Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Pancreatic Cyst: A true cyst of the PANCREAS, distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a lining of mucous EPITHELIUM. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of PANCREATIC DUCTS secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Acinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.ChymotrypsinogenCholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Endocrine Cells: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Cystadenoma, Papillary: A benign neoplasm of the ovary.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Pancreatic Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Salivary Duct Calculi: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Pancreaticojejunostomy: Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gabexate: A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Receptors, Cholecystokinin: Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The ventral pancreatic bud develops into the pancreatic head and uncinate process. In pancreas divisum the ducts of the ... pancreas are not fused to form a full pancreas, but instead it remains as a distinct dorsal and ventral duct. Without the ... Pancreatitis is a major complication of pancreas divisum. Pancreas of a human embryo of five weeks. Pancreas of a human embryo ... Three different variations in pancreas divisum have been described: the first is the classic example of pancreas divisum in ...
The human embryo begins life with two ducts in the pancreas, the ventral duct and the dorsal duct. Normally, the two ducts will ... of the pancreas is drained by the ventral duct. Therefore in pancreas divisum, where fusion of the ducts does not occur, the ... In approximately 10% of embryos the ventral and dorsal ducts fail to fuse together, resulting in pancreas divisum. In utero, ... but rather remains as two distinct dorsal and ventral ducts. A majority of individuals born with pancreas divisum will not have ...
... the main ducts of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds fuse, forming the main pancreatic duct. The duct of the dorsal bud ... a pancreas may exist with two separate ducts, a condition known as a pancreas divisum. This condition has no physiologic ... the pancreas is divided into the head of pancreas, the neck of pancreas, the body of pancreas, and the tail of pancreas. The ... The duodenum and pancreas Pancreas of a human embryo at end of sixth week Dog pancreas magnified 100 times The pancreas and its ...
... the main ducts of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds fuse, forming the main pancreatic duct. The duct of the dorsal bud ... a pancreas may exist with two separate ducts, a condition known as a pancreas divisum. This condition has no physiologic ... 1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common ... Two ducts, the main pancreatic duct and a smaller accessory pancreatic duct, run through the body of the pancreas, joining with ...
... with the ventral side creating the lesser curvature and the dorsal side creating the greater curvature.The expanding dorsal ... Two of the well known types of congenital defect are: Pancreatic divisum, where the pancreatic duct fails to form, and Annular ... Esophagus Respiratory tract (lower respiratory tract) Stomach Duodenum (up to ampulla of vater) Liver Gallbladder Pancreas ... Its two attachments are commonly referred to as the dorsal mesogastrium and the ventral mesogastrium. As the stomach rotates ...
There is also a common condition called pancreas divisum where the dorsal and ventral pancreas do not fuse properly. This ... The main pancreatic duct is formed by the fusion of the dorsal and ventral pancreas. The embryology also explains the strange ... the dorsal pancreas and the ventral pancreas. The dorsal pancreas appears first, at around day 26, opposite the developing ... hepatic duct, and grows into the dorsal mesentery. The ventral pancreas develops at the junction of the hepatic duct and the ...
... when the dorsal pancreatic bud fails to fuse with the ventral pancreatic bud, a condition called pancreatic divisum, or when ... In 10% of people, the minor duodenal papilla is the prime duct for drainage of the pancreas, although in others it may not be ... The minor duodenal papilla represents the remnants of the opening of the accessory pancreatic duct, which drains the dorsal ... When present, the sphincter is known as the sphincter of Helly, and the duct the accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini. ...
What is pancreas divisum? Learn more here and find some of the best treatment options, in addition to management tips and diet ... Pancreas divisum happens in the womb when two parts of an embryos pancreas, the ventral and dorsal ducts, do not fuse together ... Usually, the ventral and dorsal duct fuse together as a fetus develops in the womb. In pancreas divisum, they remain seperate. ... In pancreas divisum, however, they drain via the dorsal duct and the narrower minor papilla ...
