Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
DNA viruses are viruses that have DNA as their genetic material and can cause infections in humans and other organisms.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of very small viruses containing circular, single-stranded DNA and possessing no envelope. The modes of transmission are not known.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
RNA virus infections are diseases caused by viruses with RNA genomes, which can cause a wide range of illnesses in humans and animals.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A family of DNA viruses infecting plants and transmitted by APHIDS. Genera include NANOVIRUS and BABUVIRUS.
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Diseases of plants.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE containing multiple circular single-stranded DNA molecules. The type species is Subterranean clover stunt virus.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A subfamily of DNA arthropod viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. The host range includes members of Dictyoptera; DIPTERA; LEPIDOPTERA; Odonata; and ORTHOPTERA. There are three genera: DENSOVIRUS, Iteravirus, and Brevidensovirus. Densovirus-like viruses also infect and multiply in crabs and shrimp.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.

Growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus and its possible use as a microbiological agent for red tide control. (1/1048)

The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 x 10(2) lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H93616, Chattonella antiqua (a member of the family Raphidophyceae), Heterocapsa triquetra (a member of the family Dinophyceae), and Ditylum brightwellii (a member of the family Bacillariophyceae), resulted in selective growth inhibition of H. akashiwo. Inoculation of HaV01 and H. akashiwo H93616 into a natural seawater sample produced similar results. However, a natural H. akashiwo red tide sample did not exhibit any conspicuous sensitivity to HaV01, presumably because of the great diversity of the host species with respect to virus infection. The growth characteristics of the lytic virus infecting the noxious harmful algal bloom-causing alga were considered, and the possibility of using this virus as a microbiological agent against H. akashiwo red tides is discussed.  (+info)

Determination and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences from TT virus isolates. (2/1048)

Sera from French in-patients were tested for the presence of the TT virus (TTV) genome using PCR and degenerate primers located in ORF1. Thirty-six sequences were determined and compared with those deposited in databases, revealing a high degree of genetic variability between TTV isolates (up to 47% for amino acid sequences). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the existence of three main groups corresponding to the previously described genotypes 1 and 2 and to a new genotype 3. Isolates could be assigned to distinct genotypes if their genetic distance was > 27%. No comparable genetic criteria were found for the definition of sub-types in the region studied. A 15-31 month follow-up of three haemodialysis patients proved the existence of chronic infection by TTV. In one patient, two strains belonging to different genotypes were detected at the same time. Sequences of both ORF1 and ORF2 remained unchanged for a given strain during the follow-up.  (+info)

Molecular and biophysical characterization of TT virus: evidence for a new virus family infecting humans. (3/1048)

The recent isolation of a novel DNA virus from the serum of a Japanese patient (T.T.) has provided the latest possible candidate virus associated with cryptogenic hepatitis. In the present study, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of this virus (TTV) isolated from the serum of a West African. Based on PCR studies designed to amplify overlapping regions of the viral genome and sensitivity to digestion with mung bean nuclease, the viral genome is circular and negative stranded, and comprises 3,852 nt, which is 113 nt longer than the prototype isolate from Japan. Cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation demonstrated banding of the virus at 1.31-1.34 g/ml; filtration studies indicated that TTV had a particle size of 30-50 nm. These results suggest that the virus is similar to the Circoviridae, viruses known to infect plants and vertebrates (e. g., birds and swine); however, sequence similarity searches of available databases did not reveal identity between TTV and other viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of a 260-nt region from 151 globally distributed isolates demonstrated the existence of three major TTV genotypes. Several individuals at high risk for infection with parenterally transmitted viruses were infected with more than one genotype. There was no correlation between genotype and geographic origin. Finally, intravenous inoculation of TTV-positive human serum into chimpanzees demonstrated that TTV can be transmitted to primates; no biochemical or histological evidence for hepatitis was obtained. The distinct biophysical and molecular characteristics of TTV suggest that it is a member of a new family of viruses, which we have tentatively named the Circinoviridae.  (+info)

Susceptibility of TT virus to interferon therapy. (4/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly identified single-stranded DNA virus. We retrospectively analysed serum samples from sixteen patients, infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and TTV, and who had been treated with interferon. An elevated serum alanine aminotransferase level after interferon was associated with persistence of HCV (abnormal in five of seven patients with persistence of HCV compared with normal in all nine patients who showed eradication of HCV) irrespective of persistence of TTV. Comparison of partial viral DNA nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis showed that viral strains that had a high identity to the prototype virus were more resistant to interferon than those showing low nucleotide sequence identity. Although we observed no liver cell injury caused by persistent TTV infection, the mechanism(s) of TTV resistance to interferon should be further investigated for a better understanding of viral diseases and establishment of therapy.  (+info)

Early acquisition of TT virus (TTV) in an area endemic for TTV infection. (5/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is widely distributed, with high frequencies of viremia in South America, Central Africa, and Papua New Guinea. The incidence and timing of infection in children born in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo was investigated. TTV viremia was detected in 61 (58%) of 105 women attending an antenatal clinic and in 36 (54%) of 68 infants. Most infants acquired the infection at >/=3 months postpartum. Surprisingly, TTV infection was detected in a large proportion of children with TTV-negative mothers (13 [43%] of 30). Nucleotide sequences of TTV-infected children were frequently epidemiologically unlinked to variants detected in the mother. These three aspects contrast with the maternal transmission of hepatitis G virus/GB virus C in this cohort and suggest an environmental source of TTV infection comparable to hepatitis A virus and other enterically transmitted infections.  (+info)

Prevalence of TT virus infection in US blood donors and populations at risk for acquiring parenterally transmitted viruses. (6/1048)

Two overlapping sets of TT virus (TTV)-specific polymerase chain reaction primers were used to test for presence of TTV, which was found in approximately 10% of US volunteer blood donors, 13% of commercial blood donors, and 17% of intravenous drug abusers. The rate of TTV infection among US non-A, non-B, non-C, non-D, non-E hepatitis patients was only 2%. Among commercial blood donors and intravenous drug abusers, only 1%-3% of the TTV-positive individuals were coinfected with GB virus C (GBV-C), a parenterally transmitted virus. This suggests that GBV-C and TTV may have different routes of transmission. Comparison of the sensitivities of 2 TTV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets showed that the majority of samples were detected with only 1 of the 2 sets. Therefore, previous studies in which only a single PCR primer pair was used may have significantly underestimated the true prevalence of TTV.  (+info)

Excretion into bile of a novel unenveloped DNA virus (TT virus) associated with acute and chronic non-A-G hepatitis. (7/1048)

Recently, an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus named TT virus (TTV) has been reported in association with hepatitis of non-A-G etiology. Five patients with TTV viremia, who received bile drainage or cholecystectomy, were tested for TTV DNA in bile by polymerase chain reaction with heminested primers. TTV DNA was detected in bile from all patients; titers were 10-100 times higher than in serum in 4 and at a comparable level in the remaining 1 patient. TTV DNA was detected in feces, also, in 1 of the 2 patients tested. The buoyant density of TTV in bile from 1 tested patient (1.33-1.35 g/cm3) was the same as that in feces (1.32-1.35 g/cm3). TTV may be secreted via bile into feces in a transmissible form and would spread by a fecal-oral route for deep and wide penetration into the general population.  (+info)

TT virus in bone marrow transplant recipients. (8/1048)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly discovered transfusion-transmissible DNA virus, which may cause posttransfusion hepatitis. The virus was detected in 12% of Japanese blood donors. The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence and clinical influence of TTV in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Sera from 25 BMT recipients obtained 6 to 12 weeks after the transplant were examined for TTV-DNA by the seminested polymerase chain reaction. Serial samples were additionally analyzed in patients with TTV-DNA. Fifteen of 25 recipients (60%) were positive for TTV-DNA after transplant, whereas it was detected in only two of 20 BMT donors (10%). In patients positive for TTV-DNA before BMT, the amount of TTV-DNA decreased to an undetectable level during the myelosuppressed period after BMT. We also found that there was a novel group of TTV, G3, classified by the nucleotide sequences. The median peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were 135.0 IU/L and 116.5 IU/L (normal range, 4 to 36 IU/L) in TTV-positive and TTV-negative recipients, respectively. In one of the seven TTV-positive patients who developed hepatic injury (ALT > 150 IU/L), a serial change in the serum TTV titer showed a good correlation with the ALT level. We concluded that (1) the prevalence of TTV is high in BMT recipients, (2) TTV might be replicated mainly in hematopoietic cells, (3) transfusion-transmitted TTV may cause persistent infection, (4) a novel genetic group of TTV, G3, was discovered, and (5) TTV does not seem to frequently cause hepatic injury, although one patient was strongly suggested to have TTV-induced hepatitis.  (+info)

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contains genetic material in the form of DNA. These viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and bacteria. DNA viruses can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe, and can be transmitted through various means, such as sexual contact, blood transfusions, and mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy or childbirth. In the medical field, DNA virus infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for DNA virus infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Antiviral medications may be used to help control the virus and reduce symptoms, while supportive care, such as rest and hydration, may also be recommended. In some cases, vaccination may be available to prevent infection or reduce the severity of the disease.

In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.

Receptors, Virus are proteins on the surface of host cells that recognize and bind to specific viral proteins, allowing the virus to enter and infect the cell. These receptors play a crucial role in the viral life cycle and are often targeted by antiviral drugs and vaccines. Examples of viral receptors include the ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and the CD4 receptor for HIV.

In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.

Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.

RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contains ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material. RNA viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and insects. RNA virus infections refer to illnesses caused by RNA viruses. These viruses can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe, and can be transmitted through various means, including respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, and contact with contaminated surfaces. Some examples of RNA virus infections include influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19). RNA virus infections can be challenging to treat because the genetic material of RNA viruses is constantly changing, making it difficult for the immune system to recognize and fight off the virus. Additionally, some RNA viruses can develop resistance to antiviral drugs, making treatment even more difficult. Therefore, prevention is often the best strategy for managing RNA virus infections, including vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding contact with infected individuals.

Hemagglutinin glycoproteins, also known as HA glycoproteins, are a type of protein found on the surface of influenza viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the ability of the virus to infect host cells. HA glycoproteins are responsible for binding to receptors on the surface of host cells, allowing the virus to enter the cell and replicate. There are 18 different subtypes of HA glycoproteins, which are classified based on their antigenic properties. Each subtype has a unique structure, which allows the immune system to recognize and respond to the virus. HA glycoproteins are also the target of the influenza vaccine, which is designed to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. By recognizing and binding to the HA glycoproteins, these antibodies can prevent the virus from infecting host cells and protect against influenza. In summary, HA glycoproteins are a key component of the influenza virus and play a critical role in its ability to infect host cells. They are also the target of the influenza vaccine and are an important area of research in the development of new treatments for influenza.

Tumor virus infections refer to the presence of viruses that can cause cancer in infected individuals. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses or tumor-inducing viruses. They can infect various types of cells in the body and alter their normal functioning, leading to the development of tumors. There are several types of tumor viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). These viruses can cause various types of cancers, such as cervical cancer, liver cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma, respectively. Tumor virus infections can be transmitted through various means, including sexual contact, blood transfusions, and mother-to-child transmission. Diagnosis of tumor virus infections typically involves the detection of viral antigens or antibodies in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment for tumor virus infections depends on the type of virus and the stage of cancer. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to control the virus and prevent further spread. In other cases, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the cancer. Vaccines are also available for some tumor viruses, such as HPV, to prevent infection and reduce the risk of cancer.

In the medical field, capsid proteins refer to the proteins that make up the outer shell of a virus. The capsid is the protective layer that surrounds the viral genome and is responsible for protecting the virus from the host's immune system and other environmental factors. There are two main types of capsid proteins: structural and non-structural. Structural capsid proteins are the proteins that make up the visible part of the virus, while non-structural capsid proteins are involved in the assembly and maturation of the virus. The specific function of capsid proteins can vary depending on the type of virus. For example, some capsid proteins are involved in attaching the virus to host cells, while others are involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation. Understanding the structure and function of capsid proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.

Orthomyxoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are characterized by their ability to cause both respiratory and systemic infections in humans and animals. The most well-known member of the Orthomyxoviridae family is the influenza virus, which causes seasonal flu outbreaks and pandemics. Other viruses in this family include the parainfluenza viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, and the equine influenza virus, which can cause respiratory infections in horses. Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other complications. Treatment for Orthomyxoviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Antiviral medications may also be used to treat certain types of Orthomyxoviridae infections, such as influenza. Vaccines are available to prevent influenza and some other Orthomyxoviridae infections.

