Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Receptors, Dopamine D4: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Receptors, Dopamine D5: A subtype of dopamine D1 receptors that has higher affinity for DOPAMINE and differentially couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Sulpiride: A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine: A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.Spiperone: A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseCocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Domperidone: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Homovanillic AcidMPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.PyrrolidinesAntiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Flupenthixol: A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Butaclamol: A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Tegmentum Mesencephali: Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Nerve Tissue ProteinsNuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 2: An orphan nuclear receptor that is found at high levels in BRAIN tissue. The protein is believed to play a role in development and maintenance of NEURONS, particularly dopaminergic neurons.Pergolide: A long-acting dopamine agonist which has been used to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and HYPERPROLACTINEMIA but withdrawn from some markets due to potential for HEART VALVE DISEASES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Mice, Inbred C57BLLisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Piperazinesalpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fenoldopam: A dopamine D1 receptor agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Medial Forebrain Bundle: A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Hydroxydopamines: Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Carbidopa: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.MSH Release-Inhibiting Hormone: A hypothalamic tripeptide, enzymatic degradation product of OXYTOCIN, that inhibits the release of MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Drug Partial Agonism: Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.Benperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It has been used in the treatment of aberrant sexual behavior. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p567)Pimozide: A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.PhenanthridinesTetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidCerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Benserazide: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.Neurochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Autoreceptors: Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Mazindol: Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Dopa Decarboxylase: One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
"Interaction of permanently charged analogs of dopamine with the D-2 dopaminergic receptor." Biochem. Pharmacol. 36 3903 - 3910. ... 1975). "Cholinergic effects of molecular segments of apomorphine and dopaminergic effects of N,N-dialkylated dopamines." J. Med ... "Dopamine D2 receptor binding sites for agonists. A tetrahedral model." Mol. Pharmacol. 28 391-399. R. A. Wallace, T. Farooqui, ... and the LD50 for dopamine·HCl is 1978 mg/kg (mouse, i.p.). N-methyldopamine Dopamine Hordenine B. A. Clement, C. M. Goff, and T ...
Seeman, P. (2013). "An agonist at glutamate and dopamine D2 receptors". Neuropharmacology. 66: 87-88. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm. ... Kinon BJ, Gómez JC (2013). "Clinical development of pomaglumetad methionil: a non-dopaminergic treatment forschizophrenia". ... LY-404,039 possesses partial agonist actions at D2 receptors and inhibits the binding of the D2-specific antagonist [3H] ... domperidone to human cloned D2 receptors. It increases the release of dopamine as well as its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in the ...
Her experiments using autoradiography revealed cocaine's effect on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the rat striatum. Rats ... The finding revealed a mechanism of dopaminergic regulation that was previously unknown. Zahniser examined the pharmacological ... sites could increase the binding affinity of the D4 dopamine receptor while decreasing the binding affinity of the D2 dopamine ... Zahniser's research concerned the role of dopamine in the brain, especially in relation to addictive disorders. Her thesis ...
... is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective antagonist on D2 dopamine receptors. Its selectivity to the ... Radiolabelled raclopride is also commonly used to determine the efficacy and neurotoxicity of dopaminergic drugs. Köhler C, ... A potent substituted benzamide drug with high affinity for dopamine D-2 receptors in the rat brain". Biochemical Pharmacology. ... Farde L, Gustavsson JP, Jönsson E (1997). "D2 dopamine receptors and personality traits". Nature. 385 (6617): 590. doi:10.1038/ ...
... both of these agents antagonize dopaminergic D2 receptors in various pathways of the central nervous system. This D2 blockade ... Prochlorperazine is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic agents that ... Hyperprolactinaemia is a side effect of dopamine antagonists as blockade of D2 receptors within the tuberoinfundibular pathway ... Prochlorperazine is thought to exert its antipsychotic effects by blocking dopamine receptors. Prochlorperazine is analogous to ...
