Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of very small viruses containing circular, single-stranded DNA and possessing no envelope. The modes of transmission are not known.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A family of DNA viruses infecting plants and transmitted by APHIDS. Genera include NANOVIRUS and BABUVIRUS.
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Diseases of plants.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE containing multiple circular single-stranded DNA molecules. The type species is Subterranean clover stunt virus.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A subfamily of DNA arthropod viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. The host range includes members of Dictyoptera; DIPTERA; LEPIDOPTERA; Odonata; and ORTHOPTERA. There are three genera: DENSOVIRUS, Iteravirus, and Brevidensovirus. Densovirus-like viruses also infect and multiply in crabs and shrimp.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.

Growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus and its possible use as a microbiological agent for red tide control. (1/1048)

The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 x 10(2) lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H93616, Chattonella antiqua (a member of the family Raphidophyceae), Heterocapsa triquetra (a member of the family Dinophyceae), and Ditylum brightwellii (a member of the family Bacillariophyceae), resulted in selective growth inhibition of H. akashiwo. Inoculation of HaV01 and H. akashiwo H93616 into a natural seawater sample produced similar results. However, a natural H. akashiwo red tide sample did not exhibit any conspicuous sensitivity to HaV01, presumably because of the great diversity of the host species with respect to virus infection. The growth characteristics of the lytic virus infecting the noxious harmful algal bloom-causing alga were considered, and the possibility of using this virus as a microbiological agent against H. akashiwo red tides is discussed.  (+info)

Determination and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences from TT virus isolates. (2/1048)

Sera from French in-patients were tested for the presence of the TT virus (TTV) genome using PCR and degenerate primers located in ORF1. Thirty-six sequences were determined and compared with those deposited in databases, revealing a high degree of genetic variability between TTV isolates (up to 47% for amino acid sequences). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the existence of three main groups corresponding to the previously described genotypes 1 and 2 and to a new genotype 3. Isolates could be assigned to distinct genotypes if their genetic distance was > 27%. No comparable genetic criteria were found for the definition of sub-types in the region studied. A 15-31 month follow-up of three haemodialysis patients proved the existence of chronic infection by TTV. In one patient, two strains belonging to different genotypes were detected at the same time. Sequences of both ORF1 and ORF2 remained unchanged for a given strain during the follow-up.  (+info)

Molecular and biophysical characterization of TT virus: evidence for a new virus family infecting humans. (3/1048)

The recent isolation of a novel DNA virus from the serum of a Japanese patient (T.T.) has provided the latest possible candidate virus associated with cryptogenic hepatitis. In the present study, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of this virus (TTV) isolated from the serum of a West African. Based on PCR studies designed to amplify overlapping regions of the viral genome and sensitivity to digestion with mung bean nuclease, the viral genome is circular and negative stranded, and comprises 3,852 nt, which is 113 nt longer than the prototype isolate from Japan. Cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation demonstrated banding of the virus at 1.31-1.34 g/ml; filtration studies indicated that TTV had a particle size of 30-50 nm. These results suggest that the virus is similar to the Circoviridae, viruses known to infect plants and vertebrates (e. g., birds and swine); however, sequence similarity searches of available databases did not reveal identity between TTV and other viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of a 260-nt region from 151 globally distributed isolates demonstrated the existence of three major TTV genotypes. Several individuals at high risk for infection with parenterally transmitted viruses were infected with more than one genotype. There was no correlation between genotype and geographic origin. Finally, intravenous inoculation of TTV-positive human serum into chimpanzees demonstrated that TTV can be transmitted to primates; no biochemical or histological evidence for hepatitis was obtained. The distinct biophysical and molecular characteristics of TTV suggest that it is a member of a new family of viruses, which we have tentatively named the Circinoviridae.  (+info)

Susceptibility of TT virus to interferon therapy. (4/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly identified single-stranded DNA virus. We retrospectively analysed serum samples from sixteen patients, infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and TTV, and who had been treated with interferon. An elevated serum alanine aminotransferase level after interferon was associated with persistence of HCV (abnormal in five of seven patients with persistence of HCV compared with normal in all nine patients who showed eradication of HCV) irrespective of persistence of TTV. Comparison of partial viral DNA nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis showed that viral strains that had a high identity to the prototype virus were more resistant to interferon than those showing low nucleotide sequence identity. Although we observed no liver cell injury caused by persistent TTV infection, the mechanism(s) of TTV resistance to interferon should be further investigated for a better understanding of viral diseases and establishment of therapy.  (+info)

Early acquisition of TT virus (TTV) in an area endemic for TTV infection. (5/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is widely distributed, with high frequencies of viremia in South America, Central Africa, and Papua New Guinea. The incidence and timing of infection in children born in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo was investigated. TTV viremia was detected in 61 (58%) of 105 women attending an antenatal clinic and in 36 (54%) of 68 infants. Most infants acquired the infection at >/=3 months postpartum. Surprisingly, TTV infection was detected in a large proportion of children with TTV-negative mothers (13 [43%] of 30). Nucleotide sequences of TTV-infected children were frequently epidemiologically unlinked to variants detected in the mother. These three aspects contrast with the maternal transmission of hepatitis G virus/GB virus C in this cohort and suggest an environmental source of TTV infection comparable to hepatitis A virus and other enterically transmitted infections.  (+info)

Prevalence of TT virus infection in US blood donors and populations at risk for acquiring parenterally transmitted viruses. (6/1048)

Two overlapping sets of TT virus (TTV)-specific polymerase chain reaction primers were used to test for presence of TTV, which was found in approximately 10% of US volunteer blood donors, 13% of commercial blood donors, and 17% of intravenous drug abusers. The rate of TTV infection among US non-A, non-B, non-C, non-D, non-E hepatitis patients was only 2%. Among commercial blood donors and intravenous drug abusers, only 1%-3% of the TTV-positive individuals were coinfected with GB virus C (GBV-C), a parenterally transmitted virus. This suggests that GBV-C and TTV may have different routes of transmission. Comparison of the sensitivities of 2 TTV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets showed that the majority of samples were detected with only 1 of the 2 sets. Therefore, previous studies in which only a single PCR primer pair was used may have significantly underestimated the true prevalence of TTV.  (+info)

Excretion into bile of a novel unenveloped DNA virus (TT virus) associated with acute and chronic non-A-G hepatitis. (7/1048)

Recently, an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus named TT virus (TTV) has been reported in association with hepatitis of non-A-G etiology. Five patients with TTV viremia, who received bile drainage or cholecystectomy, were tested for TTV DNA in bile by polymerase chain reaction with heminested primers. TTV DNA was detected in bile from all patients; titers were 10-100 times higher than in serum in 4 and at a comparable level in the remaining 1 patient. TTV DNA was detected in feces, also, in 1 of the 2 patients tested. The buoyant density of TTV in bile from 1 tested patient (1.33-1.35 g/cm3) was the same as that in feces (1.32-1.35 g/cm3). TTV may be secreted via bile into feces in a transmissible form and would spread by a fecal-oral route for deep and wide penetration into the general population.  (+info)

TT virus in bone marrow transplant recipients. (8/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly discovered transfusion-transmissible DNA virus, which may cause posttransfusion hepatitis. The virus was detected in 12% of Japanese blood donors. The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence and clinical influence of TTV in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Sera from 25 BMT recipients obtained 6 to 12 weeks after the transplant were examined for TTV-DNA by the seminested polymerase chain reaction. Serial samples were additionally analyzed in patients with TTV-DNA. Fifteen of 25 recipients (60%) were positive for TTV-DNA after transplant, whereas it was detected in only two of 20 BMT donors (10%). In patients positive for TTV-DNA before BMT, the amount of TTV-DNA decreased to an undetectable level during the myelosuppressed period after BMT. We also found that there was a novel group of TTV, G3, classified by the nucleotide sequences. The median peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were 135.0 IU/L and 116.5 IU/L (normal range, 4 to 36 IU/L) in TTV-positive and TTV-negative recipients, respectively. In one of the seven TTV-positive patients who developed hepatic injury (ALT > 150 IU/L), a serial change in the serum TTV titer showed a good correlation with the ALT level. We concluded that (1) the prevalence of TTV is high in BMT recipients, (2) TTV might be replicated mainly in hematopoietic cells, (3) transfusion-transmitted TTV may cause persistent infection, (4) a novel genetic group of TTV, G3, was discovered, and (5) TTV does not seem to frequently cause hepatic injury, although one patient was strongly suggested to have TTV-induced hepatitis.  (+info)

Guglielmini et al. (1) present phylogenetic trees of cellular organisms and Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDVs) based on two subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) and conclude that NCLDVs originated before their eukaryotic hosts and contributed RNAP to eukaryotes. While the study might provide insights into NCLDV phylogeny, the main conclusion is highly disputable. In addition to the small number of genes analyzed, we are particularly concerned about the accuracy of the trees, how much they represent the evolution of cellular life and viruses, and the overuse of lateral gene transfers (LGTs) to explain tree topologies.. Based on only two genes encoding subunits of the same enzyme, Guglielmini … ↵1To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email: chuanku{at} ...
A nudivirus (family Nudiviridae) is a large, rod-shaped virus with a circular, double stranded DNA genome of 96-231 kb. The genome encodes 98 to 154 open reading frames. Virions are rod-shaped and when enveloped are up to 382×77 nm. The word nudivirus comes from the Latin nudus, which means naked and virus, poison. Naked refers to the fact that, unlike baculoviruses, they are not occluded by cryoproteins. In 2007, the genus Nudivirus was proposed to include viruses similar to the Oryctes rhinoceros virus (Wang et al., 2007b). The nudiviruses were classified as the family Nudiviridae in 2013. All 3 sequenced nudivirus have 33 open reading frames in common. Gene content comparaison and phylogenetic analyses show that Nudivirus share 20 cores genes with baculovirus and form a monophyletic sister group with them. Fossil calibration estimate this association arose 100 million years ago(Mya), while the last common ancestor of BVs, nudivirus, and baculovirus existed approximately 312 Mya. ...
Phytopathology 101:1081-1090...Phytopathology 101:1081-1090...Association of a Novel DNA Virus with the Grapevine Vein-Clearing and Vine Decline Syndrome...Yu Zhang, Kashmir Singh, Ravneet Kaur, and Wenping Qiu...
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The nucleic acid is usually double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but may also be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA viruses belong to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. Single-stranded DNA is usually expanded to double-stranded in infected cells. Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. ...
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The nucleic acid is usually double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but may also be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA viruses belong to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. Single-stranded DNA is usually expanded to double-stranded in infected cells. Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. ...
Background: In 1997, a novel DNA virus was isolated from the serum of a patient in Japan, and it was named TT virus (TTV). As the virus is replicated in liver and has the ability to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes (Hepatocellular carcinoma cells) it is hypothesized that TTV is an opportunistic virus ...
After DNA viruses enter the nucleus, they initiate a transcriptional cascade which is followed by replication. We investigated whether these processes take place at specific nuclear sites or, as suggested by the mode of entry, randomly throughout the nucleus. Three distinct nuclear domains, nuclear factor-1 sites, coiled bodies, and nuclear domain 10 (ND10), were used as markers to investigate the relative position of DNA virus replication sites. We found that all three nuclear domains had a very high spatial correlation with each other in uninfected cells. After adenoviral infection, nuclear factor 1 and coiled bodies were found associated with some viral replication domains. Simian virus 40 begins replication adjacent to ND10 but adenovirus 5 and herpes simplex type 1 modified ND10s before replication. Adenovirus E4orf 3 gene deletion mutants retain ND10 and begin replication at the peripheries of ND10. The same was found for the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate early gene 1 mutants. That ...
Types of Viruses Used in Gene Therapy: There are 6 main types of viruses used in gene therapy:. 1) Retroviruses - A class of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA copies of their RNA genomes. These copies of its genome can be integrated into the chromosomes of host cells. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus.. 2) Adenoviruses - A class of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes that cause respiratory, intestinal, and eye infectious in humans. The virus that causes the common cold is an adenovirus.. 3) Adeno-associated viruses - A class of small, single-stranded DNA viruses that can insert their genetic material at a specific site on chromosome 19.. 4) Herpes simplex viruses - A class of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a particular cell type, neurons. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common human pathogen that causes cold sores.. 5) Alphaviruses - A single stranded positive sense RNA, particularly used to develop viral vectors for the Ross-River virus, Sindbis virus, ...
Herpesviruses constitute a family of large DNA viruses widely spread in vertebrates and causing a variety of different diseases. low sequence similarity, suggesting that function may be more conserved than sequence. By combining interactomes of 1818-71-9 different species we were able to systematically address the low coverage of the Y2H system and to extract biologically […]. ...
In the theory of viral eukaryogenesis I propose here, the eukaryotic nucleus evolved from a complex DNA virus. It is proposed that the virus established a persistent presence in the cytoplasm of a met
DNA virus replication strategies (2) - Lecture from USCMED, Columbia recorded between 2007-2009. Good lecture in advanced e-learning presentation
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Conferring DNA virus resistance with high specificity in plants using virus-inducible genome-editing system. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fields Virology remains the most authoritative reference in this fast-changing field, providing definitive coverage of virology, including virus biology as well as replication and medical aspects of specific virus families.
WASHINGTON, DC - August 5, 2013 -- The results of a large-scale analysis of the association between DNA viruses and human malignancies suggest that many of the most common cancers are not associated with DNA viruses. The findings, published in the August 2013 issue of the Journal of Virology, challenge earlier studies suggesting as high as 40 percent of tumors are caused by viruses.
CMX001 is an orally administered lipid conjugate of the synthetic nucleotide analog cidofovir (CDV). The conjugate is believed to be absorbed in the small intestine then delivered to target organs throughout the body where it crosses cell membranes by facilitated and passive diffusion. Inside the cell, CMX001 is cleaved by intracellular phospholipases to release CDV which is converted to the active antiviral agent, CDV-diphosphate (CDV-PP), by intracellular anabolic kinases. Adults and adolescents, regardless of viral infection/disease, will have a maximum weekly dose of 200 mg i.e., 200 mg once weekly OR 100 mg twice weekly; not to exceed 4mg/kg total weekly dose. Pediatric subjects (, 12 years), regardless of viral infection/disease, will have a maximum weekly dose of 4 mg/kg i.e., 4 mg/kg once weekly OR 2 mg/kg twice weekly ...
By interfering with cellular components that are essential for the replication of DNA viruses, ViroStatics compounds have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to be potent inhibitors of several viruses:. ...
Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of their unicellular hosts or by causing diseases in animals. To better characterize the diversity, abundance and biogeography of marine NCLDVs, we analyzed 17 metagenomes derived from microbial samples (0.2-1.6 μm size range) collected during the Tara Oceans Expedition. The sample set includes ecosystems under-represented in previous studies, such as the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and Indian Ocean lagoons. By combining computationally derived relative abundance and direct prokaryote cell counts, the abundance of NCLDVs was found to be in the order of 104-105 genomes ml−1 for the samples from the photic zone and 102-103 genomes ml−1 for the OMZ. The Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae dominated the NCLDV populations in the metagenomes, although most of the reads classified in these families showed large divergence from known
Mamavirus is a large and complex virus in the Group I family mimiviridae. The virus is exceptionally large, and larger than many bacteria. Mamavirus and other mimiviridae belong to nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDVs) family. Mamavirus can be compared to the similar complex virus mimivirus; mamavirus was so named because it is similar to but larger than mimivirus. Mamavirus was first reported in September 2008. Like mimivirus, mamavirus was isolated from an amoeba in a cooling tower. The mimiviridae were not discovered until recently because of their size; when filtered the mimiviridae stay with the bacteria which led scientists to believe they were also bacteria. Mimivirus was first isolated in 1992 when scientists were looking for the cause of a pneumonia outbreak in Bradford UK. Due to its size it was named Bradford coccus and put in a freezer with scientists thinking it was a bacterium. A decade later, Jean-Michel Claverie and Didier Raoult discovered Bradford coccus was no ...
