cervical spine irregularities, partic. the removal of osteophytes. ... Instruments for decompression of cervical narrow spinal channel - act to remove dorsal edge points of vertebrae and ventral ... Instruments for decompression of cervical narrow spinal channel - act to remove dorsal edge points of vertebrae and ventral ... Instruments for decompression of cervical narrow spinal channel - act to remove dorsal edge points of vertebrae and ventral ...
Abbreviations: ce, cervical vertebrae; co, coracoid; cv, caudal vertebrae; dr, dorsal ribs; fe, femur; fi, fibula; fr, frontal ... The vomer is caudally forked with broadly expanded dorsal flanges, reminiscent of the condition in nonavian theropods, ... is likely due to the mediolaterally expanded sheet present on the dorsal surface of the cranial portion of the vomer in these ... whereas the caudal flanges each have a triangular leaflike process on the dorsal surface which is not visible in 2D. This ...
Short, dorsal spines on first six cervical vertebrae. Seventh cervical vertebrae: - long dorsal spine - transverse foramens. ... More lumbar vertebrae Fewer sacral vertebrae. More coccygeal vertebrae (long "tail bone"). Centralized spine. Short pelvis ... Curved sacrum with short dorsal spines. Hind limbs longer than forelimbs. Femur:. - Condyles equal in size. - Knock-kneed - ...
The typical vertebrae. (A, typical cervical vertebra; B, typical thoracic or dorsal vertebra; C, typical lumbar vertebra). - ... Figure 2-19. The typical vertebrae. (A, typical cervical vertebra; B, typical thoracic or ... Differentiating Characteristics of Typical Vertebrae by Regions - Anatomy for X-Ray Specialists. ...
... cervical vertebrae 7-10; several posterior cervical ribs; several anterior dorsal vertebrae; most mid and posterior dorsal ... vertebrae; several dorsal ribs; the fifth sacral vertebrae; three chevrons; many partial and complete caudal vertebrae and ... When the type specimen was discovered, several long cervical ribs, of a supposed prosauropod dinosaur were found in the mouth ...
Epipophyses on cervical vertebrae. * Deltopectoral crest distally projected. * Manual digit IV with three or fewer phalanges. * ... Ectopterygoid dorsal to transverse flange of pterygoid. * Temporal musculature extended anteriorly onto skull roof. * ... least three sacral vertebrae; perforated acetabulum; , , presence of brevis shelf on ilium; astragalar ascending , , process ... At least three sacral vertebrae. * Perforate acetabulum. * Presence of brevis shelf on the lateroventral side of the ...
There was pain upon pressure throughout the cervical and dorsal vertebrae ; and pressure.... Appears in 10 books from 1825-1858 ... tendon terminates thigh thumb tibia tion toes torso transverse trapezius triangular trunk tuberosity ulna upper vertebrae ... chin collar bone concave condyle convex corresponding cotyloid cavity cranium crest cubital curved deltoid depression dorsal ...
The specimen also includes several cervical, dorsal, sacral, and caudal vertebrae; several chevrons; some cervical and dorsal ... At the time of discovery, a complete cervical (neck vertebrae) series for Tyrannosaurus was not previously known, so it was ... Also, two of the cervical vertebrae are fused, and another has additional bone growth. This could have been caused by another ... He attributes the difference to the awkward spacing the mounted skeleton shows between its cervical vertebrae and its cranium.[ ...
A) articulated cervical vertebrae three to five. (B) cervical vertebra 7. (C) articulated dorsal vertebrae four to seven ( ... There are ten cervical and 13 dorsal vertebrae. Cervical vertebrae are short and stout, with flat anterior and concave ... which have deep ventral keels in posterior cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae15,16. The mid-cervical vertebrae have a ... G) last two cervical vertebrae and centrum of first dorsal vertebra in left lateral view. Abbreviations: aof, antorbital ...
... cervical vertebra, ZIN PH 671/16; D, cervical vertebra, USNM (National Museum of Natural History) 538131; E, dorsal neural arch ... dorsal vertebra, CCMGE (Chernyshevs Central Museum of Geological Exploration) 432/12457; G, anterior caudal vertebra, ZIN PH ... E) Dorsal view. (F) Ventral view. Endocast in (G) anterior view, (H) posterior view, (I) right lateral view, (J) left lateral ... 951/16; H, middle caudal vertebra, ZIN PH 120/16; I, distal caudal vertebra, ZIN PH 507/16; J, pedal ungual, USNM 538167; K, ...
