DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.DNA Virus InfectionsRNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Phycodnaviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Mimiviridae: A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Circoviridae: A family of very small viruses containing circular, single-stranded DNA and possessing no envelope. The modes of transmission are not known.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.RNA Virus InfectionsHepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Nanoviridae: A family of DNA viruses infecting plants and transmitted by APHIDS. Genera include NANOVIRUS and BABUVIRUS.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Asfarviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Densovirus: A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Caulimoviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Ascoviridae: A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.White spot syndrome virus 1: A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Nanovirus: A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE containing multiple circular single-stranded DNA molecules. The type species is Subterranean clover stunt virus.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Badnavirus: A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fowlpox virus: The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.DucksHendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Polyomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Densovirinae: A subfamily of DNA arthropod viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. The host range includes members of Dictyoptera; DIPTERA; LEPIDOPTERA; Odonata; and ORTHOPTERA. There are three genera: DENSOVIRUS, Iteravirus, and Brevidensovirus. Densovirus-like viruses also infect and multiply in crabs and shrimp.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.

Growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus and its possible use as a microbiological agent for red tide control. (1/1048)

The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 x 10(2) lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H93616, Chattonella antiqua (a member of the family Raphidophyceae), Heterocapsa triquetra (a member of the family Dinophyceae), and Ditylum brightwellii (a member of the family Bacillariophyceae), resulted in selective growth inhibition of H. akashiwo. Inoculation of HaV01 and H. akashiwo H93616 into a natural seawater sample produced similar results. However, a natural H. akashiwo red tide sample did not exhibit any conspicuous sensitivity to HaV01, presumably because of the great diversity of the host species with respect to virus infection. The growth characteristics of the lytic virus infecting the noxious harmful algal bloom-causing alga were considered, and the possibility of using this virus as a microbiological agent against H. akashiwo red tides is discussed.  (+info)

Determination and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences from TT virus isolates. (2/1048)

Sera from French in-patients were tested for the presence of the TT virus (TTV) genome using PCR and degenerate primers located in ORF1. Thirty-six sequences were determined and compared with those deposited in databases, revealing a high degree of genetic variability between TTV isolates (up to 47% for amino acid sequences). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the existence of three main groups corresponding to the previously described genotypes 1 and 2 and to a new genotype 3. Isolates could be assigned to distinct genotypes if their genetic distance was > 27%. No comparable genetic criteria were found for the definition of sub-types in the region studied. A 15-31 month follow-up of three haemodialysis patients proved the existence of chronic infection by TTV. In one patient, two strains belonging to different genotypes were detected at the same time. Sequences of both ORF1 and ORF2 remained unchanged for a given strain during the follow-up.  (+info)

Molecular and biophysical characterization of TT virus: evidence for a new virus family infecting humans. (3/1048)

The recent isolation of a novel DNA virus from the serum of a Japanese patient (T.T.) has provided the latest possible candidate virus associated with cryptogenic hepatitis. In the present study, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of this virus (TTV) isolated from the serum of a West African. Based on PCR studies designed to amplify overlapping regions of the viral genome and sensitivity to digestion with mung bean nuclease, the viral genome is circular and negative stranded, and comprises 3,852 nt, which is 113 nt longer than the prototype isolate from Japan. Cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation demonstrated banding of the virus at 1.31-1.34 g/ml; filtration studies indicated that TTV had a particle size of 30-50 nm. These results suggest that the virus is similar to the Circoviridae, viruses known to infect plants and vertebrates (e. g., birds and swine); however, sequence similarity searches of available databases did not reveal identity between TTV and other viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of a 260-nt region from 151 globally distributed isolates demonstrated the existence of three major TTV genotypes. Several individuals at high risk for infection with parenterally transmitted viruses were infected with more than one genotype. There was no correlation between genotype and geographic origin. Finally, intravenous inoculation of TTV-positive human serum into chimpanzees demonstrated that TTV can be transmitted to primates; no biochemical or histological evidence for hepatitis was obtained. The distinct biophysical and molecular characteristics of TTV suggest that it is a member of a new family of viruses, which we have tentatively named the Circinoviridae.  (+info)

