Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ThymineNucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.GuanineRNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.UracilTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Echinomycin: A cytotoxic polypeptide quinoxaline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces echinatus that binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Netropsin: A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Heteroduplex Analysis: A method of detecting gene mutation by mixing PCR-amplified mutant and wild-type DNA followed by denaturation and reannealing. The resultant products are resolved by gel electrophoresis, with single base substitutions detectable under optimal electrophoretic conditions and gel formulations. Large base pair mismatches may also be analyzed by using electron microscopy to visualize heteroduplex regions.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific: A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.DNA, B-Form: The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Deoxyribonuclease BamHI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Osmium Tetroxide: (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Pentoxyl: 5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.RNA, Transfer, Ser: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying serine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bisbenzimidazole: A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Distamycins: Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.RNA, Transfer, Val: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
  • Fluoxetine treatment showed limited behavioral and neuroendocrine efficacy, however it reduced microglial (Iba-1) expression and increased cell proliferation, neurogenesis (via cell survival) and the expression of the polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the dentate gyrus, and those effects varied by region (dorsal, ventral) and ovarian status. (ubc.ca)
  • Pharmacological profiles of alpha 2 adrenergic receptor agonists identified using geneti- cally altered mice and isobolographic critiqueProprioception, via the ventral and dorsal spinocer- ebellar tracts, ascends up the spinal string to the cerebel- lum, with the primary neurons located in the dorsal dig ganglia (DRG) [url=https://www.thelegalpartners.com/experience/Level-b/safe-tadalis-sx-online-otc/]generic tadalis sx 20 mg on line[/url]. (alena-lion.ru)
  • Two, not necessarily exclusive, processes may explain contrasting patterns of diversity and distribution between rocky ranges and surrounding habitats: 1) refugial persistence in microrefugia such as deep crevices, caves and/or gorges in rocky areas that are buffered from the extremes of climate [ 15 , 16 ], and 2) divergent selection and localised adaptation leading to the evolution of ecological specialists that use different habitats [ 17 , 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, some association studies report divergent effects ( 12 , 13 ), and sex-specific associations ( 14 - 16 ), underscoring the need to understand the functional significance of this SNP. (pnas.org)
  • Nonetheless, different prediction algorithms produce a large number of divergent results for one given miRNA [ 16 , 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles that share bacterial features such as a double-membrane structure and a circular multi-copied genome or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because we do not sufficiently understand the rules determining DNA binding in vivo or the transcriptional output that results from particular combinations of bound factors, we cannot at present predict the locations of CRMs or patterns of gene expression from genome sequence and in vitro DNA binding specificities alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, a genome-wide association meta-analysis study identified SNP rs6943555 within the fourth intron of AUTS2 to be the most statistically significant SNP associated with alcohol consumption [16] ( Figure 1 ). (prolekare.cz)
  • In the genome, they are organized into three pairs of inverted, convergently transcribed genes, termed Dlx1-2, Dlx3-4 and Dlx5-6 ( Morasso and Radoja, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • The paleogene time( Scleropages formosus) position has dorsal considerations into the genome of an taxonomic development of articles. (finnischer-langlauf.de)
  • Rcan1-4 is definitely upregulated by raises in [Ca2+]i in several cell types including mind cells via a CN/NFAT-dependent pathway [12-16]. (bioentryplus.com)
  • It is likely that the overlap in binding of biochemically and functionally unrelated transcription factors arises from the high concentrations of these proteins in nuclei, which, coupled with their broad DNA binding specificities, directs them to regions of open chromatin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 11 Integrin receptor α v β 3 can also interact with other blood vessel-associated proteins containing the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif such as vitronectin, von Willebrand factor, 13 thrombospondin, 14 fibronectin, 15 laminin, 16 and osteopontin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Regulatory proteins (transcription factors) work to enhance or inhibit this interaction between RNA pol and the promoter DNA. (perdidanautopia.com)
  • Literature review 4 Initiation of immune responses 4 Cellular and humoral responses 8 ProPO activation system 9 Serpin structure, function, and evolution 13 Immune pathways regulated by serpins 15 Induced expression of immune proteins 16 Role of hormones in the control of defense responses 18 Transcription factors and regularury elements for insect immunity and development 20 Literature cited 22 Chapter III. (okstate.edu)
  • In vitro biochemical experiments have demonstrated that the replicative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase gamma, Polg, is a sensitive target for inhibition by metabolically active forms of NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Miniopterus schreibersii in Asia Minor consists of two genetically diverged lineages, which are reciprocally monophyletic on three mitochondrial DNA markers, have a diagnostic set of multilocus allele frequencies, and show a marked difference in their population structures. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To delineate species, however, the evidence from mitochondrial DNA has to be accompanied by the supportive data from nuclear markers, detailed phenotypic examination, and geographical distribution analyses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although the amphioxus CNS has comparatively few neurons--an estimated 20,000 in the adult [ 16 ] and lacks a neural crest [ 17 ], the basic organization of the amphioxus CNS is comparable to that in vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We choose Drosophila because it has specialized flight muscles with superabundant mitochondria ( 15 ), and, like humans, it expresses several tafazzin transcripts ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2) the end-to-end concatenation of tags into long DNA molecular allows rapid, efficient sequencing analysis of multiple transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rearrangements of about 2.5 kilobases of regulatory DNA located 5′ of the transcription start site of the Drosophila even-skipped locus generate large-scale changes in the expression of even-skipped stripes 2, 3, and 7. (prolekare.cz)
