Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Amrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.PyridazinesEnoximone: A selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor with vasodilating and positive inotropic activity that does not cause changes in myocardial oxygen consumption. It is used in patients with CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.History, Early Modern 1451-1600: The period of history from 1451 through 1600 of the common era.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (1/1123)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

Recovery of contractility of viable myocardium during inotropic stimulation is not dependent on an increase of myocardial blood flow in the absence of collateral filling. (2/1123)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether contractile recovery induced by dobutamine in dysfunctioning viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels is related to an increase in blood flow in the absence of collaterals. BACKGROUND: Dobutamine is used to improve contractility in ventricular dysfunction during acute myocardial infarction. However, it is unclear whether a significant increase in regional blood flow may be involved in dobutamine effect. METHODS: Twenty patients with 5- to 10-day old anterior infarction and > or =90% left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis underwent 99mTc-Sestamibi tomography (to assess myocardial perfusion) at rest and during low dose (5 to 10 microg/kg/min) dobutamine echocardiography. Rest echocardiography and scintigraphy were repeated >1 month after revascularization. Nine patients had collaterals to the infarcted territory (group A), and 11 did not (group B). RESULTS: Baseline wall motion score was similar in both groups (score 15.9+/-1.3 vs. 17.4+/-2.0, p = NS), whereas significant changes at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies were detected (F[2,30] = 409.79, p < 0.0001). Wall motion score improved significantly (p < 0.001) in group A both at dobutamine (-5.3+/-2.2) and at postrevascularization study (-5.5+/-1.9), as well as in group B (-3.9+/-2.8 and -4.5+/-2.4, respectively). Baseline 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake was similar in both groups (62.9+/-9.7% vs. 60.3+/-10.4%, p = NS), whereas at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies a significant change (F[2,30] = 65.17, p < 0.0001) and interaction between the two groups (F[2,30] = 33.14, p < 0.0001) were present. Tracer uptake increased significantly in group A both at dobutamine (+ 10.9+/-7.9%, p < 0.001) and at postrevascularization study (12.1+/-8.7%, p < 0.001). Conversely, group B patients showed no change in tracer uptake after dobutamine test (-0.4+/-5.8, p = NS), but only after revascularization (+8.8+/-7.2%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in contractility induced by low dose dobutamine infusion in dysfunctional viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels occurs even in the absence of a significant increase in blood flow.  (+info)

Prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography in predicting cardiac events in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. (3/1123)

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine the utility of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in predicting cardiac events in the year after testing. BACKGROUND: Increasingly, DSE has been applied to risk stratification of patients. METHODS: Medical records of 1,183 consecutive patients who underwent DSE were reviewed. The cardiac events that occurred during the 12 months after DSE were tabulated: myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac death, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Patient exclusions included organ transplant receipt or evaluation, recent PTCA, noncardiac death, and lack of follow-up. A positive stress echocardiogram (SE) was defined as new or worsened wall-motion abnormalities (WMAs) consistent with ischemia during DSE. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis identified variables that best predicted future cardiac events. RESULTS: The average age was 68+/-12 years, with 338 women and 220 men. The overall cardiac event rate was 34% if SE was positive, and 10% if it was negative. The event rates for MI and death were 10% and 8%, respectively, if SE was positive, and 3% and 3%, respectively, if SE was negative. If an ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) and a positive SE were present, the overall event rate was 42%, versus a 7% rate when ECG and SE were negative for ischemia. Rest WMA was the most useful variable in predicting future cardiac events using CART: 25% of patients with and 6% without a rest WMA had an event. Other important variables were a dobutamine EF <52.5%, a positive SE, an ischemic ECG response, history of hypertension and age. CONCLUSIONS: A positive SE provides useful prognostic information that is enhanced by also considering rest-wall motion, stress ECG response, and dobutamine EF.  (+info)