D1 dopamine receptor modulated MSNs send GABAergic inhibitory projections directly to the globus pallidus interna (GPi). D2 ... The GPe sends GABAergic inhibitory inputs to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which provides excitatory dopaminergic input to the ... D1 receptor signaling increases dendritic excitability of MSNs, while D2 receptor signaling decreases dendritic excitability of ... dopamine receptor modulated MSNs send GABAergic inhibitory projections to the GPe. ...
... and stimulating dopamine release. The result of this is that dopamine competes with antipsychotic D2 antagonistic action at D2 ... D2 Receptor: Hyperactive dopaminergic activity on D2 receptors in the mesolimbic pathway is responsible for the positive ... Other ways for dopamine to resolve is to have agonism at both the D2 receptor and 5-HT1A receptor, which normalizes the ... Reducing D2 dopaminergic activity in the mesolimbic pathway also results in an anhedonic effect, reducing pleasure, motivation ...
However, it has been observed to weakly inhibit the binding of [3H]spiperone to D2 dopamine receptors in vitro. While ... While some calcium-channel blockers, such as flunarizine, act on the dopaminergic system, lomerizine is ineffective in vivo at ... on the central dopaminergic system of rats". Japanese journal of pharmacology. 58 (4): 399-405. doi:10.1254/jjp.58.399. PMID ... one hypothesis is that the doses administered cannot reach a high enough concentration in the brain to affect D2 receptors. ...
Thus, blocking dopamine receptors (namely, the dopamine D2 receptors) and decreasing dopaminergic activity continues to be an ... While dopamine receptor D2 suppresses adenylate cyclase activity, the D1 receptor increases it. If D2-blocking drugs are ... The two major sources of evidence given to support this theory are that dopamine receptor D2 blocking drugs (i.e., ... Psychosis has been traditionally linked to the neurotransmitter dopamine. In particular, the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis ...
inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b) reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses ... "Electrophysiological effects of trace amines on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons". Front Syst Neurosci. 5: 56. doi:10.3389/ ... D2-dopamine, μ- δ-, and κ-opioid, 5-HT1A serotonin, somatostatin, galanin, m-Glu, GABAB, TAAR1, and sphingosine-1-phosphate ...
Young JW (March 2009). "Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor family contributions to modafinil-induced wakefulness". The Journal of ... "Modafinil inhibits rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons through D2-like receptors". Neuropharmacology. 52 (2): 626-33. doi:10.1016 ... Of the sites tested, it was found to significantly affect only the dopamine transporter (DAT), acting as a dopamine reuptake ... a D2 receptor antagonist. Partial substitution was seen with the DRA dextroamphetamine and the D2 receptor agonist PNU-91356A, ...
... addiction is often characterized by the reduction of dopamine D2 receptors in the NAcc. In addition to low NAcc D2 binding, ... It was postulated that the efficacy observed was due to KOR activation-mediated amelioration of excessive dopaminergic ... Moore RJ, Vinsant SL, Nader MA, Porrino LJ, Friedman DP (September 1998). "Effect of cocaine self-administration on dopamine D2 ... The immediate effect of KOR agonism leads to reduction of dopamine release in the NAcc during self-administration of cocaine ...
... are most commonly caused by typical antipsychotic drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors. The most ... Other anti-dopaminergic drugs, like the antiemetic metoclopramide, can also result in extrapyramidal side effects. Short and ... Atypical antipsychotics have lower D2 receptor affinity or higher serotonin 5-HT2A receptor affinity which lead to lower rates ... loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leads to dysregulation of the extrapyramidal system. Since this system ...
The neurotransmitter dopamine is released from projections originating in the midbrain. Manipulations of dopaminergic signaling ... whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing (Drew et al., 2003; Lake and Meck, 2013). ... Depletion ... dopaminergic pharmaceuticals like amphetamine have been shown to expedite responses during interval timing, while dopamine ... Current medical reviews indicate that signaling through the dopamine pathways originating in the ventral tegmental area is ...
