Limb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Polydactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.WingLimb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.GTP Phosphohydrolase Activators: Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Salicaceae: A plant family of the order Salicales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and simple. Staminate (male) flowers consist of from one to many stamens. Pistillate (female) flowers consist of a one-chambered ovary with several to many ovules (potential silky seeds).Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Andropogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of bluestem is also used for other plants in this family. Andropogon nardus has been reclassified as CYMBOPOGON nardus and Andropogon zizanioides to VETIVERIA zizanioides.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Camellia: A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.Mesonephros: One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Fibroblast Growth Factor 9: A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.Mice, Inbred C57BLIndoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Coatomer Protein: A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Mice, Inbred ICRCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gentiana: A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Cornaceae: A plant family of the order Cornales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a loose grouping of woody ornamentals: 11 of its 14 genera have been placed in single families by some authorities. Some botanists combine members of NYSSACEAE into this family.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Nerve Tissue ProteinsPicea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
These genes regulates the expression of Mnx1 in the ventral bud, leading to the developmental specification of the pancreatic ... It is important to note here that the developing dorsal and ventral buds are characterized as endoderm, and it isn't until the ... Jensen, J (2004). "Gene regulatory factors in pancreatic development". Developmental Dynamics. 229 (1): 176-200. doi:10.1002/ ... a putative insulin gene transcription factor, in beta cells of pancreas, duodenal epithelium and pancreatic exocrine and ...
Ngn2 is transcription factor that both increases expression of proneural genes and drives neural fate by inhibiting expression ... In mice, Ngn3 is present in cells as the pancreas begins to bud and glucagon cells are formed. There are several pathways that ... Sancho R, Gruber R, Gu G, Behrens A (Aug 2014). "Loss of Fbw7 reprograms adult pancreatic ductal cells into α, δ, and β cells ... In mice that lack Ngn2, there are less motor neurons and ventral interneurons present, indicating that Ngn2 plays a role in ...
... which is necessary for the proper morphogenesis of the terminal end buds (TEBs) in the mammary glands. Loss of the gene coding ... indicating that after a more general dorsal-ventral guidance of axons, UNC-6 is further involved in directing axons to more ... DCC, which is implicated in attraction, can also serve as a co-factor in repulsion signaling when far away from the source of ... In pancreatic development, netrin 1 is expressed in epithelial ductal cells and localizes to the basal membrane. Netrin 1 ...
... pancreatic bud outgrowth, and critical endocrine genes.. Initial ventral pancreas development is not affected in Flk1-/- ... A-C) RT-PCR analysis of the dorsal endoderm in the region of the pancreatic bud. (A) The expression levels of factors involved ... dorsal aorta from an 8S embryo; Hex, liver and ventral pancreatic buds from a 20S embryo. Four out of five Flk1-/- dorsal ... Genetic mutations that deplete dorsal mesenchyme cells cause deficiencies in dorsal but not ventral pancreatic bud development ...
The pancreas forms from two groups of cells that bud from the dorsal and ventral gut endoderm at the foregut/midgut junction on ... Within the distal enhancer, binding sites for several pancreatic transcription factors, including hepatocyte nuclear factor ( ... In mice homozygous for a null mutation of the gene encoding the endoderm transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-6 ... but they also appear to regulate the gene for the pancreatic/duodenal transcription factor PDX1 (171819), as well as endocrine- ...
These genes regulates the expression of Mnx1 in the ventral bud, leading to the developmental specification of the pancreatic ... It is important to note here that the developing dorsal and ventral buds are characterized as endoderm, and it isnt until the ... Jensen, J (2004). "Gene regulatory factors in pancreatic development". Developmental Dynamics. 229 (1): 176-200. doi:10.1002/ ... a putative insulin gene transcription factor, in beta cells of pancreas, duodenal epithelium and pancreatic exocrine and ...
... and ventral (Hhex) pancreata from inhibitory cues. Other genes that are differentially required for dorsal bud and ventral bud ... It is easy enough to buy a growth factor and add it to a cultured pancreatic bud, yet relatively few consistent results have ... Jensen, J. (2004). Gene regulatory factors in pancreatic development. Dev. Dyn. 229,176 -200. ... Indeed, the dorsal pancreatic bud starts out physically larger than the ventral, and may therefore have a `head start in the ...
... pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1), Authors: Guisheng Zhou, F Charles Brunicardi. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... in the dorsal and ventral endoderm regions that give rise to pancreatic buds, as well as in the common bile duct, distal ... Area IV is capable of independently directing pancreatic beta-cell-specific reporter gene expression and potentiating the ... B pancreatic cell differentiation type B pancreatic cell differentiation chromatin binding DNA-binding transcription factor ...
Pancreatic And Duodenal Homeobox 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... Dorsal Pancreatic Bud * Pancreatic Progenitor Cells Ventral Pancreatic Bud * Intermediate Beta Progenitor Cells Ventral ... Gene-Enhancer Score. TSS distance (kb). Number of Genes Away. Size (kb). Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer. ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PDX1 Gene Domains & Families for PDX1 Gene Gene Families for PDX1 Gene. HGNC:. ...
... to pregnant mice before the time of fetal Pdx1 gene activation prevents the formation of both the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ... 3 C and D). Only a small ductal remnant was present, located at the duodenal position from which the dorsal pancreatic bud ... possibly for the transcriptional activation of the battery of transcription factor genes (e.g., ref. 32) that direct the ... These endocrine factors work in turn by modulating common pathways that control organ-specific effectors, principally ...
Dorsal pancreatic bud culture.. Dorsal pancreatic buds from control E13.5 rat embryos were dissected using a previously ... and pancreatic polypeptide (PP cells). The pancreas originates from the dorsal and ventral regions of the foregut endoderm ... Oxygen tension regulates pancreatic beta-cell differentiation through hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. Diabetes 2010;59:662-669 ... In pancreatic β-cells, Leu regulates gene transcription and protein synthesis (27,29). Leu also regulates β-cell proliferation ...
This is also seen in frog embryos, where the dorsal bud contacts the dorsal aorta, and each ventral bud is adjacent to a ... but does not yet express pancreatic genes (14). The dorsal aortae lie immediately dorsal to the endoderm as two endothelial ... The expression of insulin and two endocrine transcription factors, NeuroD(20) and Pax6 (21), marks the dorsal pancreatic anlage ... Its prevalence in the embryo is likely to be guided by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF induces proliferation, ...
Care and treatment Cancer treatment Carcinogenesis Diagnosis Genetic engineering Genetically modified organisms Pancreatic ... Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic tumorigenesis: of mice and men.(Report) by Archives of Pathology & ... The pancreas is formed by the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds from foregut endoderm. After fusion of the buds, the proximal ... Thereafter the complex translocates to the nucleus where SMAD4 acts as a transcription factor and transactivates target genes ...
Analyses of pancreatic development revealed a complete absence of the ventral but not the dorsal pancreas in Gata4-/- embryos. ... the hepatic endoderm was able to form a pseudo-stratified epithelial liver bud that expressed hepatic genes. Moreover, as we ... suggesting a critical role for multiple GATA factors at the earliest stages of ventral pancreas development. This study defines ... GATA4, a zinc finger transcription factor, is strongly expressed in these endodermal domains and molecular analyses have ...
Reprogramming of progenitor cells in the liver to a pancreatic endocrine phenotype using a three gene cocktail and a PPAR ... Independent induction and formation of the dorsal and ventral fins in Xenopus laevis. Developmental Dynamics. , 230 (3), pp. ... The role of BMP signaling in outgrowth and patterning of the Xenopus tail bud. Developmental Biology. , 238 (2), pp. 303-314. ... Structural-proliferative units and organ growth: effects of insulin-like growth factor 2 on the growth of colon and skin. ...
To identify new dorsal and ventral pancreas specific genes we isolated individual dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds at NF38/39 ... an early acting transcription factor suggests that insm1 function in endocrine cell fate determination requires other factors, ... The tetraspanin Tm4sf3 is localized to the ventral pancreas and regulates fusion of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds. ... In a search for dorsal and ventral pancreas specific genes, we identified insm1 as a dorsal-enriched gene product (Jarikji et ...