The discovery of giant viruses with genome and physical size comparable to cellular organisms, remnants of protein translation machinery and virus-specific parasites (virophages) have raised intriguing questions about their origin. Evidence advocates for their inclusion into global phylogenomic studies and their consideration as a distinct and ancient form of life. Here we reconstruct phylogenies describing the evolution of proteomes and protein domain structures of cellular organisms and double-stranded DNA viruses with medium-to-very-large proteomes (giant viruses). Trees of proteomes define viruses as a fourth supergroup along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Trees of domains indicate they have evolved via massive and primordial reductive evolutionary processes. The distribution of domain structures suggests giant viruses harbor a significant number of protein domains including those with no cellular representation. The genomic and structural diversity embedded in the viral
So when Didier Raoult and his colleagues in France one day observed that a virophage known as Zamilon was no longer able to successfully infect the giant virus it was previously known to attack (a mimivirus), they wondered if a CRISPR-like immune system was to blame. Sure enough, they found that Zamilon-resistant giant viruses contained snippets of the virophages DNA in their own genomes. Furthermore, when they studied the sequence of the DNA surrounding the Zamilon snippets in the mimivirus, they found that this DNA encoded a gene product that unwinds DNA, and another one that cleaves it. To test whether these two genes were responsible for the giant viruss ability to ward off Zamilon infection, the researchers silenced each flanking gene. The result? The mimiviruses were suddenly vulnerable to Zamilon. Raoult and his colleagues named the newly-identified immunity segment of viral DNA MIMIVIRE, which stands for mimivirus virophage-resistance element. They suggest MIMIVIRE acts as a viral ...
In freshwater lakes, microbes regulate the flow of carbon and determine if the bodies of water serve as carbon sinks or carbon sources. Algae and cyanobacteria in particular can trap and use carbon, but their capacity to do so may be impacted by viruses. Viruses exist amidst all bacteria, usually in a 10-fold excess, and are made up of various sizes ranging from giant viruses, to much smaller viruses known as virophages (which live in giant viruses and use their machinery to replicate and spread.)
Although the mimivirus virion proteome has already been reported (28, 29), we were interested to reexamine the composition of mature virions by applying mass spectrometry procedures identical to those used for examination of the factories. A total of 236 mimivirus proteins were detected in mature viral particles (see Tables S1 and S2 in the supplemental material) in contrast to the 114 reported in reference 29, a discrepancy likely due to the higher sensitivity of the instrumentation used in this study. Comparison of the protein content of mature virions to the protein content of 4-h VFs (Fig. 4B) revealed that 139 proteins are shared, including six helicases and seven transcription factors (see Tables S1 and S2), supporting the notion that massive replication and transcription processes occur already at this stage (26). In comparisons of the protein content of 7-h viral factories to that of mature virions, 213 proteins were found to be common (Fig. 4C). There were 13 proteins in the virion that ...
HUMAN DNA VIRUSES Ronald Luftig Ph.D. Louisiana State University Professor and Head Department of Microbiology,Immunology & Parasitology…
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A giant virus under a microscope looks like this. To keep abreast of the latest scientific discoveries, subscribe to our news channel in Telegram. In general, researchers believe that the newthe virus comes from an unknown isolated group of viruses or distant relatives of a giant virus, which acquired a reduced form during evolution. Giant viruses were discovered in the twenty-first century. These organisms reach the size of a bacterial cell. Because of capsid - the protein coat that encapsulates viral particles, the virus is called giant. The DNA of a giant virus exceeds 200,000 base pairs and contains Orfan genes that are not found in other organisms.. Read more interesting articles on our channel in Yandex.Zen Yaravirus is composed of small particles with a size of 80 nmand has a unique genome. According to the researchers, it is simple and does not contain giant particles, but at the same time, a significant amount of previously undescribed genes is observed in Yaravirus. Scientists intend ...
A new study of giant viruses supports the idea that viruses are ancient living organisms and not inanimate molecular remnants run amok. Learn more on EarthSky.
Lineage: Viruses; Varidnaviria; Bamfordvirae; Nucleocytoviricota; Megaviricetes; Imitervirales; Mimiviridae; unclassified Mimiviridae; Klosneuvirinae; ...
Our team of expert virologists can help you to design a range of viral expression systems for your research needs. They have previous expertise in working with both single and double stranded DNA viruses, and developing new reverse genetics systems for both positive and negative sense RNA viruses. Please contact us for further information. ...
Since the isolation of the first giant virus, the Mimivirus, by T.J. Rowbotham in a cooling tower in Bradford, UK, and after its… Expand ...
Recognition of foreign DNA in the cytosol of host cells is critical for the initiation of immune responses to DNA viruses. Recognition of viral DNA activates nu...
Define Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus synonyms, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus pronunciation, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus translation, English dictionary definition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. n. pl. mim·i·vi·rus·es Any of a genus of double-stranded DNA viruses that are the largest of all known viruses. n a very large virus containing DNA
During January 2010, a husband and wife returned from Laos to France with probable parasitic disease. Increased antibodies against an Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus virophage indicated seroconversion. While in Laos, they had eaten raw fish, a potential source of the virophage. This virophage, associated with giant viruses suspected to cause pneumonia, could be an emerging pathogen.
The vast sequence divergence among different virus groups has presented a great challenge to alignment-based analysis of virus phylogeny. Due to the problems caused by the uncertainty in alignment, existing tools for phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment could not be directly applied to the whole-genome comparison and phylogenomic studies of viruses. There has been a growing interest in alignment-free methods for phylogenetic analysis using complete genome data. Among the alignment-free methods, a dynamical language (DL) method proposed by our group has successfully been applied to the phylogenetic analysis of bacteria and chloroplast genomes. In this paper, the DL method is used to analyze the whole-proteome phylogeny of 124 large dsDNA viruses and 30 parvoviruses, two data sets with large difference in genome size. The trees from our analyses are in good agreement to the latest classification of large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle. AU - Watthanasurorot, Apiruck. AU - Guo, Enen. AU - Tharntada, Sirinit. AU - Lo, Chu Fang. AU - Söderhäll, Kenneth. AU - Söderhäll, Irene. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope ...
This movement control order is being made to assist in the management and control of white spot syndrome virus, the causative agent of white spot disease...
Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) is the first member of a new family of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses called the Mimiviridae. Another giant virus, named mamavirus, was discovered in 2008 and is considered another APMV strain. Moreover, nosocomially acquired pneumonias account for 10 to 15% of all hospital-acquired infections, and pneumonia is actually the leading cause of nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICU), where ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) are the most frequently observed hospital-acquired infections and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Mimivirus was one of the agents investigated by serological testing, among other conventional pneumonia agents. Among pneumonia patients with amoeba-associated pathogens, more had seroconversion to mimivirus (5 cases) than to any other pathogen. In addition, mimivirus was second among the four most frequently encountered agents of pneumonia diagnosed with high levels of evidence (3.8%), behind Pseudomonas
Mimivirus. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) particles. APMV is commonly known as the mimivirus. This virus consists of outer hairs, or fibrils (spikes), and a protein capsid (dark grey) enclosing a core (black) of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the virus genetic material. APMVs classification as a pathogen is tentative, but it is now thought that it may cause viral pneumonia. Magnification: x9,300 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C001/4438
Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APM), a virus of free-living amebae, has reportedly caused human respiratory disease. Using 2 newly developed real-time PCR assays, we screened 496 respiratory specimens from 9 pneumonia-patient populations for APM. This virus was not detected in any specimen, which suggests it is not a common respiratory pathogen ...
Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APM), a virus of free-living amebae, has reportedly caused human respiratory disease. Using 2 newly developed real-time PCR assays, we screened 496 respiratory specimens from 9 pneumonia-patient populations for APM. This virus was not detected in any specimen, which suggests it is not a common respiratory pathogen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correction to. T2 - Smacoviridae: a new family of animal-associated single-stranded DNA viruses (Archives of Virology, (2018), 163, 7, (2005-2015), 10.1007/s00705-018-3820-z). AU - Varsani, Arvind. AU - Krupovic, Mart. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Unfortunately Fig. 6 in Archives of Virology (2018) 163:2005-2015 is duplicated (Fig. 4). This is corrected in this erratum.. AB - Unfortunately Fig. 6 in Archives of Virology (2018) 163:2005-2015 is duplicated (Fig. 4). This is corrected in this erratum.. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1007/s00705-018-3960-1. DO - 10.1007/s00705-018-3960-1. M3 - Article. C2 - 30054745. AN - SCOPUS:85050914750. JO - Archives of Virology. JF - Archives of Virology. SN - 0304-8608. ER - ...
The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2) was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs). HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 lacks several key genetic features of baculoviruses including the late transcriptional regulation factor, LEF-1 and the palindromic hrs, which serve as origins of replication. The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not generally found in viral genomes. These included a presumed juvenile hormone esterase gene, a gene coding for a putative zinc-dependent matrix metalloprotease, and a major facilitator superfamily protein gene; all of which are believed to play a role in the cellular proliferation and the
Caspar and Klug (50) had predicted that, for each of the covalently identical subunits that compose the surface of a virus to have identical environments, it would require that the subunits are organized into an hexagonal array. An icosahedron is formed by substituting a pentagon of subunits for a hexagon of subunits at regular positions. This would then allow each subunit to have at least a quasi-equivalent environment. The total size of the assembly is determined by where the pentamers replace hexamers. This prediction has been found to be true in a large variety of viruses with T numbers varying from 1 for the smallest viruses such a parvoviruses (51) and the ΦX174 bacteriophage (52) to very large dsDNA viruses with T numbers of 169 [PBCV-1 (53⇓-55)] and 972 ≤ T ≤ 1,200 [Mimivirus (56)]. Here we have determined the structure of a virus with a T=13 lattice, which makes it possible to examine how the assembly process has introduced pentamers at specific positions in the hexagonal ...
Virus-infected plants accumulate abundant, 21-24 nucleotide viral siRNAs which are generated by the evolutionary conserved RNA interference (RNAi) machinery that regulates gene expression and defends against invasive nucleic acids. Here we show that, similar to RNA viruses, the entire genome sequences of DNA viruses are densely covered with siRNAs in both sense and antisense orientations. This implies pervasive transcription of both coding and non-coding viral DNA in the nucleus, which generates double-stranded RNA precursors of viral siRNAs. Consistent with our finding and hypothesis, we demonstrate that the complete genomes of DNA viruses from Caulimoviridae and Geminiviridae families can be reconstructed by deep sequencing and de novo assembly of viral siRNAs using bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, we prove that this siRNA omics approach can be used for reliable identification of the consensus master genome and its microvariants in viral quasispecies. Finally, we utilized this approach to
The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular eukaryotic alga that forms vast blooms in the oceans impacting large biogeochemical cycles. These blooms are often terminated due to infection by the large dsDNA virus, E. huxleyi virus (EhV). It was recently established that EhV-induced modulation of E. huxleyi metabolism is a key factor for optimal viral infection cycle. Despite the huge ecological importance of this host-virus interaction, the ability to assess its spatial and temporal dynamics and its possible impact on nutrient fluxes is limited by current approaches that focus on quantification of viral abundance and biodiversity ...
Since the discovery of giant viruses infecting amoebae in 2003, many dogmas of virology have been revised and the search for these viruses has been intensified. Over the last few years, several new groups of these viruses have been discovered in various types of samples and environments.In this work, we describe the isolation of 68 giant viruses of amoeba obtained from environmental samples from Brazil and Antarctica. Isolated viruses were identified by hemacolor staining, PCR assays and electron microscopy (scanning and/or transmission). A total of 64 viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae family were isolated (26 from lineage A, 13 from lineage B, 2 from lineage C and 23 from unidentified lineages) from different types of samples, including marine water from Antarctica, thus being the first mimiviruses isolated in this extreme environment to date. Furthermore, a marseillevirus was isolated from sewage samples along with two pandoraviruses and a cedratvirus (the third to be isolated in the world so far).
Viruses have a ubiquitous presence in the world. Their population is estimated to be 1031, 10 times greater than the nonillion (1030) of microbes on the planet -- a figure that surpasses the number of stars in the Milky Way. Giant viruses are characterized by disproportionately large genomes and virions that house the viruses genetic material. They can encode several genes potentially involved in protein biosynthesis, a unique feature which has led to diverging hypotheses about the origins of these viruses. But after discovering a novel group of giant viruses with a more complete set of translation machinery genes than any other virus known to date, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI), a DOE Office of Science User Facility, believe that this group (dubbed Klosneuviruses) significantly increases our understanding of viral evolution ...
If nucleic acid recognition is the only way for most cells to induce the production of type I IFNs in response to infection with RNA viruses, does a similar principle apply to recognition of DNA viruses? Until recently, dsRNA was thought to be the main signature of viral replication inside cells, produced by replicating RNA viruses and bidirectional transcription of DNA viruses. However, the finding that IPS-1-deficient cells mount a normal antiviral response to transfection with DNA, and to infection with L. monocytogenes or a poxvirus (17, 18), indicates that cytosolic dsRNA is not the only trigger of the type I IFN response. This raises the question of why two signaling pathways are needed to link nucleic acid detection to the antiviral response. The simplest explanation is that RNA and DNA viruses activate different cell-intrinsic effector responses that are tailored to combating the particular type of virus. Importantly, neither type I IFNs nor generic IFN-inducible genes account for the ...
Numerous novel episomal DNA-sequences related to single-stranded circular DNA viruses have been isolated from milk, bovine sera as well as from different human pathological biopsies (Funk et al.; Gunst et al.; Lamberto et al.; Whitley et al.; all Genome Announc. (2014) 2(4); Falida et al.; Genome Announc. (2017) 5(17)). The high degree of homology between isolates from milk, bovine sera and human tissue or serum points at the consumption of bovine meat or dairy products as potential route of transmission. The global epidemiology of some common cancers (e.g. colon and breast cancer) could suggest a zoonotic origin of these conditions (zur Hausen and de Villiers, 2015; zur Hausen, Bund and de Villiers, 2017 ...
Question - White spots in genital area. Is this fungal infection or something serious?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for White spots, Ask a Dermatologist
Viruses. Viruses and bacteria are too small to be seen without the aid of microscopes. As disease agents, their effects on mankind are well known. Both are ubiquitous and adaptable.. The Bridge Between Living and Non-Living. Someone once suggested that if people were the size of viruses, the entire population of the U.S. would fit on the end of two pencil erasers. There would be room left over for future generations. Extremely small, simple in structure, and widely distributed, viruses exist in a realm all their own. Viruses do not qualify as cells yet affect cells and so exist as if on a bridge between the living and nonliving.. Structure and Classification of Viruses. Viruses differ from cellular organisms in many ways. A virus contains only a single type of nucleic acid. This DNA or RNA may be single or double-stranded. The core of nucleic acid is covered by a protein coat called a capsid. Some of the proteins in the capsid are enzymes. A complete virus particle is called a virion. Some ...
Adenoviruses are relatively simple, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect humans and other vertebrates. The virus particle consists of a simple icosahedral shell, or capsid, containing a single linear dsDNA molecule of approximately 36,000 base pairs. A terminal protein protects each end ...
Tomaru, Y., Toyoda, K., Suzuki, H., Nagumo, T., Kimura, K., Takao, Y. 2013 New single-stranded DNA virus with a unique genomic structure that infects marine diatom Chaetoceros setoensis. Sci Rep, 3, 3337 (article ID ...
Tomaru, Y., Toyoda, K., Kimura, K., Takao, Y., Sakurada, K., Nakayama, N., Nagasaki, K. 2013 Isolation and characterization of a single-stranded DNA virus infecting the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros sp. (SS08-C03). Phycol. Res., 61, 27-36 ...
According to, cellular organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria, are called prokaryotes. They are distinct from the eukaryotes, which are the cellular organisms...