... from D2 receptors D2 receptor antagonism that is surmountable by dopamine Rapid recovery of D2-receptor-mediated responses ... February 2010). "The dopaminergic stabilizers pridopidine (ACR16) and (-)-OSU6162 display dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism and ... Lower affinity for D2 receptors than traditional D2 ligands Preferential binding to activated D2 (D2high) receptors (i.e. ... They have a dual mechanism of action, displaying functional antagonism of subcortical dopamine type 2 (D2) receptors, as well ...
Pharmacological action of dopaminergic drugs such as D1 and D2 receptors agonists and antagonist (raclopride, haloperidol), ... Monitoring of dopamine concentration in vivo in behaving animals with FSCV reveals dopamine coding of the brain's decision ... alcohol and nicotine on dopaminergic neurotransmission and development of drug addiction was studied with FSCV. Dopamine is a ... dopamine, norepinephrine) and in vivo in anesthetized or awake and behaving animals (dopamine). Further refinements of the ...
... and the A2A-D2 receptor heterotetramer (this is a receptor complex with 2 adenosine A2A receptors and 2 dopamine D2 receptors ... All of these observations strongly suggest that caffeine does not act on the dopaminergic structures related to addiction, nor ... Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has ... While caffeine does not directly bind to any dopamine receptors, it influences the binding activity of dopamine at its ...
... whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing;... Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs ... Manipulations of dopaminergic signaling profoundly influence interval timing, leading to the hypothesis that dopamine ... Low (therapeutic) doses of dopaminergic stimulants (e.g., reuptake inhibitors and releasing agents) also promote cognitive and ... For instance, amphetamine, which increases concentrations of dopamine at the synaptic cleft advances the start of responding ...
... whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing;... Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs ... Manipulations of dopaminergic signaling profoundly influence interval timing, leading to the hypothesis that dopamine ... Miyazaki I, Asanuma M (June 2008). "Dopaminergic neuron-specific oxidative stress caused by dopamine itself" (PDF). Acta Med. ... These sex addictions are associated with a dopamine dysregulation syndrome which occurs in some patients taking dopaminergic ...
... whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing;... Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs ... Manipulations of dopaminergic signaling profoundly influence interval timing, leading to the hypothesis that dopamine ... One or more dopaminergic pathways in the central nervous system appear to have a strong modulatory influence on mental ... For instance, amphetamine, which increases concentrations of dopamine at the synaptic cleft advances the start of responding ...
Dopamine, unable to bind with a receptor, causes a feedback loop that causes dopaminergic neurons to release more dopamine. ... This is likely due to the fact that chlorpromazine antagonizes the D2 receptor which is one of the receptors dopamine, a ... Chlorpromazine is a very effective antagonist of D2 dopamine receptors and similar receptors, such as D3 and D5. Unlike most ... Eventually, dopamine production of the neurons will drop substantially and dopamine will be removed from the synaptic cleft. At ...
... dopamine D2 and D4, sigma sites, and 5-HT2C. It is able to increase activity of VTA dopaminergic neurons and medial prefrontal ... It increases the activity of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area as well as DA release in the medial prefrontal ... "Involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in prefrontal cortex in the modulation of dopaminergic activity: role in atypical antipsychotic ... cortex dopamine release. Repinotan acts as a selective high-affinity full receptor agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype. ...
Dopaminergic neurons-dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that acts on D1 type (D1 and D5) Gs coupled receptors, which ... D2, D3, and D4) receptors, which activate Gi-coupled receptors that decrease cAMP and PKA. Dopamine is connected to mood and ... Loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra has been linked to Parkinson's disease. Dopamine is synthesized from the amino ... normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine, which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the ...
Dopamine became a candidate for research when it was clinically noticed that antipsychotic drugs which are dopamine D2 receptor ... The same dopaminergic pathway is also involved in psychosis. Glutamate has become a candidate for treatment focus because ... Because dopamine cannot pass the blood brain barrier on its own, the dopamine precursor L-DOPA is used in its stead. However, ... Another treatment option is bromocriptine, which directly stimulates D2 Dopamine Receptors. Bromocriptine is less effective ...
