Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Sperm Midpiece: The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Acrosome Reaction: Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.Blood DonorsOligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins: The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sperm Immobilizing Agents: Chemical substances with sperm immobilizing activity used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Sperm Whale: The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.alpha-Chlorohydrin: A chlorinated PROPANEDIOL with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.Mice, Inbred ICRBufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Masturbation: Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Comb and Wattles: Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Varicocele: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.A Kinase Anchor Proteins: A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Fishes, PoisonousVitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Mice, Inbred C57BLOsmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Esophageal Motility Disorders: Disorders affecting the motor function of the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; the ESOPHAGUS body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in gastric reflux of food and acid into the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX). Other disorders include hypermotility (spastic disorders) and markedly increased amplitude in contraction (nutcracker esophagus).Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Choline Dehydrogenase: An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESAnimals, ZooFluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Cell SeparationMicrotubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyAnimals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
The oocyte is pierced through the oolemma and the sperm is directed into the inner part of the oocyte (cytoplasm). The sperm is ... not required in the case of ICSI where sperm cell viability can be easily evaluated on the basis of sperm motility in most ... In ICSI IVF, the male partner or a donor provides a sperm sample on the same day when the eggs are collected.[23] The sample is ... Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI /ˈɪksi/ IK-see) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm ...
... with the volume of a man's semen and sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move towards an egg) decrease continually between ... the UK more than 20 babies are born to women over age 50 per year through in-vitro fertilization with the use of donor oocytes ... In both cases the children were conceived through IVF with donor eggs. The oldest verified mother to conceive naturally (listed ... but they are nearly always due to the use of IVF with donor eggs. Pregnancies among older women have been a subject of ...
... frozen and stored specifically for transfer and donation by using donor eggs and sperm. Also, oocyte cryopreservation can be ... such as low sperm count or motility, a single sperm may be injected directly into the egg using intracytoplasmic sperm ... In the egg donor process, eggs are retrieved from a donor's ovaries, fertilised in the laboratory with the sperm from the ... In these cases the partner's or a donor's sperm may be used. ICSI is also used when sperm numbers are very low. When indicated ...
A more specified measure is motility grade, where the motility of sperm are divided into four different grades: Grade a: Sperm ... It is also commonly used for testing human donors for sperm donation, and for animals semen analysis is commonly used in stud ... or more of the observed sperm have normal morphology. Morphology is a predictor of success in fertilizing oocytes during in ... Sperm count, or sperm concentration to avoid confusion with total sperm count, measures the concentration of sperm in a man's ...
The first detailed studies of ion channels in human sperm. Detailed characterisation of the events occurring in sperm in ... and issues surrounding motivation to be a donor and receipt of donor gametes. The ChRS does not directly enter into patient ... "Stimulation of human spermatozoa with progesterone gradients to simulate approach to the oocyte. Induction of [Ca(2+)](i) ... response to steroid hormones, including the discovery of slow calcium oscillations, now thought to possibly regulate motility. ...
... gives donors the choice of being either anonymous or non-anonymous to the receiving couple. Furthermore, Nordic sperm donors ... During fertilization, the sperm provides three essential parts to the oocyte: (1) a signalling or activating factor, which ... In animals most of the energy for sperm motility is derived from the metabolism of fructose carried in the seminal fluid. This ... Mendelian inheritance Ejaculation Female sperm Female sperm storage Polyspermy Sperm competition Sperm donation Sperm granuloma ...
... by private sperm donors or sperm donors donating through an agency. A sperm agency will generally supply the male collection ... This device allows for the separation of semen samples in relation to sperm morphology, motility, progressive motility, speed, ... Ovulation is the time of the month when the oocyte, or egg, is released by the woman. This is identified as the most fertile ... Where a donor is being used, timing is particularly important because donor sperm which is supplied by a sperm bank or a ...
ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through ... In-vitro fertilization and donor insemination are major procedures involved. Epidemiology[edit]. Prevalence of infertility ... "Eight-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in granulosa cells is correlated with the quality of oocytes and embryos in an in vitro ... Intracytoplasmic sperm injection[edit]. ICSI technique is used in case of poor semen quality, low sperm count or failed ...
Many lesbian couples want to have children of their own. In order to raise children, they sometimes adopt. However some places do not allow homosexual couples to adopt children, so many of them want to be able to adopt children. Some lesbian couples also have their own biological children. To do this they may have artificial insemination. This is when sperm from a donor male is placed in a woman to make a pregnancy. Some lesbian women do this at home with a friend they choose to be the donor. However many may use sperm banks. These are medical businesses that match couples who need donor sperm with men who will donate. Sometimes this is done anonymously which means the couple does not know the donor. Sometimes this is done with the donor known and even chosen by the couple. ...
Intracervical insemination (ICI) is painless and is the easiest and most common insemination technique. It closely replicates the ejaculation of semen by the penis into the vagina during intercourse. ICI involves the introduction of unwashed or raw semen into the vagina at the entrance to the cervix, usually by means of a needleless syringe. It is the simplest type of artificial insemination, and unwashed or raw semen is normally used, but semen supplied by a donor through a sperm bank which has been prepared for IUI use may also be used. The procedure is commonly used in home, self-insemination and practitioner insemination procedures, and for insemination where semen is provided by private donors. In order to perform an ICI insemination, air must be expelled from a needle-less syringe which is then filled with semen which has been allowed to liquify. Any further enclosed air must be removed by gently pressing the plunger forward. The woman ...
Belgian gay rights activists are grouped into several organisations. Several of these are part of Çavaria and Wel Jong Niet Hetero (Dutch for 'Young But Not Straight'), two associations of Dutch-speaking LGBT organisations in the Flemish and Brussels regions of Belgium. The French-speaking counterpart in the Walloon and Brussels regions is the Federation des Associations Gayes et Lesbiennes. Belgian gay rights activism is made most visible by means of the BLGP "Belgium Lesbian and Gay Pride" demonstration marches. The marches are held annually in Belgium's capital Brussels since 1996, with similar events having been held intermittently in preceding years in both Brussels and other cities. While the marches have a festive character, they are also used to present the gay movement's political agenda in the form of a list of demands. The list was updated a number of times (in 1996, 1999, 2000, 2004 and 2005) and has included demands for anti-discrimination laws, inclusion of gay relationships in ...
... is an oral sex act performed by a person on a female's genitalia (the clitoris, other parts of the vulva or the vagina). The clitoris is the most sexually sensitive part of the human female genitalia, and its stimulation may result in female sexual arousal or orgasm. Cunnilingus can be sexually arousing for participants and may be performed by a sexual partner as foreplay to incite sexual arousal before other sexual activities (such as vaginal or anal intercourse) or as an erotic and physically intimate act on its own. Like most forms of sexual activity, oral sex can be a risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs). However, the transmission risk for oral sex, especially HIV transmission, is significantly lower than for vaginal or anal sex. Oral sex is often regarded as taboo, but most countries do not have laws which ban the practice. Commonly, heterosexual couples do not regard cunnilingus as affecting the virginity of either partner, while lesbian couples ...
As of the census[64] of 2010, there were 28,549 people, 12,000 households, and 5,895 families residing in the city. Northampton has the most lesbian couples per capita of any city in the US.[65] The population density was 833.7 people per square mile (321.6/km²). There were 12,728 housing units (12,000 occupied) at an average density of 360.0 per square mile (139.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.7% White, 2.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.8% of the population. There were 12,000 households, out of which 21.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.6% were so-called "Husband-wife" married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.9% were non-families. 37.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average ...