It contained elements including a left and partial right maxillae; basicranium; both dentaries; teeth; cervical, a dorsal, ... anteroposteriorly compressed cervical vertebrae, and robust, proportionally short hindlimbs with a tibia shorter than femur ... The combination of characteristics including a large skull, prominent supraorbital ridge above the dorsal aspect of the orbit, ... sacral and caudal vertebrae; haemal arches; ribs; ilia, pubis and proximal ischia; left and distal end of right femur; left ...
... lacks cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae, and cannot be assessed. Caudipterids are also nested among a group of theropods ... has posterior cervical vertebrae are nearly the same size as the Ashdown vertebra, but bear pneumatic foramina (which continue ... shows that the Ashdown maniraptoran vertebra is a posterior cervical: that is, a vertebra from near the base of the neck. ... On first seeing the vertebra, I was struck by the X-like shape of the neural arch (as seen in dorsal view), the large ...
... and rotates cervical vertebrae; nerve supply, dorsal branches of upper thoracic nerves. ... transverse processes of middle cervical vertebrae; action, extends, abducts, ... Synonym(s): musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colliTA, cervical iliocostal muscle, cervicalis ascendens1, musculus cervicalis ...
Other: translational dorsal glide mobilization technique grade III. *Other: pressure maintained suboccipital Inhibition ... Computer Modelling of the Cervical Spine Movements in Cervical Dystonia. *Cervical Dystonia, Primary ... Cervical Disc at Two Contiguous Levels in the Cervical Spine. *Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease ... Cervical Spine Thrust Joint Manipulation for Temporomandibular Disorder. *Temporomandibular Disorder. *Other: Cervical Spine ...
The first thoracic dorsal vertebra (Fig. 4J-K) is very similar to the last cervical vertebra. It can be distinguished by its ... All the cervical vertebrae have the neural spine broken off. The cervical vertebrae develop hypapophyses with a slight sagittal ... These diapophyses show a gradual evolution from the more anterior cervical vertebrae to the more posterior cervical vertebrae, ... 3 cervical and 7 dorsal vertebrae; 2 cervical and 6 thoracic ribs; left coracoid, left and right ulnae, left and right radii, ...
... cut interior of the second or third thoracic vertebra; posterior of the atlas joint (first cervical vertebra); and dorsal of ... The blade bone (scapula) and the dorsal fat covering, including the skin (clear plate), are removed, leaving no more than one- ...
Approach to Cervical Vertebrae 1 and 2 Through a Ventral Incision. Approach to Cervical Vertebrae 1 and 2 Through a Dorsal ... Approach to the Midcervical Vertebrae Through a Dorsal Incision. Approach to Cervical Vertebrae 3 to 6 Through a Lateral ... Approach to Lumbar Vertebra 7 and the Sacrum Through a Dorsal Incision. Approach to Lumbar Vertebrae 6 and 7, and the Sacrum ... Approach to the Caudal Cervical and Cranial Thoracic Vertebrae Through a Dorsal Incision. Approach to the Thoracolumbar ...
Dorsal deviation of the dens 9 Modified ventral approach to cervical vertebrae Benefit. Who reported it? ... Dorsal atlantoaxial: dorsal arch of atlas to cranial dorsal spine of axis ... Compression of a cervical nerve root. Present as TL lameness. Can be seen in 22-50% of dogs with cervical IVDD ... Cervical Vertebral Stenosis Associated with a Vertebral Arch Anomaly in the Basset Hound. J Vet Intern Med. 2012 Sep 14;26(6): ...
Abbreviations: cd, caudal vertebrae; d, dorsal vertebra; L3, third lateral (cervical spike) osteoderm; L10, tenth lateral ( ... Dorsal Vertebrae-Portions of two anterior dorsal centra are visible in ventral view (Fig. 4A), and the last dorsal vertebra is ... cervical vertebrae; d1-2, dorsal vertebrae 1 and 2; f, femora; fi, fibula; g, gastralia; icl, interclavicle; il, ilia; is, ... In ventral view P-56299 preserves all or part of five cervical vertebrae and ribs (but not the atlas-axis complex), two dorsal ...