During mouse development, the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds and mature beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans express ... Pfaff, S.L., Hall, R.K., Hart, G.C., Taylor, W.L. Regulation of the Xenopus laevis transcription factor IIIA gene during ... We evaluated the MN gene expression profile of RA/SHH-differentiated hESCs to identify rate-limiting factors involved in MN ... In most mammals the pancreas develops from the foregut endoderm as ventral and dorsal buds. These buds fuse and develop into a ...
Reorganization of cultured pancreatic buds into monolayered epithelia was blocked in the presence of AMD3100, a SDF-1 ... embryos at the stage of the second epithelial transition revealed transient defective morphogenesis of the ventral and dorsal ... We found that the second epithelial transition is controlled by the chemokine Stromal cell-Derived Factor (SDF)-1. The latter ... During the first transition, the monolayered and polarized endodermal cells give rise to tissue buds composed of a mass of non ...
GATA4 transcription factor is required for ventral morphogenesis and heart tube formation. Genes Dev. 11, 1048-1060. Article ... Tbx4 misexpression in dorsal foregut (esophageal region) results in formation of a dorsal bud negative for Titf1 (Sakiyama et ... In the absence of cardiac mesoderm the cultured ventral endoderm adopts a default pancreatic fate characterized by Pdx1 ... While the role of transcription factors in modulating gene expression has been well studied, a growing literature now ...
PRH in pancreatic development. In vertebrates, the pancreas originates from the ventral and dorsal domains of the gut endoderm ... 2006) Hex homeobox gene controls the transition of the endoderm to a pseudostratified, cell emergent epithelium for liver bud ... binding to the promoters of the regulated genes) or indirect mechanisms (modulating the activity of other transcription factors ... First, tissue-specific gene expression involving the direct regulation of target genes. For example, in the dorsal anterior ...
... is the most common chronic autoimmune disease in young patients and is characterized by the loss of pancreatic β cells; as a ... The pancreas arises from two separate primordia along the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the posterior foregut. Lineage-tracing ... Keratinocyte growth factor. EGF:. Epidermal growth factors. GSK-3β:. Glycogen synthase-kinase-3 β ... Cell aggregation optimizes the differentiation of human ESCs and iPSCs into pancreatic bud-like progenitor cells. Stem Cell Res ...
Ptf1a is a transcription factor required in several tissue lineages and which interacts with tissue specific co-factors [31]. ... cells carrying the LacZ gene were injected into wildtype blastocysts show specific exclusion of all Sd cells from the dorsal ... the cerebellar primordium and throughout the length of the developing neural tube in addition to the developing pancreatic buds ... MaatmanR, ZachgoJ, GosslerA (1997) The Danforths short tail mutation acts cell autonomously in notochord cells and ventral ...
... from ventral to dorsal, V3, motoneuron [MN], V2, V1, V0) based on the combinations of transcription factors they express. Since ... In contrast, mutations in Ptc1 reduce pancreas gene expression and impair glucose homeostasis. Thus, islet cell, pancreatic ... Major determinants of mouse embryonic growth are insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), ... The polydactyly is preceded by unexpected anterior limb bud transcription of Shh, so one function of ptc1 is to repress Shh ...
... expression is first detected in the primitive endodermal gut tube at sites that give rise to dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds ... a putative insulin gene transcription factor, in β cells of pancreas, duodenal epithelium and pancreatic exocrine and endocrine ... The homeodomain transcription factors encoded by theHOX gene clusters are key mediators in setting up the body plan during ... The pancreatic homeodomain factor PDX1 is common to both complexes. In pancreatic acinar cell lines a complex containing PDX1, ...
... ì brings ventral and dorsal buds together, fusion of buds * Pancreatic duct - ventral bud duct and distal part of dorsal bud, ... A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor expressed in pancreas endocrine progenitor cells. This factor family ... Genes & Development 15:111-127 2001) Mouse Pancreas Cell Lineage In this study[10] mouse cell types were collected at different ... the Notch-effector HES1 suggests a Notch-dependent mechanism and establishes a possible genetic link between SOX factors and ...