As of the census[65] of 2010, there were 28,549 people, 12,000 households, and 5,895 families residing in the city. Northampton has the most lesbian couples per capita of any city in the US.[66] The population density was 833.7 people per square mile (321.6/km²). There were 12,728 housing units (12,000 occupied) at an average density of 360.0 per square mile (139.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.7% White, 2.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.8% of the population. There were 12,000 households, out of which 21.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.6% were so-called "Husband-wife" married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.9% were non-families. 37.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average ...
A father is the male parent of a child. Besides the paternal bonds of a father to his children, the father may have a parental, legal, and social relationship with the child that carries with it certain rights and obligations. An adoptive father is a male who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological father is the male genetic contributor to the creation of the infant, through sexual intercourse or sperm donation. A biological father may have legal obligations to a child not raised by him, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative father is a man whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepfather is a male who is the husband of a child's mother and they may form a family unit, but who generally does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child. The adjective "paternal" refers to a father and comparatively to "maternal" for a mother. The verb ...
Terms oligospermia and oligozoospermia refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility. Often semen with a decreased sperm concentration may also show significant abnormalities in sperm morphology and motility (technically oligoasthenoteratozoospermia). There has been interest in replacing the descriptive terms used in semen analysis with more quantitative information. The diagnosis of oligozoospermia is based on one low count in a semen analysis performed on two occasions. For many decades sperm concentrations of less than 20 million sperm/ml were considered low or oligospermic, recently, however, the WHO ...
Play media In biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. It is not to be confused with mobility, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility is genetically determined (see genetic determinism) but may be affected by environmental factors. For instance, muscles give animals motility but the consumption of hydrogen cyanide (the environmental factor in this case) would adversely affect muscle physiology causing them to stiffen leading to rigor mortis. Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in addition to animal locomotion. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming. Motility may also refer to an organism's ability to move food through its digestive tract, i.e. peristalsis (gut motility, intestinal ...
... is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is a more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria. All these components take part in forming the spermatozoon. The process of spermiogenesis is traditionally divided into four stages: the Golgi phase, the cap phase, formation of tail, and the maturation stage. The spermatids, which up until now have been mostly radially symmetrical, begin to develop polarity. The head forms at one end, and the Golgi apparatus creates enzymes that will become the acrosome. At the other end, it develops a thickened mid-piece, where the mitochondria gather and the distal centriole begins to form an axoneme. ...
Ang '''semilya''' (Ingles :'''semen''' o '''seminal fluid''') ay isang pluidong naglalaman ng [[spermatozoa]](tamod). Ito ay inilalabas ng mga [[gonad]](glandulang sekswal) at iba pang mga organong sekswal ng lalake o mga [[hermaproditiko]]ng mga hayop at maaaring magpunlay(fertilize) ng [[itlog ng babae]](ovum o ova). Sa mga tao, ang semilya ay naglalaman ng ilang mga bahagi bukod pa sa spermatozoa: ang proteolytic at iba pang mga [[ensaym]] gaya ng [[fructose]] ay mga elemento ng semilya na nagtataguyod ng pagpapatuloy ng spermatozoa at magbigay ng medium upang malanguyan ng mga ito ...
... is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.[3][4] This is in contrast to mobility, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility is genetically determined,[5] but may be affected by environmental factors. For instance, muscles give animals motility but the consumption of hydrogen cyanide (the environmental factor in this case) would adversely affect muscle physiology, causing them to stiffen, leading to rigor mortis.[6][7][8] In addition to animal locomotion, most animals are motile (some move by passive locomotion). The term applies to bacteria and other microorganisms, and to some multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs and tissue. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming,[9][10][11] and motile non-parasitic organisms are called free-living.[citation needed]. Motility also refers to an organism's ability to move food through its ...