Two newly discovered giant viruses are bigger than many bacteria and carry massive and largely unique genomes that hint at new branches of life.
AMSBIO offers a collection of adenovirus clones with more than 20 different destination vectors available for fluorescent and affinity tags.
Recently discovered TT ? virus is at present an object of intensive investigation. This paper reviews so far obtained controvertial results dealing mainly with frequency of TTV occurence and its potential significance in the development of liver disorders. On the basis of obtained results reported by many autors there is still lack of hard evidence showing significant role of TTV in the pathogenesis in liver diseases ...
Those white spots on your legs and thighs can be due to a number of things. Read on to find out the 3 most likely skin conditions responsible for those spots and what you can do to remove them.
For the past two years, I have a |b|lot of white spots on both my hands and leg|/b|. Wherever I sustain an injury, that part also becomes white. I consulted some skin specialist whos said that there is no reason for this. But they gave some cream to apply and multivitamin tablets. I am 31 years old. No bad habits. Married. I am scared that my entire skin may become white (Leucoderma). Is there any way to stop the spreading? Please let me know. Awaiting your reply.
Having white spots or patches in your throat can be disconcerting, especially if you are experiencing other symptoms. White areas located in a throat can...
Hi my son has white spot (hankercheif ) rash on his chest and neck When hot it get worse any cure for it Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
A battle is brewing between two research groups over whether a CRISPR-like, DNA based defense system in mimivirus that confers resistance to virophage.
Viruses replicate asexually. They are single purpose DNA whose only activity is to replicate. They thrive in living bodies. But they are not burdened by the overhead or the slow cycle time of generations necessitated by living bodies. They can iterate a gezillion times in the cycle time that it takes a living bodies to iterate. The cycle time of random mutation, differentiation and selective destruction is very short. The AID virus is just the most recent example of a DNA virus that thrives by being able to take advantage of these short cycle times to change faster than humans can design ways to stop it ...
Viruses of Fungi and Simple Eukaryotes focuses on the developments in and experimental approaches to the study of fungi and simple eukaryotic viruses. Emphasizi
Unlike most viruses circulating today, these ancient specimens dating from the last Ice Age are not only bigger, but far more complex genetically.
Click on a taxon to see the following taxons, if there are any.. By placing the mouse over a node a tooltip will appear. This tootip contains the taxonomic path from Cellular organisms to the node and, in the case of a species, the number of peroxidases in the orthogroup, the total number of peroxidases for that species in the orthogroups class and where possible the names of those peroxidases. The common ancestor for the orthogroup is written in bold in the tooltip. Return to orthogroup ...
Click on a taxon to see the following taxons, if there are any.. By placing the mouse over a node a tooltip will appear. This tootip contains the taxonomic path from Cellular organisms to the node and, in the case of a species, the number of peroxidases in the orthogroup, the total number of peroxidases for that species in the orthogroups class and where possible the names of those peroxidases. The common ancestor for the orthogroup is written in bold in the tooltip. Return to orthogroup ...
... by a generic and highly sensitive PCR strategy for long DNA fragments". J. Gen. Virol. 94 (Pt 3): 524-33. doi:10.1099/vir. ... The virus attacks compromised skin through direct contact, possibly entering through tiny cuts and abrasions in the stratum ... is a new wart treatment which may trigger a host immune response to the wart virus, resulting in wart resolution. It is now ...
Orf virus. Orf is an exanthemous disease caused by a parapox virus and occurring primarily in sheep and goats. It is also known ... A live virus vaccine (ATCvet code: QI04AD01 (WHO)) is made from scab material and usually given to ewes at the age of two ... "Orf Virus (Sore Mouth Infection)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 15 June 2017.. ... In one case it was shown that a severe form of orf virus caused an outbreak involving the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, heart ...
... also joins a group of large viruses known as nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), although this term appears ... "Distinct DNA Exit and Packaging Portals in the Virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus". PLoS Biology. 6 (5): e114. doi:10.1371/ ... Table1: Largest giant viruses with complete sequenced genomes[edit]. Giant virus name. Genome Length. Genes. Capsid diameter. ... Table 2: Specific common features among giant viruses[edit]. Giant virus name. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Octocoral-like MutS. ...
MC is caused by a poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).[1] The virus is spread either by direct contact ... Molluscum contagiosum virus spread by direct contact or contaminated objects[4]. Risk factors. Weak immune system, atopic ... Chen, X; Anstey, AV; Bugert, JJ (October 2013). "Molluscum contagiosum virus infection". Lancet Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): ... "Treatment Options - Molluscum Contagiosum - Pox viruses - CDC". 2 October 2017.. ...
DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... This is to keep the virus in circulation thereby exposing the population to the virus at an early age, when it is less harmful ... After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, ... A PCR (DNA) test of the mother's amniotic fluid can also be performed, though the risk of spontaneous abortion due to the ...
DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... Herpes gladiatorum is a skin infection primarily caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus infects the cells in the ... Infection with either type of the HSV viruses occurs in the following way: First, the virus comes in contact with damaged skin ... The virus moves to the nerve cells from where it can reactivate. Once the condition has recurred, it is normally a mild ...
The T12 virus itself has not been placed into a taxon by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. It has a double- ... stranded DNA genome and on morphological grounds appears to be a member of the Siphoviridae. ...
DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A (and the term "herpangina virus" refers to ...
... s are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). There are about 130 known types of human papilloma viruses.[8] HPV infects ... Warts are caused by a virus, and toads do not harbor it.[42] A variety of traditional folk remedies and rituals claim to be ... The virus is resistant to drying and heat, but killed by 100 °C (212 °F) and ultraviolet radiation.[16] ... The virus is relatively hardy and immune to many common disinfectants. Exposure to 90% ethanol for at least 1 minute, 2% ...
DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... The virus moves from the mouth to remain latent in the central nervous system. In approximately one-third of people, the virus ... Despite no cure or vaccine for the virus, a human body's immune system and specialty antigens typically fight the virus.[16] ... The cause is usually herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and occasionally herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).[1] The infection ...
DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... Roseola is an infectious disease caused by certain types of virus.[2] Most infections occur before the age of three.[1] ... The disease was first described in 1910 while the causal virus was determined in 1988.[1] The disease may reactivate in those ... "Contributions of neurotropic human herpesviruses herpes simplex virus 1 and human herpesvirus 6 to neurodegenerative disease ...
DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). There are about 130 known types of human papilloma viruses.[8] HPV infects ... Warts are caused by a virus, and toads do not harbor it.[44] A variety of traditional folk remedies and rituals claim to be ... The virus is resistant to drying and heat, but killed by 100 °C (212 °F) and ultraviolet radiation.[17] ...
"DNA Virus Replication". Daniels R, Sadowicz D, Hebert DN (July 2007). "A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of ... A late protein is a viral protein that is formed after replication of the virus. One example is VP4 from simian virus 40 (SV40 ... "The l2 minor capsid protein of low-risk human papillomavirus type 11 interacts with host nuclear import receptors and viral DNA ... "Organization of the major and minor capsid proteins in human papillomavirus type 33 virus-like particles". J. Gen. Virol. 76 (9 ...
Both DNA and RNA viruses can undergo recombination. When two or more viruses, each containing lethal genomic damage infect the ... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages.[ ... Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. Transduction is a common ... Viruses[edit]. Viruses are capsid-encoding organisms composed of proteins and nucleic acids that can self-assemble after ...
Without the virus, a Protector will weaken and die as its DNA is degraded; the virus supplies replacement DNA. ... The term "Tree-of-Life virus" is used to describe the symbiotic virus which actually governs the transition. ... Once the transformation is complete, a Pak Protector must periodically consume more Tree-of-Life root to maintain the virus in ... the plants grew but didn't support the virus. As a result, the Protectors that led the colony to Earth died of starvation when ...
"Metagenomic analysis of double-stranded DNA viruses in healthy adults". BMC Biology. 12: 71. doi:10.1186/s12915-014-0071-7. ... A mature virus particle measures about 170 nanometres (1,700 Å) in diameter. The genome of HHV-7 is very similar to that of HHV ... There are a number of key differences between the genome of HHV-7 and that of HHV-6, but the importance of them for viral DNA ... Both HHV-6B and HHV-7, as well as other viruses, can cause a skin condition in infants known as exanthema subitum, although HHV ...
New single-stranded DNA forms of the virus genome (plus-sense) are probably formed by interaction of the coat protein with ... Reunion virus Sugarcane streak virus Tobacco yellow dwarf virus Urochloa streak virus Wheat dwarf India virus Wheat dwarf virus ... streak virus Eragrostis streak virus Maize streak Reunion virus Maize streak virus Miscanthus streak virus Oat dwarf virus ... leaf curl virus Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus Okra mottle virus Okra yellow crinkle virus Okra yellow mosaic Mexico virus Okra ...
Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), Bohle iridovirus (BIV), and frog virus 3). Ranaviruses are large icosahedral DNA viruses ... virus Bohle iridovirus Common midwife toad virus Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus European catfish virus Frog virus 3 ... Viruses. 2 (7): 1458. doi:10.3390/v2071458. PMC 3185713 . PMID 21994690. Goorha, R (1982). "Frog virus 3 DNA replication occurs ... where viral DNA replication begins via a virally encoded DNA polymerase. Viral DNA then abandons the cell nucleus and begins ...
"DNA and RNA Tumor Viruses." DNA and RNA Tumor Viruses. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2014. ... some virus are co-carcinogens like Herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) [9] Over intake beta ... A chemical may act as a co-carcinogen even if it does not cause direct DNA damage such as mutation, as long as it can affect a ... Liu, S. (2005). Effects of arsenic on DNA repair and cell checkpoints involvement in arsenic co-mutagenesis and co- ...
... the genomic DNA in the two samples should be precisely identical except for DNA belonging to the virus. In their initial RDA ... DNA polymerase and many others. While no other human tumor virus possesses these same genes, other tumor viruses target the ... KSHV is a herpesvirus, and is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a protein covering that packages its nucleic acids, called ... Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ...
The Universal Virus Database (Daten zu allen bekannten Viren). *Viruses - From Structure To Biology (eng.) (sehr infomative ... Plant Viruses Online. Index to Virus Species. *Viren / Aufbau / Spezifische Merkmale / Entwicklung / Zellbiologie / Bakterien ... Virusul latent al narciselor (Narcissus latent virus). *Virusul mozaicului castraveților la begonia (Cucumber mosaic virus in ... Virusul "rattle" al tutunului la flox (Tobacco rattle virus in phlox). Vezi și[modificare , modificare sursă]. *Clasificarea ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ... The virus is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream.[32] Known as viremia, the presence of a virus in the bloodstream ...
DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by budding. Acholeplasma species ... Mycoplasmatales virus-laidlawii 2 (L2) (tentative) Mycoplasmatales virus-laidlawii 3 (L3) (tentative) Mycoplasmatales virus- ... This family is poorly studied and little is known about these viruses. The family has one genus, Plasmavirus, which has one ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed) (2003). 00.053. Plasmaviridae. In: ICTVdB-The ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.[22][23] ... Like other pathogens, viruses use these methods of transmission to enter the body, but viruses differ in that they must also ... DNA sequencing, a method developed by Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger in 1977,[5] caused a rapid change the development of ...
Unlike most other DNA viruses, parvoviruses are unable to activate DNA synthesis in host cells. Thus, in order for viral ... They are classified as group II viruses in the Baltimore classification of viruses. Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... Parvoviruses are linear, non-segmented single-stranded DNA viruses, with an average genome size of 5000 nucleotides. ...
The main stages in the lifecycle of Gamma herpes virus are namely • Virus attachment and entry • Viral DNA injection through ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 9 May 2020.. ... Gammaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Herpesvirales and in the family Herpesviridae. Viruses in ... Herpesviruses represent a group of double-stranded DNA viruses distributed widely within the animal kingdom. The family ...
inimese immuunpuudulikkuse viirus (inglise Human immunodefciency virus) ehk HIV jt.. DNA-viiruste korral[muuda , muuda ... DNA-onkoviiruste loend[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Pikemalt artiklis DNA-onkoviirused.. *inimese papilloomiviirus (inglise ... Harald zur Hausen, Oncogenic DNA viruses, Oncogene (2001) 20, 7820-7823, veebiversioon (vaadatud 22. septembril 2017) inglise ... B-hepatiidi viirus (inglise Hepatitis B Virus) ehk HBV;. *Epsteini-Barri viirus (inglise Epstein-Barr virus) ehk EBV, ka HHV4; ...
Bell, PJ (2001). "Viral eukaryogenesis: Was the ancestor of the nucleus a complex DNA virus?". Journal of Molecular Biology. 53 ... For the advantage due to DNA repair, there is an immediate large benefit of removing DNA damage by recombinational DNA repair ... the VE hypothesis specifies a pox-like virus as the lysogenic virus. A pox-like virus is a likely ancestor because of its ... a b Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Michod RE (2011). "Meiosis as an evolutionary adaptation for DNA repair." In "DNA Repair", Intech ...
Bell, PJ (2001). "Viral eukaryogenesis: Was the ancestor of the nucleus a complex DNA virus?". Journal of Molecular Biology. 53 ... For the advantage due to DNA repair, there is an immediate large benefit of removing DNA damage by recombinational DNA repair ... the VE hypothesis specifies a pox-like virus as the lysogenic virus. A pox-like virus is a likely ancestor because of its ... While DNA is able to recombine to modify alleles, DNA is also susceptible to mutations within the sequence that can affect an ...
RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of RNA tumor viruses. pp. 116-129.. ... Hurwitz, J. and J. Leis (1972). "Directing influence of DNA in the reaction". ...
1 DNA-Viren *1.1 Doppelsträngige DNA-Viren (dsDNA: double stranded DNA). *1.2 Einzelsträngige DNA-Viren (ssDNA: single stranded ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *Gerrard Marc, Mali vodniki, Celinska Grčija, DZS, Ljubljana, 1999, (COBISS) ... pristanišče je bilo tudi dopolnjeno in posodobljeno s poglabljanjem dna, gradnjo Kraljevega pristanišča, Trumba Pier, in ...
He discovered this when working with potato yellow-dwarf virus.[7]. This method was also used in Meselson and Stahl's famous ... They used density gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after ... and viruses. Ultracentrifuges can also be used in the study of membrane fractionation. This occurs because ultracentrifuges can ... experiment in which they proved that DNA replication is semi-conservative by using different isotopes of nitrogen. ...
Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *↑ Barrows, Edward M. (2001). Animal behavior desk reference: a dictionary of animal behavior, ... Vzrok je kritični izbris 11,7-kb elementa DNA, ki vsebuje predvsem ponavljajoča zaporedja. Interseksualnost je recesivna dedna ...
December 1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
... s are differentiated in their mitochondrial DNA between North American and Eurasian populations,[17] but the nuclear ... "The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ... Mitochondrial DNA data for the D-loop sequence suggests that mallards may have evolved in the general area of Siberia. Mallard ... "Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genetics ...
The virus is transmitted from mother to calf during the gestation period or soon after birth.[23] ... comparative cytogenetics and analysis of mitochondrial DNA". The Journal of Heredity. 82 (6): 447-52. doi:10.1093/ ... Like the blue wildebeest, the black wildebeest seems to act as a reservoir for the virus and all animals are carriers, being ...
... a genetic mismatch as small as a single DNA base pair is significant so perfect matches require knowledge of the exact DNA ... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy.[64] ...
Kamboh MI, Aston CE, Hamman RF (2000). "DNA sequence variation in human apolipoprotein C4 gene and its effect on plasma lipid ... "Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi ...
Pages in category "DNA". The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. ... Retrieved from "" ... DNA methylation. *DNA polymerase. *DNA repair. *DNA replication. *DNA virus. G. *Gene ...
DNA Plant Technology (DNAP), Agritope and Monsanto developed tomatoes that delayed ripening by preventing the production of ... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ...