Transverse process of cervical vertebrae. What does the dorsal scapular nerve innervate?. The rhomboids and the levator ... Origin: transverse process of cervical vertebrae Insertion: ribs. What is the origin of the sternocleidomastoid?. The mastoid ...
Unambiguously assignable to the genus Macrocnemus, it evinces particularly gracile elongated cervical ribs, as well as a ... Unambiguously assignable to the genus Macrocnemus, it evinces particularly gracile elongated cervical ribs, as well as a ... Dorsal vertebrae. The dorsal vertebrae in PIMUZ T 1559 are much shorter than the cervical vertebrae (Table 3). In most dorsals ... cervical vertebra; cr, cervical rib; d, dentary; dr, dorsal rib; dv, dorsal vertebra; ec, ectopterygoid; ext. n., external ...
Cervical vertebrae- Vertebrae of the neck.. Epidural space- This space lies between the dura mater and the walls of the ... At each level, two nerve roots (dorsal or posterior carrying ingoing nerve impulses; ventral or anterior carrying outgoing ... Cervical vertebrae -Vertebrae of the neck.. Epidural space -This space lies between the dura mater and the walls of the ... The uppermost emerges between the skull and the uppermost cervical vertebra; the rest emerge between two adjacent vertebrae, ...
processes of superior vertebrae (spanning 2-4 segments). A- extend head, extend cervical and thoracic regions, rotate those ... stabilize the vertebrae, and proprioception. N- dorsal rami of segmental spinal nerves ... O- superior sufraces of spinous processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrae. I- inferior surfaces of spinous processes of ... A- extend head, extend cervical and thoracic regions, rotate those regions contralaterally, stabilize the vertebrae, and ...
Cervical vertebrae have a well developed system of laminae and cavities. Centra of the dorsal vertebrae opisthocoelous have ... This skeleton consists of three cervical vertebrae, four dorsal vertebrae, several ribs, the left scapula, the distal end of ... The dorsal vertebrae from the middle part of the dorsal series have hourglass-shaped centra and a dorsal depression on the ... The Chinese sauropods have cervical vertebrae that are much more flattened transversally. The posterior cervical vertebrae of ...
The dorsal ribs are not fused or tightly attached to their vertebrae, instead being loosely articulated.[8] Ten dorsal ribs are ... The caudal vertebra number was noted to vary, even within a species. The cervical vertebrae were stouter than other diplodocids ... "Sauropod Vertebra Picture of the Week. Retrieved 2015-06-18.. *^ "Did You Ever Think Youd See The Day? The Brontosaurus Exists ... the first specimen of Apatosaurus where a skull was found articulated with its cervical vertebrae was described. This specimen ...
Structures of a typical cervical vertebra (superior aspect) are shown in FIG. 1A. : 104-lamina; 106-spinal cord; 108-dorsal ... is a superior cross-sectional anatomical view of a cervical disc and vertebra. ... One vertebra may settle on top of another. This problem continues as the body ages, and accounts for shortened stature in old ... illustrate a cross-sectional anatomical view of a vertebra and associated disc and a lateral view of a portion of a lumbar and ...
... cervical vertebra, ventral. Dimorphodon macronyx, GSM 1546: (g) dorsal vertebrae 5-6, right lateral; (h) dorsal vertebrae 5-12 ... mid-cervical vertebra, ventral; (b,c) anterior dorsal rib, posterior; (d) third preserved dorsal vertebra, right lateral. ... the cervical vertebrae/ribs and the anterior to mid-dorsal vertebrae are pneumatized by diverticula of the cervical air-sacs; ... Two mid-cervical vertebrae are preserved in the holotype of Raeticodactylus filisurensis: one in dorsal view and one in ventral ...
... and posterior cervical vertebrae, but not in the anteriormost vertebrae.. Dorsal vertebrae of Apatosaurus bear a ... vertebrae, are morphological intermediates between the cervical vertebrae they follow and the dorsal vertebrae they precede. In ... In dorsal vertebrae, the space occupied by the sdf in cervical vertebrae is bisected by the spdl to form a prsdf and posdf. ... In the 17th presacral vertebra, which is either the last cervical or the first dorsal vertebra, the sprl terminates at the base ...