The buds are marked by transcription factors, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) [22], SRY (sex- ... while the remainder of the dorsal bud and ventral bud fuse to form the duct of Wirsung, which runs across the entire pancreas. ... Pancreatic Beta Cell in Health and Disease (pp. 13-16).,/ref,.. Transcriptional Regulation of Insulin Gene. Pancreatic Beta ... the expression of pancreatic genes thus inhibiting pancreatic development and preventing the formation of all pancreatic cells ...
The buds are marked by transcription factors, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) [22], SRY (sex- ... while the remainder of the dorsal bud and ventral bud fuse to form the duct of Wirsung, which runs across the entire pancreas. ... the expression of pancreatic genes thus inhibiting pancreatic development and preventing the formation of all pancreatic cells ... the endoderm evaginates into the mesenchyme and dorsal and ventral buds arise from the foregut. ...
The buds are marked by transcription factors, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) ,ref name="PMID17185316 ... while the remainder of the dorsal bud and ventral bud fuse to form the duct of Wirsung, which runs across the entire pancreas. ... the expression of pancreatic genes thus inhibiting pancreatic development and preventing the formation of all pancreatic cells ... the endoderm evaginates into the mesenchyme and dorsal and ventral buds arise from the foregut. ...
  • Our findings highlight a role for the microbiota in early pancreatic β cell development and suggest a possible basis for the association between low diversity childhood fecal microbiota and increased diabetes risk. (
  • Neurogenin3 (ngn3), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, functions as a pro-endocrine factor in the developing pancreas: by itself, it is sufficient to force undifferentiated pancreatic epithelial cells to become islet cells. (
  • Retaining luminal continuity with the gut tube, these structures evaginate into the surrounding mesenchyme as dense epithelial buds, which subsequently expand, branch and differentiate to yield a fully functional organ system prior to birth ( Fig. 1A , Fig. 2 ). (
  • The primitive airways are initially separated by abundant mesenchyme, resulting in the characteristic morphology of the pseudo glandular stage of lung development (see Figure 1 B). As the epithelial tubules grow and branch, and the vasculature further develops during the canalicular stage, the epithelial and vascular structures become closely apposed. (
  • During the first transition, the monolayered and polarized endodermal cells give rise to tissue buds composed of a mass of non polarized epithelial cells. (
  • During the second transition the buds reorganize into branched and polarized epithelial monolayers that further differentiate into tubulo-acinar glands. (
  • We found that the second epithelial transition is controlled by the chemokine Stromal cell-Derived Factor (SDF)-1. (
  • Analyzis of sdf1 and cxcr4 knockout embryos at the stage of the second epithelial transition revealed transient defective morphogenesis of the ventral and dorsal pancreas. (
  • Between embryonic days (e) 8.5 and e9.5, two outgrowths develop from the dorsal and ventral sides of this endodermal region, and form epithelial buds surrounded by mesenchyme. (
  • Recently, however, Hahn and colleagues 28 showed that ectopic expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase [hTERT]) in combination with the oncogenes h- ras and SV40 virus large-T antigen can induce tumorigenic conversion in normal human epithelial and fibroblast cells, suggesting that disruption of the intracellular pathways regulated by these gene products is sufficient to produce a malignant cell. (
  • The results demonstrate that EDGE4D enables quantification of the dynamics of cell shape changes, cell interfaces and neighbor relations at single-cell resolution during ventral furrow formation , a complex epithelial folding event in the early Drosophila embryo. (
  • Vascular endothelium grows in coordination with all embryonic tissues and is essential for viability ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • To determine whether GATA4 contributes to development of either the pancreas or liver we characterized the formation of pancreatic and hepatic tissues in embryos derived from Gata4 -/- ES cells by tetraploid embryo complementation. (
  • Our data also suggest that SDF-1 controls the branching morphogenesis of several exocrine tissues. (
  • In the 1970s, the long-held belief that β cells might arise from the neural crest was refuted by elegant interspecies cell transplantation studies, which demonstrated that radiolabeled quail neural crest cells do not populate pancreatic endocrine tissues in host chick embryos [1]. (
  • Some of the characteristics listed in Table 9-1 may also be observed in rapidly proliferating tissues or stem cell populations of undifferentiated phenotypes. (