Viral structural proteins are proteins that make up the physical structure of a virus. They are essential for the virus to function properly and are involved in various stages of the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication, and assembly of new virus particles. There are several types of viral structural proteins, including capsid proteins, envelope proteins, and matrix proteins. Capsid proteins form the protective shell around the viral genetic material, while envelope proteins are found on the surface of enveloped viruses and help the virus enter host cells. Matrix proteins are found in the interior of the viral particle and help to stabilize the structure of the virus. Viral structural proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for the virus to infect host cells and cause disease. Understanding the structure and function of viral structural proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections (RSV) are a common viral infection that affects the respiratory system, particularly the nose and throat. RSV is a highly contagious virus that spreads easily through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It is most common in young children, especially those under the age of 2, and can also affect older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of RSV infection can range from mild to severe and may include a runny nose, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, RSV can cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and even death, particularly in young children and older adults. RSV is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a nasal swab or blood test. Treatment for RSV typically involves managing symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluids and rest. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for oxygen therapy or other interventions. While there is no specific cure for RSV, vaccination is available for high-risk populations, such as premature infants and young children with chronic lung disease.

Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.

Cell transformation by viruses refers to the process by which viruses alter the normal functioning of host cells, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can result in the development of cancerous tumors. Viruses can cause cell transformation by introducing genetic material into the host cell, which can disrupt normal cellular processes and lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cell growth) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent uncontrolled cell growth). There are several types of viruses that can cause cell transformation, including retroviruses (such as HIV), oncoviruses (such as hepatitis B and C viruses), and papillomaviruses (such as the human papillomavirus, which can cause cervical cancer). Cell transformation by viruses is an important area of research in the field of cancer biology, as it helps to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and can lead to the development of new treatments for cancer.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. EBV is a member of the herpes virus family and is one of the most common viruses in humans, with nearly 90% of adults showing evidence of past or present infection. EBV infections can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. The most common symptoms of EBV infection include fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and fatigue. In some cases, EBV can cause more serious illnesses, such as infectious mononucleosis (also known as "mono"), which is characterized by swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, and a sore throat that lasts for several weeks. EBV infections can also cause a variety of long-term health problems, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. EBV is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In the medical field, EBV infections are typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies to the virus or by identifying the virus itself in a sample of blood or saliva. Treatment for EBV infections typically involves supportive care, such as rest and fluids, to help the body fight off the infection. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the symptoms of the infection.

Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.

Poxviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Poxviridae. These viruses are large, complex, and enveloped, and are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Some of the most well-known diseases caused by poxviruses include smallpox, cowpox, monkeypox, and chickenpox. These viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, as well as through the air. Symptoms of poxvirus infections can vary depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, headache, body aches, and a characteristic rash or vesicles on the skin. In severe cases, poxvirus infections can lead to complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and organ failure. Treatment for poxvirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccination is also an important tool for preventing poxvirus infections, particularly smallpox, which has been eradicated through a global vaccination campaign.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

Parvoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Parvoviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped, and have a single-stranded DNA genome. They are highly contagious and can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In humans, parvoviridae infections are most commonly associated with two viruses: human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4). B19 is responsible for a range of illnesses, including erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), which is a mild rash that affects children, and aplastic crisis, which is a severe form of anemia that can be life-threatening in people with weakened immune systems. PARV4 is a newly discovered human parvovirus that has been linked to a range of health problems, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of PARV4 in human health. Other members of the Parvoviridae family include the canine parvovirus, which causes severe diarrhea and vomiting in dogs, and the feline panleukopenia virus, which causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease in cats. Parvoviridae infections are typically spread through contact with infected bodily fluids or feces, and can be prevented through vaccination and good hygiene practices. Treatment for parvovirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Hemagglutinins, viral are a type of protein found on the surface of certain viruses, such as influenza viruses. These proteins have the ability to bind to and agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells, which is why they are called hemagglutinins. This property is important for the virus to infect host cells, as it allows the virus to attach to and enter the cells. Hemagglutinins are also used as diagnostic tools in the laboratory to detect the presence of certain viruses.

Neuraminidase is an enzyme that cleaves sialic acid residues from the terminal ends of glycoproteins and glycolipids. It plays a crucial role in the replication and spread of influenza viruses, as well as other viruses and bacteria. In the medical field, neuraminidase inhibitors are used to treat influenza infections by blocking the activity of the enzyme, preventing the virus from spreading to uninfected cells. Neuraminidase is also used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of certain viral infections, such as influenza and some types of cancer.

In the medical field, viral core proteins refer to the internal proteins that are essential for the replication and survival of a virus. These proteins are typically found within the viral capsid, which is the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome. The viral core proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle by facilitating the replication of the viral genome and the assembly of new virus particles. They may also be involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation or preventing the host immune system from recognizing and eliminating the virus. Examples of viral core proteins include the core protein of the hepatitis B virus, which is essential for the replication of the viral genome, and the core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which plays a role in the assembly of new virus particles. Understanding the structure and function of viral core proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.

Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids. The virus can be transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs, sexual contact, or from mother to child during childbirth. Hepatitis C can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice. In some cases, the virus can cause chronic liver disease, which can lead to liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different strains of the hepatitis C virus, and the severity of the infection can vary depending on the strain and the individual's immune system. Treatment for hepatitis C typically involves antiviral medications, which can help to eliminate the virus from the body and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary for people with severe liver damage.

Polyomavirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by polyomaviruses, which are small, non-enveloped viruses that can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans. There are several different types of polyomaviruses, including JC virus, BK virus, and Merkel cell polyomavirus. Polyomavirus infections can cause a range of different symptoms, depending on the type of virus and the severity of the infection. In some cases, polyomavirus infections may be asymptomatic and may not cause any noticeable symptoms. In other cases, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Polyomavirus infections can also cause more serious health problems, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. For example, JC virus can cause a rare brain disorder called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which can be fatal. BK virus can cause kidney problems in people with weakened immune systems, and Merkel cell polyomavirus can cause a rare type of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma. Diagnosis of polyomavirus infections typically involves testing for the presence of the virus in bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, or spinal fluid. Treatment of polyomavirus infections may involve antiviral medications, although there are no specific antiviral drugs that are effective against all types of polyomaviruses. In some cases, supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and complications of the infection.

In the medical field, DNA, Circular refers to a type of DNA molecule that is shaped like a circle, rather than the typical linear shape of most DNA molecules. Circular DNA molecules are often found in bacteria and viruses, and they can also be artificially created in the laboratory. Circular DNA molecules are unique in that they do not have a 5' and 3' end, as all linear DNA molecules do. Instead, they have a single continuous strand of nucleotides that forms a loop. This structure makes circular DNA molecules more stable and resistant to degradation than linear DNA molecules. In the context of medical research, circular DNA molecules have been used as vectors for gene therapy, where they are used to deliver genetic material into cells to treat or prevent diseases. They have also been used as tools for studying gene expression and regulation, as well as for developing new drugs and vaccines.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and saliva. Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness that resolves on its own to a chronic infection that can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. The severity of the infection depends on the age of the person infected, the immune system's response to the virus, and the presence of other liver diseases. Symptoms of hepatitis B can include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Treatment for hepatitis B depends on the severity of the infection and the presence of any complications. Antiviral medications can help to control the virus and prevent liver damage, while a vaccine is available to prevent infection. It is important for people who are infected with hepatitis B to receive regular medical care and to follow their treatment plan to prevent complications and improve their quality of life.

In the medical field, "Gene Products, gag" refers to the proteins that are produced by the gag gene in retroviruses such as HIV. The gag gene encodes for several structural proteins that are essential for the replication and assembly of the virus. These proteins include the capsid protein (CA), the nucleocapsid protein (NC), and the matrix protein (MA). The capsid protein is responsible for forming the viral capsid, which encloses the viral RNA genome. The nucleocapsid protein helps package the viral RNA into the capsid and also plays a role in viral transcription and replication. The matrix protein is involved in the assembly of new virus particles and also helps the virus to bud from the host cell. The gag gene products are important for the replication and survival of the virus, and they are also targets for antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection.

Hepatitis, viral, human refers to a group of infectious diseases caused by various types of viruses that affect the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile, and regulating metabolism. When the liver is infected with a virus, it can become inflamed, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. There are several types of viruses that can cause viral hepatitis in humans, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Each type of virus has its own unique characteristics and can cause different levels of liver damage. Hepatitis A is typically caused by consuming contaminated food or water and is usually a self-limiting illness that resolves on its own. Hepatitis B and C are more serious and can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Hepatitis D is a rare form of viral hepatitis that only occurs in people who are already infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis E is primarily a disease of pregnant women and can cause severe liver damage in some cases. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis typically involves blood tests to detect the presence of the virus and to measure liver function. Treatment depends on the type of virus and the severity of the illness. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help the body fight off the virus, while in other cases, supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

DNA, single-stranded refers to a molecule of DNA that is not paired with its complementary strand. In contrast, double-stranded DNA is composed of two complementary strands that are held together by hydrogen bonds between base pairs. Single-stranded DNA can exist in cells under certain conditions, such as during DNA replication or repair, or in certain viruses. It can also be artificially produced in the laboratory for various purposes, such as in the process of DNA sequencing. In the medical field, single-stranded DNA is often used in diagnostic tests and as a tool for genetic research.

Viral fusion proteins are a class of proteins that are expressed on the surface of enveloped viruses, such as influenza, HIV, and Ebola. These proteins play a critical role in the viral life cycle by facilitating the fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter the cell and initiate infection. Viral fusion proteins are typically composed of two subunits, a highly conserved heptad repeat region (HR) and a variable ectodomain. The HR region is responsible for mediating the interaction between the viral and host cell membranes, while the ectodomain is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific receptors on the host cell surface. The process of viral fusion involves the conformational change of the viral fusion protein, which leads to the formation of a six-helix bundle structure that brings the viral and host cell membranes into close proximity. This allows the viral envelope to fuse with the host cell membrane, creating a pore through which the viral genome can enter the cell. Viral fusion proteins are a target for antiviral drugs, as they are essential for viral entry and infection. Inhibitors of viral fusion proteins can prevent the virus from entering the cell and can be effective in treating a wide range of viral infections.

Organophosphonates are a class of chemical compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to an organic group. They are commonly used as insecticides, herbicides, and as a nerve agent in chemical warfare. In the medical field, organophosphonates are used as medications to treat conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and certain types of cancer. They work by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase, which is involved in bone metabolism. Organophosphonates can also be used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the body.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

RNA replicase is an enzyme that is responsible for replicating RNA molecules. In the context of the medical field, RNA replicases are particularly important in the replication of viruses that use RNA as their genetic material. These enzymes are responsible for copying the viral RNA genome, which is then used to produce new viral particles. RNA replicases are also involved in the replication of certain types of retroviruses, which are viruses that use RNA as their genetic material but reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which is then integrated into the host cell's genome. In this process, the RNA replicase enzyme is responsible for copying the viral RNA genome and producing a complementary DNA strand, which is then used to produce new viral particles. RNA replicases are also important in the replication of certain types of bacteria, such as the bacteria that cause the disease Q fever. In these bacteria, the RNA replicase enzyme is responsible for copying the bacterial RNA genome and producing new bacterial particles. Overall, RNA replicases play a critical role in the replication of viruses and certain types of bacteria, and understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is important for the development of new treatments for viral and bacterial infections.