There was no connection with any bony structure, such as the cervical vertebrae or skull. Chordoma-like histological features ... At operation, the mass was found to be firmly attached to the dorsal soft tissue. ... Bach, S.T.: Cervical chordoma. Report of a case and a brief review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngology 69, 450-456 (1970) ... Filbert, C.G.: Chordoma of the cervical spine: A case report with a brief review of the literature. J. AOA 73, 836-842 (1974) ...
... and vertebra prominens (C7) are considered atypical cervical vertebrae. The atlas (C1) lacks a body or spinous process. It has ... Of the cervical vertebrae, the atlas (C1), axis (C2) ... dorsal columns * fasiculus gracilis (column of Goll). * ... Of the cervical vertebrae, the atlas (C1), axis (C2) and vertebra prominens (C7) are considered atypical cervical vertebrae. ... The vertebra prominens (C7) has the longest spinous process of all cervical vertebrae. It is also non-bifid. These features ...
  • The invention relates to an instrument for retrograde decompression of the cervical spinal canal narrow and serves to relieve the spinal cord in the neck spondylogenen mark damage. (
  • The presence of a rather large hypapophysis, combined with the position of the parapophyses (low down on the centrum), shows that the Ashdown maniraptoran vertebra is a posterior cervical: that is, a vertebra from near the base of the neck. (
  • There are seven cervical (neck) vertebrae, 12 thoracic (high back), five lumbar (low back), five sacral (near the base of the spine), and four coccygeal (at the base). (
  • cervical vertebrae the upper seven vertebrae, constituting the skeleton of the neck. (
  • located between the first neck vertebra and the skull-were found in articulation with the skull. (
  • The neck was long, and its vertebrae were hollow, and very light. (
  • The complexity pattern indicates that stress increased proximally along the neck, was greatest in the anterior dorsal vertebrae, and then decreased towards the sacrum. (
  • The cervical vertebrae are located in the neck. (
  • Dr Ida Rolf in her book, points out very clearly how shortness in the recti pulls down the ribs, leading to strain in the cervical spine, neck problems and often Dowager's Hump. (
  • The holotype specimen (NLMH 106.058) is an almost complete skull and cervical (neck) series. (
  • extends cervical (neck) and thoracic (back) vertebrae. (
  • The most frequent cervical injuries in athletes are probably acute strains and sprains of the musculature of the neck, as well as soft-tissue contusions. (
  • The cervical plexus innervates the muscles of the neck through ventral branches of the cervical and thoracic nerves. (
  • Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. (
  • USE - For the surgical rectification of cervical spine irregularities, partic. (
  • Also searched for Cervical spine . (
  • Filbert, C.G.: Chordoma of the cervical spine: A case report with a brief review of the literature. (
  • A lateral view of the spine divided into its cervical, dorsal, and lumbar portions. (
  • D)-Probable eighth caudal vertebra in lateral view with anterior view of the neural spine. (
  • the dorsal and abdominal fins move only with the spine. (
  • 3 . A method of treating the spine as in claim 1 , wherein the lumen extends at least as far as the L4 vertebrae. (
  • The spine consists of three vertebral columns, including the cervical vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, and thoracic vertebrae. (
  • The lowest portion of the spine consists of the lumbar vertebrae. (
  • Each vertebra is larger than the one above it, increasing in diameter as they run the length of the spine. (
  • The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located at the base of the skull. (
  • The Cervical Spine: An atlas of normal anatomy and the morbid anatomy of ageing and injuries is a unique collection of more than 150 anatomical images documenting the development, maturation and ageing of the cervical spine and pathologies associated with ageing and injury. (
  • Representing the extensive research conducted by Professor James Taylor into the cervical spine gathered from his study of 266 autopsies over almost a decade, this text is a guide to support the clinical diagnosis of cervical spine trauma and pain. (
  • Online Image Library The entire collection of more than 150 images with annotations, extracted from The Cervical Spine: An atlas of normal anatomy and the morbid anatomy of ageing and injuries - an ideal supplement to enhance teaching, study or practice. (
  • Cervical vertebrae - lower left are the atlas & axis (it's odontoid process is broken off, but note the large neural spine). (