Severe and non-severe thunderstorms peak in frequency from June through August but can occur at any time. Thunderstorms form from daytime convective heating and frontal activity; in the south, lake breeze convergences also intensify storms. Another severe type of thunderstorm is known as a Mesocyclonic Convective Complex or Derecho, which is a larger cluster-type thunderstorm mass with a more or less circular shape, often with a pronounced bow shape at its front or leading edge. During periods of hot weather in summer, they often develop in the afternoon west of the Great Lakes then strike Southern and Central Ontario at night with great forward motion, bringing severe straight-line winds over wide areas resulting in damage to forests, power interruption and infrastructure damage. The areas with the highest severe weather frequency in the province are Southwestern (Windsor, Chatham, Stratford corridor) and Central Ontario (Simcoe County including the city of Barrie, Lake Simcoe and the Kawartha ...
Sperm handling from donor to evaluation including estimating sperm concentration, motility and viability ... The impact of delaying administration of hCG on oocyte maturity, fertilisation, cleavage and implantation rates in IVF and ICSI ... Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and micromanipulation in assisted reproduction.. *Embryo biopsy and assisted hatching. ... Investigation of the presence of collagen within the human oocyte. *Effect of endometrial development and structural uterine ...
1997), reduce sperm motility (Iwabe et al. 2002; Yoshida et al. 2004). Additionally, endometriosis negatively impacts sperm ... 1998). Additionally, implantation rates of oocytes from donors with endometriosis are reduced in recipients who do not have ... 1992). Peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis has been shown to increase DNA fragmentation in sperm from healthy donors ( ... Impact on oocyte quality Women with endometriosis ovulate fewer oocytes than healthy women (Al-Fadhli et al. 2006; Bergqvist ...
Sperm quality was defined either according to the semen origin (spouses ejaculate, epididymis, testis, or donor), or according ... For the study, all the pregnancies obtained from oocyte recoveries between January 1996 and December 2003, for which ... to the spermiogramme values for concentration, motility and morphology. The statistical analysis included the use of ... The neonates conceived through surgically retrieved sperms were at a slightly increased risk of hypotrophy (weight under the 10 ...
I would recommend a IVF subsequent cycle using donor sperm. I think your chances would be better with donor sperm.. Yes, we do ... Patients with normal semen were assigned to conventional oocyte insemination while those with progressive motility ,20% and/or ... The influence of paternal factors (sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility, morphology) on blastocyst development ... Poor morpholgy often accompanies low concentration and motility. If your husbands sperm morphology was also low, your RE ...
Sperm motility was higher after 3 h of incubation in media that contained HFF compared to the NEAT sample or when sperm was ... METHODS: This prospective study used semen (n = 23) and HFF from oocyte donors (n = 23). Liquified semen was divided into four ... Sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (SDF) were assessed following 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. Pro-oxidant capacity of HFF and ... sperm DNA integrity was preserved with addition of HFF to sperm media, irrespective of the level of pro-oxidant capacity. DNase ...
KEYWORDS: assisted reproductive technology, early development, fertilization, oocyte development, sperm motility and transport ... Therefore, we compared oocyte and subsequent embryo output of sibling lambs derived from the most efficient donor. Here the ... Finally, 25% of sperm-injected oocytes failed to complete fertilization, mostly due to absence of oocyte activation (65%), ... sperm residence within and emergence from the SST are phenomena most likely explicable in terms of sperm cell motility. ...
... men who produced few sperm or sperm with low morphology (shape) or motility (swimmers), required donor sperm since their sperm ... Egg freezing (Oocyte Cryopreservation) C.A.R.E fertility is also proud to announce that it will provide egg freezing with IRB ... Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a procedure in which a single sperm is isolated and directly injected into the egg, ... Approximately 40% of men who produce no sperm have some sort of tubal obstruction (yep, sperm have to pass through a series of ...
... sperm motility dropped by up to a half; only 9% of non-users had comparable decreases in sperm motility.. Based on ... Purified human sperm from 22 healthy donors were exposed to cell phone radiation under laboratory conditions.. Exposed sperm ... Exposed sperms head area dropped by 50%. Sperm-oocyte interaction was decreased by 28% compared to unexposed controls.. ... Men who carried a cell phone in a hip pocket or on the belt had lower sperm motility (49.3% motile sperm) than men who did not ...