Integrated evaluation of relation between coronary lesion features and stress echocardiography results: the importance of coronary lesion morphology. (4/1123)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze, in the same group of patients, the relationship between multiple variables of coronary lesion and results of exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests. BACKGROUND: Integrated evaluation of the relation between stress echocardiography results and angiographic variables should include not only the assessment of stenosis severity but also evaluation of other quantitative and qualitative features of coronary stenosis. METHODS: Study population consisted of 168 (138 male, 30 female, mean age 51+/-9 years) patients, on whom exercise (Bruce treadmill protocol), dobutamine (up to 40 mcg/kg/min) and dipyridamole (0.84 mg/kg over 10 min) stress echocardiography tests were performed. Stress echocardiography test was considered positive for myocardial ischemia when a new wall motion abnormality was observed. One-vessel coronary stenosis ranging from mild stenosis to complete obstruction of the vessel was present in 153 patients, and 15 patients had normal coronary arteries. The observed angiographic variables included particular coronary vessel, stenosis location, the presence of collaterals, plaque morphology according to Ambrose classification, percent diameter stenosis and obstruction diameter as assessed by quantitative coronary arteriography. RESULTS: Covariates significantly associated with the results of physical and pharmacological stress tests included for all three stress modalities presence of collateral circulation, percent diameter stenosis and obstruction diameter, as well as lesion morphology (p < 0.05 for all, except collaterals for dobutamine stress test, p = 0.06). By stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, the strongest predictor of the outcome of exercise echocardiography test was only percent diameter stenosis (p = 0.0002). However, both dobutamine and particularly dipyridamole stress echocardiography results were associated not only with stenosis severity - percent diameter stenosis (dobutamine, p = 0.04; dipyridamole, p = 0.003) - but also, and even more strongly, with lesion morphology (dobutamine, p = 0.006; dipyridamole, p = 0.0009). As all of stress echocardiography results were significantly associated with percent diameter stenosis, the best angiographic cutoff in relation to the results of stress echocardiography test was: exercise, 54%; dobutamine, 58% and dipyridamole, 60% (p < 0.05 vs. exercise). CONCLUSIONS: Integrated evaluation of angiographic variables have shown that the results of dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography are not only influenced by stenosis severity but also, and even more importantly, by plaque morphology. The results of exercise stress echocardiography, although separately influenced by plaque morphology, are predominantly influenced by stenosis severity, due to a stronger exercise capacity in provoking myocardial ischemia in milder forms of coronary stenosis.  (+info)

Functional status and quality of life in patients with heart failure undergoing coronary bypass surgery after assessment of myocardial viability. (5/1123)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative clinical and test data could be used to predict the effects of myocardial revascularization on functional status and quality of life in patients with heart failure and ischemic LV dysfunction. BACKGROUND: Revascularization of viable myocardial segments has been shown to improve regional and global LV function. The effects of revascularization on exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL) are not well defined. METHODS: Sixty three patients (51 men, age 66+/-9 years) with moderate or worse LV dysfunction (LVEF 0.28+/-0.07) and symptomatic heart failure were studied before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients underwent preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) using FDG and Rb-82 before and after dipyridamole stress; the extent of viable myocardium by PET was defined by the number of segments with metabolism-perfusion mismatch or ischemia. Dobutamine echocardiography (DbE) was performed in 47 patients; viability was defined by augmentation at low dose or the development of new or worsening wall motion abnormalities. Functional class, exercise testing and a QOL score (Nottingham Health Profile) were obtained at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Patients had wall motion abnormalities in 83+/-18% of LV segments. A mismatch pattern was identified in 12+/-15% of LV segments, and PET evidence of viability was detected in 30+/-21% of the LV. Viability was reported in 43+/-18% of the LV by DbE. The difference between pre- and postoperative exercise capacity ranged from a reduction of 2.8 to an augmentation of 5.2 METS. The degree of improvement of exercise capacity correlated with the extent of viability by PET (r = 0.54, p = 0.0001) but not the extent of viable myocardium by DbE (r = 0.02, p = 0.92). The area under the ROC curve for PET (0.76) exceeded that for DbE (0.66). In a multiple linear regression, the extent of viability by PET and nitrate use were the only independent predictors of improvement of exercise capacity (model r = 0.63, p = 0.0001). Change in Functional Class correlated weakly with the change in exercise capacity (r = 0.25), extent of viable myocardium by PET (r = 0.23) and extent of viability by DbE (r = 0.31). Four components of the quality of life score (energy, pain, emotion and mobility status) significantly improved over follow-up, but no correlations could be identified between quality of life scores and the results of preoperative testing or changes in exercise capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LV dysfunction, improvement of exercise capacity correlates with the extent of viable myocardium. Quality of life improves in most patients undergoing revascularization. However, its measurement by this index does not correlate with changes in other parameters nor is it readily predictable.  (+info)

Effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors after coronary artery bypass grafting. (6/1123)

The aim of this study was to estimate the postoperative effects of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors (milrinone and olprinone) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). To prevent hypotension caused by the PDE inhibitors, low dose of catecholamines were used concomitantly. A total of 34 elective CABG cases were tested. In 12 cases, 0.25 microg kg(-1) min(-1) of milrinone, 3 microg kg(-1) min(-1) of dobutamine (DOB) and dopamine (DOA) were used concomitantly (Group-M). In another 10 patients, 0.1 microg kg(-1) min(-1) of olprinone and the same doses of the catecholamines were infused (Group-O). As a control, the same doses of DOA and DOB only were administered in 12 patients (Group-C). When the pump flow of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) decreased to half, these drugs were given in all groups. Hemodynamics were recorded before CPB, just after the operation, and 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after the operation. Both milrinone and olprinone increased the cardiac index and decreased systemic vascular resistance to almost the same degree. Olprinone decreased mean aortic and pulmonary artery pressures, and also significantly reduced the preload of both right and left heart compared with milrinone. Significant hypotension was not detected due to the concomitant usage of low-dose catecholamines. This concomitant usage of PDE inhibitors and catecholamines allowed easy weaning from CPB, demonstrating excellent hemodynamics after CABG. Good oxygen demand and supply balance were maintained in peripheral tissue. These results suggest that these new PDE inhibitors may be effective not only for weaning from CPB but also for post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock.  (+info)

The functional significance of chronotropic incompetence during dobutamine stress test. (7/1123)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional significance of chronotropic incompetence during dobutamine stress echocardiography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The functional significance of chronotropic incompetence was evaluated during dobutamine stress echocardiography in 512 patients without beta blocker treatment who underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (up to 40 microg/kg/min) and completed the protocol or reached the target heart rate. Mean (SD) age was 60 (12) years (313 men, 199 women). Chronotropic incompetence was defined as failure to achieve 85% of the maximum exercise heart rate predicted for age and sex (220 - age in men; 200 - age in women) at maximum dobutamine dose. RESULTS: Chronotropic incompetence occurred in 196 patients (38%). Affected patients were significantly younger, more likely to be men (both p << 0.001) and smokers (p < 0.05), had a higher prevalence of previous myocardial infarction (p < 0.005) and resting wall motion abnormalities (p < 0. 05), and had a lower resting heart rate (p << 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (p << 0.001) than patients without chronotropic incompetence, but there was no difference in the overall prevalence of ischaemia and significant coronary artery disease. By multivariate analysis, independent predictors of chronotropic incompetence were a lower resting heart rate (p << 0.001), younger age (p << 0.001), and male sex (p << 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The relations among sex, age, and chronotropic incompetence show the need to titrate the dobutamine dose using specific data based on age and sex related heart rate responses to dobutamine rather than to an exercise stress test. Obtaining specific heart rate criteria is necessary to determine whether chronotropic incompetence represents a real failure to achieve a normal response or is the result of applying an inappropriate gold standard.  (+info)

Functional and molecular biological evidence for a possible beta3-adrenoceptor in the human detrusor muscle. (8/1123)