  • The mainstay of prevention and treatment of cervical spine injuries is maintaining good strength and flexibility through conditioning. (
  • Cervical spine injuries occur in an estimated 10-15% of football players, most commonly in defensive ends, linemen, and linebackers. (
  • The spinal cord is protected by the cervical spine, which provides support for the head and allows for a significant amount of range of motion (ROM). (
  • These joints of Luschka, also known as uncovertebral joints, are not present in the embryologic development of the cervical spine but arise as a result of the degenerative and adaptive changes of annular tissue to stresses and loads. (
  • If you look at a complete spine, it is a curved column composed of vertebrae. (
  • It commonly, is endured by the bones of the spine and may be caused when the anterior portion of the vertebra collapses while standing or sitting, or as a result of advanced osteoporosis. (
  • Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. (
  • An elongate elliptical foramen with a sharp-edged rim is present on the right lateral surface of the centrum of the third preserved dorsal ( figure 1 d ). (
  • This caudal vertebra is less tall and more pinched in the middle of the centrum than the one from Paleoworld-101's collection. (
  • Body or centrum ( corpus vertebrae ) is a cylindrical mass on the anterior side of the vertebra. (
  • This pattern could result from the greater mechanical advantage of an elongate cervical centrum in resisting torsion relative to a short dorsal centrum and the greater mechanical advantage of wide dorsal transverse processes in generating torsion. (
  • adult salamanders, but usually the intercentral remnants of the notochord are pressed out of existence by the forward growth of the centrum behind it, so that in the adult each vertebra is only concave behind (opisthocoelous). (
  • Thoracic vertebrae - look for the rib attachments on the transverse processes & centrum (not always easily visible on these small vertebrae). (
  • GSI 16686: Centrum of dorsal vertebra. (
  • Unambiguously assignable to the genus Macrocnemus , it evinces particularly gracile elongated cervical ribs, as well as a humerus/radius ratio that is comparable only to that of M. fuyuanensis from southern China. (
  • Protorosaurs are a group of archosauromorph reptiles characterized by their elongated cervical vertebrae and concomitantly elongated cervical ribs that frequently extend posteriorly across more than one intervertebral joint so that they form bundles of rib shafts. (
  • The dorsal ribs are not fused or tightly attached to their vertebrae, instead being loosely articulated. (
  • [8] Ten dorsal ribs are on either side of the body. (
  • thoracic vertebrae the twelve vertebrae between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, giving attachment to the ribs and forming part of the posterior wall of the thorax. (
  • Among non-volant ornithodirans, axial pneumaticity is perhaps best developed in sauropod dinosaurs, in which pneumatic diverticulae leave their traces in postatlantal vertebrae and ribs, but apparently not chevrons ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • from a single fossil specimen consisting of a partial skeleton including vertebra , ribs, hips, and upper legs. (
  • Thoracic vertebrae in all mammalian species are defined as those vertebrae that also carry a pair of ribs , and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae . (
  • Further caudally follow the lumbar vertebrae , which also belong to the trunk, but do not carry ribs. (
  • In reptiles, all trunk vertebrae carry ribs and are called dorsal vertebrae. (
  • In many species, though not in mammals, the cervical vertebrae bear ribs. (
  • The transverse processes of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs of other amniotes. (
  • There may be from 11 ( Ambystoma talpoideum ) to 60 ( Amphiuma ) dorsal, or trunk, vertebrae, all but the last 1 or 2 usually bearing ribs. (
  • Endennasaurs is represented by two specimens, the holotype (5170, Bergamo Museum of Natural Sciences), exposed from the ventral side and lacking the left posterior limb and almost the entire tail, and a second specimen (paratype MBSN 27 in the same collection) exposed from the dorsal side and consisting of few dorsal vertebrae and ribs, part of the pelvic girdle, the right femur and the complete tail. (
  • Each is provided with a pair of ribs, closely resembling those found in the cervical region in the crocodile, but with a single articular head only. (
  • but, as none of the ribs join the sternum, the usual means of dis-tinguishing the dorsal and cervical regions is wanting. (