Susceptibility of TT virus to interferon therapy. (4/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly identified single-stranded DNA virus. We retrospectively analysed serum samples from sixteen patients, infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and TTV, and who had been treated with interferon. An elevated serum alanine aminotransferase level after interferon was associated with persistence of HCV (abnormal in five of seven patients with persistence of HCV compared with normal in all nine patients who showed eradication of HCV) irrespective of persistence of TTV. Comparison of partial viral DNA nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis showed that viral strains that had a high identity to the prototype virus were more resistant to interferon than those showing low nucleotide sequence identity. Although we observed no liver cell injury caused by persistent TTV infection, the mechanism(s) of TTV resistance to interferon should be further investigated for a better understanding of viral diseases and establishment of therapy.  (+info)

Early acquisition of TT virus (TTV) in an area endemic for TTV infection. (5/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is widely distributed, with high frequencies of viremia in South America, Central Africa, and Papua New Guinea. The incidence and timing of infection in children born in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo was investigated. TTV viremia was detected in 61 (58%) of 105 women attending an antenatal clinic and in 36 (54%) of 68 infants. Most infants acquired the infection at >/=3 months postpartum. Surprisingly, TTV infection was detected in a large proportion of children with TTV-negative mothers (13 [43%] of 30). Nucleotide sequences of TTV-infected children were frequently epidemiologically unlinked to variants detected in the mother. These three aspects contrast with the maternal transmission of hepatitis G virus/GB virus C in this cohort and suggest an environmental source of TTV infection comparable to hepatitis A virus and other enterically transmitted infections.  (+info)

Prevalence of TT virus infection in US blood donors and populations at risk for acquiring parenterally transmitted viruses. (6/1048)

Two overlapping sets of TT virus (TTV)-specific polymerase chain reaction primers were used to test for presence of TTV, which was found in approximately 10% of US volunteer blood donors, 13% of commercial blood donors, and 17% of intravenous drug abusers. The rate of TTV infection among US non-A, non-B, non-C, non-D, non-E hepatitis patients was only 2%. Among commercial blood donors and intravenous drug abusers, only 1%-3% of the TTV-positive individuals were coinfected with GB virus C (GBV-C), a parenterally transmitted virus. This suggests that GBV-C and TTV may have different routes of transmission. Comparison of the sensitivities of 2 TTV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets showed that the majority of samples were detected with only 1 of the 2 sets. Therefore, previous studies in which only a single PCR primer pair was used may have significantly underestimated the true prevalence of TTV.  (+info)

Excretion into bile of a novel unenveloped DNA virus (TT virus) associated with acute and chronic non-A-G hepatitis. (7/1048)

Recently, an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus named TT virus (TTV) has been reported in association with hepatitis of non-A-G etiology. Five patients with TTV viremia, who received bile drainage or cholecystectomy, were tested for TTV DNA in bile by polymerase chain reaction with heminested primers. TTV DNA was detected in bile from all patients; titers were 10-100 times higher than in serum in 4 and at a comparable level in the remaining 1 patient. TTV DNA was detected in feces, also, in 1 of the 2 patients tested. The buoyant density of TTV in bile from 1 tested patient (1.33-1.35 g/cm3) was the same as that in feces (1.32-1.35 g/cm3). TTV may be secreted via bile into feces in a transmissible form and would spread by a fecal-oral route for deep and wide penetration into the general population.  (+info)