... occurs when the ductal systems of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts fail to fuse. As a result of nonunion of the ducts, a ... major portion of pancreatic exocrine secretions enter the duodenum via the dorsal duct and minor papilla. ... Pancreas divisum, the most common congenital variant of the pancreatic anatomy, ... Nonfusion of ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts in pancreas divisum can be recognized more readily after secretin-stimulated ...
Pancreas divisum: failure of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ducts to fuse. ... pancreas divisum, hereditary pancreatitis, gene mutations, cystic fibrosis, choledochocele, annular pancreas, anomalous ... The role of pancreas divisum as a cause of ARP pancreatitis is controversial, but it is believed that in a subset of patients, ... Pancreas divisum can be diagnosed by CT, MRI/MRCP (with secretin stimulation), or EUS. Endoscopic minor papilla sphincterotomy ...
The human embryo begins life with two ducts in the pancreas, the ventral duct and the dorsal duct. Normally, the two ducts will ... of the pancreas is drained by the ventral duct. Therefore in pancreas divisum, where fusion of the ducts does not occur, the ... In approximately 10% of embryos the ventral and dorsal ducts fail to fuse together, resulting in pancreas divisum. In utero, ... but rather remains as two distinct dorsal and ventral ducts. A majority of individuals born with pancreas divisum will not have ...
The majority of people born with pancreas divisum experience no symptoms, however, a small number of people will experience ... Pancreas divisum is a common congenital anomaly of the pancreatic duct(s). ... Failure of the ventral and the dorsal pancreatic ducts to fuse is called pancreas divisum (because the pancreas is drained by ... two ducts). In pancreas divisum, the ventral duct drains into the major papilla, while the dorsal duct drains into a separate ...
failure of fusion of fetal duct systems of dorsal and ventral pancreatic primordia. Pancreas Divisum. ... Path 19 Pancreas. Path. Question. Answer. Most common congen anom of pancreas. ... Annular Pancreas. Reversible panc parenchymal injury associated w inflamm. Biliary tract disease and alcoholism account for ... parenchymal fibrosis, reduced #/size of acini (spare islets of Langerhans), dilated panc ducts. -,DM. Chronic Pancreatitis. ...
This condition is characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, clinical signs of epigastric abdominal pain, and elevated ... Recurrent pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum in an elderly man. This pancreatogram of the dorsal duct shows a distal ... Normal-appearing ventral pancreas in a patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis. The dorsal pancreas (not pictured) showed ... Pancreas divisum associated with minor papilla stenosis causing recurrent pancreatitis. Because pancreas divisum is relatively ...
Annular pancreas. A congential condition where the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts fial to fuse resulting in two separate ... Pancreatic divisum. (T or F) Pancreas divisum is not a cause of pancreatitis.. False. Pancreatic divisum increases the risk of ... Outpouching of biliary ducts. Choledochal diverticulum. (T or F) Choledochal cyst and diverticulum increases the risk for ... Dilatation of biliary ducts. May be solitary or mutliple. Usually presents with biliary obstruction.. Choledochal cyst. ...
The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ situated deep within the abdomen and not easily accessible by physical examination. ... However, in the pancreas divisum, there is complete separation of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ducts.5 An association ... The dorsal and ventral ducts fuse into one major duct, the duct of Wirsung, which empties into the duodenum along with the ... Embryologically, the pancreas arises from a dorsal and ventral pancreatic bud. The larger dorsal bud is the precursor of the ...
in embryo, pancreas starts as 2, with dorsal and ventral buds. USUALLY THESE FUSE (pancreatic duct). - in PD, there is a ... also autoimmune pancreatitis, drugs, trauma, pancreas divisum, excessive triglycerides hypertriglycaemia, CF, viral ... Above bile ducts get very dilated. 2) Pancreatic Cancer in head of pancreas > constriction of bile duct that comes in to meet ... Cystic duct. common bile duct (jaundice and dilated bile duct results). This can be seen with ultra sound ...