The oocyte is pierced through the oolemma and the sperm is directed into the inner part of the oocyte (cytoplasm). The sperm is ... not required in the case of ICSI where sperm cell viability can be easily evaluated on the basis of sperm motility in most ... In ICSI IVF, the male partner or a donor provides a sperm sample on the same day when the eggs are collected.[23] The sample is ... Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI /ˈɪksi/ IK-see) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm ...
This is owing to its vital role in every IVF procedure, such as analysis & screening of sperms, retrieval of oocytes, handling ... For instance, Microfluidics technology known as SPARTAN helps in getting sperm with excellent motility, normal morphology and ... Donor Egg IVF. The frozen embryo IVF segment is expected to hold a high market share over the period of forecast. This is owing ... For instance, sperm analysis accessory like Parallabss Leja ® Disposable Slides has a optimised chamber depth for rapid ...
Donor Embryo Transfer: The transfer of embryos resulting from the oocyte (egg) and sperm of another patient, who may be ... This technique is used in cases where there are very low sperm numbers, motility or morphology. ICSI is also used for patients ... Donor Insemination (TDI - Therapeutic Donor Insemination): The introduction of sperm from an anonymous volunteer donor into the ... Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): Placement of a single sperm into a single oocyte (egg) by penetrating the outer ...
Some couples grappling with sterility have actually effectively used donor semen ( from a sperm bank) to impregnate the lady. ... Nevertheless, the motility (motion) for the semen is dramatically less than for non-paralyzed males. You will find options, ... involving the direct injection of a single mature semen into an oocyte (egg), can frequently re solve the difficulty of ... As a consequence of their reduced motility, the semen require a small high-tech assistance. Guys with SCI stay a good ...
In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes ... HPV infection of sperm is also a large-scale problem for sperm donor banks [87, 88]. In the absence of effective sperm washing ... These findings remain consistent among infertile males and sperm donors. HPV-related impairment in sperm motility is frequently ... HPV infections in men can alter sperm motility [48, 49]. In one study, investigators found enhanced motility along with ...
... spermatozoa to fertilize the oocyte and produce a viable and healthy offspring, but the efficiency of the different techniques ... and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In addition we discuss the potential of techniques developed in non-human mammals ... sperm genetic integrity, fertilization capacity, embryo production, and in vitro survival, as well as pregnancy and delivery ... sperm genetic integrity, fertilization capacity, embryo production and in vitro survival, as well as pregnancy and delivery ...
... is inserted through the uterine cervix into the uterine cavity to increase the chances of natural fertilization of the oocyte ... is a technique of assisted conception in which washed and sorted motile sperm ... 6. Donor sperm. Successful insemination with donor sperm is again linked with the age of the woman, and has a 22 percent ... The sperm characteristics affect pregnancy rates, including the total motile fraction (TMF), the morphology and the motility of ...
ICSI is an acronym for intracytoplasmic sperm injection - meaning to inject a single sperm into each oocyte (egg). ... 2. Couples with severe male factor who do not wish to use donor sperm. ... Low motility. *Poor sperm morphology. *Irreversible vasectomy / failed vasectomy reversal. ... The needle is then carefully inserted through the shell (zona) and into the cytoplasm of the oocyte. The sperm is injected into ...
... with the volume of a mans semen and sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move towards an egg) decrease continually between ... the UK more than 20 babies are born to women over age 50 per year through in-vitro fertilization with the use of donor oocytes ... In both cases the children were conceived through IVF with donor eggs. The oldest verified mother to conceive naturally (listed ... but they are nearly always due to the use of IVF with donor eggs. Pregnancies among older women have been a subject of ...