RNA-directed DNA polymerase (RDDP) is an enzyme that synthesizes DNA using RNA as a template. It is also known as reverse transcriptase. This enzyme is primarily associated with retroviruses, which are viruses that have RNA genomes that are reverse transcribed into DNA before being integrated into the host cell's genome. In the medical field, RDDP is important because it plays a key role in the replication of retroviruses, such as HIV. HIV uses RDDP to convert its RNA genome into DNA, which is then integrated into the host cell's genome. This integration can lead to the development of AIDS, a life-threatening condition. RDDP is also used in medical research and diagnostics. For example, it is used in the development of antiretroviral drugs, which are used to treat HIV infection. It is also used in the detection of retroviral infections, such as HIV, by detecting the presence of RDDP activity in patient samples.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Attenuated" refers to vaccines that are made by weakening or attenuating a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, so that it can no longer cause disease in a healthy individual. This weakened pathogen is then introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response, which helps the body to recognize and fight off the pathogen if it is encountered again in the future. Attenuated vaccines are often used to prevent infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. They are typically made by growing the pathogen in a laboratory and then exposing it to conditions that weaken it, such as low temperatures or the absence of certain nutrients. The weakened pathogen is then injected into the body, where it triggers an immune response without causing the disease. Attenuated vaccines are generally considered to be safe and effective, and they are one of the most common types of vaccines used in the world. However, like all vaccines, they can cause side effects, such as fever, soreness at the injection site, and rare allergic reactions.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It is a normal part of the viral replication cycle, during which the virus multiplies inside host cells and then enters the bloodstream. In some cases, viremia can be asymptomatic, meaning that the person infected with the virus does not experience any symptoms. However, in other cases, viremia can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of virus and the severity of the infection. Viremia is typically measured by detecting the viral particles or genetic material of the virus in a blood sample using laboratory tests. The level of viremia can be used to monitor the progression of the infection and to determine the effectiveness of antiviral treatments.

DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.

Myxovirus resistance proteins (Mx proteins) are a family of antiviral proteins that are found in a wide range of organisms, including mammals, birds, fish, and insects. These proteins are encoded by genes that are induced in response to viral infections, and they play a key role in the host's defense against viruses. Mx proteins are thought to function by inhibiting the replication of certain types of viruses, including influenza viruses, by interfering with the viral replication cycle. They do this by binding to viral nucleoproteins and preventing them from assembling into viral particles. Mx proteins also have the ability to activate immune cells and stimulate the production of antiviral cytokines, which help to coordinate the host's immune response to the virus. In the medical field, Mx proteins are of interest because of their potential as targets for the development of antiviral therapies. For example, researchers are exploring the use of Mx proteins as a way to enhance the effectiveness of existing antiviral drugs, or as a way to develop new antiviral drugs that target specific viruses. Additionally, Mx proteins are being studied as a way to prevent or treat viral infections, such as influenza, in humans and animals.

Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is a type of cytokine that is naturally produced by the body's immune system in response to viral infections. It is also used as a medication to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), by reducing inflammation and slowing the progression of the disease. IFN-beta is typically administered as an injection or infusion, and its effects can last for several days. It works by activating immune cells and inhibiting the growth of virus-infected cells. In MS, IFN-beta is thought to reduce the frequency and severity of relapses by modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation in the central nervous system. There are several different types of IFN-beta available, including beta-1a, beta-1b, and beta-2a. These different forms of IFN-beta have slightly different mechanisms of action and are used in different ways to treat MS and other autoimmune diseases.

DNA-directed DNA polymerase, also known as DNA polymerase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication. It is responsible for synthesizing new DNA strands by adding nucleotides to the growing chain, using the original DNA strand as a template. In the medical field, DNA-directed DNA polymerase is often studied in the context of genetic diseases and cancer. Mutations in the genes encoding DNA polymerases can lead to errors in DNA replication, which can result in genetic disorders such as xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. Additionally, DNA polymerase is a target for some anti-cancer drugs, which work by inhibiting its activity and preventing the replication of cancer cells. Overall, DNA-directed DNA polymerase is a critical enzyme in the process of DNA replication and plays a significant role in both normal cellular function and disease.

Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.

Glycoproteins are a type of protein that contains one or more carbohydrate chains covalently attached to the protein molecule. These carbohydrate chains are made up of sugars and are often referred to as glycans. Glycoproteins play important roles in many biological processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and are often used as markers for various diseases and conditions. In the medical field, glycoproteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.

West Nile fever is a viral infection caused by the West Nile virus (WNV). It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. The virus can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and from mother to fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms of West Nile fever can range from mild to severe and may include fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In more severe cases, the virus can cause encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain, or meningitis, which is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. These severe cases can be life-threatening and may result in long-term neurological problems. West Nile fever is most common in warmer months, particularly in areas where mosquitoes are prevalent. The risk of infection is highest for people who spend a lot of time outdoors, especially during dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active. Treatment for West Nile fever typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. There is no specific antiviral medication available to treat the virus.

"Gene Products, env" is not a commonly used term in the medical field. It is possible that it may refer to a specific gene product or protein that is associated with the environment, but without more context, it is difficult to provide a more specific definition. It is important to note that gene products are the end products of genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. These gene products play important roles in various biological processes and can be influenced by environmental factors.

RNA, Double-Stranded refers to a type of RNA molecule that consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds. In contrast to single-stranded RNA, which has only one strand of nucleotides, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is more stable and can form more complex structures. Double-stranded RNA is commonly found in viruses, where it serves as the genetic material for the virus. It is also found in some cellular processes, such as the processing of messenger RNA (mRNA) and the regulation of gene expression. Double-stranded RNA can trigger an immune response in cells, which is why it is often targeted by antiviral drugs and vaccines. Additionally, some researchers are exploring the use of dsRNA as a tool for gene editing and gene therapy.

Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. It is a common disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and is estimated to affect between 300 million and 500 million people each year. Dengue fever is the most common form of the disease, and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but supportive care such as hydration and pain management can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. Vaccines are currently being developed for dengue fever, but are not yet widely available.

Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease (BVD-MD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cattle and other ruminants. It is caused by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), which is a member of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. The disease can present in two forms: acute and persistent. Acute BVDV infection is characterized by fever, loss of appetite, and diarrhea, and is usually self-limiting. Persistent BVDV infection, on the other hand, is characterized by the presence of the virus in the animal's body for an extended period, often for the animal's entire life. This can lead to a range of clinical signs, including weight loss, reproductive problems, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. BVD-MD can have a significant impact on the cattle industry, as it can cause reduced productivity, increased mortality, and decreased reproductive success. It is also a significant source of economic loss, as it can lead to increased veterinary costs, decreased herd value, and reduced milk and meat production. Prevention and control of BVD-MD typically involve vaccination, quarantine, and testing of animals for the presence of the virus.

Antibodies, neutralizing are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a virus or bacteria. Neutralizing antibodies are a specific type of antibody that can bind to and neutralize the harmful effects of a pathogen, preventing it from infecting cells or causing damage to the body. Neutralizing antibodies are an important part of the immune response and are often used in medical treatments to help the body fight off infections.

Respirovirus infections are a type of viral infection that primarily affect the respiratory system. These viruses are members of the Paramyxoviridae family and include several different types, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses (types 1-4), and metapneumovirus. Respirovirus infections can cause a range of symptoms, including cough, fever, runny nose, sore throat, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, they can lead to pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and other respiratory complications, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for respirovirus infections typically involves supportive care, such as rest, fluids, and over-the-counter medications to relieve symptoms. In some cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed, particularly for severe or complicated infections. Vaccines are available for some types of respirovirus, such as RSV, but they are not effective against all strains of the virus.

Nucleoproteins are complex molecules that consist of a protein and a nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA. In the medical field, nucleoproteins play important roles in various biological processes, including gene expression, DNA replication, and DNA repair. One example of a nucleoprotein is histone, which is a protein that helps package DNA into a compact structure called chromatin. Histones are important for regulating gene expression, as they can affect the accessibility of DNA to transcription factors and other regulatory proteins. Another example of a nucleoprotein is ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which is a complex molecule that consists of RNA and one or more proteins. RNPs play important roles in various cellular processes, including mRNA processing, translation, and RNA interference. In the context of viral infections, nucleoproteins are often found in viral particles and play important roles in viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, the nucleoprotein of influenza virus is involved in the packaging of viral RNA into viral particles, while the nucleoprotein of HIV is involved in the regulation of viral gene expression. Overall, nucleoproteins are important molecules in the medical field, and their study can provide insights into various biological processes and diseases.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are proteins that are encoded by viruses and have the potential to cause cancer in infected cells. These proteins can interfere with the normal functioning of cellular genes and signaling pathways, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Examples of viral oncogenes include the E6 and E7 proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV), which are associated with cervical cancer, and the v-Abl protein of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The study of viral oncogenes is an important area of research in cancer biology and the development of new cancer treatments.

Nucleocapsid proteins are a group of proteins that are found in the core of the virus particle, specifically in the nucleocapsid. They play a crucial role in the replication and transcription of the viral genome. In the context of medical research, nucleocapsid proteins are often studied as potential targets for antiviral drugs, as well as for the development of diagnostic tests for viral infections. They are also used as markers for the presence of the virus in infected cells.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Synthetic" refers to vaccines that are made using synthetic or man-made methods, rather than being derived from natural sources such as live or attenuated viruses or bacteria. These vaccines are typically made using recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting a small piece of genetic material from the pathogen into a harmless host cell, such as a yeast or bacteria, that is then grown in large quantities. The resulting protein is then purified and used to make the vaccine. Synthetic vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines, including the ability to produce vaccines quickly and efficiently, the ability to produce vaccines for diseases that are difficult to grow in the laboratory, and the ability to produce vaccines that are safe and effective for people with weakened immune systems or other health conditions. Some examples of synthetic vaccines include the hepatitis B vaccine, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and the influenza vaccine.

Influenza vaccines are medical products that are designed to protect against the influenza virus. They are typically administered through injection or nasal spray and contain either killed or weakened forms of the virus, or pieces of the virus that can stimulate an immune response without causing the disease. Influenza vaccines are typically given annually, as the virus can mutate and new strains can emerge each flu season. They are an important tool in preventing the spread of influenza and reducing the severity of illness associated with the disease.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

Interferon Type I is a group of signaling proteins produced by the body's immune system in response to viral infections. These proteins are also known as cytokines and are released by cells that have been infected with a virus. Interferon Type I helps to activate other immune cells and proteins, such as natural killer cells and macrophages, which can help to destroy the virus and prevent it from spreading to other cells. Interferon Type I also has antiviral effects on the infected cells themselves, which can help to limit the severity of the infection. In the medical field, interferon Type I is often used as a treatment for viral infections, such as hepatitis B and C, and certain types of cancer.

HIV Envelope Protein gp120 is a glycoprotein that is found on the surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It plays a critical role in the virus's ability to infect and infect cells. gp120 binds to specific receptors on the surface of immune cells, allowing the virus to enter and infect the cell. This protein is also a major target for the immune system, and antibodies against gp120 can help to prevent HIV infection. In addition, gp120 is a major component of the virus's structure, and it is involved in the formation of the viral envelope.

Retroviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by retroviruses, which are a type of virus that use an RNA genome to replicate. Retroviruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. Some common retroviruses that can cause infections in humans include HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), HTLV (human T-cell leukemia virus), and the gammaretroviruses that cause certain types of cancer in cats and dogs. Retroviruses can cause a variety of diseases in their hosts, depending on the specific virus and the host's immune system. For example, HIV can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system becomes severely weakened and the body becomes vulnerable to a wide range of infections and cancers. Retroviruses are typically transmitted through contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, or breast milk. They can also be transmitted through sexual contact, sharing needles or other injection equipment, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Treatment for retroviral infections typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which involves taking a combination of medications to suppress the virus and prevent it from replicating. In some cases, retroviral infections can be cured or managed with appropriate treatment.

Circoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Circoviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped, and have a circular single-stranded DNA genome. They are known to infect a wide range of animals, including humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. Circoviruses are commonly found in the environment and can be transmitted through contaminated water, food, or direct contact with infected animals. Infections can cause a variety of clinical signs and symptoms, depending on the species and the virus involved. In humans, circovirus infections are generally mild and self-limiting, and may cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and respiratory tract infections. In animals, circovirus infections can cause more severe disease, including diarrhea, vomiting, and liver damage. Diagnosis of circovirus infections is typically made through laboratory testing, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or serology. Treatment is generally supportive, with management of symptoms and prevention of complications. Vaccination is available for some animal species to prevent circovirus infections.

Bird diseases refer to any illness or infection that affects birds, including domesticated birds such as chickens, turkeys, and ducks, as well as wild birds. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and environmental factors such as exposure to toxins or pollutants. Bird diseases can range in severity from mild to life-threatening, and can affect birds of all ages and species. Some common bird diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, fowl pox, Marek's disease, and psittacosis. In the medical field, bird diseases are typically diagnosed and treated by veterinarians who specialize in avian medicine. Treatment may involve medications, vaccines, or other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent the spread of the disease. In some cases, birds may need to be euthanized if the disease is too severe or if treatment is not effective.