3. In pancreas divisum, the ducts of the dorsal and ventral buds terminate at: A. the dorsal bud duct drains at the minor ... 1. The main pancreatic duct forms from the union of: A. the distal duct system of the dorsal bud and the ventral bud duct. B. ... B. the dorsal bud duct drains at the ampulla of Vater, the ventral bud duct drains at the minor duodenal papilla. C. the dorsal ... 2. The accessory pancreatic duct is a remnant of which embryologic duct: A. the duct of the ventral bud. B. the distal duct of ...
... pancreas explanation free. What is pancreas? Meaning of pancreas medical term. What does pancreas mean? ... Looking for online definition of pancreas in the Medical Dictionary? ... pancreas divisum. A congenital anomaly in which the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ducts fail to unite during embryonic ... Pancreas divisum is a common congenital anomaly in which the main duct of the exocrine pancreas drains into an accessory ...
The ventral pancreatic bud develops into the pancreatic head and uncinate process. In pancreas divisum the ducts of the ... pancreas are not fused to form a full pancreas, but instead it remains as a distinct dorsal and ventral duct. Without the ... Pancreatitis is a major complication of pancreas divisum. Pancreas of a human embryo of five weeks. Pancreas of a human embryo ... Three different variations in pancreas divisum have been described: the first is the classic example of pancreas divisum in ...
The normal arrangement is for the entire pancreas to be drained via a ... ... leading to a number of anatomical variants of the pancreatic ducts, many of which are clinically significant. ... The ductal embryology of the pancreas is moderately complicated, ... segment of the ventral duct between the dorsal-ventral fusion ... Pancreas divisum. A pancreas divisum is the most common variation of pancreatic duct formation and can account for up to 14% 3 ...
The ventral and dorsal portions fuse at approximately the eighth week of gestation. The dorsal pancreatic duct becomes the ... When this channel fails to develop, it is termed "pancreatic divisum."4 If there is agenesis of the dorsal pancreatic bud, a ... The ventral bud originates initially, followed by the dorsal.2 The ventral bud forms the majority of the head and uncinate ... Pancreas. 1990;5:493497. *Fukuoka K, Ajiki T, Yamamoto M, et al. Complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. J Hepatobiliary ...
This results in dual drainage from the pancreas: the ventral duct draining into the major papilla and the dorsal duct draining ... About 15% of pancreatic divisum cases are incomplete, characterized by a small ventral duct branch fusing with the dorsal duct. ... Q45.3 - Other congenital malformations of pancreas and pancreatic duct. SNOMEDCT:. 54554009 - Pancreatic divisum. Look For. ... It occurs when the ventral and dorsal ductal system fail to fuse. ...
Study Pathology of Pancreas test 4 flashcards from Gina VanSteenacker ... persistence of the dorsal and ventral pancreas with the head encircling the duodenum. congenital abnormality. may cause ... inflammation of the pancreas. malfunctions due to increased secretion and blockage of ducts. pancreatic tissue may be digested ... Pathology of Pancreas test 4 Flashcards Preview abdomen , Pathology of Pancreas test 4 , Flashcards ...
It occurs when the ducts of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds fail to fuse. This results in the main pancreatic duct ... separate from the common bile duct.Pancreas divisumPancreas divisum is the most common pancreatic developmental anomaly, with ... With normal development, the ventral duct of Wirsung fuses with the main pancreatic duct of the body and tail and drains into ... draining into the duodenum at the minor papilla via the duct of Santorini, separate from the common bile duct, which drains ...
1 Pancreas develops by 2 buds-ventral and dorsal. Ventral bud derives from hepatic diverticulum and form head of pancreas. ... pancreas divisum, and pancreatic masses as these may resemble agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in imaging. Treatment is ... CT abdomen which reveals agenesis of pancreatic body and tail, Pancreatic duct was not dilated (Figure 1).. ... Dorsal bud arises from dorsal mesogastrium and form body and tail of pancreas.. ...