Viruses *influenza. Of organs. *Cell. *DNA. *Flagella. *Eukaryotes *symbiogenesis. *chromosome. *endomembrane system ...
Their DNA is slightly less than one percent different from humans, and they age at a much slower rate. Since ninety-seven ... However, one of the sleepers escapes and unleashes a portion of the virus onto a bus as a test of its virulence. From a video ... Meanwhile, Sean and Vicky board a plane headed back for the U.S. with the hopes of catching the virus but they arrive too late ... Leila has given up hope, but Sean begs her to fight the virus with all her might. Meanwhile, Sterling finds a report on Dr. ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... The examination of preserved museum specimens has found Borrelia DNA in an infected Ixodes ricinus tick from Germany that dates ... Except for one study in Europe,[229] much of the data implicating lizards is based on DNA detection of the spirochete and has ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ...
The genome of an organism is the whole of its hereditary information encoded in its DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). This ... Note: The DNA from a single human cell has a length of ~1.8 m (but at a width of ~2.4 nanometers). ... However, no single haploid chromosome set defines even the DNA of a species. Because of the huge variety of alleles carried by ... The term 'genome' can be applied specifically to mean the complete set of nuclear DNA (the 'nuclear genome') but can also be ...
Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... either as a consequence of recombination-obstruction within the DNA, as a consequence of repeated selection for the entire ...
"More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ...
Dna templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ... Deltapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae. Ruminants serve as natural hosts. There are ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Deltapapillomavirus ICTV. ... Viruses in Deltapapillomavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries. The diameter is around 60 nm. Genomes are ...
DNA * sw:DNA. Dog * sw:Dog. Dome * sw:Dome. Domestic pig * sw:Domestic pig. Domestication * sw:Domestication. Dream of the Red ... Virus * sw:Virusi. Vladimir Lenin * sw:Vladimir Lenin. Volcano * sw:Volkeno. Volga River * sw:Volga (mto). Voltaire * sw: ...
"Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ... 1993) A Hidden Markov Model that finds genes in E. coli DNA ... "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature 402 (402). ... "DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors". Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 74 (12). ... "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage λ DNA". Journal of Molecular Biology 162 (4). Arquivado dende o orixinal o 02 de decembro ...
This is due to the accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA by aging and cellular metabolic activity and the shortening of ... envisaged as the result of the continuous challenge of the unavoidable exposure to a variety of antigens such as viruses and ...
... and a poliovirus clone was the first infectious DNA clone made of an RNA virus in animals. Along with rhinovirus, poliovirus ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
... can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference from repetitive DNA sequences that are related to the genes of the ... Sulfolobus infected with the DNA virus STSV1.[134] Bar is 1 micrometer. ... For example, thermostable DNA polymerases, such as the Pfu DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus, revolutionized molecular ...
Four phenylalanine residues(Phe57, Phe74, Phe148, Phe 165) on TBP bind to DNA and form kinks in the DNA, forcing the DNA minor ... MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... Compounds that trap the protein-DNA intermediate could result in it being toxic to the cell once they encounter a DNA ... which distorts DNA to allow access of DNA-binding proteins in the minor groove.[45] This will destabilize the interaction ...
The DNA Learning Center (DNALC), founded in 1988, was among the early pioneers[15] in developing hands-on genetics lab ... Upon taking charge in 1968, he focused the Laboratory on cancer research, creating a tumor virus group and successfully ... In 1952 the "Waring blender experiments" of Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirmed DNA as the genetic material.[30] Hershey ... Stillman, B (December 1996). "Cell cycle control of DNA replication". Science. 274: 1659-64. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1659S. doi: ...
... and mitochondrial DNA sequence elements from cultured mouse and human fibroblasts". DNA Cell Biol. 20 (9): 531-54. doi:10.1089/ ... and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. Two alternatively spliced ... "Interactions between Tat and TAR and human immunodeficiency virus replication are facilitated by human cyclin T1 but not ...
A comparative study of DNA content as measured by flow cytometry and image analysis in 1864 specimens. Analytical Cellular ... activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus ...
They are composed of a C-terminal ligand-binding region, a core DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an N-terminal domain that contains ... or parts of the outside of a virus or microbe. The endogenously designated -molecule for a particular receptor is referred to ... The core region has two zinc fingers that are responsible for recognizing the DNA sequences specific to this receptor. The N ...
Scientists have struggled to decide whether viruses are alive or not. Viruses lack common characteristics of a living cell, ... For this process the cell goes through the steps of the cell cycle and development which involves cell growth, DNA replication ... DNA replication, damage and repair - are considered to be the interphase portion of the cycle. While the M phase (mitosis and ... such as membranes, cell organelles, and the ability to reproduce by themselves.[6] Viruses range from 0.005 to .03 microns in ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ...
Viruses with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genomes are called DNA viruses. Like all viruses, DNA viruses are small when compared ... DNA viruses are able to program the cell to replicate the virus using the genes contained within the viral DNA genome. Source ... DNA Viruses Viruses can be classified based on proteins encoded within the viral genetic material or genome . ... Viruses with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genomes are called DNA viruses. Like all viruses, DNA viruses are small when compared ...
HUMAN DNA VIRUSES Ronald Luftig Ph.D. Louisiana State University Professor and Head Department of Microbiology,Immunology & ... Dna Virus * 1. HUMAN DNA VIRUSES Ronald Luftig Ph.D. Louisiana State University Professor and Head Department of Microbiology, ... OBJECTIVES General replication cycle of DNA viruses using Adenovirus as a model Unique replication features of all DNA viruses ... 7. As a general rule all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus, except the Pox viruses which replicate in the cytoplasm We will ...
The cleavage of viral DNA genomes with restriction enzymes and the cloning of such DNA fragments in bacter ... The development of recombinant DNA technology has made a marked impact on molecular virology. ... The Cloning and Sequencing of Sites of Linkage between Adenovirus DNA and Cellular DNA: Recombination of Foreign DNA with the ... Cloning of the DNA form of an RNA Virus Genome. * Front Matter Pages 221-221 ...
... Version 22 December 2005 (temporary). ... Double-stranded DNA Viruses Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Electron micrograph of a Vaccinia Virus. Vaccinia virus is normally confined to cattle, but is conveyed to humans through ... This photograph reveals smallpox virus pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of a developing embryonic chick. Poxviruses are ...
... Version 22 December 2005 (temporary). ... Single-stranded DNA Viruses Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... This electron micrograph depicts a number of parvovirus H-1 virions of the Parvoviridae family of DNA viruses. ... Single-stranded DNA Viruses Branch Page. collections. * Single-stranded DNA Viruses Images ...
DNA tumor viruses. [Blossom Damania; James M Pipas;] -- Tumor will focus on the DNA viruses in the human population that are ... It will cover most of the viruses that are thought to contribute to human malignancy. This book will ... ... viruses_pathogenicity> # DNA Tumor Viruses--pathogenicity. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "DNA Tumor Viruses--pathogenicity ... Oncogenic DNA viruses. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Oncogenic DNA viruses"@en ;. .. ...
Recovery of virus from DNA was verified by (i) the presence of two genetic tags generating restriction sites in DNA derived ... Highly Effective Control of an AIDS Virus Challenge in Macaques by Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Modified Vaccinia Virus ... Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses from DNA. N D Lawson, E A Stillman, M A Whitt, and J K Rose ... We assembled a DNA clone containing the 11,161-nt sequence of the prototype rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), such ...
... meetings and published volumes resulting from these meetings that focus attention upon all of the groups of DNA tumor viruses. ... For the first time, DNA tumor viruses were defined as all of the virus groups that can contribute to cancer in animals with the ... DNA RNA antigen cancer gene hepatitis hepatitis B liver molecular biology protein proteins tumor tumorigenesis virology virus ... hepatitis B virus and the papillomaviruses. It was as if these four virus groups were four fields of study developing ...
In this review we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of transformed cells. Tumor DNA viruses enhance " ... 2. DNA Tumor Viruses: An Overview. In 1960, Sweet and Hilleman discovered a new virus in cultures of kidney cells of rhesus ... C. Staib, J. Pesch, R. Gerwig et al., "p53 inhibits JC virus DNA replication in vivo and interacts with JC virus large T- ... many DNA tumor viruses are known; they are grouped in four families, namely, SV40 and polyomavirus, papilloma viruses (HPV), ...
Ancient Viruses Are Buried in Your DNA. Image. A human embryo at 45 days. Scientists have learned that a protein called Hemo, ... Ancient Viruses Wormed Into Our DNA Eons Ago. Order Reprints , Todays Paper , Subscribe ... Hemo is not the only protein with such an alien origin: Our DNA contains roughly 100,000 pieces of viral DNA. Altogether, they ... This strategy may do more than create more viruses. Stem cells can produce eggs and sperm in embryos. The viruses may be ...
But theres no need for alarm about the DNA of viral origin teeming inside your cells. ... Eight percent of human DNA comes from ancient viruses that once infected our ancestors. ... DNA from an ancient virus, it seems, has now become a vital part in fighting new viruses. ... Many of those binding stretches of DNA in fact looked like a virus called MER41, which infected a monkey-like ancestor of ...
Researchers Show How Cells DNA Repair Machinery Can Destroy Viruses. by editor ... Current anti-retroviral drugs effectively suppress the virus, but, Stivers explains, they miss copies of the virus that hide ... If there are many dUTPs floating around in the cell, they will likely make their way into the new viral DNA, and, potentially, ... The systems two vital components are high levels of a molecule that becomes embedded in viral DNA like a code written in ...
... have succeeded in developing a tool that uses DNA microarray technology which can detect the presence of a virus or a known ... When the influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in April 2009, the research teams showed that this microarray could detect and ... DNA viruses infiltrate 3D cellular genome organization and preferentially contact active chromatin ... DNA viruses infiltrate 3D cellular genome organization and preferentially contact active chromatin ...
Does having it make you more susceptible to viruses like HIV? ... DNA of ancient viruses spotted in the Neanderthal genome has ... The DNA of ancient viruses first spotted in the Neanderthal genome have now been identified in modern humans - although whether ... The viruses insert themselves into DNA repeats - patterns that occur in multiple locations throughout the genome, only one of ... a class of virus that not only invades cells but worms its way into DNA. These retroviral gene sequences make up about 8 per ...
Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification. ... ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. ... Genomic DNA from Cloned Viruses * LYD37 (ATCC® 77323™) ATCC® Number: 77323™ Organism: lethal yellowing phytoplasma ...
Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification. ... ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. ... Genomic DNA from Cloned Viruses * pSP65:pUAS14#4 plasmid in E. coli (ATCC® 45117™) ATCC® Number: 45117™ Organism: Apple scar ... pHPV-16 purified plasmid DNA (ATCC® 45113D™) ATCC® Number: 45113D™ Organism: human papilloma virus type 16 ...
... the more amazing stuffs we are discoveringA study shows how extensively viruses from as far back as the dinosaur era still ... Submission + - Ancient Viruses Thriving in our DNA ! ( Submitted by Taco Cowboy on Tuesday April 24, 2012 @03:20AM. ... 8 Percent of Human Genome Was ... One of the viruses was found to have invaded the genome of a common ancestor around 100 million years ago with its remnants ...
Our, and other organisms, genome is inhabited by lots of bits of selfish DNA, including retroviruses. ... integration and expression of sigma virus-like genes in Drosophila As my blag tagline goes, If we are made in Gods image, God ... Pirate DNA of Pirate DNA in DNA: Non-retroviral endogenous viruses * facebook ... RNA virus turns itself into DNA, inserts itself into your genome, makes babby viruses. Sometimes the RNA virus infects an egg/ ...
Our taxon co-occurrence analysis revealed a potential association between viruses of the Megaviridae family and eukaryotes ... constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of ... and that metagenomic sequence analyses promise to shed new light on the biodiversity of marine viruses and their interactions ... Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles ...
The DNA molecule is known to possess three discrete single-stranded discontinuities, often referred to as gaps, two in one ... of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. ... of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. The DNA molecule is known to possess ... Nucleotide sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA Cell. 1980 Aug;21(1):285-94. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(80)90136-1. ...
The virus has hit so much of the population that herd immunity seems to have finally caught up. But that kind of protection is ... They traced the viruss spread from Brazil to the nations next door, into the Caribbean and then the US. The reconstructed ... The whole time, the worlds most famous virus hunterwasnt lifting a finger to help. She could barely lift a finger at all. ... In April 2015, researchers in Brazil reported the first case of Zika virus-finally putting a name to the mysterious rash, fever ...
How do the apparent mutation rates of DNA viruses compare to those of RNA viruses and ii) why do related viruses eg. HIV-1 and ... DNA/RNA virus mutation rates. Michael Goodin mgoodin at Tue Sep 2 23:21:58 EST 1997 *Previous message: hiv ... Well, while Im at it here is a third query; using vesicular stomatitis virus as a model it has been demonstrated that a many- ... Dear virologists, It is often assumed that RNA viruses should have high mutation rates resulting from viral RNA polymerases ...
HIV and hepatitis C virus), a few new compounds are now awaiting their entry into the field of DNA viruses, particularly ... Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapys current antiviral agents FactFile (2nd edition): DNA viruses.. Field HJ1, De Clercq E. ... Although most of the recent attempts to develop new antiviral agents have been focussed on RNA viruses (in particular, ... poxviruses, such as variola virus, because of the bioterrorist context, and herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus and ...
The catalytic activities, which involve DNA cutting and joining steps, have been recapitulated in vitro using recombinant ... integrase and synthetic DNA substrates. Biochemical and biophysical studies of these model reactions have been pivotal in ... Integration of a reverse transcribed DNA copy of the HIV viral genome into the host chromosome is essential for virus ... Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ...
... which prevent the replication of several viruses, including the hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, and Sindbis virus (9-12). To ... In addition to DNA viruses, cyclin T1/CDK9 has been shown to interact with RNA viral proteins, such as the influenza virus ... These studies demonstrate the possibility that FIT-039 suppresses the replication of RNA viruses as well as DNA viruses. A drug ... CDK9 inhibitor FIT-039 prevents replication of multiple DNA viruses. Makoto Yamamoto,1,2,3 Hiroshi Onogi,2 Isao Kii,3 Suguru ...
Nothing in its evolution would have prepared the dengue virus for meeting a five-pointed star made out of DNA. When it came ... The virus uses "latch points" on its outside to attach to cells, but cannot do so if engineered DNA has blocked the latches ... Nothing in its evolution would have prepared the dengue virus for meeting a five-pointed star made out of DNA. When it came ... The DNA latched on and would not let go.. This DNA "trap", revealed yesterday, had been designed and engineered by scientists ...
Buy the Hardcover Book DNA Tumor Viruses by Blossom Damania at, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on ... DNA Tumor Viruses will focus on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. It will cover most of ... Title:DNA Tumor VirusesFormat:HardcoverDimensions:824 pagesPublished:December 2, 2008Publisher:Springer New YorkLanguage: ... DNA Tumor Viruses. EditorBlossom Damania, James Pipas. Hardcover , December 2, 2008. ...
The complete DNA sequence of lymphocystis disease virus.. Tidona CA1, Darai G. ... DNA polymerase, several protein kinases, two subunits of the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, DNA methyltransferase, the ... Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is the causative agent of lymphocystis disease, which has been reported to occur in over 100 ... The virions contain a single linear double-stranded DNA molecule, which is circularly permuted, terminally redundant, and ...
... double-stranded DNA viruses with potent bacteria killing abilities turned up in Vibrionaceae family bacteria from marine ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - By profiling tail-less, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses from bacteria in ocean samples, researchers ... Modular DNA Assembly of PIK3CA Using Acoustic Liquid Transfer in Nanoliter Volumes ...
Right now, while there are books out there that cover individual viruses that are also covered in this book, there is no single ... It covers most of the viruses that are thought to contribute to human malignancy. This book represents a comprehensive review ... This unique book focuses on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. ... This unique book focuses on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. It covers most of the ...
