Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Picolinic AcidsBacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Anthramycin: A broad-spectrum spectrum antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces refuineus var. thermotolerans. It has low toxicity, some activity against Trichomonas and Endamoeba, and inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis. It binds irreversibly to DNA.Talaromyces: A fungal genus in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES, characterized by loose hyphal fruiting bodies containing spherical asci. Anamorphs include PENICILLIUM and PAECILOMYCES.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.TrehaloseResuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Fibril-Associated Collagens: A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Bhutan: A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
  • The spore has a specialized and complex structure, enabling the organism to survive for a long time under harsh environmental conditions and in the absence of nutrients. (asm.org)
  • Ascospores of the fungus Talaromyces macrosporus are dormant and extremely stress resistant, whereas fungal conidia-the main airborne vehicles of distribution-are not. (asm.org)
  • At or near the death of the host, the rear segments of the abdomen fall off, revealing a white, chalky mass of the fungus, which actively produces and forcibly discharges spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fungus renders both males and females sterile, though they may remain alive and mobile while discharging spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectivity of resting spores of Massospora cicadina (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), an entomopathogenic fungus of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • A specialized fungal parasite ( Massospora cicadina ) hijacks the sexual signals of periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada ) Infectivity of resting spores of Massospora cicadina (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), an entomopathogenic fungus of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reproducing spores form mycelia, extended web-like threads of fungus that spread out over the ripening fruit and vegetables. (gardenguides.com)
  • Using a fungus called Trichoderma reesei , the researchers are developing a self-healing concrete formulation that incorporates fungal spores. (ceramics.org)
  • Be sure to rake up and dispose of all fallen leaves and debris that may harbor fungus spores and overwintering insects. (recordnet.com)
  • Ringworm (barn itch, dermatophytosis) is the most common skin infection of cattle and is caused by a spore forming fungus called Trichophyton. (cattletoday.com)
  • Their abilities to form fructifications even their substrates are not dead plant materials could further be analyzed whether they have enough pre formed mRNA to represent proteins and other bypoducts or they have reserved foods for the development of matured fructification bodies but how successful are the formation of spores? (google.com)
  • They found that there was a cephamycin in the media that prevented the formation of spores. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many unicellular plants and animals reproduce both by the formation of spores and by simple cell division ( mitosis mitosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the carriers of hereditary information, or the chromosomes, are exactly replicated and the two copies distributed to identical daughter nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ability to decontaminate chemically-resistant, coated painted surfaces inoculated with anthrax spores is extremely important. (google.com.au)
  • The anthrax spore is the most persistent of all biowarfare agents. (google.com.au)
  • A thorough understanding of spore germination is important for the development of new countermeasures that identify the earliest stages of a wide range of spore mediated diseases, including botulism, gas gangrene and pulmonary anthrax, said Alexander Malkin, senior author from LLNLs Biosciences and Biotechnology Division. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Soviet Union produced anthrax spores on an industrial scale but repeatedly denied the existence of their biological weapons program. (tgen.org)
  • The anthrax bacterium produces small capsules, or spores, that can lie dormant for decades. (tgen.org)
  • Anthrax is found in many parts of the globe and dispersed through the human movement of animal parts contaminated with spores. (tgen.org)
  • When these originate in anthrax endemic regions, they can carry the spores, which are long-lived. (tgen.org)
  • This type of analysis was used by the FBI to track the spores in the 2001 anthrax letter attacks, which infected 22 people and killed five. (tgen.org)
  • A faulty filter at a Soviet spore production facility allowed anthrax spores, in a silent plume, to drift with the wind over the city and into the nearby countryside. (tgen.org)
  • From these, it was established that the anthrax pathogen was detected within their tissues and the victims died from inhaling the spores. (tgen.org)
  • Humans acquire the anthrax infection by direct skin contact with the spores, by eating infected animals or breathing in spores (human to human infection is not likely). (doctoroz.com)
  • Anthrax that has been prepared as a bioweapon is dense with spores and looks like white powder. (doctoroz.com)
  • You may remember the 2001 anthrax attack that killed 5 people when they inhaled spores mailed through the US Postal Service. (doctoroz.com)
  • In the (not necessarily clonal) aggregate, there is strong selection to be represented in the reproductive spores. (pnas.org)
  • To achieve the multicellular stage, individual amoebae aggregate upon starvation to form a fruiting body made of dead stalk cells and reproductive spores, a process that has been described in terms of cooperation and altruism. (pnas.org)
  • in resistant spores and in the resting stage of reproductive spores this wall becomes tough and waterproof, permitting the cell to survive unfavorable circumstances such as extremes of temperature and moisture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Botrytis cinerea begins its life as a spore, a small single-celled particle, and only becomes active in warmer temperatures. (gardenguides.com)
  • The fruiting bodies produce trillions of single celled spores which get carried by wind, water, or other organisms. (prezi.com)
  • The process of spore germination and outgrowth has been studies in less detail. (asm.org)
  • Changes inSpore Small Molecules, rRNA, Germination and Outgrowth After Extended Sub-Lethal Exposure to Various Temperatures: Evidence That Protein Synthesis is not Essential for Spore Germination, Journal of Bacteriology (2016). (phys.org)
  • Mold on a deck can be unsightly and cause health risks when it becomes slippery or when people breathe in the mold spores. (wikihow.com)
  • Mold enjoys temperate weather, although mold spores can stay dormant through extreme weather situations, such as drought or frost. (wikihow.com)
  • With the mild winter, mold spores in the environment could continue to grow and spread rather than go dormant, Caudle said. (medicinenet.com)
  • Here, physical parameters of the cytoplasm of these types of spores were compared. (asm.org)