... particularly of a dopaminergic phenotype, in the adult mammalian brain. Experimental depletion of dopamine in rodents decreases ... Proliferation is restored completely by a selective agonist of D2-like (D2L) receptors. Neural stem cells have been identified ... Transplantation of fetal dopaminergic precursor cells has paved the way for the possibility of a cell replacement therapy that ... July 2004). "Dopamine depletion impairs precursor cell proliferation in Parkinson disease". Nat. Neurosci. 7 (7): 726-35. doi: ...
synaptic transmission, dopaminergic. • positive regulation of gene expression. • cellular response to dopamine. • regulation of ... Hurd YL, Suzuki M, Sedvall GC (2001). "D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in whole hemisphere sections of the human ... dopamine metabolic process. • phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • maternal behavior. • dopamine ... dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity. • dopamine binding. • связывание с белками плазмы. • dopamine neurotransmitter ...
Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic ... Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic ... Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic ... Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic ...
... more likely that they are the result of the complex interactions of the drug with both the serotoninergic and dopaminergic ... Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated ... which indicates that LSD has a specific effect on D2 dopaminergic receptors. The maximum inhibition of prolactin secretion ... The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional actions of LSD at dopaminergic receptors using prolactin ...
Epigenetic factors may help to understand the recent observations of an association between dopamine-dependent encoding of ... 1: Association between methylation count in dopaminergic candidate markers and general IQ in n = 817 subjects.. ... dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1); and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) resulting in 24 CG sites. We focused on D1 and D2 receptors ... Epigenetic variance in dopamine D2 receptor: a marker of IQ malleability?. *Jakob A. Kaminski. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-8155- ...
Agonism of D2sh receptors inhibits dopamine release; antagonism increases dopaminergic release. A third D2(Longer) form differs ... D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer D2-adenosine A2A D2-ghrelin receptor D2sh-TAAR1 The D2 receptor has been shown to form ... The dopamine D2 receptor is the main receptor for most antipsychotic drugs. This gene encodes the D2 subtype of the dopamine ... Hasbi A, ODowd BF, George SR (Feb 2010). "Heteromerization of dopamine D2 receptors with dopamine D1 or D5 receptors generates ...
Dopaminergic Regulation of Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion through Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Pancreatic Islets In Vitro. ... Dopaminergic Regulation of Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion through Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Pancreatic Islets In Vitro ...
T1 - The dopamine D2 receptor regulates the development of dopaminergic neurons via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and ... title = "The dopamine D2 receptor regulates the development of dopaminergic neurons via extracellular signal-regulated kinase ... The dopamine D2 receptor regulates the development of dopaminergic neurons via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Nurr1 ... The dopamine D2 receptor regulates the development of dopaminergic neurons via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Nurr1 ...
title = "Either isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor can mediate dopaminergic repression of the rat prolactin promoter", ... T1 - Either isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor can mediate dopaminergic repression of the rat prolactin promoter ... Either isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor can mediate dopaminergic repression of the rat prolactin promoter. In: Molecular and ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Either isoform of the dopamine D,sub,2,/sub, receptor can mediate dopaminergic ...
"Interaction of permanently charged analogs of dopamine with the D-2 dopaminergic receptor." Biochem. Pharmacol. 36 3903 - 3910. ... 1975). "Cholinergic effects of molecular segments of apomorphine and dopaminergic effects of N,N-dialkylated dopamines." J. Med ... "Dopamine D2 receptor binding sites for agonists. A tetrahedral model." Mol. Pharmacol. 28 391-399. R. A. Wallace, T. Farooqui, ... and the LD50 for dopamine·HCl is 1978 mg/kg (mouse, i.p.). N-methyldopamine Dopamine Hordenine B. A. Clement, C. M. Goff, and T ...