TT virus in bone marrow transplant recipients. (8/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly discovered transfusion-transmissible DNA virus, which may cause posttransfusion hepatitis. The virus was detected in 12% of Japanese blood donors. The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence and clinical influence of TTV in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Sera from 25 BMT recipients obtained 6 to 12 weeks after the transplant were examined for TTV-DNA by the seminested polymerase chain reaction. Serial samples were additionally analyzed in patients with TTV-DNA. Fifteen of 25 recipients (60%) were positive for TTV-DNA after transplant, whereas it was detected in only two of 20 BMT donors (10%). In patients positive for TTV-DNA before BMT, the amount of TTV-DNA decreased to an undetectable level during the myelosuppressed period after BMT. We also found that there was a novel group of TTV, G3, classified by the nucleotide sequences. The median peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were 135.0 IU/L and 116.5 IU/L (normal range, 4 to 36 IU/L) in TTV-positive and TTV-negative recipients, respectively. In one of the seven TTV-positive patients who developed hepatic injury (ALT > 150 IU/L), a serial change in the serum TTV titer showed a good correlation with the ALT level. We concluded that (1) the prevalence of TTV is high in BMT recipients, (2) TTV might be replicated mainly in hematopoietic cells, (3) transfusion-transmitted TTV may cause persistent infection, (4) a novel genetic group of TTV, G3, was discovered, and (5) TTV does not seem to frequently cause hepatic injury, although one patient was strongly suggested to have TTV-induced hepatitis.  (+info)

  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (wikidoc.org)
  • The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, are a new order of viruses that contain the Megavirales or giant viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth order-Megavirales-for the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recently proposed clade is the Megavirales which includes the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor will focus on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. (worldcat.org)
  • This book will represent a comprehensive review of the field of DNA tumor virology. (worldcat.org)
  • Tumor DNA viruses enhance "aerobic" glycolysis upon virus-induced cell transformation, supporting rapid cell proliferation and showing the Warburg effect. (hindawi.com)
  • Human tumor DNA viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • It will cover most of the viruses that are thought to contribute to human malignancy.This book will represent a comprehensive review of the field of DNA tumor virology. (indigo.ca)
  • The only two books that are nearly as comprehensive as this one are Human Tumor Viruses, which was published by the American Society for Microbiology in 1998 and is quite outdated, and Viruses, Cell Transformation, and Cancer, which was published by Elsevier in 2001. (indigo.ca)
  • This book represents a comprehensive review of the field of DNA tumor virology. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Krajcsi P and Wold WS (1998) Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and interferon triggered responses by DNA viruses. (els.net)
  • In recent years, research has intensified in the search for blood tests that can detect cancers in the earliest stages by looking for tumor DNA circulating in the blood (so-called liquid biopsies). (labtestsonline.org)
  • NPC tumor cells contain some EBV DNA and fragments of this DNA are often detected in the blood of patients with symptoms of NPC. (labtestsonline.org)
  • It has nonetheless been demonstrated that in the cytoplasm of mammalian tumors cells, infected by this oncological DNA virus , remains a very little fraction, but many specific, of messenger-RNA, that does not exist in normal cells or in tumor cells infected by other DNA-viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We think that latent infection contributes to NPC at later stages, but we believe that lytic infection, which occurs early in NPC development, is also required for formation of this tumor because it helps the virus spread. (healthcanal.com)
  • Patients with a post-treatment plasma EBV DNA decline to an undetectable level had better survival and better tumor response compared with those with a sustained detectable post-treatment plasma EBV DNA level. (wiley.com)
  • It is therefore able to cover a broad viral genetic diversity, can discriminate with great accuracy, even when a mixture of viruses is present, and can remove the need for conventional sequencing techniques. (pasteur.fr)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Thomas Frieden along with public health and provider groups want to turn that around by investing in a sophisticated technology called "advanced molecular detection" that determines the genetic map of the viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause disease. (rollcall.com)
  • The viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause disease each have their own individual genetic makeups. (rollcall.com)
  • A study shows how extensively viruses from as far back as the dinosaur era still thrive in our genetic material. (slashdot.org)
  • The pathway is particularly attractive because it is able to account for important features of the latent response, including the specificity for neurons, the specificity for neurons of the peripheral compared to the central nervous system, the high rate of genetic recombination in HSV1-infected cells, and the genetic identity of infecting and reactivated virus. (hindawi.com)