  • The derivation of the Oprm1 A112G mouse was accomplished using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the entire Oprm1 locus derived from C57BL/6 mouse DNA (PAC/BAC Resource) [ supporting information (SI) Fig. S1 ]. (pnas.org)
  • Similar to Polg, in vitro work has demonstrated both Pol beta and PrimPol incorporate NtRTIs into nascent DNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nevertheless, it is known that the regulatory DNA which controls the transcription of genes in higher eukaryotes can frequently be divided into functionally distinct contiguous regions defined by their ability to direct expression independently when placed in reporter constructs. (prolekare.cz)
  • Unlike DNA microarray technologies, which is limited to the analysis of genes previously characterised and assigned to an array, the SAGE approach allows for the detailed analysis of expression patterns of uncharacterised genes as well as of known genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of tissue-specific SOX9-DNA binding regions with gene expression profiles from Sox9 mutant heart valves indicates that SOX9 directly regulates a collection of transcription factors known to be important for heart development. (ubc.ca)
  • Understanding DNA encoding of the cis -regulatory logic responsible for controlling gene expression in metazoans is a problem at the heart of modern genomics. (prolekare.cz)
  • Further complicating NRTI off-target effects on mtDNA maintenance, two additional DNA polymerases, Pol beta and PrimPol, were recently reported to localize to mitochondria as well as the nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accompanying the above-mentioned topics, this review examines: (1) mtDNA maintenance in human health and disease, (2) reports of DNA polymerases theta and zeta (Rev3) localizing to mitochondria, and (3) additional drugs with off-target effects on mitochondrial function. (frontiersin.org)
  • The hereditary transmission of a phenotype independent from DNA sequence implies epigenetic effects. (plos.org)
  • Attaining 40 cm (16 in), possibly 50 cm (20 in) in length, the gecko catshark has a slim, firm body and a fairly short head that comprises less than one-fifth of the total length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half of all males and females are sexually mature at 35-36 cm (14-14 in) and 41-42 cm (16-17 in) long respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • De retention modeling said Goodwood-plan indicated dat de Britten hun matches molecular molecular body migration fell ControlsNintendo van de Orne rivier, Caen en Used other function achter Caen construction phrase density-density. (atelier-im-revierpark.de)
  • Collectively, the 21 regulators show a surprisingly high overlap in the regions they bind given that they belong to 11 DNA binding domain families, specify distinct developmental fates, and can act via different cis -regulatory modules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which form inclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. (lacertilia.de)
  • Treatment of viral infections continues to be challenging due to the variance in viral structure (RNA, DNA, enveloped and non-enveloped viruses) and their ability to rapidly mutate and garner resistance. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • Leptin is a 16-kD protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of body weight by inhibiting food intake and stimulating energy expenditure. (datapunk.net)
  • The larvae are commonly called caterpillars , and are completely different from their adult moth or butterfly form, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, and from 0 to 11 (usually 8) pairs of prolegs . (wikia.org)
  • The larvae are commonly called caterpillars , and are completely different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs . (readtiger.com)
  • After an exposure of 100 ms, a besides nearly the same disclosure of two (similarly coloured) recent characters was presented for the exact same while, to show either as a dull mask or alternatively as a butt, with the earlier pair of letters then functioning as a saucy false flag (after instruction to the subject). (autoportal.ru)
  • The presomitic embryo, the applicable removal of the sessions Finally from the SG, was disconnected on the team that after in waste nicht to Myf5, Pax3, Pax1, and final Frauen, a dorsal and efficient receptor of the fourth precardinal instrumentality( SO-O5) and the free two bilateral ships( SO-C1, SO-C2) can extend Applied. (need4speed.com)
  • 1 Hz) spontaneous fluctuations in high-frequency power measured during rest were predictive of the patients' performance in a visual recognition 1-back task (26 patients, total of 1,389 bipolar contacts pairs). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • During cell division, the centrosome is duplicated contemporaneously with DNA and the two centrosomes contribute to the formation of the poles of the mitotic spindle that segregate the duplicated chromosomes faithfully between daughter cells [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, we show that murine monocytes and macrophages acquire memory specific to major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) antigens, and we identify A-type paired immunoglobulin-like receptors (PIR-As) as the MHC-I receptors necessary for the memory response. (bvsalud.org)
  • probable DNA of paleontological trees would Highly give the den of the environmental wetland, being new likelihood for classification with. (stormportal.de)
  • Studies of twin pairs, high-risk infant siblings, families, and populations have estimated concordance rates and segregation of the disorder within families. (en-journal.org)
  • The model contained representations of thermodynamic protein-DNA interactions including steric interference and cooperative binding, short-range repression, direct repression, activation, and coactivation. (prolekare.cz)