Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Vitallium: An alloy of 60% cobalt, 20% chromium, 5% molybdenum, and traces of other substances. It is used in dentures, certain surgical appliances, prostheses, implants, and instruments.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Orbital Implants: Rounded objects made of coral, teflon, or alloplastic polymer and covered with sclera, and which are implanted in the orbit following enucleation. An artificial eye (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) is usually attached to the anterior of the orbital implant for cosmetic purposes.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immediate Dental Implant Loading: Endosseous dental implantation where implants are fitted with an abutment or where an implant with a transmucosal coronal portion is used immediately (within 1 week) after the initial extraction. Conventionally, the implantation is performed in two stages with more than two months in between the stages.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Acidic Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Pseudomonas alcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectReceptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Denture, Overlay: Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Nitrosomethylurethane: An alkylating carcinogen that produces gastrointestinal and probably lung and nervous system tumors.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Congo Red: An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molteno Implants: Devices implanted to control intraocular pressure by allowing aqueous fluid to drain from the anterior chamber. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
  • In PV module manufacturing, an autoclave is used to remove trapped air and improve adhesion between laminating film and glass substrates by subjecting the module to elevated temperature and pressure. (appliedmaterials.com)
  • Research in nanoelectronics includes materials used for the 65nm node and beyond, high-k gate dielectric materials, Si/SiGe devices and substrates, and finally sub 500nm materials development for packaging applications. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The present disclosure is directed to modified metal materials for implantation and/or bone replacement, and to methods for modifying surface properties of metal substrates for enhancing cellular adhesion (tissue integration) and providing antimicrobial properties. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This invention provides novel nanofiber enhanced surface area substrates and structures comprising such substrates for use in various medical devices, as well as methods and uses for such substrates and medical devices. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The imaging properties of microspheres and the related intensity- and temperature-distributions on nearby substrates are studied and compared with experimental results on the deposition of Pd from aqueous solutions of PdCl 2 in NH 3 . (spie.org)
  • Pr³⁺/Cd²⁺ co-doped ZnO hexagonal structure thin films with c-axis preferred orientation were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO₂/Si substrates using a chemical solution deposition method, and the effect of Cd-ion doping on the resistive switching properties of Zn₀.₉₇₋ₓPr₀.₀₃CdₓO thin films (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) has been investigated. (usda.gov)
  • Thermal Spray (TS) system allows delivery of the plating materials to the substrates at high velocities (on the order of 1 to 1.5 km/sec) and high temperatures. (tms.org)
  • The feasibility to fabricate ordered arrays of nano-objects and to precisely organize the nano-objects on appropriate substrates or inside various matrices is the key issue to support the technological development of new device concepts with predictable characteristics based on these novel nano-materials. (european-mrs.com)
  • in the most common application, dopant atoms become electrically active, i.e. a charge carrier is created and the conductivity of the implanted region is increased. (appliedmaterials.com)
  • Technologies Trend : Shrinking down device size Low energy implants High dose concentration Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) Induced phenomena : Large defect generation Atoms displacement (surface degradation, crystal amorphization) Vacancies and interstitials generation Technological concern : Transient Enhanced diffusion (TED)! (docplayer.net)
  • 11 Monte-Carlo Concepts and Models Statistic Sampling An atom impacting the wafer s surface is more likely to be stopped close to the interface than to channel deeper into the substrate But probability to have atoms channeling exists : it implies very large number of simulated implanted atoms to fit the profile tail prohibitive from the simulation point of view (simu. (docplayer.net)
  • Anti-microbial fine grain or nanocrystalline materials are provided, together with methods of preparation, wherein the anti-microbial metal if deposited in a matrix with atoms or molecules of a different material such as other biocompatible metals (ex. (justia.com)