The gag gene products of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a group of proteins that are encoded by the gag gene in the HIV genome. These proteins play important roles in the replication and survival of the virus. The gag gene products include the capsid protein (CA), the matrix protein (MA), the nucleocapsid protein (NC), and the protease (PR). The capsid protein forms the viral capsid, which protects the viral RNA genome and is essential for viral assembly. The matrix protein is involved in the budding of new virus particles from infected cells. The nucleocapsid protein helps package the viral RNA genome into the capsid. The protease is responsible for cleaving the viral polyproteins into their individual components, which are necessary for viral replication. HIV gag gene products are important targets for antiretroviral therapy, as they are essential for the survival and replication of the virus. Inhibitors of the protease can block the cleavage of the viral polyproteins, preventing the formation of functional virus particles.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, which are responsible for fighting off infections and diseases. As the number of CD4 cells decreases, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections and diseases that it would normally be able to fight off. AIDS is typically diagnosed when a person's CD4 cell count falls below a certain level or when they develop certain opportunistic infections or cancers that are commonly associated with HIV. There is currently no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease. With proper treatment, people with AIDS can live long and healthy lives.

Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS) is a disease that affects primates, including monkeys and chimpanzees, and is caused by a virus similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SAIDS is characterized by a weakened immune system, which makes the affected animals more susceptible to infections and diseases. The symptoms of SAIDS are similar to those of HIV in humans, including fever, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. SAIDS is transmitted through contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, and vaginal fluids, and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during pregnancy or breastfeeding. SAIDS is a serious and often fatal disease, and there is currently no cure for it.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of the HIV virus. These antibodies are specific to the HIV virus and can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids of an individual who has been infected with the virus. The presence of HIV antibodies in the blood is a diagnostic indicator of HIV infection. However, it is important to note that the presence of HIV antibodies does not necessarily mean that an individual is currently infected with the virus. It is possible for an individual to test positive for HIV antibodies if they have previously been infected with the virus, even if they are no longer infected. HIV antibodies can also be used to monitor the progression of HIV infection and the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As an individual with HIV receives ART, their HIV viral load (the amount of virus present in the blood) should decrease, and their CD4 T-cell count (a type of white blood cell that is important for fighting infections) should increase. These changes can be monitored through regular blood tests that measure HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell count, as well as through the detection of HIV antibodies.

Swine diseases refer to any illness or infection that affects pigs. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, and environmental factors. Swine diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect pigs of all ages and sizes. Some common swine diseases include: 1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) 2. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) 3. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) 4. Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) 5. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) 6. Swine Leukosis Virus (SLV) 7. Porcine Dermatitis and Necrosis Syndrome (PDNS) 8. Porcine Enterotoxemia (PED) 9. Porcine Circovirus Type 1 (PCV1) 10. Porcine Circovirus Type 3 (PCV3) Swine diseases can have significant economic impacts on the pork industry, as well as on animal welfare and public health. Therefore, it is important for veterinarians, farmers, and other stakeholders to be aware of the signs and symptoms of swine diseases and to take appropriate measures to prevent and control their spread.

The tat gene products of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a group of proteins that play a critical role in the replication and spread of the virus. The tat gene is one of several regulatory genes found in the HIV genome, and its products are essential for the production of new virus particles. The tat protein is a small, basic protein that is produced by the tat gene and is incorporated into the HIV virion during the assembly process. Once inside a host cell, the tat protein binds to the host cell's transcription machinery and promotes the production of viral RNA, which is then used to produce new virus particles. In addition to its role in viral replication, the tat protein has been shown to have a number of other effects on the host cell, including the induction of cell proliferation, the inhibition of apoptosis (cell death), and the modulation of immune responses. As a result, the tat protein is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

Poultry diseases refer to any illness or infection that affects birds that are raised for meat, eggs, or other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. Some common poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, fowl pox, coccidiosis, and salmonellosis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on the poultry industry, as well as pose a risk to human health if the birds are consumed or the disease is transmitted to other animals or humans. Treatment and prevention strategies for poultry diseases include vaccination, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and the use of antibiotics or other medications as needed.

Immune sera refers to a type of blood serum that contains antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination. These antibodies are produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Immune sera can be used to diagnose and treat certain infections, as well as to prevent future infections. For example, immune sera containing antibodies against a specific virus or bacteria can be used to diagnose a current infection or to prevent future infections in people who have been exposed to the virus or bacteria. Immune sera can also be used as a research tool to study the immune response to infections and to develop new vaccines and treatments. In some cases, immune sera may be used to treat patients with severe infections or allergies, although this is less common than using immune sera for diagnostic or preventive purposes.

In the medical field, "trans-activators" refer to proteins or molecules that activate the transcription of a gene, which is the process by which the information in a gene is used to produce a functional product, such as a protein. Trans-activators can bind to specific DNA sequences near a gene and recruit other proteins, such as RNA polymerase, to initiate transcription. They can also modify the chromatin structure around a gene to make it more accessible to transcription machinery. Trans-activators play important roles in regulating gene expression and are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Rhabdoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae. These viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are enveloped and have a bullet-shaped or bullet-nosed appearance. They are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. Some of the most well-known rhabdoviruses that can cause infections in humans include rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. These viruses can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the location of the infection. For example, rabies virus can cause a progressive encephalitis that can be fatal if left untreated, while vesicular stomatitis virus can cause fever, mouth ulcers, and swelling of the salivary glands. Rhabdoviridae infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including viral culture, serological testing, and molecular testing. Treatment for these infections typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and, in some cases, vaccination. Prevention of rhabdovirus infections involves avoiding contact with infected animals or humans, practicing good hygiene, and getting vaccinated when appropriate.

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

Leukemia, Experimental refers to the study of leukemia using experimental methods, such as laboratory research and animal models, to better understand the disease and develop new treatments. Experimental leukemia research involves investigating the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of leukemia, as well as testing new drugs and therapies in preclinical models before they are tested in humans. This type of research is important for advancing our understanding of leukemia and improving treatment options for patients.

Thymidine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of thymidine, a nucleoside found in DNA. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine monophosphate (TMP), which is a necessary step in the synthesis of DNA. In the medical field, TK is of particular interest because it is involved in the metabolism of several antiviral and anticancer drugs. For example, some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, are phosphorylated by TK to their active forms, which then inhibit viral replication. Similarly, some anticancer drugs, such as gemcitabine and ara-C, are also phosphorylated by TK to their active forms, which then inhibit DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. TK is also a target for cancer therapy, as some tumors overexpress this enzyme, leading to increased phosphorylation of these drugs and increased toxicity. Therefore, drugs that selectively target TK in cancer cells are being developed as potential cancer treatments.

Paramyxoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. This family includes a number of important human and animal pathogens, such as measles virus, mumps virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza viruses. Paramyxoviridae infections are characterized by the production of small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome. These viruses are able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. They are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces. Symptoms of paramyxoviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus causing the infection. Common symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, and body aches. In some cases, more severe symptoms may develop, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or encephalitis. Treatment for paramyxoviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccines are also available for some of the viruses in this family, such as measles and mumps.

Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the innate immune response to viral infections. It is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, which are involved in regulating the expression of genes that are involved in antiviral defense, inflammation, and immune cell development. IRF3 is activated in response to viral infections, and it binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes, leading to their transcription and subsequent production of proteins that help to fight the infection. IRF3 also plays a role in regulating the expression of genes involved in the production of type I interferons, which are important cytokines that help to coordinate the immune response to viral infections. In addition to its role in antiviral defense, IRF3 has also been implicated in the regulation of immune cell development and the response to other types of infections, such as bacterial infections and cancer. Dysregulation of IRF3 has been linked to a number of human diseases, including viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer.

Herpesviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Herpesviridae. These viruses are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong infections in their hosts, with periods of latency and reactivation. There are eight known herpesviruses that infect humans, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and human herpesvirus 36 (HHV-36). Herpesviridae infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the location of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat, skin rashes, and genital sores. Some infections can also cause more serious complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Herpesviridae infections are typically diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as viral culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Treatment options for herpesviridae infections include antiviral medications, which can help to reduce symptoms and prevent complications. However, there is currently no cure for herpesviridae infections, and the viruses can remain dormant in the body for long periods of time before reactivating.

In the medical field, "HN Protein" typically refers to the "Nucleocapsid Protein" of the "Hepatitis C Virus" (HCV). The HN protein is a viral protein that plays a crucial role in the replication and assembly of the HCV genome. It is encoded by the 5' non-coding region of the HCV genome and is responsible for packaging the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid structure. The HN protein is also involved in the interaction of the virus with host cells, including the entry of the virus into the cell and the assembly of new virus particles. The HN protein is a target for antiviral therapy and is the subject of ongoing research for the development of new treatments for HCV infection.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats. The disease is caused by a group of viruses known as foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs), which are highly infectious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as well as through contaminated feed, water, or equipment. Symptoms of FMD include fever, loss of appetite, and the appearance of blisters or ulcers on the mouth, feet, and teats of infected animals. The disease can also cause lameness and difficulty in swallowing, which can lead to dehydration and other complications. FMD is considered one of the most serious animal diseases worldwide, as it can cause significant economic losses to livestock producers and can also have a major impact on public health and food safety. To prevent the spread of FMD, strict biosecurity measures are in place, including the vaccination of susceptible animals, the isolation of infected animals, and the destruction of infected livestock and their products.

Encephalitis, viral refers to an inflammation of the brain caused by a viral infection. The virus can affect any part of the brain, but it most commonly affects the temporal lobe, which is responsible for memory and speech. Symptoms of viral encephalitis can include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and changes in behavior or personality. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or even death. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and rehabilitation to help manage symptoms and improve outcomes.

Cytosine is a nitrogenous base that is one of the four main building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine base, meaning it has a six-membered ring structure with two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms. In DNA, cytosine is always paired with thymine, while in RNA, it is paired with uracil. Cytosine plays a crucial role in the storage and transmission of genetic information, as it is involved in the formation of the genetic code. In the medical field, cytosine is often studied in the context of genetics and molecular biology, as well as in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Bunyaviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. These viruses are enveloped RNA viruses that can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The Bunyaviridae family is divided into several genera, including Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus. Each genus contains a variety of viruses that can cause different types of infections in humans and animals. Some of the most well-known bunyaviruses include the Rift Valley fever virus, which can cause severe fever and hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals, and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, which can cause severe bleeding and organ failure in humans. Bunyaviridae infections can be transmitted through a variety of routes, including bites from infected insects, contact with infected bodily fluids, or inhalation of infected aerosols. Symptoms of bunyaviridae infections can range from mild to severe and may include fever, headache, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Treatment for bunyaviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to treat the infection. Vaccines are also available for some bunyaviruses, such as the Rift Valley fever vaccine.

Rodent diseases refer to a group of infectious diseases that are caused by pathogens transmitted by rodents, such as mice and rats. These diseases can affect both humans and animals, and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rodents, their urine, feces, or saliva, or through the bites of infected fleas or ticks. Some common rodent-borne diseases include: 1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): A severe respiratory illness that can be fatal. 2. Rat-bite fever: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, joint pain, and swelling. 3. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): A viral infection that can cause meningitis and encephalitis. 4. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, headache, muscle pain, and liver damage. 5. Salmonellosis: A bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. 6. Plague: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, chills, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Preventing rodent-borne diseases involves controlling rodent populations through sanitation, exclusion, and the use of rodenticides, as well as practicing good hygiene and avoiding contact with rodents and their droppings. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

In the medical field, "DNA, Recombinant" refers to a type of DNA that has been artificially synthesized or modified to contain specific genes or genetic sequences. This is achieved through a process called genetic engineering, which involves inserting foreign DNA into a host organism's genome. Recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the field of medicine, allowing scientists to create new drugs, vaccines, and other therapeutic agents. For example, recombinant DNA technology has been used to create insulin for the treatment of diabetes, human growth hormone for the treatment of growth disorders, and vaccines for a variety of infectious diseases. Recombinant DNA technology also has important applications in basic research, allowing scientists to study the function of specific genes and genetic sequences, and to investigate the mechanisms of diseases.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 molecules, are a type of protein found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These cells, called T cells, play a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and disease. CD4 antigens are specifically associated with helper T cells, which are a type of T cell that works to coordinate the immune response by activating other immune cells. Helper T cells express high levels of CD4 antigens on their surface, which allows them to bind to and activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages. In the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus specifically targets and destroys CD4+ T cells, leading to a weakened immune system and an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and certain types of cancer. Therefore, CD4+ T cell count is often used as a key indicator of HIV infection and disease progression.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) proteins are the proteins that are produced by the HIV virus. These proteins play a crucial role in the replication and survival of the virus within the host's immune system. There are several types of HIV proteins, including: 1. Gag proteins: These proteins are involved in the assembly and maturation of new virus particles. 2. Pol proteins: These proteins are involved in the replication of the HIV genome. 3. Env proteins: These proteins are responsible for the attachment of the virus to host cells and the fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane. 4. Tat and Rev proteins: These proteins regulate the expression of the HIV genome and the export of viral RNA from the host cell nucleus. Understanding the function of these HIV proteins is important for the development of effective treatments and vaccines against HIV.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system of mammals, including humans. It is caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal, usually through a bite or scratch. The virus attacks the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms that can include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and confusion. In its most severe form, rabies can cause delirium, seizures, and ultimately death. The disease is preventable through vaccination, but once symptoms appear, there is no cure. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications, such as infection or respiratory failure.