This was in addition to the inability to fill the ventral pancreatic duct, suggesting a complete pancreatic divisum. A ... P0048 - A Rare Case of Pleural Effusion Due to a Pancreatico-Pleural Fistula in the Setting of Pancreas Divisum. Sunday, ... eventually underwent an ERCP with contrast that revealed contrast leakage tracking upwards from the dorsal pancreatic duct ... P0048 - A RARE CASE OF PLEURAL EFFUSION DUE TO A PANCREATICO-PLEURAL FISTULA IN THE SETTING OF PANCREAS DIVISUM. Program No. ...
6-8 It is characterized by failure of fusion between dorsal and ventral pancreatic ducts during embryonic development. This ... Graft pancreas divisum (large arrow) is confirmed with the duct of Santorini crossing over the bile duct stump of the graft ( ... Pancreas divisum: A study of the cadaveric donor pancreas for islet isolation. Pancreas. 2005;30(4):325-7. Article , PubMed ... Case Report , Pancreas/Biliary Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Graft Pancreas Divisum in a Patient with Modified ...
Pancreas divisum is an embryologic anomaly resulting from incomplete fusion of the ventral and dorsal pancreas during ... Blunt injury can crush the gland across the spine, disrupt the pancreatic duct and cause leakage. While usually seen in motor ... Most individuals are asymptomatic, but pancreas divisum can be of clinical relevance when obstruction of flow through the minor ... Background: Understanding pathophysiology of the pancreas. The main parenchymal cell of the pancreas, the acinar cell, secretes ...
In the absence of divisum, that Is, in the normal state, the dorsal and ventral ducts join and the majority of secretions enter ... and separate dorsal and ventral ducts that do not fuse as well as a filamentous connection between the dorsal and ventral ducts ... separate dorsal and ventral ducts. Pancreatic divisum generally encompasses a variety of anatomic abnormalities whereby the ... majority of the dorsal pancreas empties into duodenum via duct of Santorini and portion of pancreatic head and uncinate process ...
The pancreas is a deep seated organ located behind the stomach. One of its functions is to create enzymes that are critical for ... Pancreas division is a common congenital anomaly that is present during birth occurring within the pancreatic duct(s). ... In some embryos, the dorsal and the ventral ducts fail to fuse. Failure of the ventral and the dorsal pancreatic ducts to ... each portion has its duct, which is the ventral duct and the dorsal duct. The two parts of the pancreas will fuse over time ...
Pancreatic divisum occurs when the ventral and dorsal ducts of the pancreas fail to fuse during organogenesis. It is the most ... Abdominal Pain , Humans , Korea , Mucins , Organogenesis , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic ... Most IPMNs arise from the main pancreatic duct. However, IPMNs arising from the accessory pancreatic duct are extremely rare. ... Although pancreatic divisum has no clinical relevance, some patients present with acute recurrent or chronic pancreatitis. In ...
  • Associated findings previously reported, though not seen in this case, are as follows: pancreatic calcifications, 4 polysplenia, hepatomesenteric trunk, 2,5 retro aortic left renal vein, 5 hypertrophic change of the ventral gland, 6 or obvious fatty replacement of the liver. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 1 Multivisceral (MV) grafts include transplantation of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, liver, and intestine, and are indicated in conditions such as hollow visceral myopathy/neuropathy, GI polyposis, and extensive mesenteric desmoid tumors. (gi.org)
  • The pancreas and liver produce juices (pancreatic juice and bile) which help in the process of digestion (i.e. the breakdown of foods into parts which can be absorbed easily and used by the body). (musc.edu)
  • The bile ducts start as tiny tubes called sinusoids which lie between rows of liver cells called hepatocytes. (musc.edu)
  • The ventral mesentery forms the lesser omentum, and is attached to the developing liver . (wikipedia.org)