  • In our work, we present recent developments on ceramic materials for bacterial bone infections: hydroxyapatite-based carriers for antibiotics and modifications of hydroxyapatite with antibacterial ions. (intechopen.com)
  • The lattice is subsequently repaired using RTP , during which process the dopant ions occupy substitutional sites in the lattice and a charge carrier is created. (appliedmaterials.com)
  • For synthesis a preferred research direction follows a top-bottom approach, where nanomaterials are precisely defined from a bulk material using beam of ions (FIB) or plasma etching techniques (DRIE) with nanoparticles used as a mask. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Of the metallic ions with anti-microbial properties, silver is perhaps the best known due to its unusually good bioactivity at low concentrations. (justia.com)
  • However, it is generally accepted that such coatings alone do not provide the required level of efficacy, since diffusion of silver ions from the metallic surface is negligible. (justia.com)
  • The infection resistant coating is stated to be non-leaching in aqueous solutions as demonstrated by zone of inhibition tests, thus enforcing the belief that silver metal surfaces do not release anti-microbial amounts of silver ions. (justia.com)
  • Influence of polar dopant on internal configuration of azoxybenzene nematic-in-water droplets , Liquid crystals, 1-13, 2017 (printed online). (uni-lj.si)
  • Porous alumina can be used as a porous ceramic biomedical implant. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been used in biomedical applications that require hardness, low friction and chemical stability, for example, dental implants and acetabular cup replacement in total hip prostheses. (mdpi.com)
  • To make the bioinert alumina material bioactive and thus potentially more suitable for the biomedical application, doping of porous alumina has been considered. (mdpi.com)
  • Wear and corrosion behavior of oxygen implanted biomedical. (nal.res.in)
  • 6 , 7 Currently, there is an intense research effort focused on the application of 3D printing for development of blood vessels and bioengineered tissues, as well as production of functional biomedical materials and devices for dental and orthopedic applications. (dovepress.com)
  • Biomedical Materials (Bristol). (elsevier.com)
  • With good biocompatibility and excellent imaging properties of the micelles, our results uncover efficient active homing of those micelles after intravenous injection, and undoubtedly demonstrate the as-obtained micelles holds great potential for early pancreatic cancer diagnosis in the future and would pave the way for the following biomedical applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellulose-based materials are one of the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications, which normally applied as carriers for pharmaceuticals and drug-releasing scaffolds. (ias.ac.in)
  • an experimental study in the pig," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research-Part B , vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 165-171, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • The cutting loss of Si ingot in conventional manufacturing process of Si wafers for solar cells is one of the main obstacles to reduce the cost of solar power generation. (go.jp)
  • Carbon and oxygen concentration in the grown Si sheet crystal was below the specification value of Si for solar cells. (go.jp)
  • The latter means for example that charging and discharging of batteries can be characterized in electrolyte solution or that the charge generation and transport phenomena at specific interfaces of hybrid or organic solar cell can be probed. (european-mrs.com)
  • In this study, the in situ sol-gel method has been deployed to prepare the titanium dioxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (TiO2/MWCNTs) nanocomposite (NCs) powders with varying content of MWCNTs (0.01-1.0 wt %), to construct the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). (fsu.edu)
  • These surface treatment methods can be applied as a post-processing operation to metallic implants such as hip, knee and spinal devices as well as screws, pins and plates. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In one particular embodiment, methods for enhancing cellular functions on a surface of a medical device implant are disclosed which generally comprise providing a medical device implant comprising a plurality of nanofibers (e.g., nanowires) thereon and exposing the medical device implant to cells such as osteoblasts. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • We explore how biofilms can be removed from implant surfaces using a variety of novel methods, without causing surface damage or other undesirable modifications, and show how different laboratory and clinical models can be used to assess the performance of both conventional and novel methods of biofilm removal. (intechopen.com)