The "nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus" refers to the proteins encoded by the nef gene of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The nef gene is a regulatory gene that is expressed during the late stages of HIV replication and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. The nef gene products are multifunctional proteins that have been shown to modulate various cellular processes, including cell signaling, trafficking, and apoptosis. They have been implicated in the ability of HIV to evade the immune system, as well as in the development of certain HIV-related complications, such as cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive disorders. The nef gene products are not essential for the survival of HIV in vitro, but they have been shown to enhance viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. As a result, they are considered to be important targets for the development of new antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of HIV infection.

Hepatitis, viral, animal refers to a type of viral infection that affects the liver and is caused by viruses that are specific to animals. These viruses can be transmitted to humans through various means, such as contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated food or water, or through the bites of infected insects. There are several different types of viral hepatitis that can affect animals, including hepatitis E, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms in animals, including fever, loss of appetite, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and liver damage. In severe cases, viral hepatitis can lead to liver failure and death. In humans, viral hepatitis can also cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and jaundice. Some types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A and E, are generally mild and self-limiting, while others, such as hepatitis B and C, can be chronic and require long-term treatment. Prevention of viral hepatitis in animals and humans involves measures such as avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, practicing good hygiene, and consuming safe food and water. Vaccines are also available for some types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A and B, which can help prevent infection.

Pseudorabies, also known as Aujeszky's disease, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects swine. It is caused by the pseudorabies virus (PRV), which belongs to the herpesvirus family. The virus primarily affects the central nervous system of pigs, but it can also infect other organs such as the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. The symptoms of pseudorabies in pigs can vary depending on the age and immune status of the animal, as well as the strain of the virus. In young pigs, the disease can be fatal, while older pigs may show signs of fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and respiratory distress. In some cases, pigs may also develop neurological symptoms such as seizures, paralysis, and blindness. Pseudorabies is primarily spread through direct contact between infected and susceptible pigs, as well as through contaminated equipment, feed, and water. It can also be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or their secretions. Control and prevention of pseudorabies in pigs typically involve vaccination, strict biosecurity measures, and the elimination of infected animals from the herd. In some cases, the use of antiviral drugs may also be recommended to treat infected animals.

Nuclear proteins are proteins that are found within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, where genetic material is stored and regulated. Nuclear proteins play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and gene regulation. There are many different types of nuclear proteins, each with its own specific function. Some nuclear proteins are involved in the structure and organization of the nucleus itself, while others are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Nuclear proteins can also interact with other proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules to carry out their functions. In the medical field, nuclear proteins are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where changes in the expression or function of nuclear proteins can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Additionally, nuclear proteins are important targets for drug development, as they can be targeted to treat a variety of diseases.

Acyclovir is an antiviral medication that is used to treat a variety of viral infections, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the skin, mouth, and genitals, as well as chickenpox and shingles. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, which helps to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms and prevent the virus from spreading to other parts of the body. Acyclovir is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, ointments, and creams, and is typically taken orally or applied topically to the affected area. It is generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and headache.

Horse diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects horses. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors. Some common horse diseases include equine influenza, equine herpesvirus, equine colic, laminitis, founder, tetanus, botulism, and various types of worms and parasites. Horse diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect the horse's overall health, performance, and quality of life. Treatment for horse diseases may involve medications, surgery, and other medical interventions, as well as changes to the horse's diet and environment to promote healing and prevent recurrence.

Viral regulatory and accessory proteins are non-structural proteins that are produced by viruses during the course of their replication cycle. These proteins play a variety of roles in the virus life cycle, including regulating viral gene expression, modulating the host immune response, and facilitating viral assembly and release. Some examples of viral regulatory and accessory proteins include the viral protease, which is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins into individual functional proteins, and the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is responsible for replicating the viral genome. Other examples include proteins that help the virus evade the host immune system, such as viral interferon antagonists, or proteins that facilitate viral entry into host cells, such as viral attachment proteins. Viral regulatory and accessory proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for the virus to replicate and cause disease. By targeting these proteins, antiviral drugs can help to inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections.

RNA, Small Interfering (siRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA molecule that plays a role in gene regulation. siRNA is approximately 21-25 nucleotides in length and is derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. In the medical field, siRNA is used as a tool for gene silencing, which involves inhibiting the expression of specific genes. This is achieved by introducing siRNA molecules that are complementary to the target mRNA sequence, leading to the degradation of the mRNA and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis. siRNA has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. It is also used in research to study gene function and regulation. However, the use of siRNA in medicine is still in its early stages, and there are several challenges that need to be addressed before it can be widely used in clinical practice.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that are attached to the cell membrane through a glycosyl group, which is a complex carbohydrate. These proteins play important roles in cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell recognition. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including immune response, cell growth and differentiation, and nerve transmission. Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types: transmembrane glycoproteins, which span the entire cell membrane, and peripheral glycoproteins, which are located on one side of the membrane.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) vaccines are vaccines designed to protect against RSV, a common respiratory virus that can cause severe illness in infants, young children, and older adults. RSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in young children and can also cause severe illness in older adults and people with weakened immune systems. There are currently two types of RSV vaccines that have been approved for use: live attenuated vaccines and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the virus that is still able to replicate but is not as virulent as the wild-type virus. Subunit vaccines contain pieces of the virus, such as proteins, that are not able to replicate but can still stimulate an immune response. RSV vaccines are typically given to high-risk populations, such as infants and young children, to prevent severe illness and hospitalization. They are also being studied for use in older adults and people with weakened immune systems to prevent severe illness and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.

HIV Core Protein p24 is a protein that is produced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during the early stages of infection. It is a component of the viral core, which is the innermost part of the virus that contains the genetic material. The p24 protein is an important marker for the presence of HIV in the blood and is often used in diagnostic tests to detect the virus. It is also used as an indicator of the level of virus replication and the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy.

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs, including domestic pigs and wild boars. The virus is primarily spread through respiratory secretions and can cause a range of clinical signs, including reproductive failure in sows, respiratory distress in piglets, and weight loss in growing pigs. The PRRS virus is a member of the Arteriviridae family and is classified into two genotypes: PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2. PRRSV-1 is more prevalent in North America, while PRRSV-2 is more common in Europe and Asia. The clinical signs of PRRS can vary depending on the age and immune status of the pig, as well as the virulence of the virus strain. In sows, PRRS can cause reproductive failure, including reduced litter size, mummified piglets, and stillbirths. In piglets, PRRS can cause respiratory distress, poor growth, and high mortality rates. In growing pigs, PRRS can cause weight loss, reduced feed efficiency, and increased susceptibility to other infections. There is currently no cure for PRRS, and prevention is the best strategy to control the disease. This includes implementing strict biosecurity measures, such as separating infected pigs from healthy pigs, disinfecting equipment and facilities, and vaccinating pigs against the virus.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. RTIs can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Common symptoms of RTIs include coughing, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. RTIs can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, although young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe infections. Treatment for RTIs depends on the specific cause and severity of the infection, and may include medications, rest, and fluids. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Oseltamivir is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza (the flu). It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called neuraminidase, which is essential for the replication and spread of the influenza virus. Oseltamivir is available in oral tablet and capsule forms and is typically prescribed to people who have been exposed to the flu virus or who are experiencing flu-like symptoms. It is most effective when taken within the first 48 hours of symptom onset. Oseltamivir is not effective against other types of viruses, such as the common cold. Common side effects of oseltamivir include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache.

In the medical field, DEAD-box RNA helicases are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes involving RNA metabolism. These proteins are named after the conserved amino acid sequence Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD) found in their N-terminal domain. DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, translation, RNA splicing, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA degradation. They use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA structures, such as secondary structures formed by base pairing between RNA strands, and to facilitate the movement of RNA molecules along RNA or DNA substrates. Mutations in genes encoding DEAD-box RNA helicases have been associated with various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, developmental disorders, and cancer. For example, mutations in the DDX41 gene have been linked to susceptibility to certain types of cancer, while mutations in the DDX3X gene have been associated with developmental disorders such as X-linked intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.

Protein precursors are molecules that are converted into proteins through a process called translation. In the medical field, protein precursors are often referred to as amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that can be combined in various ways to form different proteins, each with its own unique function in the body. Protein precursors are essential for the proper functioning of the body, as proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, cell signaling, and immune function. They are also important for tissue repair and growth, and for maintaining the structure and function of organs and tissues. Protein precursors can be obtained from the diet through the consumption of foods that are rich in amino acids, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. In some cases, protein precursors may also be administered as supplements or medications to individuals who are unable to obtain sufficient amounts of these nutrients through their diet.

DNA restriction enzymes are a class of enzymes that are naturally produced by bacteria and archaea to protect their DNA from foreign invaders. These enzymes recognize specific sequences of DNA and cut the strands at specific points, creating a double-stranded break. This allows the bacteria or archaea to destroy the foreign DNA and prevent it from replicating within their cells. In the medical field, DNA restriction enzymes are commonly used in molecular biology techniques such as DNA cloning, genetic engineering, and DNA fingerprinting. They are also used in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases, as well as in the study of viral infections and cancer. By cutting DNA at specific sites, researchers can manipulate and analyze the genetic material to gain insights into the function and regulation of genes, and to develop new therapies for genetic diseases.