Molecular Markers in Sperm Analysis , IntechOpen, Published on: 2013-01-09. Authors: Rita Payan-Carreira, Paulo Borges, ... Assessment of energy metabolism and sperm motility. Figure 4. Canine sperm immunoreaction against HSP70 (Scale bar = 10 μm). In ... In the former, it would allow to increase the ability to predict sperm quality, the selection of donor/sperm for ... The development of test based on predicted sperm functions such as capacitation and in particular sperm-oocyte interaction will ...
the use of donor oocytes or sperm;. *the use of frozen oocytes or sperm; ... total sperm count of at least 39 million, concentration≥15 × 106/ml, total motility ≥40%, progressive motility ≥32%3 strict ... Spouse with normal sperm analysis according to WHO fifth edition criteria(sperm parameter values: ... Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Non-male Factor Infertility in Advanced Maternal Age. The safety and scientific validity of ...
... sperm accumulation assay, sperm tracking assay, sperm motility, Xenopus laevis, egg jelly ... Oocytes are manually defolliculated from donor ovary tissue, injected or treated in culture as desired, and then stimulated ... Higher protection ratios of sperm motility (, 60%) and rapid progressive motility (, 45%) compared to the control (basic CPA) ... so-called sperm accumulation assays, and assays that actually track the swimming trajectories of individual sperm. Sperm ...
... support for our egg donors & our intended patients. ... Who needs Donor sperm. *Azoospermia with absent sperm on ... Welcome to the donor egg programme, which has been functioning since 2002. the donor oocyte (egg) programme is a boon for women ... Semen analysis - Good count, motility and morphology. *Semen culture to rule out infection. ... The eggs from this donor are then fertilized with the sperms provided by the partner or a donor and transferred into either a ...
What are my options for pregnancy? Sperm Donors. I was told that my husband has no sperm. What are our options for starting a ... My husband has been told he has low count and motility. Can I still get pregnant? Male Factor Infertility ... What are my options? Oocyte Cryopreservation and Fertility Preservation. Are there any other treatments or complementary ... Sperm Donors. I just discovered that I am a carrier for a genetic disease. Can I prevent this from being passed on to my ...
Based on the best appearance and motility, healthy sperm is selected to be injected into an ovum. ICSI allows numerous oocytes ... Fertilization can be done either by a fresh sperm of frozen sperms from the previous consultation in our clinic. Sperm donors ... At the minimum, all our donors are high school graduates and our sperm donors are men between the ages of 18 and 35. They are ... the screened frozen sperm in our bank are used for fertilizing oocytes. Hence there is no waiting time for finding a sperm ...
Sperm motility was higher after 3 h of incubation in media that contained HFF compared to the NEAT sample or when sperm was ... whereas the remaining 89 participated in oocyte donor ICSI (DONOR-ICSI). Ejaculates were collected and DGC treated with and ... Sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (SDF) were assessed following 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. Pro-oxidant capacity of HFF and ... METHODS: This prospective study used semen (n = 23) and HFF from oocyte donors (n = 23). Liquified semen was divided into four ...
The eggs and sperm are stored together in a special container, and fertilization happens. For sperm that have lower motility ( ... Alana Stewart, who was conceived using donor sperm, began an online forum for donor children called AnonymousUS in 2010. The ... Therefore, having a low oocyte yield should not be a reason for choosing ICSI over IVF. On or after the day of your retrieval, ... Below-average sperm concentration, weak movement of sperm (poor mobility), or abnormalities in sperm size and shape can make it ...