D1 (DRD1) and D2 (DRD2). Receptors for dopamine neurotransmitter in the dopaminergic system ... α-MSH also interacts with oxytocin and dopamine via MC4R.. Sexual behavior1: Pair-bonding, female sexual receptivity, male ... Ben Zion IZ, Tessler R, Cohen L et al (2006) Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) contribute to individual ... 1). The gene-encoding Dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) is polymorphic in many species, and several studies on birds (Fidler et al. ...
1994) Pharmacological and functional characterization of D2, D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in fibroblast and dopaminergic cell ... Role of Dopamine D2-like Receptors in Cocaine Self-Administration: Studies with D2 Receptor Mutant Mice and Novel D2 Receptor ... 1999b) Dopamine D2 receptor knock-out mice are insensitive to the hypolocomotor and hypothermic effects of dopamine D2/D3 ... Role of Dopamine D2-like Receptors in Cocaine Self-Administration: Studies with D2 Receptor Mutant Mice and Novel D2 Receptor ...
Injection of a dopamine agonist such as apomorphine induces rotation of the rat given 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the ... nigrostriatal pathway, because destruction of dopaminergic pathway causes... ... Differential inhibition by dopamine D-1 and D-2 antagonists of circling behaviour induced by dopamine agonists in rats with ... Substantia Nigra Dopamine Agonist Rotational Behavior Nigrostriatal Pathway Dopaminergic Pathway These keywords were added by ...
Psychosis and dopamine High D2 receptors: Schizophrenia is a state of behavioural dopamine supersensitivity Biochem (Lond) ( ... Dopaminergic Regulation of Rat Pituitary D2 Receptor Gene Expression J.M. Johnston J.M. Johnston ... J.M. Johnston, D.F. Wood, D.G. Johnston; Dopaminergic Regulation of Rat Pituitary D2 Receptor Gene Expression. Clin Sci (Lond) ... Central Dopaminergic Mechanisms in Young Patients with Essential Hypertension Clin Sci (Lond) (January, 1981) ...
... several lines of evidence suggest that alterations of CNS environments by metabolic changes influence the dopamine neuronal ... We highlight the fact that using a metabolic approach to manipulate degeneration of dopaminergic neurons can serve as a ... We highlight the fact that using a metabolic approach to manipulate degeneration of dopaminergic neurons can serve as a ... Thus, we reviewed recent findings relating to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons during metabolic diseases. ...
Mice lacking this receptor show a higher sensitivity to dopaminergic stimuli, such as amphetamine; however, it is not clear ... D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of TAAR1-KO mice and indicate that a close interaction of TAAR1 and D2 dopamine receptors ... dopamine receptors were over-expressed, both in terms of mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the D2 dopamine receptor-related G ... we found that the locomotor activation induced by the D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole, but not by the full D1 dopamine ...
Brain imaging (PET; radiotracers: μ-opioid receptor-selective agonist [11C] Carfentanil + selective dopamine D2/D3 antagonist [ ... Dopaminergic system. Genetic analyses (COMT val158met SNP). Kessner et al.37 75. 38. Healthy male participants. Heat pain. Pain ... Dopaminergic system. Pharmacological antagonism and agonism (haloperidol: 2 mg, levodopa/carbidopa: 100/25 mg). Double-blind, ... Dopaminergic system. Pharmacological antagonism (haloperidol: 2 mg) + brain imaging (fMRI). Double-blind, randomized, between ...
11 For example, NMDA antagonism potentiates the dopaminergic response to an amphetamine challenge.. 12 Furthermore, dopamine D2 ... Effects of acute and chronic treatments with clozapine and haloperidol on serotonin (5-HT2) and dopamine (D2) receptors in the ... Interaction between dopamine and glutamate receptors following treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol 1999; ... 66 This may be due to an indirect mechanism such as compensatory upregulation due to antipsychotic antagonism at 5HT2A or D2 ...
Not all partial dopamine D2 receptor agonists are the same in treating schizophrenia. Exploring the effects of bifeprunox and ... aripiprazole using a computer model of a primate striatal dopaminergic synapse Athan Spiros, Robert Carr, Hugo Geerts ...