The possible existence of a beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) in the human detrusor muscle was investigated by in vitro functional studies and analysis of mRNA expression. Isoprenaline, noradrenaline and adrenaline each produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the human detrusor. The rank order for their relaxing potencies was isoprenaline (pD2 6.37+/-0.07) > or = noradrenaline (pD2 6.07+/-0.12) > or = adrenaline (pD2 5.88< or =0.11). Neither dobutamine (beta1- and beta2-AR agonist) nor procaterol (beta2-AR agonist) produced any significant relaxation at concentrations up to 10(-5) M. BRL37344A, CL316243 and CGP-12177A (beta3-AR agonists), relaxed the preparations significantly at concentrations higher than 10(-6) M. The pD2 values for BRL37344A, CL316243 and CGP-12177A were 6.42+/-0.25, 5.53+/-0.09 and 5.74+/-0.14, respectively. CGP-20712A (10(-7) - 10(-5) M), a beta1-AR antagonist, did not affect the isoprenaline-induced relaxation. On the other hand, ICI-118,551, a beta2-AR antagonist, produced a rightward parallel shift of the concentration-relaxation curve for isoprenaline only at the highest concentration used (10(-5) > M) and its pKB value was 5.71+/-0.19. Moreover, SR58894A (10(-7) - 10(-5) M), a beta3-AR antagonist, caused a rightward shift of the concentration-relaxation curve for isoprenaline in a concentration-dependent manner. The pA2 value and slope obtained from Schild plots were 6.24+/-0.20 and 0.68+/-0.31. The beta1-, beta2- and beta3-AR mRNAs were all positively expressed in detrusor smooth muscle preparations in a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. In conclusion, the present results provide the first evidence for the existence of the beta3-AR subtype in the human detrusor. They also suggest that the relaxation induced by adrenergic stimulation of the human detrusor is mediated mainly through beta3-AR activation.  (+info)