DNA viruses constitute two Baltimore groups: Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses, and Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has a genome made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is replicated by a DNA polymerase. They can ... viruses, and those that have one strand of DNA in their genome, called single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses. dsDNA viruses ... Additionally, many DNA viruses are unassigned to higher taxa. Reverse transcribing viruses, which have a DNA genome that is ...
... is a hepatitis B viral protein. It is a DNA polymerase that can use either DNA or RNA ... DNA strand. The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase is a multifunctional enzyme, with both RNA-dependent and DNA-dependent ... DNA strand synthesis. The resulting RC-DNA is partially double stranded. The (-) DNA strand is longer than a genome length, ... Ono-Nita SK, Kato N, Shiratori Y, Masaki T, Lan KH, Carrilho FJ, Omata M (March 1999). "YMDD motif in hepatitis B virus DNA ...
... (RCN) is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the orthopoxviruses in the family Poxviridae and ... RCN is a double-stranded DNA virus. It is an orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. DNA ... Unlike the HA of other vaccinia-like viruses, the HA of RCN did not cross-react with monkeypox virus HA. Though RPV is a close ... The sera partially cross-reacted with a vaccinia virus HA preparation, suggesting a close relation between the viruses. ...
... and is one of the most common viruses in humans. EBV is a double-stranded DNA virus. The virus causes infectious mononucleosis ... Medicine portal Viruses portal Epstein-Barr virus infection Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases James ... The virus is about 122-180 nm in diameter and is composed of a double helix of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which contains about ... The Epstein-Barr virus was named after M.A. Epstein, and Yvonne Barr, who discovered the virus together with Bert Achong. In ...
25 November 1999). "The Complete DNA Sequence of Myxoma Virus". Virology. 264 (2): 298-318. doi:10.1006/viro.1999.0001. PMID ... Myxoma virus is a poxvirus in the genus Leporipoxvirus. The two broad geographic types of myxoma virus are Californian and ... Myxoma virus matures naturally by budding through the surface membrane of the host cell. Myxoma virus has multiple methods that ... Myxoma virus. In: ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA. ...
... (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus in the Asfarviridae family. It is the causative agent of ... Viruses portal Veterinary virology Dixon; et al. (2008). "African Swine Fever Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. ... It is the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome known to be transmitted by arthropods. ASFV is a large (175-215 nm), ... The number of genes differs slightly among different isolates of the virus. ASFV has similarities to the other large DNA ...
... did not show any trace of BLV DNA and thus excludes clonal insertion (integration into human genomic DNA) of BLV into the DNA ... It is closely related to the human T‑lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I). BLV may integrate into the genomic DNA of B‑ ... Buehring GC, Shen HM, Jensen HM, Choi KY, Sun D, Nuovo G (May 2014). "Bovine leukemia virus DNA in human breast tissue". ... Buehring GC, Shen HM, Jensen HM, Choi KY, Sun D, Nuovo G (May 2014). "Bovine leukemia virus DNA in human breast tissue". ...
Archaean viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes unique shapes. ... Virophages are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that rely on the co-infection of giant viruses. Virophages rely on the viral ... Marine algae can be infected by viruses in the family Phycodnaviridae. These are large (100-560 kb) double-stranded DNA viruses ... The coccolithovirus Emiliania huxleyi virus 86, a giant double-stranded DNA virus, infects the ubiquitous coccolithophore ...
Banana bunchy top is a viral disease caused by a single-stranded DNA virus called the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). It was ... Wikispecies has information related to Banana bunchy top virus. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Banana bunchy top virus ... and is caused by a single-strand DNA virus, the banana bunchy top virus. BBTV can infect species of the family Musaceae, which ... Acquisition of the virus by the banana aphid requires about 18 hours of feeding and then the aphid can retain the virus for ...
... and detection of strawberry vein banding virus DNA. Phytopathology 78, 154-159. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ... Infectivity of recombinant strawberry vein banding virus DNA. J. Gen Virol. 84: 1377-81. McBride, K. E. and Summerfelt, K. R., ... Strawberry vein banding virus. pp. 8-10 in: Virus diseases of small fruits and grapevines. N. W. Frazier, Ed. University of ... Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) is a plant pathogenic virus and a member of the family Caulimoviridae. Strawberry vein ...
Yu SF, Sullivan MD, Linial ML (1999). "Evidence that the human foamy virus genome is DNA". J. Virol. 73 (2): 1565-72. doi: ... Foamy virus in humans occurs only as a result of zoonotic infection. The first description of foamy virus (FV) was in 1954. It ... The DNA found is linear and the length of the genome. The genome encodes the usual retroviral genes pol, gag, and env as well ... Liu W, Liu Z, Cao X, Cao Z, Xue L, Zhu F, He X, Li W (2007). "Recombinant human foamy virus, a novel vector for neurological ...
These viruses are nonenveloped, single-strand DNA (ssDNA) viruses. Within Parvoviridae, scAAV further belongs to the ... In nature, these viruses depend on another virus to provide replication machinery; adeno-associated virus can only replicate ... the virus transduces the cell with a single stranded DNA (ssDNA) flanked by two inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). These ITRs ... These can include presence of a helper virus infection (such as adenovirus) or other toxic events such as exposure to UV light ...
This virus is notable for carrying DNA related to the black widow spider toxin gene, becoming an example of a bacteriophage ... "Virus carrying DNA of black widow spider toxin discovered". Vanderbilt University. Retrieved 24 December 2016. v t e (Articles ... WO virus is bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, which it is named after. ... Unaccepted virus taxa, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... with animal-like DNA, implying DNA transfers between eukaryotes ...
The vaccine consists of a DNA plasmid encoding the E and PrM proteins which make up the outer protein coat of the Zika virus ... A Zika virus vaccine is designed to prevent the symptoms and complications of Zika virus infection in humans. As Zika virus ... viruses as vectors for immunogenic Zika virus proteins. One phase 1 trial is using the Measles virus as a vector and was ... a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. Additionally, as dengue virus is closely related to Zika virus, the vaccine ...
Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the virus is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLD virus). Acanthamoeba polyphaga ... This is the most extensive DNA repair machinery that has yet been observed in a virus. It is also the first virus to be found ... CroV is distantly related to Mimivirus and belongs to a group of viruses known as Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. CroV is ... and that the virus shared properties with members of the Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses group. CroV has one of the largest ...
DNA viruses; RNA viruses; Host pathogen interaction Esra Albayrak, Fatih Kocabaş, Chapter Thirteen - Therapeutic targeting and ... https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876162323000330) Keywords: DNA replication; DNA replication stress; Genome ... Chromatin regulators in DNA replication and genome stability maintenance during S-phase, Editor(s): Rossen Donev, Advances in ... The role of the nucleolus in regulating the cell cycle and the DNA damage response, Editor(s): Rossen Donev, Advances in ...
Single-stranded DNA viruses, Unaccepted virus taxa, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... Chimpanzee stool associated circular virus is a single stranded DNA virus isolated from chimpanzee stool. This proposed species ... This virus appears to be related to the bovine stool associated circular virus, which is apparently a synonym of porcine stool- ... "Novel circular DNA viruses in stool samples of wild-living chimpanzees". J. Gen. Virol. 91 (Pt 1): 74-86. doi:10.1099/vir. ...
1972). DNA Tumour Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. ISBN 0879691425. Watson, J. D.; Tooze, J. (1981 ... The DNA Story. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0716715900. Watson, J. D.; Tooze, J.; Kurz, D. (1983). Recombinant DNA: A ... Hunt, D.; Tooze, J.; Kurz, D. (1983). DNA makes RNA makes Protein. Elsevier Biomedical Press. ISBN 978-0444804914. Branden, C. ... 1973). The Molecular Biology of Tumour Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. ISBN 0879691085. Tooze, J., ...
The virus was named BSL-RDHV (Boiling Springs Lake RNA DNA Hybrid Virus). Its genome is related to a DNA circovirus, which ... DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the ... Viruses are categorized in two types: In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, ... A combination Smallpox virus and Monkeypox virus has also been studied. Studies have shown that chimeric viruses can also be ...
Yutin N, Wolf Y, Koonin EV (2014). "Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life ... The viruses have large, double-stranded DNA genomes (300 to >1000 kilobasepairs) that encode a large contingent of genes (of ... The two main hypotheses are that they evolved from small viruses by picking up DNA from host organisms; or that they evolved ... A giant virus, sometimes referred to as a girus, is a very large virus, some of which are larger than typical bacteria. All ...
... dsDNA-RT viruses DNA with RNA intermediate in life-cycle (e.g. Hepadnaviruses) Viruses with a DNA genome, except for the DNA ... and foot-and-mouth virus), SARS virus, hepatitis C virus, yellow fever virus, and rubella virus. Group V: viruses possess ... other single-stranded DNA viruses are incertae sedis. Group I: viruses possess double-stranded DNA. Viruses that cause ... The domains Duplodnaviria and Varidnaviria consist of double-stranded DNA viruses; other double-stranded DNA viruses are ...
... dehydration of the genomic DNA by the major capsid proteins transforms the B-form DNA into A-form DNA. SIFV virions assemble ... The virus infects hypethermophilic and acidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. SIFV has a linear double-stranded DNA genome ... Sulfolobus islandicus filamentous virus (SIFV) is an archaeal virus, classified in the family Lipothrixviridae within the order ... "Structures of filamentous viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea explain DNA stabilization in extreme environments". ...
Loeb L A, Harris C C Cancer Res 2008;68:6863-6872 "DNA and RNA Tumor Viruses." DNA and RNA Tumor Viruses. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 ... some virus are co-carcinogens like Herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) Over intake beta ... A chemical may act as a co-carcinogen even if it does not cause direct DNA damage such as mutation, as long as it can affect a ... Liu, S. (2005). Effects of arsenic on DNA repair and cell checkpoints involvement in arsenic co-mutagenesis and co- ...
"DNA and RNA tumor viruses". The Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 30 December 2017. Deubler, M. Josephine (Summer 1984). "Centennial ... ISBN 978-0-415-92038-4. Moscou MJ, Bogdanove AJ (December 2009). "A simple cipher governs DNA recognition by TAL effectors". ... particularly of the tobacco mosaic virus; Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Biophysical Society ( ... known for his work in Tobacco mosaic virus; first president of the Biophysical Society; member of the National Academy of ...
ISBN 978-0-7637-9064-6. Paul M. Lieberman (2005). "Visualization of Icosahedral Capsid of Herpes Simplex Virus-1". DNA Viruses ... DNA/RNA) of the virus, which subsequently enters the replication cycle. The capsomeres protect against physical, chemical, and ... This group comprises all those viruses which do not fit into either of the above two groups. When the viral particle has ... The capsomere is a subunit of the capsid, an outer covering of protein that protects the genetic material of a virus. ...
... double-stranded DNA viruses; (II) single-stranded DNA viruses; (III) double-stranded RNA viruses; (IV) positive-sense single- ... Sokuluk virus, Yokose virus, Dakar bat virus, Bukalasa bat virus, Carey Island virus, Phnom Penh bat virus, Rio Bravo bat virus ... These zoonotic viruses include the rabies virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and Hendra virus. While ... Most of the viruses harbored by bats are RNA viruses, though they are also known to have DNA viruses. Bats are more tolerant of ...
... , or PGVV, or Preplasmiviricota sp. Gezel-14T, is a virophage, a small group of DNA viruses ... Articles with 'species' microformats, Taxobox articles possibly missing a taxonbar, Viruses, Virophages, DNA viruses). ... Phaeocystis Globosa Virus Virophage has a parasitic relationship with its helper virus species Phaeocystis globose virus (PGV ... "Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting ...
"Plasmid DNA encoding the respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a promising vaccine candidate". Virology. 269 (1): 54-65. doi ... Respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a glycoprotein produced by respiratory syncytial virus. Some features of the G protein ... Li XQ, Fu ZF, Alvarez R, Henderson C, Tripp RA (January 2006). "Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects neuronal cells and ... Harcourt J, Alvarez R, Jones LP, Henderson C, Anderson LJ, Tripp RA (February 2006). "Respiratory syncytial virus G protein and ...
"Retroviridae - Reverse Transcribing DNA and RNA Viruses - Reverse Transcribing DNA and RNA Viruses (2011)". International ... Initial discovery suspected the virus particles to be an oncogenic virus due to its resemblance to known oncogenic RNA virus ( ... The enveloped virus is made up of lipid bilayer derived from host cell and virus-specific proteins. The matrix protein binds ... "ICTV Taxonomy history: Mason-Pfizer monkey virus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 29 December ...
Partly double-stranded DNA viruses: Hepadnaviridae. These viruses are enveloped. One family of single-stranded DNA viruses ... Both of these taxa are non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses. Human-infecting virus families offer rules that may assist ... All are RNA viruses. One family of enveloped viruses causes gastroenteritis (Coronaviridae). All other viruses associated with ... DNA viruses replicate within the cell nucleus while RNA viruses replicate within the cytoplasm. Exceptions are known to this ...
Arturo Falaschi Conference "ICGEB DNA Tumour Virus Meeting". Trieste, Italy16 - 21 July 2024 ...
The strategy has already been tested against hepatitis and adeno-associated viruses in cell cultures. It may also prove ... Researchers engulf and neutralize viruses with nano-capsules tailored from genetic material using the DNA origami method. ... The virus trap: Hollow nano-objects made of DNA could trap viruses and render them harmless. (Nanowerk News) To date, there are ... Lined on the inside with virus-binding molecules, nano shells made of DNA material bind viruses tightly and thus render them ...
Researchers surprised to find fragments of RNA viruses in coral partners genomes. ... Ancient RNA Viruses Found in Coral Symbionts DNA. News Published: June 2, 2023 ... But it was a surprising find because most RNA viruses are not known for embedding themselves in the DNA of organisms they ... An international team of marine biologists has discovered the remnants of ancient RNA viruses embedded in the DNA of symbiotic ...