  • The sacrum consists of two vertebrae, with stout broad ribs for attachment to the iliac bones. (
  • lumbar vertebrae the five vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum. (
  • vertebra mag´na the sacrum. (
  • 4. Sacral region (buttocks, Sacrum or gluteal) 5 vertebrae. (
  • The sacrum, much the largest piece of the vertebral column , is placed, when the body is in the erect position, at the superior and posterior part of the pelvis, beneath the last lumbar vertebra, above the coccyx, and between the ossa innominata, between which it is inserted, in some measure like a keystone into an arch. (
  • the sacrum), or degenerate as it were, and lose all the ordinary characters of vertebrae (viz. (
  • ISIR 4: Skull, excellently preserved girdles, a series of 7 vertebrae including sacrum. (
  • Six anterior dorsal vertebrae are preserved in close association, although the first two are partially obscured by overlying elements. (
  • A partial dorsal rib is associated with the most anterior of the preserved dorsal vertebrae. (
  • The various cervical vertebrae possess distinguishing features, though, with the exception of the first, second, and seventh, which are so different as to necessitate separate descriptions, these are largely confined to the direction of the costo-transverse lamella, and the size and level of the anterior and posterior tubercles. (
  • and (4) rudimentary prespinal lamina on posterior cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae. (
  • Anterior surfaces of all vertebrae face forward or to the left. (
  • Atlas - 1st cervical vertebra of large ungulate, anterior view. (
  • The orientation of the cervical zygapophyseal joints allows them to play a weight-bearing role and to provide resistance to anterior translation. (
  • true vertebrae those segments of the vertebral column that normally remain unfused throughout life: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. (
  • On physical examination, a malformed accessory extremity, resembling a rudimentary structure like a tiny arm, was attached to the back, in the upper-dorsal region of the vertebral column (Figures 1(a) and 1(b) ). (
  • In the vertebral column of Lacerta agilis , there are eight cervical, twenty-two thoracicolumbar, two sacral and a large but inconstant number of caudal vertebrae. (
  • A muscle with origin from the fifth to the eleventh thoracic vertebrae, with insertion into the first four thoracic vertebrae and the fifth and seventh cervical vertebrae, with nerve supply from the dorsal branches of the cervical and the thoracic nerves, and whose action extends the vertebral column. (
  • It is made up of many vertebrae, which are special types of bones, arranged in a column, so it can also be referred as a vertebral column. (
  • vertebra denta´ta the second cervical vertebra, or axis. (
  • odontoid vertebra the second cervical vertebra, or axis. (
  • The atlas and axis are peculiar in that the first and second spinal nerves issue behind the articular processes, whereas the remaining spinal nerves emerge in front of the articular facets of the vertebrae. (
  • Anatomic description of the Atlas, the Axis and the Prominent vertebra, the first second and cervical vartebra. (
  • Human vertebrae - showing atlas, axis above, thoracic vertebrae in lower left & lumbar vertebrae in lower right. (
  • Axis - 2nd cervical vertebra of large ungulate, lateral view. (
  • Cervical vertebrae, the atlas and the axis. (
  • The transverse ligament lies anteriorly between the 2 lateral masses of C1 and just posteriorly to the odontoid process of the C2 vertebra, or axis (see the image below). (
  • Brontosaurus , like its close relative Apatosaurus , had tall spines on its vertebrae, which made up more than half the height of the individual bones. (
  • Caudal Vertebrae have tiny neural canals, reduced neural spines & transverse processes, reduced zygapophyses. (
  • nerve supply , dorsal primary rami of lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves. (
  • The tendons anchor on the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae (withers area) and the nuchal ligament. (
  • Identifications made on the basis of single bones can very occasionally be horribly, horribly wrong (one personal example: a cervical vertebra that I identified as oviraptorosaurian (Naish & Martill 2002) now seems to be from an abelisauroid), but they can often be made with confidence if the material is good enough, and if it preserves the required informative bits of anatomy. (
  • Of the seven cervical vertebrae , C3 through C6 have typical anatomy , while C7 looks very similar. (
  • Bergman R, Afifi A, Miyauchi R. Anatomy Atlases - Cervical Vertebrae. (