  • This paper offers a comprehensive review of the current research being carried out on metallic bipolar plates, covering materials and fabrication methods. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, raw materials must be widely available at reasonable cost and be amenable to rapid and cost-effective fabrication methods and processes [ 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, we want to stimulate the development and spreading of new SPM methods which would advance the understanding of energy related materials (such as newly developed time-resolved electrostatic modes of the SPM, or advanced modes combining nano-mechanical and potentiometric imaging capabilities). (european-mrs.com)
  • This has been confirmed by a detailed demonstration of the robustness of the method: J.L.Colaux & C.Jeynes, High accuracy traceable Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of ion implanted samples, Analytical Methods 6 , 2014, 120-129 . (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The present invention relates to methods and compositions for altering (e.g., augmenting or stimulating) differentiation and growth of cells (e.g., neural progenitor cells and neurons). (allindianpatents.com)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to compositions comprising one or more self-assembling peptide amphiphiles (e.g., in solution or that generate (e.g., self-assemble into) nanofibers (e.g., that are able to encapsulate cells and promote cellular differentiation (e.g., neurite development)) and methods of using the same. (allindianpatents.com)
  • There exists a need in the art for improved compositions and methods for delivery of bioactive reagents (e.g., the promote the generation and growth of neuronal axons (e.g., ascending sensory axons and descending motor axons) and that concuirently inhibit astroglial cell growth and/or scar formation. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. (springer.com)
  • Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. (springer.com)
  • Methods of manufacturing dental prosthesis/implants each to replace a non-functional natural tooth positioned in a jawbone of a specific pre-identified patient are provided. (inventi.in)
  • A complex interaction between the materials and lack of knowledge regarding composite behaviour in columns with multiple encased steel profiles opens opportunities to develop novel systems and design methods. (uni.lu)
  • The adjusting device includes first and second arms having first and second sets of jaws coupled thereto, the first and second sets of jaws configured to selectively engage the implant, the second set of jaws being configured to position the resilient arm in the unlocked position when engaging the receiving member of the implant, and an adjustment mechanism to adjust the length of the implant. (inventi.in)
  • The research programs in Nanotechnology & Catalysis Group of SCBE cut across multi-disciplinary boundaries in chemistry, chemical engineering, material sciences and physics. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Simultaneous Immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase and Glucose Oxidase in Mesoporous Sol-gel Host Materials Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry. (jove.com)
  • Philosophical Magazine B: Physics of Condensed Matter Electronic Optical and Magnetic Properties, 54. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), 34. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the symposium is conceived as a platform that gathers researchers coming from academia and industry and promotes interactions among scientists and engineers working on all the aspects of semiconductor and metallic nano-structures, ranging from fundamental physics and material science issues up to the technological implementation toward the final application in functional devices. (european-mrs.com)
  • The presence of mature biofilms on dental implant surfaces drives local inflammatory responses in the adjacent soft and hard tissues (peri-implantitis), which leads to pathological loss of bone and the formation of a saucer shaped bone defects. (intechopen.com)
  • This chapter examines the unique challenges posed by biofilms formed on highly complex dental implant surfaces, which are difficult to access for cleaning, and easily damaged by conventional cleaning approaches. (intechopen.com)
  • An overview of dental implant placement. (intechopen.com)
  • B) Post-operative radiograph of the same area after placement of a titanium dental implant. (intechopen.com)
  • The steps can also include forming a three-dimensional virtual model of at least portions of a non-functional natural tooth positioned in the jawbone of the specific pre-identified patient based on the imaging and surface scan data, virtually designing a dental implant based upon the virtual model, exporting the data describing the designed dental implant to a manufacturing machine, and custom manufacturing the dental implant for the specific patient. (inventi.in)
  • Highlights the effect of increasing the number of electrodes on the quality of vision received from the Bionic Eye Implant. (imaging-git.com)
  • These materials have applications in magnetic field sensing and recording as well as electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells and room temperature microbolometers. (tms.org)