  • In the appropriate cell, DNA viruses are able to program the cell to replicate the virus using the genes contained within the viral DNA genome. (
  • On invasion of a susceptible cell the virion is disassembled to release the viral genome into the cell, at which time the genes within the viral DNA are transcribed, producing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). (
  • DNA viruses with small DNA genomes have genome sizes of less than 10 kilobasepairs , whereas DNA viruses with large genomes are over 30 kilobasepairs. (
  • Small DNA viruses generally have less than ten genes encoded within the viral genome, whereas large DNA viruses can have anywhere from fifty genes to well over one hundred genes. (
  • We assembled a DNA clone containing the 11,161-nt sequence of the prototype rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), such that it could be transcribed by the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to yield a full-length positive-strand RNA complementary to the VSV genome. (
  • Recovery of virus from DNA was verified by (i) the presence of two genetic tags generating restriction sites in DNA derived from the genome, (ii) direct sequencing of the genomic RNA of the recovered virus, and (iii) production of a VSV recombinant in which the glycoprotein was derived from a second serotype. (
  • They can force cells to make copies of their DNA, which are inserted back in the cell's own genome. (
  • Researchers have long known that DNA's code is made up of four building blocks called nucleotides, commonly abbreviated A, T, G, and C. Before a cell divides, DNA-copying enzymes string these nucleotides together based on existing templates, so that each of the new cells gets its own copy of the genome. (
  • This is a critical piece of information, Stivers says, because when a retrovirus like HIV invades a cell, its first order of business is to make a DNA copy of its own genome, then insert that copy into the host cell's genome. (
  • Cells with high dUTP but little hUNG2 activity succumbed easily to the virus, which appeared to function just fine with a U-ridden genome. (
  • The DNA of ancient viruses first spotted in the Neanderthal genome have now been identified in modern humans - although whether they cause disease is not yet clear. (
  • These retroviral gene sequences make up about 8 per cent of the human genome, and are part of what is sometimes called "junk" or non-coding DNA because they don't contain genetic instructions to make proteins. (
  • When he compared this to the human genome used as a standard reference, he found that none of the sequences overlapped - in other words, it seemed that modern humans did not share this endogenous retroviral DNA with their extinct cousins. (
  • The viruses insert themselves into DNA repeats - patterns that occur in multiple locations throughout the genome, only one of which will carry the sequence in question, so tracking them down is time consuming. (
  • By chance, the regions of the reference genome that Lenz's team studied happened to have come from individuals who lack the endogenous retrovirus sequences found in the Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA. (
  • One of the viruses was found to have invaded the genome of a common ancestor around 100 million years ago with its remnants discovered in almost every mammal in the study. (
  • Our, and other organisms, genome is inhabited by lots of bits of selfish DNA, including retroviruses. (
  • The ones in the genome are called NIRVs-- Non-retroviral Integrated RNA Viruses. (
  • So how the heck does a RNA virus get into a genome? (
  • They are the only creatures that still use RNA to store their genome-- they never upgraded to V2.0, DNA. (
  • RNA virus turns itself into DNA, inserts itself into your genome, makes babby viruses. (
  • Yutin and Koonin, 2012 ) constitute an apparently monophyletic group of eukaryotic viruses with a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome ranging from 100 kb up to 1.26 Mb. (
  • The researchers first tested this approach with DNA nanoswitches designed to target a sequence in the Zika virus genome and demonstrated its ability to detect clinically-relevant levels of Zika RNA in human urine. (
  • That is one of the surprise discoveries made by a pair of Vanderbilt biologists when they sequenced the genome of a virus that attacks Wolbachia, a bacterial parasite that has successfully infected not only black widow spiders but more than half of all arthropod species, which include insects, spiders and crustaceans. (
  • Bordenstein began studying the WO 15 years ago because he was curious about how such a virus survives and flourishes in a symbiotic bacteria like Wolbachiathat has a very small genome. (
  • Once the virus is injected into the host cell, it is targeted towards the nucleus allowing the viral DNA to integrate with the host cell's genome and hijack the host cell's polymerase enzymes to replicate the virus. (
  • This newly transcribed DNA can now be packaged and incorporated into the host genome so that subsequent cell division by the cell produces cells with the viral DNA integrated. (
  • Pictured is one page in a volume of about 1,000 pages, of which more than 100 volumes exist, that reveal the 3.4 billion bases of DNA that comprise the human genome. (
  • In a recently-published book, " The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life ," nature writer David Quammen reveals the journey to discovering that 8 percent of the human genome has viral DNA - in other words, we've got the building blocks for bacteria and viruses in our own genetic make-up. (
  • The virus is called HERV-K, and it incorporated itself - permanently - into the human genome between 2 and 5 million years ago. (
  • Experts estimate that these viruses make up as much as 8 percent of the human genome. (
  • DNA viruses use DNA for their genome . (
  • Viruses that are not DNA viruses use RNA for their genome and are called RNA viruses . (
  • Examples are given for viruses with a single‐stranded DNA genome, either (a) linear ( Parvoviridae , genus Dependovirus ) or (b) circular ( Geminiviridae , genus Mastrevirus ), and with a double‐stranded DNA genome, either (c) linear ( Adenoviridae , genus Mastadenovirus ) or (d) circular ( Papovaviridae , genus Polyomavirus ). (
  • Although completely incorporated into human DNA millions of years ago, HERVs now represent approximately 8% of the human genome. (
  • Viruses for a healthy pregnancy ( Sequences of DNA in the human genome. (
  • Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira. (
  • Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient viral infections have some surprising effects on our bodies and are even essential for a healthy pregnancy, according to an article in the February issue of Microbiology Today. (
  • The virus inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of the host cell, resulting in an irreversible, stable and sometimes lifelong infection. (
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (
  • This is the first time a herpes virus has been recognised to integrate into the human genome. (
  • Illustration of the nucleotide variability within individual Oxford MinION sequencing reads from virus-infected Hamilton County wheat tissue cDNA against the genome of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) Type Strain (AF85169). (
  • One DNA virus genome sequence in particular has them excited. (
  • The hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus that utilizes a reverse transcriptase enzyme to replicate its viral genome, as does HIV. (
  • The hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus that utilizes a reverse transcriptase enzyme to replicate its viral genome, as does HIV Reverse transcription is a notoriously error-prone process that can lead to single amino acid mutations in HBsAg. (
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has a genome made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is replicated by a DNA polymerase. (
  • They can be divided between those that have two strands of DNA in their genome, called double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, and those that have one strand of DNA in their genome, called single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses. (
  • Viruses that have a DNA genome that is replicated through an RNA intermediate by a reverse transcriptase are separately considered reverse transcribing viruses and are assigned to the kingdom Pararnavirae in the realm Riboviria. (
  • The first Baltimore group of DNA viruses are those that have a double-stranded DNA genome. (
  • dsDNA viruses make use of several mechanisms to replicate their genome. (
  • Some dsDNA viruses use a strand displacement method whereby one strand is synthesized from a template strand, and a complementary strand is then synthesized from the prior synthesized strand, forming a dsDNA genome. (
  • Lastly, some dsDNA viruses are replicated as part of a process called replicative transposition whereby a viral genome in a host cell's DNA is replicated to another part of a host genome. (
  • However, because the genome is single-stranded, it is first made into a double-stranded form by a DNA polymerase upon entering a host cell. (
  • The double-stranded form of ssDNA viruses may be produced either directly after entry into a cell or as a consequence of replication of the viral genome. (
  • The resultant minimal plasmid-based system may be used to synthesize any RNA virus, preferably viruses with a negative single stranded RNA genome. (
  • However, in the latest experiments, a pair of researchers from Columbia University and the New York Genome Center ( NYGC ) have come up with a new technique to store massive amounts of data on DNA, and the results are marvelous. (
  • A copy of this 1895 French film, 'Arrival of a train at La Ciotat,' was encoded into synthetic DNA molecules and later retrieved using a new coding strategy developed by Yaniv Erlich and Dina Zielinski at Columbia University and New York Genome Center. (
  • Discovery of the pressure-driven infection mechanism the first in a human virus opens the door to new treatments for viral infections, they add in a study in the Journal of the American Chemical Society ( 'Herpes Virus Genome, The Pressure Is On' ). (
  • They describe how HSV-1 enters cells, docks with portals on the nucleus and injects DNA with high pressure caused by tight packing of the capsid, the tough shell that houses the viral genome. (
  • While the virus is hiding out, part of its genome is being expressed and producing oncogenic proteins that can contribute to cancer formation, and it's in EBV's latent form that nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) begins to develop. (
  • If that weren't bad enough, University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers discovered that a certain epigenetic modification of the EBV genome - a change in how DNA is expressed, but not a change to the DNA itself - could make EBV more infectious and revert to its lytic form. (
  • This genome displayed a typical GcV architecture, with a 2,264-nt circular DNA molecule carrying a capsid gene on 1 strand and 2 genes on the opposite strand, which coded for Rep1 (involved in replication initiation) and Rep2 (involved in replication termination), respectively. (
  • Insertion of DNA sequences at a unique restriction enzyme site engineered for vector purposes into the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1, pp. 2931-2939. (
  • Efficient targeted insertion of an unselected marker into the vaccinia virus Genome", pp. 102-103. (
  • Deletion of a 9,000 base-pair segment of the vaccinia virus genome that encodes nonessential polypeptides," J. of Virology 40:387-395 (1981). (
  • The (-) DNA strand is longer than a genome length, with a covalently bound polymerase and a redundant flap at the 5′ end. (
  • The new study shows that as many as 3% of the SAR11 cells can have the virus multiply and split, or lyse, the cell - a much higher percentage than for most viruses that inhabit a host's genome. (
  • The researchers found that a virus was complicating the task of sequencing the genome. (
  • The study looked at the entire span of DNA, or genome, from people from around the world, including a large number from Africa -- where the ancestors of modern humans originated before migrating around the world. (
  • Nearly complete viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of a new parvovirus distinct from known human and animal parvoviruses and of two related TTV-like viruses highly divergent from both the TTV and TTV-like minivirus groups. (
  • RNA viruses have historically been utilized due to the typically small genome size and existing reverse transcription machinery present. (
  • With synthetic live viruses, it is not whole viruses that are synthesized but rather their genome at first, both in the case of DNA and RNA viruses. (
  • The ability to synthesize viruses has far-reaching consequences, since viruses can no longer be regarded as extinct, as long as the information of their genome sequence is known and permissive cells are available. (
  • As of March 2020, the full-length genome sequences of 9,240 different viruses, including the smallpox virus, are publicly available in an online database maintained by the National Institutes of Health. (
  • Viruses with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genomes are called DNA viruses. (
  • These can be further subdivided into those with "small" DNA genomes or "large" DNA genomes. (
  • Viruses with small DNA genomes include human papillomavirus (HPV). (
  • The cleavage of viral DNA genomes with restriction enzymes and the cloning of such DNA fragments in bacterial p1asmids has led to the amplification of selected viral DNA fragments for sequencing and gene expression. (
  • RNA virus genomes which can be transcribed to their cDNA form were also cloned in bacterial p1asmids, facilitating the study of RNA virus genes. (
  • Because of their relatively small genomes and striking biological effects, it is generally assumed that DNA tumor viruses have evolved to target the minimal number of cellular nodes and pathways required for transformation. (
  • Scientists have learned that a protein called Hemo, made by a fetus and the placenta, is produced from viral DNA that entered our ancestors' genomes 100 million years ago. (
  • The principle could also be applied to other retroviruses, he says, since they, like HIV, all make DNA copies of their genomes as part of the infection process. (
  • Last year, Jack Lenz's team at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York began looking for signs of endogenous retroviruses in the ancient genomes, a class of virus that not only invades cells but worms its way into DNA. (
  • When this article was first published on 18 November 2013, the number of ancient virus sequences found in the genomes of people with cancer was wrong. (
  • The folks in this paper found Sigma Virus in the genomes of the Drosophila genus (fruit flies). (
  • The Sigma Viruses are pirating the ERV pirate to get into the genomes (at least in these three cases)! (
  • Using a new method they developed with partner labs at Oxford University and the University of Birmingham, they eventually were able to sequence whole Zika genomes directly from clinical samples without having to first isolate the virus and culture it. (
  • The scientists also found that WO shares a number of other segments of DNA with animal genomes. (
  • Dr Jones commented on the benefits of the research: "Characterising insecticide target genes in mosquito DNA as well as those in genomes of other species, will highlight differences that perhaps can be exploited in developing improved insecticides that act specifically on carriers of disease, whilst sparing non-target organisms such as bees. (
  • There is no one subtype for this synthetic DNA but instead it was made by doing multiple sequence alignments of the available genomes from NCBI and is synthetic mixture. (
  • The study was done by scientists from the University of Melbourne and the University of California, Berkeley, who identified 351 different huge phages, all with genomes four or more times larger than the average genomes of viruses that prey on bacteria. (
  • Most ssDNA viruses contain circular genomes that are replicated via rolling circle replication (RCR). (
  • Here we describe a previously uncharacterized group of DNA transposons designated Phantom identified in the genomes of a wide range of eukaryotic taxa, including many animals, and provide evidence for its inclusion within the Mutator superfamily. (
  • Circular replication initiation protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genomes are found in diverse group II virus families, which all possess a conserved Rep-encoding gene and a nonenveloped icosahedral capsid, except geminiviruses, which have twinned particles ( 1 ). (
  • Many bacteria have viruses that exist in their genomes. (
  • In addition to finding these new stretches, the scientists also confirmed 17 other pieces of virus DNA found in human genomes by other scientists in recent years. (
  • That's the name for the ancient infectious viruses that inserted a DNA-based copy of their own RNA genetic material into our ancestors' genomes. (
  • HIV-1 and HTLV-1 have such different mutation rates if polymerase error is the only operating mechanism driving evolution of these viruses. (
  • Computer-assisted analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of several putative gene products with significant homologies to entries in protein data banks, such as the two major subunits of the viral DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, several protein kinases, two subunits of the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, DNA methyltransferase, the viral major capsid protein, insulin-like growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor receptor homolog. (
  • DNA viruses like the poxvirus are packaged with their polymerase machinery so they can replicate in the host cytoplasm directly. (
  • Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. (
  • The phylogeny of NV was reconstructed using protein homologues encoded by nine nucleocytoplasmic virus orthologous genes (NCVOGs): NCVOG0022 - mcp, NCVOG0038 - DNA polymerase B elongation subunit, NCVOG0076 - VV A18-type helicase, NCVOG0249 - VV A32-type ATPase, NCVOG0262 - AL2 VLTF3-like transcription factor, NCVOG0271 - RNA polymerase II subunit II, NCVOG0274 - RNA polymerase II subunit I, NCVOG0276 - ribonucleotide reductase small subunit and NCVOG1117 - mRNA capping enzyme. (
  • Development of a new duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for hepatitis B viral DNA detection. (
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase . (
  • First, a transcription preinitiation complex binds to the DNA upstream of the site where transcription begins, allowing for the recruitment of a host RNA polymerase. (
  • ssDNA RCR is initiated by an endonuclease that bonds to and cleaves the positive strand, allowing a DNA polymerase to use the negative strand as a template for replication. (
  • The new ssDNA may be packaged into virions or replicated by a DNA polymerase to form a double-stranded form for transcription or continuation of the replication cycle. (
  • The virus will instill the genetic code specifically to the membrane of the host DNA then with the help of RNA polymerase duplication happens. (
  • Mutation level in DNA is lower because DNA polymerase is having refining activity. (
  • The delayed-early DNA polymerase promoter of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), officially known as Invertebrate iridescent virus, was fine mapped by constructing a series of increasing deletions and by introducing point mutations. (
  • The AAAAT motif was also found in the DNA polymerase promoter region of other iridoviruses and in other putative CIV delayed-early genes. (