Psy Virus & Controlled Insanity - «Split». March 8, 2008 Cat.# … DNA 12. Release Date … 08.03.2008. Genre … Experimental. Type ... DNA Production is a nonprofit digital label focused on releasing selected albums done in dark ambient, drone ambient, noise and ... This is an experimental split release between Psy Virus from Puschino, Moscow and Controlled Insanity from Moscow (Controlled ...
We present the first experiment to measure genome-wide gene expression in an insect after infection with a natural DNA virus. ... Our results indicate that cuticle proteins might be key genes underpinning the response to DNA viruses. Furthermore, the large ... Here, we infect a commercially important pest moth species Plodia interpunctella with its naturally infecting DNA virus. We ... We then tested for differential gene expression between moths that were exposed to the virus and controls. We found 51 genes ...
Davison, A.J. and Scott, J.E. (1985) DNA sequence of the major inverted repeat in the Varicella-Zoster virus genome. Journal of ... DNA sequence of the major inverted repeat in the Varicella-Zoster virus genome ... A DNA sequence of 7747 base pairs containing the repeat was determined and analysed. The G + C content of the repeat is not ... The major inverted repeat of 7319.5 base pairs is present at an internal site in the varicella-zoster virus genome and at one ...
"Detection of Monkeypox Virus DNA in Airport Wastewater, Rome, Italy" 29, no. 1 (2023). La Rosa, Giuseppina et al. "Detection of ... We detected monkeypox virus DNA in wastewater from Italys largest airport by using real-time PCR assays targeting the G2R ... Stability of Monkeypox Virus in Body Fluids and Wastewater Cite CITE. Title : Stability of Monkeypox Virus in Body Fluids and ... Title : Detection of Monkeypox Virus DNA in Airport Wastewater, Rome, Italy Personal Author(s) : La Rosa, Giuseppina;Mancini, ...
Antibodies and DNA of common viruses. *Bacteria (including that which causes syphilis, using a VDRL test) ... Encephalitis (such as Herpes simplex, West Nile, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus) ...
Elucidating the cellular entry mechanism of DNA tumor viruses!. 9:30 AM to 11:00 AM ...
Infection occurs by direct contact of skin or mucous membrane with virus-laden lesions or secretions. ... HSV is a DNA virus that commonly affects humans. ... HSV is a DNA virus that commonly affects humans. Infection ... encoded search term (Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Keratitis) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Keratitis What to Read Next on ... Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ...
A triple-aptamer tetrahedral DNA nanostructures based carbon-nanotube-array transistor biosensor for rapid virus detection. ... Técnicas Biossensoriais; COVID-19; Nanoestruturas; Nanotubos de Carbono; Humanos; COVID-19/diagnóstico; SARS-CoV-2; DNA; ... Outbreaks of infectious viruses cause enormous challenges to global public health. Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 ( ... Carbon nanotube array; SARS-CoV-2; Tetrahedral DNA nanostructure; Thin-film transistors; Triple aptamers ...
This virus was isolated in 1968 from a wild naked-soled gerbil caught near Kouandee in Dahomey. ... Taterapox virus strain V71-I-016 is propagated in BSC40 cells (ATCC CRL-2761). ... Quantitative Genomic DNA from Taterapox virus strain V71-I-016. VR-3376D ... Taterapox virus VR-3376™ Download Genome Learn about our Enhanced Authentication Initiative Taterapox virus strain V71-I-016 is ...
HIV virus from human DNA. Researchers Successfully Destroy HIV-1 in Human Cells. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) presented a ...
DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA ... Fractionation of DNA nucleotide transcripts from Moloney sarcoma virus and isolation of sarcoma virus-specific complementary ... Separation of sarcoma virus-specific and leukemia virus-specific genetic sequences of Moloney sarcoma virus ... Properties of a Normal Mouse Cell DNA Sequence (sarc) Homologous to the src Sequence of Moloney Sarcoma Virus (English) ...
Categories: DNA Viruses Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1463 ...
Hatfull, G and Bankier, AT and Barrell, BG and Farrell, PJ (1988) Sequence analysis of Raji Epstein-Barr virus DNA. Virology, ... The DNA sequence of the EcoRI Dhet and part of the BamHI E fragments of Raji EBV has been determined. Precise locations of two ... Amino Acid Sequence; Base Sequence; Chromosome Deletion; DNA, Viral--genetics; Genes, Viral; Genetic Variation; Herpesvirus 4, ... deletions in Raji DNA have been identified and their consequences for gene structure evaluated. The deletion in Raji of reading ...
... and an examination of the future role of postexposure hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) testing. ... Prevention of perinatally transmitted hepatitis B virus infections with hepatitis B virus infections with hepatitis B immune ... Although the rate of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections have declined approximately 89% during 1990-2011, from 8.5 to 0.9 ... FIGURE 4. Hepatitis B virus infection rate among health-care personnel trainees, by prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen ...
Maternofetal Transmission of AIDS: Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Sequences in Human Fetal DNA. ... Maternofetal Transmission of AIDS: Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Sequences in Human Fetal DNA. ... Maternofetal Transmission of AIDS : Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Sequences in Human Fetal DNA ... Maternofetal Transmission of AIDS: Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Sequences in Human Fetal DNA. ...
DNA Gdańsk / Zestawy diagnostyczne RUO / Patogeny ludzkie / Zestaw genesig Real-Time PCR do detekcji Simian Virus 40. ... Zestaw genesig Real-Time PCR do detekcji Simian Virus 40 występuje w 2 wariantach:. *wersja STANDARD:. - zliofilizowana ... Zestaw do wykrywania sekwencji specyficznych dla Simian Virus 40 techniką Real-Time PCR. ... kontrola izolacji - ocena procesu izolacji DNA/RNA. - kontrola wewnętrzna - ocena jakości próbki biologicznej ...
Here, we analyzed two elements found in the human genome belonging to an ancient group of DNA viruses called Mavericks. We ... diverse DNA viruses have also been found and novel lineages are being described. ... In particular, Mavericks have emerged as one of the oldest groups of endogenous viruses infecting vertebrates (≥419 million ... IMPORTANCE The genomes of vertebrates preserve a large diversity of endogenous viral elements (remnants of ancient viruses that ...
Virus DNA / RNA Faʻamamaina O Gaosi Oloa, Fale gaosi, Tagata Faʻatau Mai Saina, Matou te talia se faamoemoe e faia pisinisi ... TIANamp Virus DNA / RNA Pusa. Tekinolosi-faʻavae tekonolosi mo siama DNA / RNA toʻesea mai plasma, serum, ma sela-leai mea. ... Maneta Viral DNA / RNA Pusa. Maualuga lelei faʻamamaina o viral nucleic acid mai serum, plasma, lymph, sela-saoloto tino vai ma ...
Section IV - Virus Properties. Physicochemical. DNA Pieces (number of genome segments). Infectivity. Sedimentation Coefficients ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
A viruses to humans1,2. Influenza A viruses contain a segmented negative-sense RNA genome, which is transcribed and ... Structures of RNA polymerase of human and avian influenza A viruses reveal that the interface of the RNA polymerase dimer ... viruses at a resolution of 3.0-4.3 Å, in the presence or absence of a cRNA or vRNA template. In solution, FluPolA ... A virus has previously been reported6, there are no complete structures available for human and avian FluPolA. Furthermore, the ...
1. A Colinear Map Relating the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) DNA Segments of Six Adenovirus-SV40 Hybrids to the DNA Fragments Produced ... 5. Evolutionary Variants of Simian Virus 40: Cloned Substituted Variants Containing Multiple Initiation Sites for DNA ... Simian virus 40 ✖ Remove constraint Subject: Simian virus 40 Story Section Restriction Enzymes and the New Genetics, 1970- ... 6. Lab notes on determining fragments made by Hind on SV 40 DNA Format: Text ...
Single Stranded Dna-Binding Protein(ICP8) From Herpes Simplex Virus-1 ... The structure of Single Stranded Dna-Binding Protein(ICP8) From Herpes Simplex Virus-1 also contains other interesting chemical ... The structure of Single Stranded Dna-Binding Protein(ICP8) From Herpes Simplex Virus-1, PDB code: 1urj was solved by S.Panjikar ... Zinc binding site 1 out of 2 in the Single Stranded Dna-Binding Protein(ICP8) From Herpes Simplex Virus-1. Mono view Stereo ...
  • There's really no reason, based on what we know, for this virus to be in the symbionts' genome. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Now we can start asking why the symbiont keeps that DNA, or part of the genome. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Davison, A.J. and Scott, J.E. (1985) DNA sequence of the major inverted repeat in the Varicella-Zoster virus genome. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The major inverted repeat of 7319.5 base pairs is present at an internal site in the varicella-zoster virus genome and at one terminus. (gla.ac.uk)
  • There, the virus genome enters the nucleus of a neuron, where it persists indefinitely in a latent state. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we analyzed two elements found in the human genome belonging to an ancient group of DNA viruses called Mavericks. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results provide evidence for some of the oldest viral integrations in the human genome and insights into the ancient interactions of viruses with the ancestors of modern-day mammals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The replication of HBV involves the production of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) from the HBV genome through the repair of virion relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA) in the virion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is the largest (220 nm in diameter) and most complex herpesvirus, with a 235,000 double-stranded DNA genome. (medscape.com)
  • CMV shares many attributes with other herpes viruses, including genome, virion structure, and the ability to cause latent and persistent infections. (medscape.com)
  • CMV has the largest genome of the herpes viruses. (medscape.com)
  • HBV contains a DNA genome while HCV is an RNA virus. (who.int)
  • Classification of viruses is principally according to their genome sequence taking into consideration nature and structure of their genome and their method of replication, but not according to the diseases they cause (see International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), 2021 release ). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Positive-sense RNA viruses possess a single-stranded RNA genome that can serve as messenger RNA (mRNA) that can be directly translated to produce an amino acid sequence. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Negative-sense RNA viruses possess a single-stranded negative-sense genome that first must synthesize a complementary positive-sense antigenome, which is then used to make genomic negative-sense RNA. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Retroviruses use reverse transcription to create a double-stranded DNA copy (a provirus) of their RNA genome, which is inserted into the genome of their host cell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • the genome of RNA viruses ranges from 3.5 kilobases (some retroviruses) to 27 kilobases (some reoviruses), and the genome of DNA viruses ranges from 5 kilobases (some parvoviruses) to 280 kilobases (some poxviruses). (msdmanuals.com)
  • This manageable size together with the current advances in nucleotide sequencing technology means that partial and whole virus genome sequencing will become an essential component in epidemiologic investigations of disease outbreaks. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The repeat contains a G + C-rich reiterated sequence, an A + T-rich sequence with the potential of forming a hairpin structure which may form part of an origin of DNA replication, and three open reading frames predicted to encode primary translation products with approximate molecular weights of 140 000, 30 000 and 20 000. (gla.ac.uk)
  • RNA linked to short DNA fragments during polyoma replication. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We also show that a nanobody (a single-domain antibody) that interferes with FluPol A dimerization inhibits the synthesis of vRNA and, consequently, inhibits virus replication in infected cells. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 4: Nb8205, which binds FluPol A at the dimer interface, inhibits cRNA to vRNA replication and virus growth. (nature.com)
  • Some viruses have an outer envelope consisting of protein and lipid, surrounding a protein capsid complex with genomic RNA or DNA and sometimes enzymes needed for the first steps of viral replication. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Certain single-strand, (+) sense RNA viruses termed retroviruses use a very different method of replication. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Detection of free circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA in plasma of patients with Hodgkin's disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • The other family members include herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 or HHV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 or HHV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), human herpes virus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8. (medscape.com)
  • HHV-3, also known as varicella-zoster virus (VZV), causes the primary infection chickenpox and the secondary reactivation disease herpes zoster. (medscape.com)
  • Patients infected with high-hazard viruses: scientific basis for infection control. (cdc.gov)
  • 14. Tomori O, Monath TP, Lee V, Fagbami A, Fabiyi A. Bwamba virus infection: a sero-survey of veterbrates in five ecological zones in Nigeria. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection occurs by direct contact of skin or mucous membrane with virus-laden lesions or secretions. (medscape.com)
  • After the primary infection, the virus spreads from the infected epithelial cells to nearby sensory nerve endings and is transported along the nerve axon to the cell body located in the trigeminal ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrent ocular HSV infection traditionally has been thought of as reactivation of the virus in the trigeminal ganglion, which migrates down the nerve axon to produce a lytic infection in ocular tissue. (medscape.com)
  • Although the rate of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections have declined approximately 89% during 1990-2011, from 8.5 to 0.9 cases per 100,000 population in the United States, the risk for occupationally acquired HBV among HCP persists, largely from exposures to patients with chronic HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections remain major public health problems in Egypt and data are needed on risk factors for infection. (who.int)
  • RÉSUMÉ L'infection par le virus de l'hépatite B et C (VHB et VHC) reste un problème de santé publique majeur en Égypte et des données sur les facteurs de risque pour cette infection sont nécessaires. (who.int)
  • HHV-4, also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), causes the primary infection infectious mononucleosis , and it is implicated in various diseases, such as African Burkitt lymphoma , other immunoproliferative disorders, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 , 6 ] In a localized primary infection, the virus penetrates the mucosal epithelium and invades the cells of the basal layer, where the viral DNA inserts into the host DNA. (medscape.com)
  • There is good evidence that sequential infection with the different serotypes of dengue virus increases the risk of more severe disease that can result in shock syndrome and death. (who.int)
  • A cell culture positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) implies probable active infection. (medscape.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis is the most frequent cause of blindness due to corneal disease in the United States and the most common source of infectious blindness in the Western world. (medscape.com)