  • However, most of these works were performed using classical thick film electrodes processed by slurry-based approaches, which contain inactive materials that decrease the energy density of the cells and complicate the fundamental studies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Properties of flow-type composite resin modified with silver and gold nanoparticles. (sigma-not.pl)
  • 5. The device of claim 1, further comprising a calcium phosphate-based bioceramic surface coating on a second surface region of the composite metal structure. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • STOCK MATERIAL OR MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES : COMPOSITE (NONSTRUCTURAL LAMINATE) : Of quartz or glass : Next to metal or compound thereof : Cross-linked polyester (e.g., glycerol maleate-styrene, etc. (everypatent.com)
  • An experimental result is presented on a composite thin-film material where a specific material plasmon excitation results in a commensurate signature in the species ejection kinetic energy. (spie.org)
  • The structural and optical properties and interconnectivity of the materials within the composite are investigated thoroughly by various spectral techniques (XRD, XPS, Raman, FT-IR, and UV-vis), electron microscopy (HRTEM), and BET analysis. (fsu.edu)
  • The development of a novel, easy-applicable and efficient type of shear connectors for an application in composite columns with one or multiple-encased steel profiles satisfies the improvement need to assure local shear transfer between steel and concrete materials. (uni.lu)
  • H01L29/00 - Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. (google.com)
  • H01L21/04 - Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. (google.com)
  • The symposium covers all the scientific and technological aspects related to the synthesis, the physical/chemical characterizations, the material properties of semiconductor or metallic nanodots and nanowires, with special emphasis on the multiscale organization and spontaneous auto-organization and directed self-assembly of ordered structures, in view of their integration in functional devices. (european-mrs.com)
  • Due to their appealing size dependent properties, semiconductor and metallic nano-objects (nanocrystals, nanowires) have been predicted to be used as technological boost in various fields including nano- electronics, optoelectronics, photonics, magnetism, phononics, plasmonics, advanced sensing and photovoltaics. (european-mrs.com)
  • Diamond metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors", Diamond and Related Materials, 2 (1993), pp. 1020-1023. (patentgenius.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite materials, due to their high biocompatibility, play a crucial role in orthopaedics and bone surgery as alternatives to autologous bone grafts. (intechopen.com)
  • The implantation of "foreign" materials brings one major concern that is the risk of potential bone tissue infections or chronic osteomyelitis. (intechopen.com)
  • Therefore, recent developments of materials engineering are focused on delivery antibiotics directly into the affected bone. (intechopen.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material widely used in regenerative medicine, bone and dental surgery, conservative dentistry as well as implantology [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The use of Ti is favored over other materials because it is biocompatible when inserted into direct contact with bone, resistant to corrosion, lightweight, and durable. (intechopen.com)
  • D) Immediately after placing the implant into a site prepared in the bone. (intechopen.com)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can be mobilized from the bone marrow or other organs, home into injured tissues and differentiate into different cell phenotypes to serve in a repairing capacity. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Since inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are key factors in the development of the morbid consequences of OSA, bone marrow-derived stem cells could be important modulators of the morbid phenotype by affording a protective role. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Other properties described ( Wagoner Johnson and Herschler, 2011 ) include the ability to serve as a template for bone formation by allowing cells to adhere and proliferate (osteoconductivity). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellular response to the Si and P doped samples was positive with high cell populations and cell layer formation. (mdpi.com)
  • The H 2 plasma treatment removes unwanted oxide from the surface region of the core conducting layer such that the interface between the core conducting layer and the capping adhesion/barrier is substantially free of oxides. (google.com.au)
  • Dental implants made from ceramic materials such as sapphire and zirconium oxide exist but are not in common use. (intechopen.com)
  • The anticancer activity of brown algae-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was determined by MTT assay against the cell line (MCF-7). (ias.ac.in)
  • In the third step the antibacterial property of the nano particles finished fabrics were tested and compared with zinc nitrate and zinc oxide coated bulk control fabrics. (oatd.org)