  • Sutures between the neural arches with the centra of the vertebrae were more complex in the front part of the trunk of Spinophorosaurus , since stresses were probably greatest in that region. (
  • such a vertebra is spoken of as amphicoelous and with one exception is always found in fishes which have centra. (
  • Lumbar vertebrae - larger centra & no rib attachments. (
  • The species is distinguished by rugose dorsal contacts on the premaxillae for the nasals, laterally projecting postorbital horncores, fully fused and anteriorly curled P1 and P2 epiparietals, and a posterodorsally projecting P3 epiparietal. (
  • Thaumatodracon has two unique characters (autapomorphies): a pronounced pit on the posterior margin of the dorsal ramus of the squamosal, and a paired anteriorly tapering triangular basioccipital processes, although it is possible these are taphonomic artefacts. (
  • Each vertebra (except C1 and C2) has a common body anteriorly and a ring of bone formed by the laminae and pedicles posteriorly. (
  • nerve supply, dorsal branches of upper thoracic nerves. (
  • cranial vertebra the segments of the skull and facial bones, regarded by some as modified vertebrae. (
  • The bones of fishes are comparatively soft, flexible, and elastic, in the lowest species without division into vertebrae, and in the sharks and rays cartilaginous, resembling the embryonic conditions of higher animals. (
  • Remains include an incomplete maxilla with ten teeth, six cervical and dorsal vertebrae, and several associated girdle and limb bones. (
  • bones that form the dorsal part of the thoracic cage. (
  • Opossum - note the epipubic bones on pelvis and the tiny "chevron" bones enclosing the hemal canals on the caudal vertebrae. (
  • The caudal vertebrae, between thirty and forty in number, have distinct chevron bones, which are attached between the successive vertebrae. (
  • Dorsal rami of upper thoracic spinal nerves. (
  • Pain referred to the muscle can arise from any source that is modulated by the dorsal rami. (
  • through the middle of each cervical, dorsal, lumbar and sacral vertebra and through the middle of the sternum and the ischiopubic symphysis. (
  • On first seeing the vertebra, I was struck by the X-like shape of the neural arch (as seen in dorsal view), the large hypapophysis (a prominent keel located on the midline of the ventral surface) and the presence of fossae on the sides of the neural arch. (
  • The X-like shape of the neural arch gives the vertebra an oviraptorosaur-like appearance, and various other features are consistent with such an identification. (
  • The sutural structures are oriented to resist anteroposterior translation of the neural arch in cervical vertebrae and lateral rotation in dorsal vertebrae. (
  • If a vertebra from the tail of a bony fish like the herring be ex- amined, it will be seen to have a ventral (haemal) arch surrounding the caudal blood-vessels and corresponding to the dorsal or neural arch which is also present. (
  • third cervical vertebra (C3), can be used to show the markings found on the other four. (
  • To better understand this relationship in sauropods, sutural complexity was measured from the articulated presacral vertebrae of Spinophorosaurus nigerensis, and patterns of gross morphology were observed. (
  • three cervical vertebrae and two posterior presacral vertebrae. (
  • ISIR 2: Part of a skull, a series of vertebrae from 10th presacral to second sacral, associated girdles, limbs and pes. (
  • The seventh thoracic vertebra (T7) is located in the mid to lower dorsal area at the inferior angle of the scapula (shoulder blade). (
  • Dowager's Hump is the body's attempt to alleviate the strain on the seventh cervical and first dorsal vertebrae by building up the flesh. (
  • The spinal column extends from the first vertebra, Atlas bone, to the end of the trunk. (
  • The C1 vertebra, or atlas, is ring-shaped, has large lateral masses, and attaches to the occipital condyles of the skull, providing support. (
  • The holotype, VF 1, consists of a very elongated cervical vertebra , probably the fifth. (
  • The holotype specimen, laid out in dorsal view. (
  • The vertebrae are held firmly in place by a series of strong ligaments. (
  • The source of pain can be vertebrae, inter-vertebral joints (disc and facet joints), ligaments and fasciae. (
  • Causes of backache may be related to vertebrae, intervertebral joints (disc or facet joints), fasciae, and ligaments and could lead to further disabilities if left untreated. (
  • The first named fossil specimen which can be attributed to Tyrannosaurus rex consists of two partial vertebrae (one of which has been lost) found by Edward Drinker Cope in 1892. (
  • initially assigned the specimen, consisting of a single partial large cervical vertebra , as a new species of Ornithostoma, O. orientalis. (