  • Ribonucleotides in newly synthesized DNA of herpes simplex virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • GENTRY G. A. , RANDALL C. C. 1973 The physical and chemical properties of the herpes virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • PhySlCOChemical properties of the DNA of herpes viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Ribonucleotides linked to DNA of herpes simplex virus type 1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Size composition and structure of the deoxyribonucleic acid of herpes simplex virus subtype 1 and 2. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in isolated nuclei. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The Crystal Structure of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Ssdna-Binding Protein Suggests the Structural Basis For Flexible, Cooperative Single-Stranded Dna Binding. (atomistry.com)
  • HHV-1, also known as herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, causes primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, or oral herpes. (medscape.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) usually causes vesicular rash of the oropharyngeal area or external genitalia. (medscape.com)
  • Suppression of cellular immunity results in reactivation, spread, and severe illness in diseases caused by herpes viruses. (medscape.com)
  • Incoming partly double stranded hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA genomes are completed by the viral polymerase generating relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and is a member of the Herpesviridae family. (medscape.com)
  • The EVE discovery underscores recent observations that viruses other than retroviruses can integrate fragments of their genetic code into their hosts' genomes. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The researchers did not find EVEs from RNA viruses in samples of filtered seawater or in the genomes of dinoflagellate-free stony corals , hydrocorals or jellyfish. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The genomes of eukaryotes preserve a vast diversity of ancient viruses in the form of endogenous viral elements (EVEs). (ox.ac.uk)
  • IMPORTANCE The genomes of vertebrates preserve a large diversity of endogenous viral elements (remnants of ancient viruses that accumulate in host genomes over evolutionary time). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The strategy has already been tested against hepatitis and adeno-associated viruses in cell cultures. (nanowerk.com)
  • In cooperation with the team of Prof. Ulrike Protzer, head of the Institute for Virology at TUM and director of the Institute for Virology at the Helmholtz Zentrum München, the team tested the virus traps on adeno-associated viruses and hepatitis B virus cores. (nanowerk.com)
  • and · antiviral therapy during pregnancy for the prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted via blood or sexual contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has long been recognized as an occupational risk for health-care personnel (HCP), including HCP trainees ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The human hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are major health problems worldwide and cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from an apparently healthy carrier state to acute self-limited or fulminant hepatitis and later to chronic liver disease which is frequently associated with liver cirrhosis that ultimately develops into hepatocellular carcinoma (the 5th most common cancer in the world) (1,2). (who.int)
  • An international team of marine biologists has discovered the remnants of ancient RNA viruses embedded in the DNA of symbiotic organisms living inside reef-building corals. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Sedimentation of heat denatured 5- 3 H-uridine label viral nucleic acid in Cs 2 SO 4 indicated that the label sedimented at a density of single stranded DNA suggesting that the ribonucleotides are covalently linked to the viral DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here strand switching occurs by the second round of PCR and larger single stranded DNA molecules are built up extending from the outer primers until they overlap. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus taxonomy: ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The author therefore used a modern "hybridization capture" approach to fish out sequences similar to those from currently known vertebrate viruses and then sequenced them using sophisticated high-throughput techniques. (omniaeducation.com)
  • Adeno-associated virus is a non-enveloped virus that can be engineered to efficiently deliver DNA sequences of interest into target cells with a low immunogenicity. (clinlabint.com)
  • Herpesvirus family members are icosahedral DNA viruses. (medscape.com)
  • In situ hybridization for HIV-1 DNA showed that only 1 of 8 infected abortuses was positive, while all samples of noninfected tissues revealed no HIV-1 DNA. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Now an interdisciplinary research team from the Technical University of Munich, the Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Brandeis University (USA) is proposing a novel strategy for the treatment of acute viral infections: The team has developed nanostructures made of DNA, the substance that makes up our genetic material, that can trap viruses and render them harmless ( Nature Materials , 'Programmable icosahedral shell system for virus trapping' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • A triple-aptamer tetrahedral DNA nanostructures based carbon-nanotube-array transistor biosensor for rapid virus detection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen using carbon - nanotube -array-based thin- film transistor (CNT-array-based TFT) biosensors merged with tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) and triple aptamers is demonstrated for the first time . (bvsalud.org)
  • But it was a surprising find because most RNA viruses are not known for embedding themselves in the DNA of organisms they infect. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The RNA fragments are from viruses that infected the symbionts as long ago as 160 million years. (technologynetworks.com)
  • There is however, a potentially confounding issue in that PCR can generate larger targets from collections of small DNA fragments, a phenomenon known as PCR recombination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The impact of PCR recombination towards the amplification of this cccDNA specific target was explored by mixing three marked, yet overlapping HBV DNA fragments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly "DNA shuffling" generates large recombinant DNA molecules from smaller DNA fragments through template switching [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primers incorporated mutations (underlined) to distinguish PCR fragments from input HBVayw DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA viruses typically replicate in the host cell nucleus, and RNA viruses typically replicate in the cytoplasm. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Following translocation to the nucleus, the gaps are repaired by the host repair system to generate covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for the HBV pregenome and viral mRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • The platform of CNT-array-based TFT biosensors combined with TDNs and triple aptamers provides a high-performance and rapid approach for SARS-CoV-2 detection , and its versatility by altering specific aptamers enables the possibility for rapid virus detection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Imported virus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Nanowerk News ) To date, there are no effective antidotes against most virus infections. (nanowerk.com)
  • If we put five binding sites for the virus on the inside, for example suitable antibodies, we can already block the virus by 80 percent, if we incorporate more, we achieve complete blocking. (nanowerk.com)
  • 3. Woolhouse ME, Adair K, Brierley L. RNA viruses: a case study of the biology of emerging infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, using crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, we determine the structures of FluPol A from human influenza A/NT/60/1968 (H3N2) and avian influenza A/duck/Fujian/01/2002 (H5N1) viruses at a resolution of 3.0-4.3 Å, in the presence or absence of a cRNA or vRNA template. (nature.com)
  • During these later cycles, incomplete DNA strands can switch templates resulting in the formation of recombinant DNA strands, a phenomenon referred to as PCR mediated recombination [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To prevent the DNA particles from being immediately degraded in body fluids, the team irradiated the finished building blocks with UV light and treated the outside with polyethylene glycol and oligolysine. (nanowerk.com)
  • So DNA viruses and their particles, they can stay for longer than RNA viruses. (sciencefriday.com)
  • either DNA or RNA viruses may have single or double strands of genetic material. (msdmanuals.com)
  • She said viruses, including retroviruses, have many ways to replicate by infecting hosts. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Examples of retroviruses are the human immunodeficiency viruses and the human T-cell leukemia viruses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Because RNA transcription does not involve the same error-checking mechanisms as DNA transcription, RNA viruses, particularly retroviruses, are particularly prone to mutation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A DNA sequence of 7747 base pairs containing the repeat was determined and analysed. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Gentle epithelial débridement may be performed to remove infectious virus and viral antigens that may induce stromal keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • For many of the deadliest viruses such as Ebola we still don't know where they come from", says Prof Alex Greenwood, head of the Department of Wildlife Diseases. (omniaeducation.com)
  • In 1962, the biologist Donald Caspar and the biophysicist Aaron Klug discovered the geometrical principles according to which the protein envelopes of viruses are built. (nanowerk.com)
  • The human being immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu accessory protein is a transmembrane protein that down regulates CD4 expression and promotes the discharge of new virions. (cancer-pictures.org)
  • But EVEs were pervasive in coral symbionts that were collected from dozens of coral reef sites, meaning the pathogenic viruses were - and probably remain - picky about their target hosts. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Lined on the inside with virus-binding molecules, nano shells made of DNA material bind viruses tightly and thus render them harmless. (nanowerk.com)
  • If they were to be lined with virus-binding molecules on the inside, they should be able to bind viruses tightly and thus be able to take them out of circulation. (nanowerk.com)
  • There's a huge diversity of viruses on the planet," said Correa, an assistant professor of biosciences. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Environmental DNA is proving useful in a number of contexts including the characterisation of the diversity of wildlife species from inaccessible regions, the study of ancient populations and more recently in pathogen research. (omniaeducation.com)
  • Study of this genomic fossil record provides insights into the diversity, origin, and evolution of viruses across geological timescales. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The new species more than doubles the known number of RNA viruses on the planet, painting a clearer picture of the vast abundance and diversity of viruses in ocean ecosystems. (sciencefriday.com)
  • HSV is a DNA virus that commonly affects humans. (medscape.com)
  • Infected humans are the main carriers and multipliers of the virus, serving a source of the virus for uninfected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which maintain the urban dengue transmission cycle. (who.int)
  • An interdisciplinary research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now developed a new approach: they engulf and neutralize viruses with nano-capsules tailored from genetic material using the DNA origami method. (nanowerk.com)
  • Once the provirus is integrated into the host cell DNA, it is transcribed using typical cellular mechanisms to produce viral proteins and genetic material. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Taterapox virus strain V71-I-016 is propagated in BSC40 cells ( ATCC CRL-2761 ). (atcc.org)
  • The virus was subsequently passaged in mouse brain, chicken eggs, Vero cells, and BSC40 cells. (atcc.org)
  • Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was grown in the presence of 5- 3 H-uridine in a continuous line of bovine kidney cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Purification of viral DNA from infected cells also indicated that 5- 3 H-uridine was associated with viral nucleic acid possibly as ribonucleotides. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Viruses depend completely on cells (bacterial, plant, or animal) to reproduce. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • For each virus species, we used the search terms comprising the virus name (including all synonyms sourced from King et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Reverse transcription is accomplished using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which the virus carries with it inside its shell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 15. Burney MI, Ghafoor A, Saleen M, Webb PA, Casals J. Nosocomial outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean hemorrhagic fever-Congo virus in Pakistan, January 1976. (cdc.gov)
  • Pediatric AIDS is increasing in frequency due to a rise in the number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)-infected women of childbearing age. (elsevierpure.com)
  • DNA viruses- that's the other major type- have been studied for decades. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Rarely, clinically insignificant asymptomatic shedding of the virus may be grown in culture. (medscape.com)
  • Successive biosafety inspections of the two repository facilities have found that the repositories meet international levels of biosafety and biosecurity, concluded that variola virus stocks remain in secure safekeeping, and made recommendations for ongoing improvement in biosafety in line with evolving knowledge and best practices. (who.int)
  • In the case of the viruses found in African water holes, the authors demonstrated in a related publication that the viruses are still infectious, suggesting that the water itself may be a source of viral transmission. (omniaeducation.com)
  • FL Mechanic Triggers Leftists, Monkey Virus DNA Found in Vax and more! (theflstandard.com)
  • IRA FLATOW: You know, I was a bit shocked to hear how many RNA viruses they found. (sciencefriday.com)
  • And you found lots and lots and lots of RNA viruses. (sciencefriday.com)
  • The research provides clues that can help scientists better understand the ecological and economic impact of viruses on reef health. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) presented a complex knot for scientists to unravel. (industrytap.com)
  • The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the modes of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the workplace, an assessment of the risk of transmission under various assumptions, principles underlying the control of risk, and specific risk-control recommendations for employers and workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Information concerning the protection of workers against acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while performing job duties, the virus that causes AIDS, is presented here. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that the virus also may subsist latently within corneal tissue, serving as another potential source of recurrent disease and causing donor-derived HSV disease in transplanted corneas. (medscape.com)