  • In order to control the sensitivity and chemistry of the oxide surface of the nanoribbons, a silanization reagent with a functional group is often self-assembled on the SiNR surface. (diva-portal.org)
  • and exposing the plurality of pillars to a dopant to form a drain region in each of the plurality of pillars, the drain region of each of the plurality of pillars spaced apart fromthe source region by the channel region and oppositely doped with respect to the channel region. (patentgenius.com)
  • The pixel units are comprised of three subpixel components each including a plurality of elongated, equally spaced apart reflective grating elements arranged parallel to each other with their light-reflective surfaces also parallel to each other. (google.ca)
  • The ossicular implant includes a first fixation element, an elongated member extending from the first fixation element with a plurality of notches, a receiving member receiving a portion of the elongated member, and a resilient arm coupled to the elongated member. (inventi.in)
  • We aim to develop supramolecular biomaterials that exploit a diverse design toolbox and take advantage of the beautiful synergism between physical properties, aesthetics, and low energy consumption typical of natural systems. (stanford.edu)
  • Studies on surface structure, morphology and composition of Co-W alloy. (nal.res.in)
  • By altering the morphology and tuning of composition, MGs may be transformed into high-performance catalytic materials. (unt.edu)
  • The experimental results suggest that the ratio of MWCNTs and TiO2 in NCs, morphology, and their interconnectivity influenced their structural, optical, and photovoltaic properties significantly. (fsu.edu)
  • Protein interactions with layers of TiO2 nanotube and nanopore arrays: morphology and surface charge influence , Acta Biomaterialia, 45: 357-366, 2016. (uni-lj.si)
  • The success of a porous implant depends on its ability to provide a functional balance between mechanical strength, pore size, interconnectivity of the porous structure and properties of osteoconductivity [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This work provides a new path toward obtaining advanced polymer-based nanocomposites with functional properties. (chemweb.com)
  • Rolling circle amplification (RCA) and rolling circle transcription (RCT) can be used to fabricate various structures and organize functional materials for biological applications. (usda.gov)
  • In terms of the cathode film thickness, it has been generally reported between several nanometers to a few micrometers for thin film cathodes in order to decrease the charge diffusion length, which makes the pristine cathode materials functional even without conductive additives and enables high power applications. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus the CA nanofibres with 14% (w/v) concentration exerted suitable properties for wound healingapplication. (ias.ac.in)
  • Real-time pH measurements indicate that a uniform APTES monolayer not only reduces the pH sensitivity of SiNR FET by passivating the surface silanol groups, but also makes the device less sensitive to cation concentration in the background electrolyte. (diva-portal.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have invented a lower cost refractometer ideally suited for applications where more expensive refractometers would not be justified (e.g., airplane de-icing, measuring water-soluble oils in machine tool coolant, high-end ink jet printing, controlling the concentration of methanol in fuel cells). (illinois.edu)
  • This has been followed up by a "Round Robin" between Surrey (C.Jeynes), Lisbon (N.P.Barradas) and Budapest (E.Szilágyi) (" Accurate determination of Quantity of Material in thin films by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry ") demonstrating that three labs can independently measure an implant fluence with an absolute accuracy of 1% , Analytical Chemistry 84, 2012, 6061-6069 . (surrey.ac.uk)
  • A case is presented for processing of advanced materials via low fluence lasers where the incident fluence is below the ablation threshold. (spie.org)
  • The technique relies on partially offsetting the reduced incident fluence with enhancement in the efficiency of coupling energy to surface electromagnetic waves (Plasmons). (spie.org)
  • This work investigates the mechanisms of the microstructure evolution in the melted surface layers of a WC-6% Co hard alloy when increasing the number of pulses of irradiation by high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • Uniformly distributed nano-holes are fabricated on the sapphire surface guided by dome shaped Au nanoparticles (NPs) as catalysts and the patterning process is discussed based on the disequilibrium of vapor, liquid, solid interface energies at the Au NP/sapphire interface induced by the Au evaporation at high temperature. (chemweb.com)
  • The correlation between the mechanical and structural properties was investigated to understand the oxidization behavior of UNCD films after high temperature annealing. (chemweb.com)