  • The incomplete DNA strand, however, which is the strand elongated by the virion DNA polymerase reaction, did not contain a detectable amount of polypeptide as did the complete strand. (
  • Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase is a hepatitis B viral protein. (
  • It is a DNA polymerase that can use either DNA or RNA templates and a ribonuclease H that cuts RNA in the duplex. (
  • The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase is a multifunctional enzyme, with both RNA-dependent and DNA-dependent polymerase functions, as well as an RNase H function. (
  • However, the (+) DNA strand synthesis is uncompleted by the polymerase, and there is a gap exists down to the 3′ end of the (+) DNA strand. (
  • 7. As a general rule all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus, except the Pox viruses which replicate in the cytoplasm We will use Adenoviruses as a model system for understanding replication of DNA viruses in general Most DNA viruses are naked (see model of soccer ball), with 12 blue penton bases on the vertices and 20 yellow hexons on the rest of the face. (
  • This sets up the general replication scheme: first of enzymes to help the virus replicate (early stage), then double-stranded DNA replication (semi-conservative mode) begins (late stage), followed by translation of structural proteins, such as the penton and hexon precursors. (
  • Cloning and expression of viral genes in mammalian cells was made possible by the construction of shuttle plasmid vectors which carry the origins of DNA replication from bacteria and/or mammalian viruses. (
  • The ability to generate VSV from DNA opens numerous possibilities for the genetic analysis of VSV replication. (
  • Benkovic, S.J. Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome. (
  • The virus DNA is present in the latently infected cell nucleus, but there is little DNA replication and only minimal expression of virus-encoded genes. (
  • The virus can be reactivated from latency following an appropriate stimulus, however, and reactivation causes lytic virus replication [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • DNA viruses have evolved very different replication strategies as well as a rich variety of molecular interactions with their host cells. (
  • They frequently subvert cellular pathways involved in transcription, translation, DNA replication and cellular defence. (
  • Early/late gene expression (transcription) and the DNA replication stages can occur either in the cytoplasm (poxviruses) or in the nucleus of the infected cell. (
  • General steps during virus DNA replication. (
  • Boehmer PE and Lehman IR (1997) Herpes simplex virus DNA replication. (
  • DePamphilis ML (1996) DNA Replication in Eukaryotic Cells. (
  • Gutierrez C (1999) Geminivirus DNA replication. (
  • We were able to show that the virus contains DNA ( 4 ), and within a few years we gave the first evidence of its cyclic, or circular, shape ( 5 ), which is important for two critical biological events: DNA replication and integration. (
  • DNA viruses have always been the most important model systems for eukaryotic DNA replication. (
  • What is clearly not possible is to summarize the enormous research effort involving these diverse viruses in a single volume and this is circumvented by concentrating on the theme of protein -protein interactions in DNA virus replication. (
  • This includes the very earliest developments in DNA sequencing, discovery of oncogenes and oncogene cooperation, identification of tumour suppressors including p53 and pRb, identification of regulators of apoptosis, such as Bak and Bax, the earliest descriptions of signal transduction pathways, RNA splicing and polyadenylation, transcriptional enhancers and promoter regulation and identification of factors regulating DNA replication. (
  • Where would the Epstein Barr virus do replication? (
  • Since E1 is essential for the assembly of the virus particles, our adenovirus system produces only replication-incompetent adenovirus. (
  • While Baltimore classification is chiefly based on transcription of mRNA, viruses in each Baltimore group also typically share their manner of replication. (
  • dsDNA viruses can be subdivided between those that replicate in the nucleus, and as such are relatively dependent on host cell machinery for transcription and replication, and those that replicate in the cytoplasm, in which case they have evolved or acquired their own means of executing transcription and replication. (
  • Then it follows the DNA replication process. (
  • 3. DNA replication takes place in the nucleus while RNA replication takes place in the cytoplasm. (
  • The protein bound covalently to HBV DNA could be involved in the replication of the complete viral DNA strand and/or endonucleolytic generation of linear unit-length DNA pieces from replicative intermediates, although its function and origin are not yet known. (
  • These "early" proteins are also important for promoting "late" viral gene synthesis and preparing the cell for the production of progeny virus. (
  • Following late gene synthesis, which includes proteins that are important for replicating and encasing the virus, progeny virions are then released by the infected cell to invade other cells so that the process can be repeated. (
  • Viruses and bacteria all have different molecules, such as proteins, on the outside that mark out different strains. (
  • The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis. (
  • These purified proteins have been used to reconstitute DNA synthesis in vitro and are a well-characterized model system. (
  • RNA viruses infect cells by injecting RNA into the cytoplasm of the host cells to transcribe and replicate viral proteins. (
  • Unlike DNA viruses which must always transcribe viral DNA into RNA to synthesize proteins, RNA can skip the transcription process. (
  • This includes positive-strand RNA viruses which are distinct from negative-strand RNA viruses, which require the added step of mRNA transcription before they can be translated to proteins. (
  • The team, led by Drs. Theodore C. Pierson and Barney S. Graham, engineered circular pieces of DNA to contain genes that code for viral proteins. (
  • When the vaccine is injected into muscle, cells read the genes and make Zika proteins, which self-assemble into virus-like particles. (
  • Both experimental vaccines, called VRC5283 and VRC5288, were engineered to prompt cells to produce the Zika virus structural proteins premembrane (prM) and envelope (E). Both vaccines included portions of an unrelated virus to improve protein expression. (
  • Opposing oncogenic activities of small DNA tumor virus transforming proteins. (
  • DNA here acts as a pattern for RNA virus then transcribes it into viral proteins. (
  • Interestingly three Phantom proteins were also identified in two insect viruses and phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal movement from insect to virus, providing a new line of evidence for the role of viruses in the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons in animals. (
  • Alex Evilevitch and colleagues point out that the viruses responsible for influenza, AIDS and other infections that affect millions of people annually are quick to develop resistance to drugs that target viral proteins. (
  • For a DNA virus, the virion is composed of a set of DNA genes protected by a proteincontaining coat called a capsid. (
  • Studies of DNA viruses have led to the identification of viral genes responsible for cancer induction and paving the way to our current understanding of cancer at the molecular level [ 2 ]. (
  • A retrovirus invades a host cell and inserts its genes into that cell's DNA. (
  • These viral genes co-opt the cell's machinery, using it to make new viruses that escape to infect more cells. (
  • Our cells can coat their DNA with molecules that suppress viral genes, for example. (
  • When that molecule binds to DNA, it turns on nearby genes whose products fight pathogens. (
  • Gene regulation is why a brain cell is different from a blood cell is different from a kidney cell-even though they all have the same set of genes in their DNA. (
  • The ability to genetically engineer Wolbachia could lead to inserting genes that cause the bacteria to produce traits that increase the effectiveness of usingWolbachia against dengue and Zika viruses. (
  • Because they're part of the DNA, they are passed down from generation to generation in the same way as genes for eye color or height. (
  • Hence, it was uncertain whether cells were transformed by the expression of viral genes persisting in the cells or alternatively if the virus altered the cells by a hit-and-run mechanism, changing the expression of cellular genes and then leaving. (
  • Viruses in general carry genes between cells, including genes that confer resistance to antibiotics. (
  • The reassortant viruses generated by cotransfection of plasmids may comprise genes encoding the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from an influenza virus currently infecting the population and the internal genes from an attenuated influenza virus. (
  • That's why we started to look and see if the loss of this modification on DNA is not only important for regulation of the cellular genes but also for what the EBV virus does in the cell. (
  • The authors believe that bacterial genes that hitch a ride with the viruses could help other SAR11 maintain their competitive advantage in nutrient-poor conditions. (
  • Nineteen new pieces of DNA -- left by viruses that first infected our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago -- have just been found, lurking between our own genes. (
  • DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is the major storage for genetic codes that contains information for the functioning and advancement of all living organisms. (
  • Bovine papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid: a novel eukaryotic cloning vector. (
  • The DNA strand is viral DNA that forms during the lytic phase of the virus life cycle, where the viral DNA exists within the host cell separately from the host cell's DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). (
  • Herpes viruses are double stranded DNA viruses assigned to Group I . The Herpesviridae Study Group has proposed that herpes viruses be assigned to a newly defined order, Herpesvirales. (
  • Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that can infect a broad range of cell types including dividing and non-dividing cells and are, therefore, widely used vehicles for gene delivery. (
  • DNA viruses constitute two Baltimore groups: Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses, and Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses. (
  • Hemo is not the only protein with such an alien origin: Our DNA contains roughly 100,000 pieces of viral DNA. (
  • Our findings suggest, but do not prove, that the DNA sequence of the open reading frames is colinear with viral protein sequences. (
  • Since the leading and lagging strands are synthesized in opposite directions, coordination of DNA synthesis as well as priming and unwinding is accomplished by several protein complexes. (
  • Mathews MB (1996) Interactions between viruses and the cellular machinery for protein synthesis. (
  • Scientists at The Wistar Institute have designed and tested the first-of-its-kind synthetic DNA vaccine against Powassan virus (POWV), targeting portions of the virus envelope protein. (
  • As an intermediate molecule between DNA and protein, mRNA offers a critical junction for the cell to tightly regulate the flow of information. (
  • The viral capsid protein forms an extended α-helical structure that wraps around the viral DNA, possibly stabilizing the A-form DNA. (
  • Although almost half of the capsid protein is unstructured in solution, this unstructured region folds in the virion into a single extended α helix that wraps around the DNA. (
  • In this study, we have engineered an optimized plasmid DNA vector expressing the RSV fusion (F) protein (DNA-F). DNA-F was as effective as live RSV in mice at inducing neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, protection against infection, and high mRNA expression of lung interferon γ after viral challenge. (
  • RNA or ribonucleic acid is a nucleic polymer acid that performs a significant role in translating the genetic code from the DNA to protein products. (
  • The cytoplasmic aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a hallmark of degenerating neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and subsets of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). (
  • A significant number of RNA viruses assemble their protein containers and genomic material simultaneously. (
  • Hepatitis B virus DNA contains a tightly bound protein which was not removed by healing to 60 degrees C with 2% SDS, 2% mercaptoethanol. (
  • The binding site of the protein was mapped by extraction of restriction endonuclease digests with phenol and analysis of the digests for missing DNA fragments. (
  • The protein was localized to a site near the 5' end of the complete viral DNA strand. (
  • The 5' end of neither viral DNA strand could be phosphorylated in a reaction with polynucleotide kinase, consistent with attachment of protein to the 5' ends. (
  • Furthermore, hepadnavirus polymerases contain a terminal protein (TP) domain that contains a tyrosine residue that serves as a primer for the synthesis of the (-) DNA strand. (
  • Molecular model of the DNA-binding domain of a viral protein (pink-blue) bound to a lytic gene promoter element (viral strand of DNA, left). (
  • The viral protein is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcription factor ZEBRA (Zta, Z, EB1), also known as BZLF1 trans-activator protein. (
  • Amplification products are subcloned and sequenced, and their similarities to known viruses were tested using BLASTn (for nucleic acid similarity) and tBLASTx (for protein similarity) ( 1 ). (
  • In April 2015, researchers in Brazil reported the first case of Zika virus -finally putting a name to the mysterious rash, fever, and joint pain-causing illness that had been swarming the northeast corner of the country. (
  • The nanoswitches also successfully differentiated between Zika virus and Dengue virus, which occur in overlapping geographical regions and cause similar symptoms, demonstrating the nanoswitches' potential to avoid misdiagnoses. (
  • This capability could be used to enhance ongoing efforts that use Wolbachia to fight dengue fever and Zika virus. (
  • Dr Andrew Jones, Senior Lecturer in Molecular Biology and Genomics at Oxford Brookes University, has worked with an international team of experts to provide the DNA sequence of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that spreads dengue fever and the Zika virus. (
  • Two experimental Zika virus DNA vaccines developed by NIH scientists protected monkeys against Zika infection. (
  • Digitally colorized electron micrograph of Zika virus particles (red). (
  • Zika virus has been reported in more than 70 countries and territories worldwide since 2015. (
  • Scientists from NIAID's Vaccine Research Center developed 2 experimental DNA vaccines against Zika virus. (
  • The researchers vaccinated groups of rhesus macaques using the 2 different Zika DNA vaccines in different doses. (
  • Eight weeks after the first immunization, the monkeys were exposed to Zika virus. (
  • The spherical surface of Dengue, like the closely related Zika virus, are studded with multiple latch points to catch a cell surface. (
  • POWV is an RNA virus belonging to the flavivirus family, the same as Zika virus, but passed to people by ticks instead of mosquitoes. (
  • Genetic material falling on Earth from outer space could create a supercharged version of the Zika virus, scientists have warned. (
  • Worryingly, he said, is the apparent ability of the Zika virus to pick up foreign DNA and adapt quickly to become more virulent. (
  • Professor Wickramasinghe said: 'We believe this has already happened with the Zika virus. (
  • It is not just the Zika virus, there are more viruses on the planet than any other living creature and these could all could be affected. (
  • Like all viruses, DNA viruses are small when compared to the cells they infect and as such are obligate intracellular parasites (parasites that can only replicate within cells). (
  • There are six different DNA virus families that infect and may cause significant disease in humans. (
  • Adenovirus, herpesvirus, and poxvirus are all examples of large DNA viruses that infect humans. (
  • Other herpes viruses that infect humans include Epstein-Barr virus , which causes mononucleosis and is important in a variety of human cancers, and varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. (
  • The final large DNA virus that can infect humans is smallpox. (
  • If a retrovirus happens to infect an egg or sperm, its DNA can potentially be passed to the next generation and the generation after that. (
  • But over the generations, the viral DNA mutates, and endogenous retroviruses eventually lose the ability to infect new cells. (
  • Oncolytic virus immunotherapy utilizes natural or genetically altered DNA and RNA viruses to infect tumor cells and prevent them from initiating cancer immune evasion. (
  • A trap could be effective against many different viruses because, in order to infect their host, all viruses must first latch onto a cell wall and disgorge their genetic instructions into the cell. (
  • We show, in its entirety, a complex machine that allows a virus to efficiently infect its unfortunate host cell, the E. coli . (
  • DNA viruses are ubiquitous worldwide, especially in marine environments where they form an important part of marine ecosystems, and infect both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (
  • Instead of using the SARS-CoV-2 virus, researchers artificially replicated a section of DNA from a plant-infecting virus, which cannot infect humans, and added it to a millilitre of water at a similar concentration to SARS-CoV-2 copies found in infected patients' respiratory samples. (
  • Researchers already knew that several viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages, use the same high-pressure mechanism to shoot their DNA into bacteria nuclei. (
  • The virus is of a type that spends most of its time dormant in the host's DNA but occasionally erupts to infect other cells, potentially carrying some of its host's genetic material along with it. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Thomas Frieden along with public health and provider groups want to turn that around by investing in a sophisticated technology called "advanced molecular detection" that determines the genetic map of the viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause disease. (
  • The viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause disease each have their own individual genetic makeups. (
  • It does so by analyzing a small sample of virus or bacteria, for example. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - By profiling tail-less, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses from bacteria in ocean samples, researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Albert Einstein College of Medicine have identified a previously unappreciated family of autolykiviruses capable of killing marine bacteria. (
  • The large dark patch is bacteria DNA that has been degraded by the phage. (
  • Discovering DNA related to the black widow spider toxin gene came as a total surprise because it is the first time that a phage - a virus that infects bacteria - has been found carrying animal-like DNA," said Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Seth Bordenstein. (
  • We contain some ancestry from bacteria, some ancestry from viruses and some ancestry of course from other primates. (
  • But it happens also in higher creatures, so that we humans contain some stretches of DNA that have come to us sideways from bacteria, and sizable stretches of DNA that have come to us sideways from viruses in the course of viral infections that have gotten into the reproductive cells of humans and been passed down," he said. (