... as readout to explore the role of dopamine, glutamate and adenosine receptors in the effect of a dopamine D2 antagonist in the ... as readout to explore the role of dopamine, glutamate and adenosine receptors in the effect of a dopamine D2 antagonist in the ... First, we investigated D2 antagonist-induced Nur77 mRNA in D2L receptor knockout mice. Surprisingly, deletion of the D2L ... First, we investigated D2 antagonist-induced Nur77 mRNA in D2L receptor knockout mice. Surprisingly, deletion of the D2L ...
... and D2 dopamine receptors are localized in the striatum [114, 115]. In animal models, CB1 and D2 dopamine receptors share a ... Studies have demonstrated that AEA synthesis is regulated by dopaminergic D2 receptors in the striatum, suggesting that the ... a dopamine precursor, (2) direct stimulation of dopamine receptors, (3) decreasing dopamine catabolism, and (4) stimulation of ... The progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons that occurs in PD leads to lower striatal levels of dopamine. These low levels of ...
Presynaptic dopamine D2-like receptors inhibit excitatory transmission onto rat ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurones. ... Amphetamine-sensitized animals show a marked increase in dopamine D2 high receptors occupied by endogenous dopamine, even in ... Adaptations in the mesoaccumbens dopamine system resulting from repeated administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor- ... Localization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat neostriatum: synaptic interaction with glutamate- and GABA-containing ...
"Thinking Outside a Less Intact Box: Thalamic Dopamine D2 Receptor Densities Are Negatively Related To Psychometric Creativity ... The brain regions known as the thalamus and the striatum are affected by dopaminergic activity. Manzano et al. explain that ... The Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia. Pharmacological treatments support the idea that an overactive dopamine system may result ... The Dopamine Connection Between Schizophrenia and Creativity. By Elizabeth Stannard Gromisch Last updated: 8 Oct 2018. ~ 2 min ...
Using C. elegans behavior as a readout for nervous system function, we found that PRMT-5 promoted dopaminergic signaling ... These arginines are conserved from the C. elegans D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3 to the human D2 receptor. The gray shading ... Characterization of a novel D2-like dopamine receptor with a truncated splice variant and a D1-like dopamine receptor unique to ... animals specifically lacking dopamine signaling through the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3 are hypersensitive in their ...
In contrast, atypical antipsychotics induces dopamine hypersensitivity and increase dopamine D2 receptor availability. The ... psychology of cannabis-addiction is correlated with brain connectivity and dopaminergic neurotransmission.. bubye! ... The subconscious system and dopamine works together to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal lobe. The dopamine ... We therefore confirm the absence of alterations in D2/3 receptors previously reported [37] in a larger cohort. Biol Psychiatry ...
A potent substituted benzamide drug with high affinity for dopamine D-2 receptors in the rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol 34:2251- ... This method has shown that electrical stimulations of dopaminergic axons immediately evoke dopamine release that is rapidly ... 1994) Ultrastructural localization of D2 receptor-like immunoreactivity in midbrain dopamine neurons and their striatal targets ... Successive recordings of fluctuations in dopamine concentration lead to visualization of dopaminergic transmission events with ...
Altered synaptic dopamine levels have been implicated in several neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug ... Dopamine transporter cell surface localization facilitated by a direct interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor. *Lee F ... One of the key presynaptic components involved in regulating dopaminergic tone is the dopamine transporter (DAT). Here, we ... Moreover, mice injected with peptides that disrupt D2-DAT interaction exhibit decreased synaptosomal dopamine uptake and ...
