Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.RhodanineDNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).UtahEndogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Chemical EngineeringMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.DNA Virus InfectionsDrug Repositioning: The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (1/26780)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (2/26780)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (3/26780)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA. (4/26780)

Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin.  (+info)

Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions. (5/26780)

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. (6/26780)

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. (7/26780)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (8/26780)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation of viral DNA from nucleocapsids. AU - Szpara, Moriah L.. AU - Tafuri, Yolanda R.. AU - Enquist, L. W.. PY - 2011/8/1. Y1 - 2011/8/1. N2 - Viruses are obligate cellular parasites, and thus the study of their DNA requires isolating viral material away from host cell contaminants and DNA. Several downstream applications require large quantities of pure viral DNA, which is provided by this protocol. These applications include viral genome sequencing, where the removal of host DNA is crucial to optimize data output for viral sequences, and the production of new viral recombinant strains, where co-transfection of purified plasmid and linear viral DNA facilitates recombination.1,2,3 This procedure utilizes a combination of extractions and density-based centrifugation to isolate purified linear herpesvirus nucleocapsid DNA from infected cells.4,5 The initial purification steps aim to isolate purified viral capsids, which contain and protect the viral DNA during the ...
strong-stop DNA: first species made during viral DNA synthesis containing sequences representing both the 5- & 3- end of the viral genome; initiated near the 3-end of the genome & copies 3 & 5 genomic sequences from (-) DNA
Definition: Hybridization is the joining two complementary strands of DNA or one each of DNA and RNA to form a double-stranded molecule. One (...)
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The integrated HIV-1 provirus is transcribed into new genomic RNA, also serving as mRNA, which is in turn translated into viral proteins [2-6, 65] (Fig. 1). Although it is speculated that the integrated copies of viral DNA are the sole template for viral gene expression, there is also evidence of preintegration transcription from unintegrated DNA [5, 65] (Fig. 1). Most recently, it has been shown that the transcriptional interplay is regulated oppositely between integrated and unintegrated DNA following NF-κB pathway modulation [66]. Upon various pharmacological treatments of NF-κB pathway activation, transcription factors such as NF-κB p65 and AP-1 (cFos/cJun) binds to integrated DNA and increases its expression, though the uDNA expression is declined. On the other hand, inhibition of the NF-κB pathway supports the expression of circular uDNA, and Bcl-3 and AP-1 is associated with its LTR region [66]. However, the persistent expression of HIV-1 proteins has already been reported not only in ...
Hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) synthesizes its DNA genome through reverse transcription which is catalyzed by viral polymerase (Pol). viral reverse transcription. Southern blot analysis showed that three mutants (R703A D777A and R781A mutants) yielded significantly reduced amounts of viral DNAs. However none of these mutants were defective in RNA encapsidation. The data indicated that in the R703A and D777A mutants minus-strand DNA synthesis was incomplete due to loss of catalytic activity of RNase H. In contrast in the R781A mutant the minus-strand DNA synthesis was near complete to some extent while the plus-strand DNA synthesis (i.e. relaxed circular DNA) was severely impaired due to the defect in RNase H activity. Overall our analysis revealed that three charged residues of the HBV Pol RNase H domain name contribute to the catalysis of RNase H in removing the RNA template but not in the RNA encapsidation. INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) the prototypic member of the ...
Endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is distributed among multiple mouse chromosomes. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. 1979 ...
Discuss the regulation of gene expression in HIV and the life cycle, and comment on the importance of these in the success - Essay Example Memory helper cells are differentially infected by the virus. The virus binds to the target cell using interactions between viral surface proteins (gp120) and cell surface proteins. The CD4 antigen, and the CXCR4 and CCR5 co-receptors on the host cell membrane are crucial in mediating viral entry into the cell. The interaction allows the viral and cellular membranes to fuse, so that the viral contents, including RNA and viral enzymes, enter the host cell. The viral capsid then uncoats and disassembles to release the 2 viral RNA strands, which are used to make complementary DNA by the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase. The virus cDNA is transported to the nucleus, where the viral integrase enzyme incorporates viral DNA into the host DNA, forming the provirus. The viral DNA genome remains latent in the cell for many years, as long as the T cell is quescent. ...