  • Lack of crystalline order and microstructural features such as grain/grain-boundary in metallic glasses results in a suite of remarkable attributes including very high strength, close to theoretical elasticity, high corrosion and wear resistance, and soft magnetic properties. (unt.edu)
  • To enhance the catalytic properties, high energy mechanical milling was performed to increase the surface area and defect density. (unt.edu)
  • A small percentage of transition metal constituents (Fe and Ni) in a mostly aluminum alloy showed high catalytic activity, with no toxic by-products and no change in surface characteristics. (unt.edu)
  • To enhance their integration with the bones of the jaws, the surfaces of titanium dental implants are modified to make them hydrophilic, high energy, and microtextured. (intechopen.com)
  • Bipolar plates have been fabricated primarily from high-density graphite, but in recent years, much attention has been paid to developing cost-effective and feasible alternative materials. (hindawi.com)
  • The drug-loaded CA nanofibres showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.CA nanofibres had high water uptake properties. (ias.ac.in)
  • The PEEK material exhibited high aspect ratio channels with both carbon black and carbon nanofiber fillers. (spie.org)
  • Recent applications of PLD include high temperature superconductors, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistive materials and ferrites. (tms.org)
  • Exposure to such high temperatures would result in structural failure of the materials from a variety of mechanisms. (tms.org)
  • The main challenge for application of solution-derived carbon nanotube (CNT) in high performance field-effect transistor is how to obtain the aligned film with full surface coverage and uniform inter-tube pitch. (usda.gov)
  • When relatively high laser fluences were used, ICCD imaging also revealed strong evidence for interactions between the laser and the near-surface plume. (spie.org)
  • Enjoy the benefit of high temperatures to create smooth and hard surfaces now made easily. (mhi-inc.com)
  • The differentiation of stem cells down a particular pathway can be influenced by the specific chemical functionality of their nanoenvironment in vitro . (imaging-git.com)
  • The protective and reparative roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have primarily been examined and characterized in auto-immune and cardiovascular diseases. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Pancreatic cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, the existence of cancer stem cells and lack of highly efficient early detection may account for the poor survival rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, as one transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed on the pancreatic cancer stem cells, CD326 may act as a promising target. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We seek to understand the role of mechanics in biology and force sensitive pathways in cell-cell adhesion and subcellular organization, the role of mechanical environment on the structure and function of stem cell derived cardiomyocytes as biophysical models of health and disease, and to develop models of mechanical signaling underlying the sense of touch and hearing. (stanford.edu)
  • We study the mechanics and biology of the sense of touch in C. elegans, the mechanisms and forces of cell adhesion, and the development and response of stem cells and cardiac myocytes to mechanical loading. (stanford.edu)
  • Stem cell fate dictated solely by altered nanotube dimension," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 106, no. 7, pp. 2130-2135, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are adhesion-dependent cells that require cultivation in colonies to maintain growth and pluripotency. (healthcareintheuk.co.uk)
  • To achieve this goal, hydroxyapatite-based materials are frequently studied as carriers for antibacterial drugs. (intechopen.com)
  • HA resembles the main inorganic component of mineralized tissues (biological apatite), which in combination with its non-toxic and, most importantly, osseoconductive properties makes it an asset for biomaterial engineering [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Elec- tromagnetic field absorption and SAR, Power transfer in biological environment, On-body and implant antennas, microwave hyperthermia. (scu.edu)
  • The carbon framework common to both organic semiconductors and biological structures suggests that these two classes of materials should be easily integrated. (rsc.org)
  • Our vision is to use these materials to solve fundamental biological questions and to engineer advanced healthcare solutions. (stanford.edu)
  • The involved biological processes are intrinsically multiscale phenomena since they are based on molecular interactions on a small scale leading to the emerging behavior of cells, organs and organisms. (uni.lu)
  • In this review, we discuss both device-based and micro/nanoparticle-based materials in the clinic, our biologic understanding of how our immune system interacts with these materials, how this diverse set of immune cells has become a target and variable in drug delivery design, and new directions in polymer chemistry to address these interactions and further our advances in medical therapeutics. (bvsalud.org)