  • A dorsal view of the skull of the type specimen of Halisaurus (Clidastes) sternbergi . (
  • Here we report on a new specimen, IVPP V 17959, that can be undoubtedly referred to the Wukongopteridae based on the presence of a confluent nasoantorbital fenestra, elongated cervical vertebrae (convergent with Pterodactyloidea) and a long tail enclosed by rod-like bony extensions of the zygapophyses. (
  • B)-Fifth cervical vertebra in lateral view. (
  • C)-Eighth dorsal vertebra in lateral view with two cross-sections from a µCT scan. (
  • Tylosaurus proriger , dorsal and left lateral view of skull. (
  • Lateral view of a thoracic vertebrae from a large ungulate. (
  • false vertebrae those vertebrae that normally fuse with adjoining segments: the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae. (
  • 5. Coccygeal region (imperfect vertebrae Coccyx) 4 vertebrae. (
  • The two laminae form the dorsal portions of the vertebral arch. (
  • For a basic anatomic description of the structure of a generic vertebra, see vertebrae . (
  • The dorsal vertebrae had multiple small air-filled internal chambers, a feature typical of later more-derived sauropods. (
  • Internal pneumatic structures are typically not bounded by landmarks, however, and it is very difficult to homologize individual pneumatic spaces between vertebrae or between species. (
  • We probably won't be able to put a genus or species name on each type, but perhaps assigning certain vertebrae to a morphotype might be possible. (
  • The spinal column is composed of a large number of vertebrae, some species having ninety or more in the entire series. (
  • The cervical vertebras vary in number from twenty-four to upwards of forty in different species. (
  • Cat caudal vertebrae have very tiny hemal arches along the first part of the tail. (
  • 6. Three or more sacral (located near the pelvis) vertebrae. (
  • It articulates with the inferior articular facet on the vertebra above. (
  • The inferior articular facet makes contact with the superior articular facet on the cervical vertebra above. (
  • The first dorsal vertebra is marked at each side by a complete articular surface for the first rib , and on its inferior border by a slight excavation, which receives half the head of the second : the upper articular processes are oblique, and the spinous more nearly horizontal than those below it. (
  • Sudden illness when pressing on dorsal vertebr , with jerks in muscles of nape and of back, with throwing back of the head while the trunk is upright, the illness agg. (
  • The Rhomboids insert along the medial dorsal border of the scapula and pulls the scapula against the trunk. (
  • The costo-transverse foramen is very characteristic of a cervical vertebra. (
  • The vertebral foramen is triangular with rounded angles, and is larger than in the thoracic or lumbra vertebrae. (
  • In humans, cervical vertebrae are the smallest of the true vertebrae, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process, through which passes the vertebral artery. (
  • Transverse foramen of the cervical foramen. (
  • Vertebral foramen of a cervical vertebra. (
  • Some nerves enter the spinal cord on its dorsal surface (which is closest to the back). (
  • The vertebrae support the body and provide the protective bony corridor (the spinal or vertebral canal ) through which the spinal cord passes. (
  • The arches of the vertebrae form a hollow cylinder or a bony covering or a passage for the spinal cord. (
  • rotates cervical and thoracic vertebrae to opposite side (= contralateral rotation). (
  • It differs from Spinosaurus in that it has a ventral keel on many vertebrae and a triangular rough plateau on the bottom back end. (
  • The inferior surface, on the contrary, projects downward in front and is rounded off at the sides to receive the corresponding lips of the adjacent vertebra. (
  • vertebra ) are those vertebrae immediately inferior to the skull. (
  • Inferior view of a cervical vertebra - test yourself. (
  • The last cervical vertebra (C7), however, is somewhat distinctive in that it typically has a more elongated spinous process. (
  • The vertebra prominens (C7) has the longest spinous process of all cervical vertebrae. (
  • For this reason, C7 is often referred to as the vertebra prominens . (
  • LEFT: A right side, ventral view of the skull and cervical vertebrae of a large Tylosaurus prorige r in the field (scale = 1 meter). (
  • A section of the posterior caudal vertebrae showing the enlargement of the dorsal processes which is also a characteristic of the genus Clidastes . (
  • Bonaparte dug up a large sauropod cervical vertebra in 1981. (