  • Scientists have discovered hundreds of unusually large, bacteria-killing viruses with capabilities normally associated with living organisms. (
  • These viruses of bacteria are a part of biology, of replicating entities, that we know very little about. (
  • He said: 'Evidence is mounting that through this process benign viruses and bacteria have the potential to become harmful. (
  • University of Washington oceanographers discovered that the bacteria that dominate seawater, known as Pelagibacter or SAR11, hosts a unique virus. (
  • There are 10 times more viruses in the ocean than there are bacteria," Morris said. (
  • It is therefore able to cover a broad viral genetic diversity, can discriminate with great accuracy, even when a mixture of viruses is present, and can remove the need for conventional sequencing techniques. (
  • A study shows how extensively viruses from as far back as the dinosaur era still thrive in our genetic material. (
  • The pathway is particularly attractive because it is able to account for important features of the latent response, including the specificity for neurons, the specificity for neurons of the peripheral compared to the central nervous system, the high rate of genetic recombination in HSV1-infected cells, and the genetic identity of infecting and reactivated virus. (
  • DNA vaccination is a novel and rapidly developing approach for prevention and therapy of disease, which utilizes genetically modified plasmids with added genetic sequences that encode specific antigens and allows the body to produce them. (
  • It is a double stranded circular DNA virus with approximately 10 genotypes designated A to J based on its genetic variability11. (
  • Viruses in a Baltimore group do not necessarily share genetic relation or morphology. (
  • However, it will be important to assess their risk of genetic reversion to the wild-type virus. (
  • Mutation is the major cause of changes in the genetic code of the viruses. (
  • 5. In DNA viruses, viral genetic code is injected in the host DNA for duplication and decoding. (
  • To retrieve their files, they used modern sequencing technology to read the DNA strands, followed by software to translate the genetic code back into binary. (
  • Viruses constitute the most abundant biological entities and a large reservoir of genetic diversity on Earth. (
  • These unique viral DNA communities mostly relate to each other and present some minor genetic overlap with other environments studied, including an Arctic Ocean virome. (
  • Despite common environmental conditions in polar ecosystems, the Arctic and Antarctic DNA viromes differ at the fine-grain genetic level while sharing a similar taxonomic composition. (
  • They control microbial abundance and community structure ( 3 ), and microbial genetic diversity and evolution are shaped by virus-mediated gene transfer and host range ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • And one stretch of newfound DNA, found in about 50 of the 2,500 people studied, contains an intact, full genetic recipe for an entire virus, say the scientists who published their findings today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • Samples were analyzed for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), BK polyomavirus (BKV), human herpesvirus-6B and -6A (HHV-6B, HHV-6A), adenovirus (AdV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by real-time quantitative PCR. (
  • We retrospectively investigated infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6), or adenovirus (AdV) during the first 6-12 months after pediatric SCT. (
  • Greber UF (1998) Virus assembly and disassembly: the adenovirus cysteine protease as a trigger factor. (
  • This edition of the meeting includes close to 120 talks and 100 poster presentations and is a forum for discussing the latest developments in the molecular biology of DNA tumour viruses (SV40, polyoma, Adenovirus and HPV). (
  • Therefore the antiviral activity of Bioaron C[R] was tested on a DNA virus (adenovirus 5, Adeno 5) as well as on a broad panel of enveloped or non-enveloped RNA viruses. (
  • Arctic viromes are dominated by unknown and single-stranded DNA viruses with no close relatives in the database. (
  • To piece together the story, the University of Utah team first trawled through previously published genomic data, looking for stretches of DNA that bind to a molecule known for switching immune cells into attack mode. (
  • The system's two vital components are high levels of a molecule that becomes embedded in viral DNA like a code written in invisible ink, and an enzyme that, when it reads the code, switches from repairing the DNA to chopping it up into unusable pieces. (
  • The DNA molecule is known to possess three discrete single-stranded discontinuities, often referred to as "gaps," two in one strand and one in the other. (
  • The virions contain a single linear double-stranded DNA molecule, which is circularly permuted, terminally redundant, and heavily methylated at cytosines in CpG sequences. (
  • The cyclic configuration explains how a complete molecule of the SV 40 DNA can be integrated without losses. (
  • The development of recombinant DNA technology has made a marked impact on molecular virology. (
  • For decades, we've seen conflicting reports on whether each of these components helped protect cells from viruses," says James Stivers, Ph.D., a professor of pharmacology and molecular sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine's Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences. (
  • Their study is providing key information for designing strategies of virus control and, at the same time, DNA viruses are extremely useful molecular tools to delineate the mechanisms behind basic cellular processes. (
  • It became clear fairly soon that the molecular biology of these viruses could be worked out, and I set out to find the molecular basis of cancer induction. (
  • Nakano et al, "Molecular genetics of vaccinia virus: Demonstration of marker rescue," Proc. (
  • This book will represent a comprehensive review of the field of DNA tumor virology. (
  • It will cover most of the viruses that are thought to contribute to human malignancy.This book will represent a comprehensive review of the field of DNA tumor virology. (
  • This book represents a comprehensive review of the field of DNA tumor virology. (
  • RNA modifications have generated much interest in the virology field, as recent works have shown that many viruses harbor these marks and modify cellular marks. (
  • Two major DNA variants present in serially propagated stocks of the WR strain of vaccinia virus," J. of Virology 37:1000-1010 (1981). (
  • Synthetic virology is a branch of virology engaged in the study and engineering of synthetic man-made viruses. (
  • It is a multidisciplinary research field at the intersection of virology, synthetic biology, computational biology, and DNA nanotechnology, from which it borrows and integrates its concepts and methodologies. (
  • Hepatitis B is another small DNA virus that infects the liver, causes hepatitis, and is associated with liver cancer. (
  • The nonenveloped, rod-shaped virus SIRV2 ( Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2) infects the hyperthermophilic acidophile Sulfolobus islandicus , which lives at 80°C and pH 3. (
  • The causative microorganism is the orf virus, an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus group, which generally infects sheep, goats, and various other domestic and wild ovine animals. (
  • When the Epstein-Barr virus infects human cells, the virus takes on either its "latent" or "lytic" forms. (
  • Ever since, geneticists have been poring over the ancient DNA sequences for an insight into Stone Age life . (
  • Lenz found 14 retroviral gene sequences in the Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA. (
  • That was until Robert Belshaw at Plymouth University, UK, and Gkikas Magiorkinis at the University of Oxford, who study whether these viral DNA sequences contribute to disease, decided to take a closer look. (
  • These sequences are more typical of eukaryotic viruses, not phages," Bordenstein commented. (
  • In this study, a data set of NV DNA sequences was generated and assembled as two non-overlapping contigs of 306,448 bp and then used to conduct a comprehensive systematics analysis using Bayesian inference of phylogeny for NV, other sNCLDV and representative members of six families of the NCLDV superfamily. (
  • The Michigan team used methods for characterizing repetitive DNA sequences that Kidd and his team had developed, while Coffin and Williams used complementary techniques. (
  • The ability to perform amino acid-based similarity searches using the translated products of sequenced amplification products therefore allows the identification of viral sequences more divergent from already known viruses than do methods relying on nucleic acid hybridization. (
  • After a single infection, an endogenous retrovirus may build up hundreds of copies of itself in its host's DNA. (
  • Lytic infection refers to the situation in which the virus replicates in a host cell and causes its lysis, releasing hundreds to thousands of progeny virions. (
  • In a lytic infection the virus is exposed to components of the immune response that have the potential to clear the virus from the host. (
  • As a result, the virus can survive an otherwise effective immune response and be reactivated later to spread its infection in a less hostile immunological environment [ 4 ]. (
  • Progeny virus from this initial infection is able to traffic to sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion where a latent infection is produced. (
  • Virus reactivated from latently infected neurons migrates back to the site of the initial infection in the oral epithelium producing a second lytic infection. (
  • As a consequence of immunosuppression, patients are at risk to get infected with viruses and other pathogens or to have viral reactivation from previous infection. (
  • The impact of infection by multiple viruses in transplanted individuals and frequency of these events has been poorly described. (
  • Other potential reasons for increased mortality risk include immunomodulation following virus detection by the immune system, increased medication to treat infection, or other complications associated with the infection such as respiratory failure. (
  • The review, titled "Neural cell responses upon exposure to human endogenous retroviruses," highlights the role that environmental factors, such as infection, inflammation, mutations, drugs or infection with other viruses could play in the well-established epidemiological link between HERVs and neurological disorders. (
  • Importantly, the bivalent vaccine generated a balanced immunity against DV1 and DV2 infection, which emits light for development of new type of tetravalent vaccine against dengue viruses," says corresponding author Dr. Jing An (Capital Medical University, China). (
  • Researchers have discovered a tube-shaped structure that forms temporarily in a certain type of virus to deliver its DNA during the infection process, and then dissolves after its job is completed. (
  • Epithelial infection is cleared but some viruses escapes & invade the local sensory neurones, how HSV escape antibody surveillance? (
  • At this point, we know very little about the implications of this type of infection, but the section of the chromosome into which the virus appears to integrate is important to the maintenance of normal immune function," said Caroline Breese Hall, professor of paediatrics and Medicine at URMC, and author of the study. (
  • Human herpes virus-6 or HHV-6 causes roseola, an infection that is nearly universal by the age of three. (
  • A congenital infection of HHV-6 - or one that is present at birth - produces high levels of virus in the body but scientists (doctors) do not know whether it produces any developmental or immune system problems. (
  • HHV-6 virus is a closely related virus to CMV, and the congenital infection rate of CMV is similar to that of congenital HHV-6 - about one percent. (
  • The study, published as a letter in the Journal of Hospital Infection , aimed to safely simulate how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, may spread across surfaces in a hospital. (
  • Evilevitch and colleagues conclude that evolution has preserved this effective technique as a key step in viral infection making it a desirable target for future treatments to defeat HSV-1 and other viruses that work the same way. (
  • During a lytic infection, the virus actively produces infectious particles in an effort to spread to other cells. (
  • A latent infection typically occurs once the immune system suppresses a lytic infection, and the virus 'hides' in host cells, not actively replicating. (
  • The lytic infection allows EBV to spread to many other cells in the nasopharynx, presumably spreading the cancer-causing virus. (
  • We think that latent infection contributes to NPC at later stages, but we believe that lytic infection, which occurs early in NPC development, is also required for formation of this tumor because it helps the virus spread. (
  • PCR testing of blood is clinically useful in potential cases of disseminated HSV infection where it is suspected that the virus has spread to other parts of the body other than oral or genital. (
  • The herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 DNA PCR is a test that can detect an active infection of type-1 and type-2, as well as differentiate between them. (
  • A sequence-independent PCR amplification method was used to identify viral nucleic acids in the plasma samples of 25 individuals presenting with symptoms of acute viral infection following high-risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. (
  • DNase-SISPA was used here to determine whether known and previously uncharacterized viruses could be identified in the plasma samples of 25 patients suffering from acute viral infection syndrome. (
  • Specimens for analysis were plasma samples from subjects screened for acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Options Project but found to be HIV negative. (
  • For many viruses, viral RNA is infectious when introduced into a cell (during infection or after reverse transcription). (
  • The researchers focused on the dengue virus, which causes up to 20,000 deaths a year. (
  • In a new study , researchers inoculated mice with a new DNA vaccine candidate (pVAX1-D1ME) in order to evaluate its efficiency. (
  • Newswise - TROY, N.Y. - By folding snippets of DNA into the shape of a five-pointed star using structural DNA nanotechnology, researchers have created a trap that captures Dengue virus as it floats in the bloodstream. (
  • Recently, researchers have been investigating EBV DNA as a potential biomarker in the blood for nasopharyngeal cancer detection, monitoring, and prognosis . (
  • DNA screening for the virus that causes cervical cancer is more effective than Pap-smear-like methods for detecting pre-cancerous cells, even in women vaccinated against the virus, Australian researchers have found. (
  • Researchers have learned how the bacterial virus, bacteriophage T4, attacks its host, the E. coli bacterium. (
  • Researchers placed the water containing this DNA on the hand rail of a hospital bed in an isolation room - that is, a room for higher-risk or infected patients - and then sampled 44 sites across a hospital ward over the following five days. (
  • Just last year, Microsoft purchased 10 Million strands of synthetic DNA from San Francisco DNA synthesis startup called Twist Bioscience and collaborated with researchers from the University of Washington to focus on using DNA as a data storage medium. (
  • But How Did the Researchers Store Digital Data on DNA? (
  • Calling their process a 'DNA Fountain,' the researchers first compressed all the data into a single master archive and split it into short strings of binary digits, made up of ones and zeros. (
  • When the probes are in contact with the test sample and if they are complementary to the viral or bacterial (DNA or RNA) nucleic acids, they bind closely to it. (
  • The full-length plasmid is unstable in bacterial hosts, and is distributed as purified plasmid DNA. (
  • The DNA is entirely in the A-form, which suggests a common mechanism with bacterial spores for protecting DNA in the most adverse environments. (
  • Although only about a hundred nanometers in length and width, bacteriophage T4 is considered the ' Tyrannosaurus rex ' of bacteriophages as it is one of the largest of the bacterial viruses. (
  • They appear to have multiple origins, as viruses in Monodnaviria appear to have emerged from archaeal and bacterial plasmids on multiple occasions, though the origins of Duplodnaviria and Varidnaviria are less clear. (
  • Biochemical and cytologic testing, bacterial cultures, and PCR of pericardial fluid samples for cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster and herpes simplex viruses, parvovirus B19, fungal 18S rRNA, bacterial 16S rRNA, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative. (
  • The complete nucleotide sequence (8024 nucleotides) of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. (
  • TTV is a non-enveloped, single-stranded, circular DNA virus with a genomic length of 3. (
  • Three contigs were of viral origin (viral first hit, E-value ≤1E-03), all belonging to the ssDNA circular viruses. (
  • Genomic features of gemycircularviruses HV-GcV1 and HV-GcV2 and of a novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus, HV-CV1, including hairpin structure and predicted open reading frames. (
  • Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of their unicellular hosts or by causing diseases in animals. (
  • Most of our viral DNA comes from one group in particular: retroviruses, a group that includes HIV. (
  • Just as we have defenses against free-living viruses, we have also developed defenses against endogenous retroviruses. (
  • Some endogenous retroviruses offer protection against other viruses, for example. (
  • So that viral DNA got passed down from generation to human generation as so-called endogenous retroviruses. (
  • But retroviruses are not the only group of viruses who have made themselves right at home in our DNA-- once we started looking, it turns out that there are allllll kinds of viruses just hangin out ! (
  • On two locations in the 3R chromosome, and one location on the X chromosome, there are Sigma viruses snuggled up inside of endogenous retroviruses ! (
  • ERVs are retroviruses that accidentally infected an egg/sperm cell, and became a permanent part of that egg/sperms DNA. (
  • RNA viruses also include retroviruses which use reverse transcriptase to create DNA from RNA templates. (
  • Add to this the clinical significance of these human pathogens- 99% of the population of the world is infected with at least one of the viruses discussed in this volume (hepatitis B virus, EptsteinBarr virus or herpes simplex virus) - and it is difficult to overstate the importance of this group. (
  • Real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of hepatitis B virus genotypes A to G. J. Clin. (
  • Hepatitis B is a DNA virus classified as a hepadnavirus, which replicates in the liver but is found in other sites of the body. (
  • Expression of Hepatitis B virus S gene by herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors carrying .alpha. (
  • GB virus C/hepatitis G virus was identified in three individuals and hepatitis B virus in one individual. (
  • Herpesviruses are a very diverse family of viruses. (
  • Like all herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is able to produce lytic or latent infections depending on the host cell type. (
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV1) resembles other herpesviruses in its ability to cause both lytic and latent infections [ 1 , 5 ]. (