  • The mature oocyte is held with a specialized pipette while a very delicate and sharp needle is used to immobilize and pick up a single sperm. (thenewhopecenter.com)
  • 2. A very delicate, sharp, and hollow needle is used to immobilize and pick up a single sperm. (whatclinic.com)
  • While a mare may develop several follicles on her ovaries during her estrus cycle, usually one becomes dominant and goes on to ovulate, releasing the egg into the oviduct, where it is then fertilized by a single sperm cell when the mare is bred. (arabhorse.com)
  • Although millions of sperm cells are deposited into the mare's reproductive tract when she is bred, once a single sperm cell has penetrated the egg, a reaction occurs which blocks all other sperm cells from being able to fertilize the egg. (arabhorse.com)
  • A single sperm cell from the desired sire is injected with a micro-pipette into the egg. (arabhorse.com)
  • The majority of infertile couples are actually sub fertile they produce eggs and sperm but have difficulty conceiving due to disorders such as hormone imbalances and problems of the reproductive tract. (abc.net.au)
  • The eggs and sperm are put away together in a unique compartment, and treatment occurs. (powershow.com)
  • This exposes their reproductive organs to cell phone radiation, and several studies have found lower sperm count and/or poorer sperm quality in men who use their phones this way than in those who do not. (ewg.org)
  • Nevertheless, these methods have limited prognostic value for the reproductive success of the donor male [ 6 , 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Discrete and unclear sperm abnormalities impairing the reproductive success of sperm and egg interaction often remain undiagnosed. (intechopen.com)
  • 15 A few oocytes will be released during reproductive life as a consequence of ovulation, and most will be lost as a result of atresia. (aappublications.org)
  • Presented during the American Society of Andrology's virtual poster session, the pre-clinical data show that this novel sperm enhancement treatment significantly increases the hyperactivation of sperm, potentially leading to increased likelihood of pregnancy for couples using Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). (blackradionetwork.com)
  • The endocannabinoid system (ECS), mainly through the action of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) at cannabinoid (CB 1 , CB 2 ) and vanilloid (TRPV1) receptors, plays a crucial role in controlling functionality of sperm, with a clear impact on male reproductive potential. (plos.org)
  • Alternatively, sperm may be recovered from voided or catheterized postejaculatory urine to be used in assisted reproductive techniques. (medscape.com)
  • PAF clearly plays a significant role in reproductive physiology inasmuch as it enhances sperm motility, capacity, and acrosomal reaction.2,8 Sperms produce ATP through glycolysis and aerobic respiration. (camkkinases.com)
  • For the study, all the pregnancies obtained from oocyte recoveries between January 1996 and December 2003, for which information on cycles could be linked to the pregnancy were included, i.e. 34223 pregnancies, resulting in 27025 deliveries and 33945 neonates. (em-consulte.com)
  • Recurrent pregnancy loss and spontaneous miscarriages - are donor eggs a cure? (eggdonationfriends.com)
  • In this webinar, recognised author, speaker and expert in his field, Dr Castillo, discusses research into whether donor eggs could be the cure for those who live with the desolation of baby loss, however early into a pregnancy. (eggdonationfriends.com)
  • Based on Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA) of samples in 150 couples undergoing IVF, the same analysis used in the Ohana study, Donnelly and colleagues 1 found an approximately two-fold increase, from 5% to 9%, in the median percent of hyperactive sperm in couples who achieved pregnancy compared to those who did not. (blackradionetwork.com)
  • Applying the same definition of hyperactivation used by Donnelly, sperm processed using Ohana's sperm enhancement treatment had 17.5% hyperactivation, a percent hyperactivation that has a significant association with pregnancy in the Donnelly study. (blackradionetwork.com)
  • In addition to the fact that donors are young, this significantly reduces the risk of pregnancy loss, malformations and genetic abnormalities. (institutobernabeu.com)
  • After surgery, the patient underwent an anonymous donor oocyte IVF cycle which established a viable twin intrauterine pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1983 Tesarik reported the first pregnancy after tubal microsurgery and transfer of oocyte and sperm into the fallopian tube in the same sitting. (healthlibrary.com)
  • Asch and workers reported a pregnancy and birth following laparoscopic placement of sperm-oocyte mixture in 1984. (healthlibrary.com)