  • It is a double stranded circular DNA virus with approximately 10 genotypes designated A to J based on its genetic variability11. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, it will be important to assess their risk of genetic reversion to the wild-type virus. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic material falling on Earth from outer space could create a supercharged version of the Zika virus, scientists have warned. (mirror.co.uk)
  • Viruses constitute the most abundant biological entities and a large reservoir of genetic diversity on Earth. (sciencemag.org)
  • These unique viral DNA communities mostly relate to each other and present some minor genetic overlap with other environments studied, including an Arctic Ocean virome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Despite common environmental conditions in polar ecosystems, the Arctic and Antarctic DNA viromes differ at the fine-grain genetic level while sharing a similar taxonomic composition. (sciencemag.org)
  • They control microbial abundance and community structure ( 3 ), and microbial genetic diversity and evolution are shaped by virus-mediated gene transfer and host range ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • And one stretch of newfound DNA, found in about 50 of the 2,500 people studied, contains an intact, full genetic recipe for an entire virus, say the scientists who published their findings today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (technologynetworks.com)
  • RNA or ribonucleic acid is a nucleic polymer acid that performs a significant role in translating the genetic code from the DNA to protein products. (differencebetween.net)
  • Mutation is the major cause of changes in the genetic code of the viruses. (differencebetween.net)
  • 5. In DNA viruses, viral genetic code is injected in the host DNA for duplication and decoding. (differencebetween.net)
  • Modern humans and Neanderthals are so closely related that it really wasn't much of a genetic barrier for these viruses to jump,' said Enard, who now works as an assistant professor at the University of Arizona. (labroots.com)
  • After a single infection, an endogenous retrovirus may build up hundreds of copies of itself in its host's DNA. (nytimes.com)
  • Lytic infection refers to the situation in which the virus replicates in a host cell and causes its lysis, releasing hundreds to thousands of progeny virions. (hindawi.com)
  • In a lytic infection the virus is exposed to components of the immune response that have the potential to clear the virus from the host. (hindawi.com)
  • As a result, the virus can survive an otherwise effective immune response and be reactivated later to spread its infection in a less hostile immunological environment [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Progeny virus from this initial infection is able to traffic to sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion where a latent infection is produced. (hindawi.com)
  • Virus reactivated from latently infected neurons migrates back to the site of the initial infection in the oral epithelium producing a second lytic infection. (hindawi.com)
  • As a consequence of immunosuppression, patients are at risk to get infected with viruses and other pathogens or to have viral reactivation from previous infection. (fredhutch.org)
  • The impact of infection by multiple viruses in transplanted individuals and frequency of these events has been poorly described. (fredhutch.org)
  • Other potential reasons for increased mortality risk include immunomodulation following virus detection by the immune system, increased medication to treat infection, or other complications associated with the infection such as respiratory failure. (fredhutch.org)
  • The review, titled "Neural cell responses upon exposure to human endogenous retroviruses," highlights the role that environmental factors, such as infection, inflammation, mutations, drugs or infection with other viruses could play in the well-established epidemiological link between HERVs and neurological disorders. (businesswire.com)
  • Importantly, the bivalent vaccine generated a balanced immunity against DV1 and DV2 infection, which emits light for development of new type of tetravalent vaccine against dengue viruses," says corresponding author Dr. Jing An (Capital Medical University, China). (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have discovered a tube-shaped structure that forms temporarily in a certain type of virus to deliver its DNA during the infection process, and then dissolves after its job is completed. (nsf.gov)
  • At this point, we know very little about the implications of this type of infection, but the section of the chromosome into which the virus appears to integrate is important to the maintenance of normal immune function," said Caroline Breese Hall, professor of paediatrics and Medicine at URMC, and author of the study. (thaindian.com)
  • Human herpes virus-6 or HHV-6 causes roseola, an infection that is nearly universal by the age of three. (thaindian.com)