  • As the mycelia spreads, animals, humans and nature's elements carry the spores away to other healthy crops, where the spores feed on the new fruit and again reproduce into mycelia and re-create the process. (gardenguides.com)
  • If you could prevent spores from activating, that might be a preventive therapy for immunocompromised patients so even if they inhale a spore, it cannot grow. (innovations-report.com)
  • The dry reddish-brown coat (called a tunic) protects the plant, allowing it to stay dormant until conditions are right for growth. (gardenguides.com)
  • The method yields reproducible β-1,3-d-glucan measurements from samples of outdoor air, yeast cells, fungal spore preparations and ragweed pollen, and is more sensitive than competing measurements. (ebscohost.com)
  • Electron microscopic image of a metal‐stained mature spore of B . megaterium QMB1551 in transverse section. (els.net)
  • Py) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in spore DNA was determined under solar UV irradiation conditions using a combination of enzymatic probes and neutral- or alkaline-agarose gel electrophoresis. (photobiology.com)
  • Recent work has shown that a little-studied component of D. discoideum fitness-the loner cells that do not participate in the aggregation-can be selected for depending on environmental conditions and that, together with the spores, they could represent a bet-hedging strategy. (pnas.org)
  • As a result, they couldn't retreat into a dormant state when faced with deadly conditions. (naturalnews.com)
  • A spore is a cell that is dormant (asleep) but may come to life with the right conditions. (maine.gov)
  • Germination is the process by which a dormant spore returns to its vegetative state when exposed to suitable conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The time-to-germination (t(germ)), defined as the time required for the CaDPA band intensity to decrease to the midpoint from its initial value, was found to be stochastic for individual spores with a typical value of approximately 30 min under the experimental conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The normal burst of endogenous ATP detected during spore germination in B. pumilus and B. subtilis was reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude following, respectively, 8- or 30-min exposures to simulated martian conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As the environmental conditions become favorable in later stages, the spores could be wakened again. (ceramics.org)
  • The fruiting bodies create haploid spores via meiosis, which then combine to become diploid and begin growing into amoebalike blobs when conditions again become favorable. (factmonster.com)
  • As the pseudoplasmodium moves, it can divide and (in unfavorable conditions, such as high heat or excessive dryness) form fungilike fruiting bodies that develop haploid spores. (factmonster.com)
  • If the area of these emissions overlaps with the burials of animals or humans who died from diseases in previous centuries, these spores and pathogens could spread over a huge area. (thesun.co.uk)
  • We looked at other pathogens including Bacillus cereus - a major contaminant in the food industry which causes food poisoning and spoilage, and showed that cephamycins can also reduce its spore production," Dr Srikhanta said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our work indicates that complementing DNA based approaches with cultivation may give a more complete picture of the ecology of spore forming pathogens. (uio.no)
  • Utilizing Bacillus subtilis as our primary model organism, we propose to study two facets of this vital bacterial attribute: communication via extracellular nanotubes, and persistence as resilient spores while maintaining the potential to revive. (europa.eu)
  • Hull was surprised to discover that most of the genes are involved in the process that forms a spore in the first place. (innovations-report.com)
  • Where Can You Find Milky Spore for Grub and Beetle Control? (gardenguides.com)
  • Apply milky spore powder to lawns at a rate of 10 ounces per 2,500 square feet, or as directed on the label, in spring or fall when the grubs are active. (gardenguides.com)
  • Is Milky Spore Harmful for a Vegetable Garden? (gardenguides.com)
  • Milky Spore is an application applied to lawns to kill the white grubs that can damage and eventually kill a lawn. (gardenguides.com)
  • Milky Spore is not harmful to vegetable crops and is safe to apply around the garden. (gardenguides.com)
  • One type (sold as milky spore ) kills the larvae of Japanese beetles. (dummies.com)
  • In a later stage, the outgrowing spore switches to the use of extracellular nutrients ( 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Within the protective confines of the endospore, the bacterium enters a dormant state that doesn't expend energy or needed nutrients. (naturalnews.com)
  • The fungal spores, together with nutrients, will be placed into the concrete matrix during the mixing process," Congrui Jin, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and senior author of the new research, says in a Binghamton University news release . (ceramics.org)
  • such spores usually retain their germinating power a long time, because their protoplasts contain reserve nutrients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Upon prosilition (ejection of the spore), these parameters fell sharply to values characteristic of vegetative cells. (asm.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Dictyostelium spore cells" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • and the growth of vegetative cells, which are actively growing as opposed to producing spores. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Perplexingly, only dormant spores appear red while the rapidly growing cells lack the secondary red pigment. (sfu.ca)
  • Spores are produced by one parent cell through mitosis which means they are genetically identical to their parent cells. (prezi.com)
  • Spore formation is a complex differentiation process involving two cells and a programme of gene expression requiring intracellular communication. (els.net)
  • c) sporangial cells containing phase‐bright immature spores and (d) free mature spores after sporangial autolysis. (els.net)
  • Upon germination, spores that were generated asexually may produce cells or multicellular forms that can engage in sexual reproduction reproduction, capacity of all living systems to give rise to new systems similar to themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, the results suggest the existence of a complex and well-regulated spore outgrowth program, involving the temporal expression of at least 30% of the B. subtilis genome. (asm.org)
  • The transition of the germinated spore to a growing cell is termed spore outgrowth. (asm.org)
  • In the first stage of outgrowth, ATP is generated through the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate stored in the spore core ( 58 ). (asm.org)
  • To elucidate the physiological processes that occur during the transition of the dormant spore to an actively growing vegetative cell, we studied this process in a time-dependent manner by a combination of microscopy, analysis of extracellular metabolites, and a genome-wide analysis of transcription. (asm.org)
  • The name "endospore" is suggestive of a spore or seed-like form ( endo means within), but it is not a true spore (i.e., not an offspring). (wikipedia.org)