  • odríguez-Páez L Abstract The present study evaluates the possible antifertility effect of aqueous crude extract (OBACE) of Echeveria gibbiflora, a plant that belongs to the crassulaceae family, used in traditional Mexican medicine as a vaginal post coital rinse to prevent pregnancy and shown to have an immobilization/agglutination effect on sperm of different mammal species. (medworm.com)
  • Donor Oocytes Eggs - donated for patients who have premature ovarian failure or advanced maternal age who cannot achieve pregnancy on her own. (txfertility.com)
  • Donor Sperm Sperm - donated for the purpose of creating a pregnancy. (txfertility.com)
  • The high-quality sperm are concentrated and placed in the uterus right before or during ovulation when the chances of a successful pregnancy are higher. (uranj.com)
  • Men who carried a cell phone on the belt and used it intensively during a five-day test period had a 19 percent drop in highly motile sperm from their previous levels (Davoudi 2002). (ewg.org)
  • Men who talked on the phone for more than an hour a day had 17 percent fewer highly motile sperm than men who talked less than 15 minutes a day (Fejes 2005). (ewg.org)
  • Some define success as when rare/occasional non-motile sperm are observed (fewer than 100,000 per millilitre). (wikipedia.org)
  • ROS may also be generated by sperm itself, and enhanced ROS production has been observed in infertile men [ 8 ] and correlated with the percentages of both apoptotic and necrotic sperm [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Our findings show a marked reduction of AEA and 2-AG content in infertile seminal plasma, paralleled by increased degradation: biosynthesis ratios of both substances in sperm from infertile versus fertile men. (plos.org)
  • In addition, TRPV1 binding was detected in fertile sperm but was undetectable in infertile sperm, whereas that of CB 1 and CB 2 receptors was not statistically different in the two groups. (plos.org)
  • however, it cannot discriminate between sperm of fertile and infertile men . (plos.org)
  • In this study we characterised, for the first time, all major components of the ECS in sperm of fertile and infertile men. (plos.org)
  • The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities is 3-10 times higher in infertile men compared to the general population, and even higher in men with severe sperm defects. (createivf.com)
  • The lower section of the uterus which protrudes into the vagina and serves as a reservoir for sperm. (ivfmn.com)
  • The ability of sperm to pass through both the uterus and the Fallopian tube and fertilise an egg depends on sperm motility and progression. (weebly.com)
  • IVF works by utilizing a blend of medications and surgeries to enable sperm to treat an egg, and help the prepared egg embed in your uterus. (powershow.com)
  • Thirty years later the successful extracorporel fertilisation and cleavage of a donor egg and transfer into a recepient uterus was reported. (healthlibrary.com)
  • IUI consists of injecting a concentrated amount of sperm directly into the intending mother's uterus. (ilaya.com)
  • Physicians use a catheter to pass sperm, either from your partner or a donor, past the cervix and into the uterus. (ilaya.com)
  • IUI involves placing anonymous or known donor sperm inside the uterus of the partner who will carry the baby. (uranj.com)
  • On the opposite, the impact of paternal factors has been scarcely studied, except for the relationship between surgically retrieved sperms and genetic abnormalities. (em-consulte.com)
  • 7. Medical and Psychological Screening - The Intended Parents, the Surrogate and the Egg Donor must complete a full medical exam which includes a variety of medical tests, including genetic and social disease testing. (opts.com)
  • The reasons for this include exhaustive donor selection processes performed by Instituto Bernabeu during which we rule out the transmission of over 600 genetic disorders. (institutobernabeu.com)
  • In addition to compliance with the provisions of Spanish laws on assisted reproduction treatment involving donors, Instituto Bernabeu applies the strictest of controls in order to be able to give our patients the assurance that, before being accepted onto our donor programme, donors have passed the strictest of medical, genetic, psychological and socio-cultural controls. (institutobernabeu.com)
  • The male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male, exhibits autokinesia, and is able to effect zygosis with an oocyte. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sperm analysis, pre-implantation genetic screening and endometrial receptivity should be considered and evaluated, and IVF protocols should be tailored to specific patients or patient populations. (springer.com)