  • A congenital infection of HHV-6 - or one that is present at birth - produces high levels of virus in the body but scientists (doctors) do not know whether it produces any developmental or immune system problems. (thaindian.com)
  • HHV-6 virus is a closely related virus to CMV, and the congenital infection rate of CMV is similar to that of congenital HHV-6 - about one percent. (thaindian.com)
  • In this study, we have engineered an optimized plasmid DNA vector expressing the RSV fusion (F) protein (DNA-F). DNA-F was as effective as live RSV in mice at inducing neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, protection against infection, and high mRNA expression of lung interferon γ after viral challenge. (rupress.org)
  • Evilevitch and colleagues conclude that evolution has preserved this effective technique as a key step in viral infection making it a desirable target for future treatments to defeat HSV-1 and other viruses that work the same way. (nanowerk.com)
  • During a lytic infection, the virus actively produces infectious particles in an effort to spread to other cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • A latent infection typically occurs once the immune system suppresses a lytic infection, and the virus 'hides' in host cells, not actively replicating. (healthcanal.com)
  • The lytic infection allows EBV to spread to many other cells in the nasopharynx, presumably spreading the cancer-causing virus. (healthcanal.com)
  • PCR testing of blood is clinically useful in potential cases of disseminated HSV infection where it is suspected that the virus has spread to other parts of the body other than oral or genital. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • The herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 DNA PCR is a test that can detect an active infection of type-1 and type-2, as well as differentiate between them. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • A sequence-independent PCR amplification method was used to identify viral nucleic acids in the plasma samples of 25 individuals presenting with symptoms of acute viral infection following high-risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. (asm.org)
  • DNase-SISPA was used here to determine whether known and previously uncharacterized viruses could be identified in the plasma samples of 25 patients suffering from acute viral infection syndrome. (asm.org)
  • Specimens for analysis were plasma samples from subjects screened for acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Options Project but found to be HIV negative. (asm.org)
  • Currently available vaccines for the prevention of seasonal influenza virus infection have limited ability to induce immunity against diverse H3N2 viruses, an influenza A subtype that has led to high morbidity and mortality in recent years. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They were protected against lethal influenza A infection from two different challenge H3N2 viruses. (medicalxpress.com)
  • the placebo group succumbed to infection within six days of exposure to the challenge virus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In April 2015, researchers in Brazil reported the first case of Zika virus -finally putting a name to the mysterious rash, fever, and joint pain-causing illness that had been swarming the northeast corner of the country. (wired.com)
  • The nanoswitches also successfully differentiated between Zika virus and Dengue virus, which occur in overlapping geographical regions and cause similar symptoms, demonstrating the nanoswitches' potential to avoid misdiagnoses. (news-medical.net)
  • This capability could be used to enhance ongoing efforts that use Wolbachia to fight dengue fever and Zika virus. (newswise.com)
  • Dr Andrew Jones, Senior Lecturer in Molecular Biology and Genomics at Oxford Brookes University, has worked with an international team of experts to provide the DNA sequence of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that spreads dengue fever and the Zika virus. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • The spherical surface of Dengue, like the closely related Zika virus, are studded with multiple latch points to catch a cell surface. (newswise.com)
  • Worryingly, he said, is the apparent ability of the Zika virus to pick up foreign DNA and adapt quickly to become more virulent. (mirror.co.uk)
  • Professor Wickramasinghe said: 'We believe this has already happened with the Zika virus. (mirror.co.uk)
  • It is not just the Zika virus, there are more viruses on the planet than any other living creature and these could all could be affected. (mirror.co.uk)
  • In a new study , researchers inoculated mice with a new DNA vaccine candidate (pVAX1-D1ME) in order to evaluate its efficiency. (eurekalert.org)
  • Newswise - TROY, N.Y. - By folding snippets of DNA into the shape of a five-pointed star using structural DNA nanotechnology, researchers have created a trap that captures Dengue virus as it floats in the bloodstream. (newswise.com)
  • Recently, researchers have been investigating EBV DNA as a potential biomarker in the blood for nasopharyngeal cancer detection, monitoring, and prognosis . (labtestsonline.org)