  • They either attempt to optimize the production processes in order to obtain the required nano material or manipulate the material structure and chemistry at nano-scale to achieve the required nano structure. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Guest editors Christopher J. Bettinger and Natalie Stingelin introduce this Journal of Materials Chemistry B & C joint themed issue on organic bioelectronics. (rsc.org)
  • For his PhD work, Eric was the recipient of the Jon Weaver PhD prize from the Royal Society of Chemistry and a Graduate Student Award from the Materials Research Society. (stanford.edu)
  • The underlying theme of the Appel Lab at Stanford University integrates concepts and approaches from supramolecular chemistry, natural/synthetic materials, and biology. (stanford.edu)
  • The structural properties of glasses were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electronmicroscopy and the bioactivity of the glasses was evaluated by in vitro test in simulated body fluid (SBF). (ias.ac.in)
  • We expect future generations of bionic implants to engender a shift in these paradigms whereby the implant will be structured-chemically, physically, electroactively-at smaller and smaller scales in order to offer several new dimensions of integration with nervous tissue (fig. 1). (imaging-git.com)
  • Structural And Optical Properties Of Nanocrystalline Tio2 With Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes And Its Photovoltaic Studies Using Ru(ii) Sensitizers. (fsu.edu)
  • The improved properties after 20 pulses are therefore due to the presence of nano graphite that served as lubricant and dramatically decreased the friction coefficient, while the ultrafine-grained carbides and the nano domains contribute to the improvement of the surface microhardness and wear resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • Followed by the re-equilibration of interface energy, transport of alumina from the beneath of NPs to the sapphire surface can occur along the NP/sapphire interface resulting in the formation of nano-holes. (chemweb.com)
  • The projects in nano photonics cover the area of optoelectronics devices and packaging, nano metrology, and finally photonic band gap materials. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The projects in nano magnetics predominantly aim to synthesize nano materials for improved magnetic performance. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Some projects deal with the production of nano particles for a variety of applications while the others investigate the production of nano-structured materials or nanocomposites. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • By peeling the structures, nano-sized materials such as nanomesh and nanobelt were generated. (spie.org)
  • Carbon nanocomposites consist of thermoset and thermoplastic materials filled with carbon nano-particles (nanotubes, bucky balls, etc. (spie.org)
  • The symposium is open to all the experimental and theoretical results on organized nano-structures, aiming to control the main parameters of the nano-objects in relation with their tunable properties and functionalities. (european-mrs.com)
  • A range of experimental techniques will be used to measure the change in electrical properties brought about by the thin insulator films and the film thickness will be optimised for a range of important semiconductors (with Cambridge University, Analog Devices NPL, CPI. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Fibroblasts grown on multilayers of poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS, and poly(diallyldimethylammonium), PDADMA, with increasing thickness exhibit good adhesion until the 12th layer of polyelectrolyte has been added, whereupon there is a sudden transition to nonadhesive behavior. (fsu.edu)
  • The results point out the importance of the interaction between the PEDOT:PSS and the NFC-G for the electrical and barrier properties for thin film electronics applications. (springeropen.com)
  • Main area of research is the interaction of energetic ion beams with solids.Current research activities include the use of Molecular Dynamics Simulations to predict the behaviour of cluster and molecular impacts on surfaces. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Electrical measurements of the ideality factor for Schottky barriers made from these materials produced higher values for the rougher evaporation formed interfaces, consistent with interface-roughness-induced scattering. (matthey.com)
  • Adsorption and catalytic surface centres are very different. (matthey.com)
  • For this purpose, adsorption conditions wereoptimized and maximum lysozyme binding capacity was found to be 278.8 mg g$^{−1}$ polymer in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer at 25$^{\circ}$C. Desorption and reusability properties of the nanoparticles were investigated and lysozyme adsorption efficiency did not change significantly at the end of the 10 successive reuses. (ias.ac.in)
  • Precise radiotracer assays of adsorbed 125I-albumin, show how protein adsorption is related to multilayer surface charge. (fsu.edu)