  • Based on our patient's clinical course, in conjunction with earlier studies assessing the relationship between burning mouth syndrome and Parkinson's disease, we discuss a potential role for dopamine in burning mouth syndrome in Parkinson's disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By comparison, N-methyldopamine also had no effect in caudectomized mice at ≤ 150 mg/kg, and only a weak effect in nigral-lesioned rats at 25 mg/kg, although it was as effective as dopamine in stimulating cAMP in the adenylate cyclase assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herrera-Marschitz, M., and Ungerstedt, U., 1984, Evidence that apomorphine and pergolide induce rotation in rats by different actions on D1 and D2 receptor sites, Eur. (springer.com)
  • The lead-exposed rats showed hyperactivity in the subcortical dopaminergic system. (nih.gov)
  • Dopamine (DA) D1- and D2-receptor densities were determined in 18 discrete areas of the caudate-putamen-globus pallidus of male Wistar rats and compared to local DA concentrations. (sun.ac.za)
  • When high doses of cocaine on the descending limb of the cocaine dose-effect function were available, D2 mutant mice self-administered at higher rates than their heterozygous or wild-type littermates, but the ascending limb of the cocaine dose-effect function did not differ between genotypes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Elevated rates of drug intake were not attributable to nonspecific increases in response rate, because response rates maintained by presentation of a range of food concentrations were significantly lower in D2 mutant mice than in wild-type mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, these effects of eticlopride and quinelorane were not observed in mice that lacked the D2 receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, mice injected with peptides that disrupt D2-DAT interaction exhibit decreased synaptosomal dopamine uptake and significantly increased locomotor activity, reminiscent of DAT knockout mice. (mendeley.com)
  • That data set shows, using corticostriatal slice preparations, that the dopaminergic perturbation (hypersensitivity) is specific for the D2 receptor in BC1-knockout mice. (alzforum.org)
  • This is especially important in light of the "anxiety" phenotype these mice express, and the probable role(s) of striatal dopamine in human psychiatric diseases. (alzforum.org)
  • Subunit composition of functional nicotinic receptors in dopaminergic neurons investigated with knock-out mice. (washington.edu)
  • Here, we report that fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) in dopamine D2 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D2 MSNs) of mice regulate the excitability of these cells and control their striatopallidal globus pallidus external (GPe) projections. (gu.se)
  • GFP expression in these mice faithfully reports MSN phenotype, allowing D1 and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs to be reliably sampled ( 10 , 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This physical coupling facilitates the recruitment of intracellular DAT to the plasma membrane and leads to enhanced dopamine reuptake. (mendeley.com)
  • The present invention relates to (−)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.exane and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, compositions comprising (−)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.exane or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and methods for treating or preventing a disorder alleviated by inhibiting dopamine reuptake. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional actions of LSD at dopaminergic receptors using prolactin secretion by primary cultures of rat pituitary cells as a model. (nih.gov)
  • To compare functional dopamine and 5-HT regulation in the brain, methods have been developed to monitor dynamic changes in their concentrations in the extracellular space. (pnas.org)
  • It is known that dopamine is a functional neuromodulator at several levels of the visual system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Functional roles of Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a in neurogenesis and phenotype specification of dopamine neurons during in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Because dopaminergic function appears to be of importance in executive central nervous system function, such as arousal and memory, NH001 has been designed to help regain consciousness, accelerate recovery and improve the functional outcome of patients from a coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state following a traumatic brain injury. (prleap.com)
  • For instance, in Parkinson disease, the second most common neurological disorder, reduced sensitivity of the D2 receptor has been reported, and one could hypothesize that downregulation of BC1 RNA could improve this condition by enhancing the functional response of the D2 receptor. (alzforum.org)
  • In conclusion, the identification of BC1 RNA as a regulator of the functional response of the D2 receptor could open up new avenues in pursuit of identifying novel therapeutic targets for these neurological disorders. (alzforum.org)
  • The current study examined the D2L receptor binding properties of aripiprazole, as well as the effects of the drug on three downstream D2 receptor-mediated functional effectors: mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, potentiation of arachidonic acid (AA) release, and D2 receptor internalization. (scienceblogs.com)
  • To facilitate further study of the effect of dopamine on PRL gene activation, we introduced PRL promoter and D 2 receptor (D 2 R) constructs into GH 3 cells. (uthscsa.edu)