  • The researchers used the microscope built by fellow investigator M. Mitchell Smith, PhD, to reveal the structure of the tether used by a virus called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers envision using the approach for many other stubborn viruses, such as Epstein-Barr (the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis) and HPV (human papillomavirus). (news-medical.net)
  • British researchers have revealed how a leukaemia causing virus interacts with human DNA. (b-s-h.org.uk)
  • The researchers, from Imperial College London and The European Bioinformatics Institute, say the virus disrupts DNA loops by binding to the CTCF protein. (b-s-h.org.uk)
  • Researchers at Stanford found the former - there is a benefit to carrying that DNA. (labroots.com)
  • Vaccinia virus is normally confined to cattle, but is conveyed to humans through vaccination, thereby, imparting immunity to the smallpox virus. (tolweb.org)
  • A new paper out today in Science suggests humans have also co-opted the remnants of ancient viruses to direct the immune system against other pathogens. (wired.com)
  • Many of those binding stretches of DNA in fact looked like a virus called MER41, which infected a monkey-like ancestor of humans some 45 to 60 million years ago. (wired.com)
  • This revealed that some humans share a few per cent of their DNA with their extinct cousins. (newscientist.com)
  • Although this method is still in development and no licensed DNA vaccine is currently available for humans, it would offer a number of potential advantages including inexpensiveness, improved vaccine stability and ease of production. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although there are no viruses similar to these ancient pathogens currently infecting humans, there are some related viruses in animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • EBV, which causes infectious mononucleosis as well as a number of cancers, is one of the most common viruses in humans. (healthcanal.com)
  • But other studies of ancient virus DNA have shown it can affect the humans who carry it. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Over generations, the virus-generated DNA kept getting copied and handed down when humans reproduced. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The identification of previously uncharacterized viruses infecting humans and animals remains a constant task. (asm.org)
  • The defenses we humans inherited from Neanderthals are similar to RNA viruses, said the scientists. (labroots.com)
  • In a recent study published in Blood , Drs. Joshua Hill and Michael Boeckh, along with other colleagues from the Fred Hutch (Vaccine and Infectious Disease and Clinical Research Divisions) investigated the presence of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses in a cohort of transplanted individuals. (fredhutch.org)
  • The authors focused on a selection of dsDNA viruses known for contributing to increased morbidities and mortalities in transplanted patients. (fredhutch.org)
  • They found that the vaccine candidate was able to induce persistent humoral and cellular immune responses and provided efficient protection against lethal challenge from one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DV1). (eurekalert.org)
  • They also evaluated the immunoprotective potential of a combined (bivalent) DNA vaccine, which was found to generate a balanced immunogenic response to two serotypes of dengue virus (DV1 & DV2). (eurekalert.org)
  • This evidence should be considered in further research on dengue virus tetravalent vaccine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes dengue fever (DF) - one of the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne diseases worldwide according to the WHO. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among the four distinct serotypes of dengue viruses (DV1-4), DV1 and DV2 are especially predominant serotypes," explains Dr. An. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. An and the research team are hoping that their research will pave the path for further advances in the research for a vaccine against all four serotypes of dengue virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • We are developing a dengue tetravalent DNA vaccine and evaluating the immunogenicity in animal models," says Dr. An. (eurekalert.org)
  • A "DNA star" is perfectly configured to latch onto Dengue virus in the bloodstream, and could be a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for many viral diseases. (newswise.com)
  • Structural DNA stars are perfectly configured to capture Dengue virus, and light up once the trap is sprung. (eurekalert.org)
  • For each of these patients, weekly plasma samples from the Infectious Disease Sciences Biorepository were available to test for the detection of DNA viruses between days 0 and 100 following the transplantation. (fredhutch.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) The virus that causes those painful lip blisters known as cold sores has an internal pressure eight times higher than a car tire, and uses it to literally blast its infectious DNA into human cells, scientists are reporting in a new study. (nanowerk.com)