  • The mechanisms by which beta-blockade prevents dobutamine-induced ischemia appeared to be mainly through decreases in heart rate and rate of rise in left ventricular pressure, improvement of regional coronary flow per heartbeat and attenuation of regional ischemic lactate production. (
  • These findings suggest that dobutamine may modulate monocyte activation, such as chemotaxis and [Ca 2+ ] i , as well as MCP-1 production, during therapy for congestive heart failure. (
  • Objectives This study was designed to examine the effects of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent on the ischemic response to dobutamine stress and to determine the degree to which these effects can be abolished by the addition of atropine. (
  • After normalization of the ischemic abnormalities elicited with this infusion, esmolol was infused at 50 μg/kg body weight per min and the dobutamine test was repeated, with 1.0 mg of atropine added at the maximal dobutamine dose. (
  • Adding atropine in conventional doses enhanced the ability of dobutamine stress to induce myocardial ischemia but did not completely abolish the effects of beta-blockade on either the severity of dobutamine-induced wall thickening abnormalities or regional metabolic disturbances. (
  • Q. Is Dobutamine a catecholamine? (
  • Objectives We sought to develop and validate a risk score combining both clinical and dobutamine echocardiographic (DbE) features in 4,890 patients who underwent DbE at three expert laboratories and were followed for death or myocardial infarction for up to five years. (
  • 4. With propranolol treatment intracoronary dobutamine induced no significant haemodynamic changes but a short-lasting increase in mean arterial pressure and peripheral resistance. (
  • Dobutamine (Dobutrex) is a synthetic adrenergic agonist structurally similar to isoproterenol working on the same receptor profile - primarily beta 1 and beta 2 - to create the net effect of increased chronotropy (heart rate), inotropy (contractility) and vasodilation (decreased afterload). (
  • The most dangerous side effect of dobutamine is increased risk of arrhythmia, including fatal arrhythmias. (
  • Oxytocin may possibly enhance the pressor effect of dobutamine w/ or w/o HTN. (
  • Beta blockers may negate the effect of dobutamine. (
  • An echocardiogram stress test with dobutamine, sometimes just called stress echo, is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that.THE EFFECT OF DOBUTAMINE ON PLATELET AGGREGATORY FUNCTION IN. (
  • You should not use this medicine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to dobutamine or to sulfites. (
  • Q. Is Dobutamine a pressor/ vasopressor? (
  • Norepinephrine plus dobutamine versus epinephrine alone for management of septic shock: a randomised trial. (
  • We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of norepinephrine plus dobutamine (whenever needed) with those of epinephrine alone in septic shock. (
  • Participants were assigned to receive epinephrine (n=161) or norepinephrine plus dobutamine (n=169), which were titrated to maintain mean blood pressure at 70 mm Hg or more. (
  • There is no evidence for a difference in efficacy and safety between epinephrine alone and norepinephrine plus dobutamine for the management of septic shock. (
  • Tuttle RR, Millis J. Dobutamine: development of a new cathecolamine to selectively increase the cardiac contractility. (
  • Two factors were found to affect the prognosis adversely following CABG in both univariate and multivariate analysis: a history of hypertension (p = 0.039, OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.1) and lack of improvement in contractility in at least 4 segments during the dobutamine test (p = 0.0003, OR 37.2, 95% CI 6.3-218.4). (
  • to MPI in patients unable to perform exercise testing.This prospective, single center study included 301 patients (mean age 59 ± 12 years, 56% men) unable to perform exercise tests who underwent DSE and dobutamine stress 99mTc-sestamibi MPI. (
  • We performed two dobutamine stress echocardiographic studies (dobutamine up to 40 micrograms/kg/min and atropine up to 1 mg) in 15 patients with previous myocardial infarction at a mean of 19 days apart. (
  • After obtention of a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mmHg with infusion of norepinephrine, patients with cardiogenic shock receive for 3 hours either increasing doses of norepinephrine (with a maximal MAP of 85 mmHg) or dobutamine. (
  • Echocardiograms were obtained from three patients undergoing dobutamine stress tests. (
  • Objectives and Methodology: - To investigate regional myocardial linear deformations and torsion, at rest and in response to a dobutamine stress, in asymptomatic T2DM and SM patients without clinical complications, - to study the links between expected regional myocardial abnormalities and inflammation, hyperglycemia and cardiac adiposity. (
  • The model is used to study the interaction of combined noradrenaline and dobutamine therapy in patients with septic shock who typically remain hypotensive despite fluid administration. (
  • 1. Dobutamine has been used to study the relationship between oxygen consumption ( V O 2 ) and oxygen delivery ( D O 2 ) in critically ill patients, but this has led to concerns that it could consistently increase V O 2 in all patients. (
  • Introduction: Hyperdynamic therapy with dobutamine (DOB) administration on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a useful strategy for treating cerebral vasospasm and neurological deterioration. (
  • In patients with high risk of perioperative death, pulmonary artery catheter-guided hemodynamic optimization using dobutamine determines better outcomes, whereas fluids alone increase the incidence of postoperative complications. (
  • The primary outcome measure of the present study was to evaluate the effect of both DO 2 I optimization with fluids or with fluids and dobutamine on the 60-day mortality in high-risk general surgery patients. (
  • This study compared the use of dobutamine and dipyridamole in cardiac stress testing of patients on hemodialysis. (
  • Although dobutamine induced more pronounced myocardial ischemia than dipyridamole in chronic hemodialysis patients, use of dipyridamole more accurately identifies patients at high risk for subsequent cardiac death or non-fatal CAD. (
  • Patients with preexisting hypertension have been shown to be more susceptible to the adverse effects in systolic blood pressure when using dobutamine. (
  • Dobutamine has been shown to increase the risk of rapid ventricular response in patients with preexisting atrial fibrillation. (
  • It has been recommended that these patients use a regimen of digoxin before starting dobutamine, in order to decrease the risk of developing atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. (
  • As an intensivist, I usually stick with epinephrine for many of the aforementioned hemodynamic goals, but a handful of times have transitioned patients to dobutamine to diagnose and treat the lactic acidosis that can be generated from epinephrine infusions . (
  • Currently, in patients with suspected or known CAD, most laboratories use stepwise increments of dobutamine at 3-minute intervals, which has evolved from the commonly used exercise treadmill protocols. (
  • In patients who have atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response, a digitalis preparation should be used prior to institution of therapy with dobutamine hydrochloride. (
  • Because dobutamine facilitates atrioventricular conduction, patients with atrial fibrillation are at risk of developing rapid ventricular response. (
  • However dobutamine may rarely produce life-threatening events in susceptible patients. (