  • C . elegans lacking prmt-5 exhibited behavioral problems similar to those of worms deficient in the D2-like receptor DOP-3. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dopaminergic transmission in the central nervous system plays a role in the control of several important behavioral functions and in sensorimotor integration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 4 ] published an article describing Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) suggesting a commonality between substance dependence (drugs etc.) and behavioral addiction (food etc.) involving common dopaminergic polymorphic genetic antecedents [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • These findings reveal a critical role for FTO to control D2 MSN excitability, their projections to the GPe, and behavioral responses to novelty. (gu.se)
  • In contrast to our expectations, dopamine did not appear to directly mediate the type of behavioral control that is tested in our task. (gu.se)
  • The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 methylated D2 in vitro, and preventing this modification inhibited D2 receptor signaling in cultured cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on what I can quickly glean from the literature, and not take too much time from my day job,* the affinities of bifeprunox and aripiprazole for the D2 receptor are about the same, ~0.3 nM for in vitro systems FWTIW. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The mesolimbic dopamine system plays an important role in the rewarding and reinforcing effect of drugs on the brain [ 10 , 11 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that the D2 receptor is not necessary for cocaine self-administration, but this receptor subtype is involved in mechanisms that limit rates of high-dose cocaine self-administration. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. (mdpi.com)
  • Conclusions Together, our data provide insight into the mesocorticolimbic mechanisms behind motivated behaviors by showing a modulatory role of dopamine in the expression of cost/benefit decisions. (gu.se)
  • Because both the dyskinetic and antiparkinsonian actions of l -dopa are mediated by signaling through dopamine receptors, the molecular mechanisms of these effects are likely intertwined. (sciencemag.org)
  • The decrease in phospho-AKT levels, suggesting an increase in D2 dopamine receptor activity in basal conditions, was associated with an increase of AKT/PP2A complex, as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. (nih.gov)
  • They reportedly arise from a drug-induced alteration of dopaminergic-cholinergic balance in the nigrostriatum (ie, basal ganglia). (medscape.com)
  • 2006 ). The SN is the source of dopamine in the basal ganglia. (springer.com)
  • The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whereas plasticity of glutamate synapses in the brain has been studied extensively, demonstrations of plasticity at dopaminergic synapses have been more elusive. (jneurosci.org)
  • To compensate, dopaminergic brain cells increase the density of their D2 receptors by 30% or more. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The brain is now supersensitive to dopamine and becomes more biologically vulnerable to psychosis and is at particularly high risk of severe withdrawal symptoms should he or she abruptly quit taking the drugs. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system of the brain may underlie a number of the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • In the brain , this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter , activating the five types of dopamine receptors - D 1 , D 2 , D 3 , D 4 , and D 5 -and their variants. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, because dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier , dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system . (wikidoc.org)
  • Both early-onset and late-onset forms of PD bear a major histopathological hallmark, the presence of Lewy bodies, which are α-synuclein-rich protein inclusions that are also found in non-dopaminergic brain regions depending on the stage of disease progression. (prolekare.cz)
  • Association between decline in brain dopamine activity with age and cognitive and motor impairment in healthy individuals. (medscape.com)
  • It modulates dopaminergic transmission in the brain by repressing or activating transcription from several different promoters depending on cellular context. (uniprot.org)
  • and (3) dopamine plays a dominant role in natural analgesia within multiple brain centers 4 . (jrheum.org)
  • An exploratory survey of the cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic receptor expression energy in the amygdala, and in the neuromodulatory areas themselves was undertaken using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. (springer.com)
  • In parkinsonian monkeys, loss of dopamine leads to the up-regulation of several GRKs ( 2 ), which may temper dopaminergic signaling on initial l -dopa administration and ensure a therapeutic response to the drug. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dopamine is biosynthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and the medulla of the adrenal glands ) first by the hydroxylation of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-DOPA via the enzyme tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, also known as tyrosine hydroxylase , and then by the decarboxylation of L-DOPA by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (which is often referred to as dopa decarboxylase). (wikidoc.org)