  • High pressure inside some viruses allows them to blast their infectious DNA into human cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • This one looks like it is capable of making infectious virus, which would be very exciting if true, as it would allow us to study a viral epidemic that took place long ago," says senior author and virologist John Coffin, Ph.D. of the Tufts University School of Medicine. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Grand, R.J. Modulation of DNA Damage and Repair Pathways by Human Tumour Viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • The helicase and primase also form a complex known as the primosome, which unwinds the duplex DNA while also synthesizing primers on the lagging strand. (mdpi.com)
  • The extracellular form of a virus is known as a virion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • NCLDVs include viruses with very large virion particles, which do not pass through 0.2-μm filters typically used in viral metagenomics to separate free viruses from other organisms ( Van Etten, 2011 ). (nature.com)
  • The virion, on the other hand, contains highly unusual A-form DNA that may help it survive adverse conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although almost half of the capsid protein is unstructured in solution, this unstructured region folds in the virion into a single extended α helix that wraps around the DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The inspirations for this extended model are the cases of bacteriophage MS2 and the STMV virus, viruses that have been well characterised experimentally. (bl.uk)
  • To prove that the old virus was actually *causing *the immune switch, the scientists moved from the computer to the lab bench. (wired.com)
  • Certain immune cells called resting cells lack the first quality-control mechanism because, Stivers explains, "They're not replicating their DNA and dividing, so they couldn't care less if they have a lot of dUTP. (redorbit.com)
  • Our DNA vaccine candidate induced effective immune responses and protection in mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, anti-F systemic immune response profile could be modulated by the route of DNA-F delivery: intramuscular immunization resulted in balanced responses, whereas intradermal immunization resulted in a Th2 type of response. (rupress.org)
  • If the only thing providing immunity is the fact that the virus is still in the body for life prompting the immune system to keep it in check and produce antibodies, then injecting a cocktail of adjuvants and a DEAD virus isn't going to provide long term immunity. (differencebetween.net)
  • Now, Wistar scientists have engineered a synthetic DNA vaccine shown to produce broad immune responses against these H3N2 viruses. (medicalxpress.com)
  • All mice immunized with the synthetic DNA vaccine developed broad, robust antibody responses against HA and effective cellular immune responses including CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The pH3HA vaccine represents a unique micro-consensus approach to producing immune responses to antigenically related-yet diverse, seasonal influenza A H3N2 viruses," Weiner said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Another quality control measure is the enzyme hUNG2, which snips stray Us out of newly copied DNA strands, leaving the resulting holes to be filled by a different repair enzyme. (redorbit.com)
  • Since the leading and lagging strands are synthesized in opposite directions, coordination of DNA synthesis as well as priming and unwinding is accomplished by several protein complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • Structural DNA nanotechnology - an established method of folding strands of DNA into designed, customized geometric shapes and objects - offered the research team a non-toxic, biodegradable alternative on which to construct a new trap, said Wang. (newswise.com)
  • The virus lurks in the host's DNA and gets copied as cells divide, but for reasons still poorly understood, it also replicates and is released from other cells. (washington.edu)
  • This implies that while the endogenous retrovirus was just derping around, being selfish DNA, the reverse transcriptase accidentally hopped onto the Sigma Virus RNA instead of the retrovirus RNA (RT hops all over the place during reverse transcription). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Mathews MB (1996) Interactions between viruses and the cellular machinery for protein synthesis. (els.net)
  • DNase I-resistant nucleic acids were purified using either the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit or the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). To detect viral RNA, first-strand cDNA synthesis was performed using 200 U of SuperScript II RNase H − reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) primed with 5 pmol random hexamers (GIBCO, Gaithersburg, MD) at 42°C for 1 h. (asm.org)
These DNA Cops Make Sure Deadly Viruses Don't Get Rebuilt | Fortune
These DNA Cops Make Sure Deadly Viruses Don't Get Rebuilt | Fortune (fortune.com)
Safety and Tolerability of Conserved Region Vaccines Vectored by Plasmid DNA, Simian Adenovirus and Modified Vaccinia Virus...