  • The two buds continue to develop independently, affected by different surrounding tissues, until approximately E13 (days 37 to 42 in humans), at which point, the rotational movement of the developing gut tube and elongation of both buds causes alignment and fusion into a single organ. (
  • Although some WNT genes are expressed in adult tissues and improper expression of WNT genes has been identified as a factor in some breast cancers, the primary function of the Wnt family is the regulation of embryonic development, especially that of the nervous system. (
  • These tissues contain gradients of soluble factors that act in a concentration-dependent manner to control cell fate. (
  • Signaling molecules from the hedgehog (Hh)-pathway, the Wnt-pathway, the transforming growth factor (TGF) β-superfamily, and receptor tyrosine kinase pathways have been shown to act as morphogens in several models of development and are used in the regulation of cell fate throughout evolution and in most developing tissues. (
  • At peripheral levels, the effect of IL-1 is mediated by increased glucose haul in GLUT1- and SATURATION3-expressing tissues, including insusceptible cells (Fox et al. (
  • The formation, growth, and maintenance of an organ are controlled by local and systemic morphogens, growth factors, and hormones. (
  • This shared lineage may be expected to result in shared strategies and effectors for gene transcription, but with the important requirement that neither endocrine hormones or exocrine digestive enzymes be synthesized in the wrong compartment. (
  • While glucose levels are the chief driver, insulin secretion and synthesis by beta cells may occasionally occur in response to other factors such as nervous stimuli, hormones and nutrients . (
  • Minimal expression of pancreatic hormones and digestive enzymes is observed, although endocrine cells expressing multiple hormones exist, present as clusters within the dorsal bud. (
  • For example, adipose surrounding sex organs can secrete sex hormones, subcutaneous fat is responsive to energy storage needs and structural fat pads on the feet have not been shown to secrete any factors of interest, nor do they show significant changes in growth. (
  • In Iro-C mutant clones, change of the dorsal identity to default ventral fate leads to generation of ectopic DV boundary, which results in dorsal eye enlargement, and duplication of ventral appendages like antenna and maxillary palp. (
  • Ectopic expression of Wnt genes can cause a duplication of the developing axis in frogs, resulting in double heads or even complete replicas of the longitudinal axis. (
  • Cells of the posterior foregut assume a pancreatic identity, cells within the expanding pancreatic primordia adopt an endocrine fate, and a subset of these precursors becomes competent to generate β-cells. (
  • None of the offspring of these shared mice displayed the posterior duplication phenotype, indicating that Danforth's original line was segregating two different mutations [1] , . (
  • In the eye imaginal disc of Drosophila, dorso-ventral (DV) lineage restriction is the primary event, whereas antero-posterior compartment boundary is the first lineage restriction in other imaginal discs. (
  • 6) Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias are not the only precursors of invasive pancreatic cancer: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms, for example, are also preinvasive stages of carcinoma, (7) but PanINs are the most common precursor of conventional ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, and they are the subject of this review. (
  • It is now recognized that in the pancreas, ductal adenocarcinoma develops through a stepwise tumor progression model analogous to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in the colorectum, in which consecutive preinvasive stages are relatively well defined and morphologically distinctive (Figure 1). (
  • Additionally, we find that endothelial cells are necessary for the induction of both the insulin and glucagon genes. (
  • The first differentiated cells to appear in the developing buds are the endocrine cells. (
  • Mice carrying a targeted disruption of the ngn3 gene fail to generate pancreatic endocrine cells and die 1-3 days postnatally from diabetes ( 6 ). (
  • These cells have been shown to be spatially located at the tip of the branching pancreatic tree. (
  • Later these cells are shown to originate from the dorsal bud of the developing pancreas. (
  • These cells have been shown to have 28 genes regulating the cell cycle to be upregulated, showing that they are proliferative cells having the ability to replace and give rise to multiple cell populations in the pancreas. (
  • Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of one islet cell type - the insulin-producing β-cells. (
  • Within the homeodomain, there is an antennapedia-like protein transduction domain (PTD) which allows PDX-1 to permeate into cells and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif, RRMKWKK(197-203aa), which is sufficient for the nuclear import of PDX-1. (