  • Prominent disease-causing DNA viruses include herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, and poxviruses. (
  • Vaccinia virus is normally confined to cattle, but is conveyed to humans through vaccination, thereby, imparting immunity to the smallpox virus. (
  • A new paper out today in Science suggests humans have also co-opted the remnants of ancient viruses to direct the immune system against other pathogens. (
  • Many of those binding stretches of DNA in fact looked like a virus called MER41, which infected a monkey-like ancestor of humans some 45 to 60 million years ago. (
  • This revealed that some humans share a few per cent of their DNA with their extinct cousins. (
  • Although this method is still in development and no licensed DNA vaccine is currently available for humans, it would offer a number of potential advantages including inexpensiveness, improved vaccine stability and ease of production. (
  • Although there are no viruses similar to these ancient pathogens currently infecting humans, there are some related viruses in animals. (
  • EBV, which causes infectious mononucleosis as well as a number of cancers, is one of the most common viruses in humans. (
  • But other studies of ancient virus DNA have shown it can affect the humans who carry it. (
  • Over generations, the virus-generated DNA kept getting copied and handed down when humans reproduced. (
  • The identification of previously uncharacterized viruses infecting humans and animals remains a constant task. (
  • It explained the persistence of the transformed state in the cell clone deriving from a transformed cell, since the provirus replicates with the cellular DNA. (
  • The virus replicates and makes further copies of itself, with each time there is an opportunity for a mistake or change to be made in this sequence. (
  • The virus lurks in the host's DNA and gets copied as cells divide, but for reasons still poorly understood, it also replicates and is released from other cells. (
  • Dr. Hill commented: "what I am most excited to explore is the use of new antiviral therapeutic strategies, such as small molecules with broad antiviral activity or adoptive immunotherapy with multi-virus specific T cells, to mitigate the frequency, magnitude, and duration of viral reactivation after HCT that we demonstrated in this paper. (
  • He also attached specific aptamers - molecules the viral latches will bind to - precisely to the tips and vertices of the star so that they would align with the distribution of the latches on the virus. (
  • The sugar present in DNA is deoxyribose and usually it comes with a pair of molecules known as double-stranded molecules with long nucleotide chains. (
  • Two weeks later, they received a vial holding a speck of DNA molecules. (
  • Additionally modelled are DNA cages, which are three-dimensional shapes made from double-helical DNA molecules. (
  • Is the Subject Area "ssDNA viruses" applicable to this article? (
  • dsDNA viruses primarily belong to two realms: Duplodnaviria and Varidnaviria, and ssDNA viruses are almost exclusively assigned to the realm Monodnaviria, which also includes dsDNA viruses. (
  • ssDNA viruses have the same manner of transcription as dsDNA viruses. (
  • Eukaryotic ssDNA viruses are replicated in the nucleus. (
  • An Antarctic freshwater lake was shown to host a diverse viral DNA community, unexpected for such an extreme and high-latitude ecosystem, and to be dominated by viruses belonging to unknown families related to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses ( 14 ). (
  • In a recent study published in Blood , Drs. Joshua Hill and Michael Boeckh, along with other colleagues from the Fred Hutch (Vaccine and Infectious Disease and Clinical Research Divisions) investigated the presence of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses in a cohort of transplanted individuals. (
  • The authors focused on a selection of dsDNA viruses known for contributing to increased morbidities and mortalities in transplanted patients. (
  • All dsDNA viruses have their mRNA synthesized in a three-step process. (
  • dsDNA viruses are also commonly divided between tailed dsDNA viruses, referring to members of the realm Duplodnaviria, usually the tailed bacteriophages of the order Caudovirales, and tailless or non-tailed dsDNA viruses of the realm Varidnaviria. (
  • 1 DNA viruses such as adenoviruses and poxviruses are more likely to be double-stranded whereas most RNA viruses are single-stranded. (
  • Construction of live vaccines by using genetically engineered poxviruses: Biological activity of recombinant vaccina virus expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin," Proc. (
  • Our results suggest that marine NCLDVs probably outnumber eukaryotic organisms in the photic layer (per given water mass) and that metagenomic sequence analyses promise to shed new light on the biodiversity of marine viruses and their interactions with potential hosts. (
  • Analysis of the distribution of nonsense codons in the DNA sequence is consistent with other evidence that only the alpha strand is transcribed. (
  • The complete DNA sequence of lymphocystis disease virus. (
  • In 2016 research conducted at CBIS, Rensselaer chemist Robert Linhardt and Rensselaer chemical engineer Jonathan Dordick constructed a synthetic polymer configured to match a sequence of sialic acid latch points on the influenza virus. (
  • A short RNA of about 15-18 nucleotides at the 5′ end of the pgRNA (including the 5′ DR1 sequence) is not degraded and it is used as primer for (+) DNA strand synthesis. (
  • The detection of two previously undescribed viral species in a small group of individuals presenting acute viral syndrome with unknown etiology indicates that a rich yield of new human viruses may be readily identifiable using simple methods of sequence-independent nucleic acid amplification and limited sequencing. (
  • Evolutionary relationships remain detectable at the amino acid level for longer time periods than they do at the DNA sequence level ( 18 ). (
  • The helicase and primase also form a complex known as the primosome, which unwinds the duplex DNA while also synthesizing primers on the lagging strand. (
  • Strategies of transcriptional genomic organization of different DNA virus families. (
  • To prove that the old virus was actually *causing *the immune switch, the scientists moved from the computer to the lab bench. (
  • Certain immune cells called resting cells lack the first quality-control mechanism because, Stivers explains, "They're not replicating their DNA and dividing, so they couldn't care less if they have a lot of dUTP. (
  • In latency, however, infected cells are less readily recognized by the immune system because of the low level of virus gene expression. (
  • They found that the vaccine candidate was able to induce persistent humoral and cellular immune responses and provided efficient protection against lethal challenge from one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DV1). (
  • Our DNA vaccine candidate induced effective immune responses and protection in mice. (
  • 2020) A novel synthetic DNA vaccine elicits protective immune responses against Powassan virus. (
  • In addition, anti-F systemic immune response profile could be modulated by the route of DNA-F delivery: intramuscular immunization resulted in balanced responses, whereas intradermal immunization resulted in a Th2 type of response. (
  • If the only thing providing immunity is the fact that the virus is still in the body for life prompting the immune system to keep it in check and produce antibodies, then injecting a cocktail of adjuvants and a DEAD virus isn't going to provide long term immunity. (
  • In fact, early m 6 A studies on viruses, such as influenza virus ( 6 ), Rous sarcoma virus ( 7 ), and simian virus 40 (SV40) ( 8 ), excited the field of RNA modifications. (
  • All but 1 of the 18 animals that received 2 doses of vaccine (94%) had no detectable virus in their blood. (
  • They also evaluated the immunoprotective potential of a combined (bivalent) DNA vaccine, which was found to generate a balanced immunogenic response to two serotypes of dengue virus (DV1 & DV2). (
  • These results are encouraging for the future development of a tetravalent vaccine that could provide efficient protection against all four serotypes of the virus. (
  • This evidence should be considered in further research on dengue virus tetravalent vaccine. (
  • Dr. An and the research team are hoping that their research will pave the path for further advances in the research for a vaccine against all four serotypes of dengue virus. (
  • We are developing a dengue tetravalent DNA vaccine and evaluating the immunogenicity in animal models," says Dr. An. (
  • Finally, we try to translate the DNA vaccine candidates for further clinical application. (
  • This new POWV vaccine candidate, described in a paper published today in PLOS Neglected Infectious Diseases , is one of many emerging infectious disease DNA vaccine discoveries being advanced by the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center at The Wistar Institute. (
  • Kar Muthumani, Ph.D., former associate professor and director of the Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases at The Wistar Institute, and senior author on the study, collaborated with the laboratory of David B. Weiner, Ph.D., executive vice president and director of Wistar's Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center, to design and test this synthetic DNA vaccine. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and the elderly and is a continuing challenge for vaccine development. (
  • Furthermore, DNA immunization can elicit lifelong immunity against viruses (( 19 )), a highly desirable property for an RSV vaccine. (
  • T4 bacteriophage is a virus that consists of an icosahedral (20 sided) head, contacting tail, six short and six long fibers for attaching to its E. coli victim, and a base plate that is the nerve center for communicating between the fibers and the tail. (
  • The inspirations for this extended model are the cases of bacteriophage MS2 and the STMV virus, viruses that have been well characterised experimentally. (
  • The first man-made infectious viruses generated without any natural template were of the polio virus and the φX174 bacteriophage. (
  • Then after entry the particle moves into an endosomal vesicle to the nucleus where the DNA is uncoated into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. (
  • Kasamatsu H and Nakanishi A (1998) How do animal DNA viruses get to the nucleus? (
  • This is an illustration of what happens when viral DNA enters the nucleus of a cell with low dUTP levels (left) versus high dUTP levels (right). (
  • Another quality control measure is the enzyme hUNG2, which snips stray Us out of newly copied DNA strands, leaving the resulting holes to be filled by a different repair enzyme. (
  • Structural DNA nanotechnology - an established method of folding strands of DNA into designed, customized geometric shapes and objects - offered the research team a non-toxic, biodegradable alternative on which to construct a new trap, said Wang. (
  • and ended up with a digital list of 72,000 DNA strands that contained the encoded data. (
  • This code was then sent in a text file to Twist Biosciences, the same DNA synthesis startup from which Microsoft purchased 10 Million strands of synthetic DNA last year, that then turned that digital information into biological DNA. (
  • The Baltimore classification system is used to group viruses together based on their manner of messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and is often used alongside standard virus taxonomy, which is based on evolutionary history. (
  • DNase I-resistant nucleic acids were purified using either the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit or the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). To detect viral RNA, first-strand cDNA synthesis was performed using 200 U of SuperScript II RNase H − reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) primed with 5 pmol random hexamers (GIBCO, Gaithersburg, MD) at 42°C for 1 h. (
  • Electron micrograph of a Vaccinia Virus. (
  • Moss B (1990) Regulation of vaccinia virus transcription. (
  • Mapping of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene by marker rescue and by cell-free translation of selected mRNA" Proc. (
  • For each of these patients, weekly plasma samples from the Infectious Disease Sciences Biorepository were available to test for the detection of DNA viruses between days 0 and 100 following the transplantation. (
  • Nanowerk News ) The virus that causes those painful lip blisters known as cold sores has an internal pressure eight times higher than a car tire, and uses it to literally blast its infectious DNA into human cells, scientists are reporting in a new study. (
  • High pressure inside some viruses allows them to blast their infectious DNA into human cells. (
  • This one looks like it is capable of making infectious virus, which would be very exciting if true, as it would allow us to study a viral epidemic that took place long ago," says senior author and virologist John Coffin, Ph.D. of the Tufts University School of Medicine. (
  • With the formation of the viruses done during lytic phase, the host cell membrane separates and the new viruses were released . (
  • It has nonetheless been demonstrated that in the cytoplasm of mammalian tumors cells, infected by this oncological DNA virus , remains a very little fraction, but many specific, of messenger-RNA, that does not exist in normal cells or in tumor cells infected by other DNA-viruses. (
  • Tumor will focus on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. (
  • This DNA "trap", revealed yesterday, had been designed and engineered by scientists working at the nanoscale, in an advance that they hope could lead to a completely new way of tackling a wide range of infections and even cancers. (
  • This unique book focuses on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. (
  • It was known at the time that papova viruses leave their footprints in the cells of the cancers they induce and those they transform in vitro , in the form of characteristic antigens. (
  • 12% of all human cancers are caused by virus infections. (
  • In recent years, research has intensified in the search for blood tests that can detect cancers in the earliest stages by looking for tumor DNA circulating in the blood (so-called liquid biopsies). (
  • Primary HPV screening looks for DNA from the human papillomavirus virus strains that cause the vast majority of cervical cancers. (
  • Grand, R.J. Modulation of DNA Damage and Repair Pathways by Human Tumour Viruses. (
  • In their life cycle, viruses replicate, inducing the cytopathic effect in the host cells and forming new viral particles. (
  • NCLDVs include viruses with very large virion particles, which do not pass through 0.2-μm filters typically used in viral metagenomics to separate free viruses from other organisms ( Van Etten, 2011 ). (
  • using vesicular stomatitis virus as a model it has been demonstrated that 'a many-trillionfold amplification of single RNA virus particles fails to overcome the Muller's ratchet effect (Duarte et al (1993) J. Virol. (
  • VRC5288 also included another portion of an unrelated virus to improve secretion of virus particles from cells. (
  • This virus was named Simian vacuolating virus (SV40). (
  • This Gem discusses the role of m 6 A in gene regulation and describes recent advancements in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and simian virus 40 (SV40) research. (
  • We then focus on recent developments in DNA virus epitranscriptomics, with an emphasis on Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and SV40. (
  • The extracellular form of a virus is known as a virion. (
  • The virion, on the other hand, contains highly unusual A-form DNA that may help it survive adverse conditions. (
  • But because the T nucleotide, dTTP, is very similar to dUTP, a fifth nucleotide that doesn't belong in DNA, the copying enzyme sometimes mistakenly puts in a U where there should be a T. (
  • Nothing in its evolution would have prepared the dengue virus for meeting a five-pointed star made out of DNA. (
  • Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes dengue fever (DF) - one of the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne diseases worldwide according to the WHO. (
  • A "DNA star" is perfectly configured to latch onto Dengue virus in the bloodstream, and could be a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for many viral diseases. (
  • Structural DNA stars are perfectly configured to capture Dengue virus, and light up once the trap is sprung. (
  • NPC tumor cells contain some EBV DNA and fragments of this DNA are often detected in the blood of patients with symptoms of NPC. (
  • Detecting these emergent RNA viruses remains challenging, especially in impoverished areas, since detection time windows can be as short as just a few days and laboratories may not be equipped to conduct immunoglobulin blood tests, which remain standard for clinical testing but sometimes lead to false positive results. (
  • Proportion of patients with plasma detection of each virus by week after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. (
  • However, there was evidence supporting that detection of more viruses in the blood, even when not directly linked to cause of death, increased the risk for mortality in these patients. (
  • Published today in Nature Chemistry , this detection technique could be expanded to other viruses and adapted to kill the viruses it snares. (
  • All samples will be sent to the University of Louisville lab for processing for HPV DNA detection by Hybrid capture 2 method. (
  • HIV-1 proviral DNA and HIV-1 RNA detection). (
  • This photograph reveals smallpox virus pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of a developing embryonic chick. (
  • In this review, we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of cancer cells during carcinogenesis. (
  • The only two books that are nearly as comprehensive as this one are Human Tumor Viruses, which was published by the American Society for Microbiology in 1998 and is quite outdated, and Viruses, Cell Transformation, and Cancer, which was published by Elsevier in 2001. (
  • The first results, crucial for future developments, showed that polyoma virus could be assayed in certain cell cultures ( 1 ), which we call permissive, and could induce a cancer-like state in other cultures ( 2 , 3 ) in which the virus does not grow, which we call non-permissive. (
  • Over 120 talks and 90 poster presentations highlighting major breakthroughs in our understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses cause cancer, and which will also provide insights into novel thereapeutic and diagnostic approaches for addressing these human health problems. (
  • Now, a recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine has found that testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in the blood is a useful way to screen for early nasopharyngeal cancer in high-risk individuals without symptoms. (
  • In the study, 89% of the men with persistently positive blood tests for EBV DNA did not develop nasopharyngeal cancer. (
  • He does caution that outside of regions where the cancer is most common, such as Southeast Asia, EBV DNA is not as effective at predicting nasopharyngeal cancer. (
  • However, in appropriate settings-such as areas where the cancer is common and in people with risk factors-EBV DNA screening has the potential to become a useful liquid biopsy. (
  • 5. The expression plasmid of claim 1, further comprising a negative strand RNA virus viral gene segment inserted between the pol I promoter and the termination signal. (
  • 6. The expression plasmid of claim 5, wherein the negative strand RNA virus is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family. (
  • 7. The expression plasmid of claim 6, wherein the virus is an influenza A virus. (