Safety and Tolerability of Conserved Region Vaccines Vectored by Plasmid DNA, Simian Adenovirus and Modified Vaccinia Virus... (journals.plos.org)
Recombinant DNA Research and Viruses | SpringerLink
Recombinant DNA Research and Viruses | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Ancient Viruses Are Buried in Your DNA - The New York Times
Ancient Viruses Are Buried in Your DNA - The New York Times (nytimes.com)
Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses from DNA | PNAS
Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses from DNA | PNAS (pnas.org)
Transforming Proteins of DNA Tumor Viruses | SpringerLink
Transforming Proteins of DNA Tumor Viruses | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Double-stranded DNA Viruses Images
Double-stranded DNA Viruses Images (tolweb.org)
Best Labs and Diagnostic Centers for Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Dna Pcr in Mohali | 1mg
Best Labs and Diagnostic Centers for Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Dna Pcr in Mohali | 1mg (1mg.com)
DNA Virus Replication, Book by Alan J. Cann (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca
DNA Virus Replication, Book by Alan J. Cann (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca (chapters.indigo.ca)
An international conference on Emerging Infections & Pandemic Risk - News from the Institut Pasteur
An international conference on Emerging Infections & Pandemic Risk - News from the Institut Pasteur (pasteur.fr)
COVID-19-Reckless 'Gain-of-Function' Experiments Lie at the Root of the Pandemic
COVID-19-Reckless 'Gain-of-Function' Experiments Lie at the Root of the Pandemic (organicconsumers.org)
Opinion: Want to eradicate viruses? They made us who we are | University of Cambridge
Opinion: Want to eradicate viruses? They made us who we are | University of Cambridge (cam.ac.uk)
DNA Probes for the Identification of Pathogenic Foodborne Bacteria and Viruses | SpringerLink
DNA Probes for the Identification of Pathogenic Foodborne Bacteria and Viruses | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Recombinant DNA Approaches to Feline Leukemia Virus Immunization | SpringerLink
Recombinant DNA Approaches to Feline Leukemia Virus Immunization | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
One step closer to a DNA vaccine against dengue virus | EurekAlert! Science News
One step closer to a DNA vaccine against dengue virus | EurekAlert! Science News (eurekalert.org)
Ancient Virus in DNA May Cause ALS: Study - NBC Chicago
Ancient Virus in DNA May Cause ALS: Study - NBC Chicago (nbcchicago.com)
Viral Messenger RNA | Springer for Research & Development
Viral Messenger RNA | Springer for Research & Development (rd.springer.com)
Liver failure caused by attack on blood vessel cells - TUM
Liver failure caused by attack on blood vessel cells - TUM (tum.de)
Virus infection supports organ acceptance - TUM
Virus infection supports organ acceptance - TUM (tum.de)
Human papillomavirus | Description & Diseases | Britannica.com
Human papillomavirus | Description & Diseases | Britannica.com (britannica.com)
GeNeuro: Frontiers in Genetics Review Supports Role of Hidden DNA Viruses in Neurological Disorders | Business Wire
GeNeuro: Frontiers in Genetics Review Supports Role of Hidden DNA Viruses in Neurological Disorders | Business Wire (businesswire.com)
Virology | Institut Pasteur
Virology | Institut Pasteur (pasteur.fr)
DNA nanoswitches may provide an inexpensive platform to rapidly detect emerging viruses
DNA nanoswitches may provide an inexpensive platform to rapidly detect emerging viruses (news-medical.net)
The human DNA tumor viruses: Human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus | SpringerLink
The human DNA tumor viruses: Human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Virology by Christian - Issuu
Virology by Christian - Issuu (issuu.com)
Structurally designed DNA star creates ultra-sensitive test for dengue virus | EurekAlert! Science News
Structurally designed DNA star creates ultra-sensitive test for dengue virus | EurekAlert! Science News (eurekalert.org)
Virus Carrying DNA of Black Widow Spider Toxin Discovered
Virus Carrying DNA of Black Widow Spider Toxin Discovered (newswise.com)
African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal - Volume 13, Number 12-December 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal - Volume 13, Number 12-December 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases... (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
Figure 2 - African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal - Volume 13, Number 12-December 2007 - Emerging Infectious...
Figure 2 - African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal - Volume 13, Number 12-December 2007 - Emerging Infectious... (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
NSF - OLPA - PR 02-07: NEW UNDERSTANDING OF COMPLEX VIRUS NANO-MACHINE 
FOR CELL PUNCTURING AND DNA DELIVERY
NSF - OLPA - PR 02-07: NEW UNDERSTANDING OF COMPLEX VIRUS NANO-MACHINE FOR CELL PUNCTURING AND DNA DELIVERY (nsf.gov)
Takeda and Arbor Announce a Licensing Agreement for EDARBI and EDARBYCLOR | FierceBiotech
Takeda and Arbor Announce a Licensing Agreement for EDARBI and EDARBYCLOR | FierceBiotech (fiercebiotech.com)
Ultragenyx | FierceBiotech
Ultragenyx | FierceBiotech (fiercebiotech.com)