  • PDX-1 expression becomes restricted to beta cells and a small subpopulation of delta and PP cells in adult. (
  • Low levels of PDX-1 are also detected in the nuclei of acinar cells. (
  • PDX-1 is localized in the Nucleus of the cells. (
  • Indeed, Ngn3-deficient mice fail to generate any pancreatic endocrine cells ( 13 ), and the results from lineage-tracing experiments have provided direct evidence that NGN3-expressing cells are islet progenitors ( 14 ). (
  • The main receptors for VEGF-VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 (also known as Flk-1)-are expressed on endothelial cells and their precursors ( 4 ). (
  • Transgene-free disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (
  • In mammals it has been well established that gastrointestinal and pancreatic endocrine cells are specified by a cascade of different transcription factors, but whether these same pathways (or linear relationships) operate in Xenopus is currently unknown. (
  • PRH expression was first detected in avian and human haematopoietic cells [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Patients with T1DM need daily insulin injections because of the absolute insufficiency of endogenous insulin caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. (
  • 27 Such cell lines may also be generated by transfection of the telomerase gene into cells to maintain chromosomal length. (
  • Table 9-1 lists the properties of transformed malignant cells growing in cell culture or in vivo. (
  • At E9.5, a clustering or anlage of cells emerges from the dorsal aspect of the gut tube at the point where the notochord comes in contact with the gut ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Integrin-based interactions between outer cells of the developing buds and the adjacent basement membrane are required for initiation of branching (149). (
  • We have taken an alternative approach to optimize the efficiency of the intermediate stages traversed by ES cells differentiating toward the pancreatic lineages. (
  • We identified Wnt-responsive stem cells by their expression of Axin2 (a common Wnt target gene) and generated a mouse strain with the CreERT2 recombination signal inserted into the Axin2 locus, Axin2-Cre. (
  • In particular, the present invention provides a method utilizing an agent that degrades retinoic acid to produce a population of pancreatic endocrine precursor cells. (
  • The morphogen gradient is a fundamental concept in developmental biology, originally described by Lewis Wolpert's "French Flag" model for the developing chick limb bud, in which cells interpret different threshold concentrations of morphogen resulting in distinct fates ( Fig. 1A ) ( Tickle, Summerbell, & Wolpert, 1975 ). (
  • How can a few embryonic cells, all of which have the exact same set of genes, organize a body and form very different structures such as eyes, hearts, limbs, and livers? (
  • One of the important factors in this process is the set of signal molecules which inform cells of where they are in a developing body and give them instructions as to which genes they should activate. (
  • Tingting Chen, Pei Zhang, Wenxia Fan, Fenghua Qian, Li Pei, Shuangnian Xu, Zhongmin Zou, Bing Ni, Yong Zhang: Co-transplantation with mesenchymal stem cells expressing a SDF-1/HOXB4 fusion protein markedly improves hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and hematogenesis in irradiated mice. (
  • 79. A pharmaceutical composition suitable for lowering blood glucose levels in a mammal, comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and a neurturin product, wherein the neurturin product generates insulin-producing cells when administered to cells expressing a pancreatic gene. (
  • Finally, we show that the small-molecule ILK inhibitor T315 can disrupt this regulatory loop and suppress xenograft tumor growth, thereby providing proof-of-concept that targeting ILK represents an effective strategy to block HIF-1 manifestation and aggressive phenotype in malignancy cells. (
  • Sometimes this can be inserted to open the clamp and let them dry d dipping of slides both parafi n sectioning and immunohistochemistry am j physiol c c watanabe s matsushita k mccrayb and stokes jdevelopmental expression of pax genes are expressed in h secreting cells of goormaghtigh are the perpetrators in about of the kidney. (
  • Overexpression of ctgf after transfection interfered with the proliferation of stromal cells in the bone marrow, articular chondrogenesis, and cartilage hypertrophy, depending on the degree of expression and in association with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). (
  • Extrinsic signals are soluble or transmembrane factors that act among cells and regulate cell-nonautonomous processes. (
  • acinar cell , acinic cell , acinous cell any of the cells lining an acinus, especially the zymogen-secreting cells of the pancreatic acini. (
  • To characterize both PTCH molecules with respect to the various Hedgehog proteins, the human PTCH2 gene was isolated. (
  • To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick 3,9-13 . (
  • Moreover, we review the discovery of novel biochemical activities that also impinge on the guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis cycle of Gα subunits: namely, the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity of the GoLoco motif-containing proteins and the 7TM receptor-independent guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity of Ric‑8/synembryn. (
  • Each cell type is defined by the expression of a unique combination of proteins transcribed and posttranscriptionally modified from the templates of our 20,000-25,000 genes. (
  • Some of the pathways active during ontogeny also regulate pancreatic growth during adulthood, and we are studying the role of these genetic pathways in growth control and function of the mature pancreas in mice. (
  • To investigate the factors that control ngn3 gene expression, we mapped the human and mouse ngn3 promoters and delineated transcriptionally active sequences within the human promoter. (
  • Unique sets of nuclear transcription factors expressed in the developing and matured pancreas control these gene expression events ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • PDX-1 expression is subject to regulation by glucose, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), palmitic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and PPARgamma , epidermal growth factor (EGF) and high fat diet. (
  • expression of insulin is first detected at NF32 in the dorsal pancreas ( Kelly and Melton, 2000 ). (
  • As might be expected of a regulator of gene expression, misexpression of PRH and/or altered subcellular distribution is associated with a number of diseased states, including leukaemia and cancer. (
  • To start with, it needs to be present as a gradient, and the perceived gradient needs to translate into gene expression activation thresholds. (
  • If the answer is the latter, as seems likely, how do sharp boundaries of gene expression form in the face of variability in signal production, cellular architecture, and environmental fluctuations? (
  • This may help sharpen boundaries of target gene expression through switchlike responses. (
  • For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi , adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle 14,15 . (
  • In human primary PCa, expression of IHH is the highest of the three HH genes, and elevated HH signaling correlates with high stromal gene expression. (
  • We characterized 51 endomesodermally expressed transcription factors and signaling molecule genes (including 18 newly identified) with fine-scale temporal (qPCR) and spatial ( in situ ) analysis to define distinct co-expression domains within the animal plate of the embryo and clustered genes based on their earliest zygotic expression. (
  • Moreover, expression of cyr61 is stimulated in osteoblasts by vitamin D3 and growth factors, all of which are important in bone metabolism (presented by N Scuhtze). (
  • Lukasiuk and colleagues examined gene expression profiles during epileptogenesis at 1 day after SE induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdala using Research Genetics Rat Array (Research Genetics, Huntsville, AL) containing approximately 5,000 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). (
  • A morphogen receiving cell has one or more concentration thresholds that result in the expression of a distinct set of target genes. (
  • Thousands of human disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lie in the non-coding genome, but only a handful have been demonstrated to affect gene expression and human biology. (
  • Some human WNT genes (such as WNT 14 and 15) are more similar to WNT genes of flies and hagfish to those of other human WNT genes, indicating that the duplications which produced these different Wnt gene lineages occurred early in vertebrate evolution (Bergstein, 1997). (
  • Its prevalence in the embryo is likely to be guided by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (
  • The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer is mainly because the disease is almost always detected in a late stage, when advanced tumor growth exists and curative resection is no longer possible. (
  • From E9.5-E10 primary buds elongate, while the tracheal primordium starts separating from the primitive esophagus (Es), presumably by growth of an ascending tracheoesophageal septum. (
  • Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in the formation of the secondary palate. (
  • Do imprinted genes have a role in growth up to weaning First, the major postnatal growth control system based on growth hormone only comes into play shortly before weaning (Table 1). (
  • Second, one imprinted gene, Rasgrf1, has already been shown to have a role in postnatal growth specifically from birth to weaning (Table 2 Itier et al 1998). (
  • A common blood test developed to effect the glomeral filtrate the gills are the very same growth factor igf release while gh receptors are present at high levels of insulin dose give continuous infusion a toddlers a years a years. (