The present invention relates to a method of forming a three-stranded DNA molecule wherein each strand of the three-stranded DNA molecule is hybridized (that is, non-covalently bound) to at least one other strand of the three-stranded DNA molecule. The method comprises:contacting a recombination protein with a double-stranded DNA molecule and with a single-stranded DNA molecule sufficiently complementary to one strand of the double-stranded DNA molecule to hybridize therewith, which contacting is effected under conditions such that the single-stranded DNA molecule hybridizes to the double-stranded molecule so that the three stranded DNA molecule is formed.
DNA replication, the basis for biological inheritance, is a fundamental process occurring in all living organisms to copy their DNA. This process is "semiconservative" in that each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication ...
Lesions begin with infection of a group of epithelial cells that are lysed following viral replication, creating small fluid-filled blisters or vesicles containing large numbers of infectious virions. Rupture of the vesicles produces painful ulcerations. Latency of the disease is incompletely understood. The viral DNA exists within nerve cells in a circular, non-infectious form during times when there are no symptoms. In this state, only a small portion of the HSV genome is transcribed. At times, however, the entire viral chromosome can be transcribed and complete infectious virions replicated. These reinfect the area supplied by the nerve and cause a recurrence. The mechanisms by which the latent infection is maintained or reactivated are not known in detail, but they probably depend on cellular immunity. ■ latent infections, p. 463 Genital herpes can pose a serious risk to newborn babies. If the mother has a primary infection near the time of delivery, the baby has about a one in three risk ...
By: Jonathan Latham. Are GMOs safe? Up to a point, writes Jonathan Latham - provided youre not eating them. Thats certainly not proven to be safe, indeed the hazards are numerous: protein encoding viral DNA fragments, herbicide metabolites, biotoxins whose operation is not understood, poorly conducted experiments ... and those are just the ones we know about. ...
The regions of the human adenoviral genome associated with the process of oncogenesis have been identified using several approaches. Analysis of the viral DNAs contained in different lines of cells transformed by virus has demonstrated that retention of the leftmost 14% of the genome is sufficient for the maintenance of the transformed growth properties of these cells (Gallimore et al. 1974). The adenoviral mRNAs expressed in transformed cell lines are similar to those expressed from these DNA sequences during the early phase of the productive infection (Flint et al. 1975). The left end of the viral DNA contains at least two genes necessary for transformation, since two complementation groups of host-range mutants that map within this region (Frost and Williams 1978) are both defective for transformation (Graham et al. 1978). Transfection of cells with fragments of viral DNA has provided a direct means of determining the minimum amount of viral... ...
JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. ...
Im wondering if the Hirt high molecular weight DNA prep has been replaced by a simpler or kit like method. I have to isolate a viral DNA from some infected tissue culture cells and would like to make it as painless as possible. Thanks for your help. Mary ...
Vincent speaks with Sandy Weller about her career and her work on the mechanisms of synthesis, maturation, cleavage and packaging of viral DNA genomes.
Production of non viral DNA vectors. / Schleef, Martin; Blaesen, Markus; Schmeer, Marco; Baier, Ruth; Marie, Corinne; Dickson, George; Scherman, Daniel.. In: Current Gene Therapy, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2010, p. 487-507.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
RANDOM KNOTTING AND VIRAL DNA PACKING: THEORY AND EXPERIMENTS. De Witt Sumners Department of Mathematics Florida State University Tallahassee, FL 32306 [email protected] RANDOM KNOTTING. Slideshow 304934 by sheena
An approach developed by virus researchers of the German Cancer Research Center now provides a promising alternative. Markus Schmitt and his colleagues describe their test method in the latest issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology*: They first isolate the viral genetic material from a tissue sample, amplify and label it. The enriched DNA material is subsequently mixed with different probes, i.e. small DNA fragments each of which is typical for a specific virus type. If the DNA sequences of the viral DNA under study and the probe are identical, they will bind to each other. The probe thus isolates the unknown DNA from the mixture - a process called hybridization. The probes, in turn, are coupled to tiny plastic beads of different colors, with each type of probe attached to beads of the same color. A reading device measures the amount of hybridized viral DNA on the beads. By their characteristic color, the beads tell us which viral DNA was present in the sample ...
Health,A small sequence of DNA in the envelope (Env) protein of a mouse breas...The DNA sequence in question is usually found in immune cells and h...Katz and colleagues now show that this sequence is contained in the......,Viral,DNA,sequence,a,possible,trigger,for,breast,cancer,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
... , The viral DNA is incorporated into the host genome, or if the virus is an RNA virus and possesses the enzyme reverse transcriptase, DNA is actually reverse transcribed from RNA and then incorporated into the host cell genome. When the host cell replicates its DNA, the viral DNA is replicated as well.
How can I find out if my cell line is free of pathogens? What pathogens should I be concerned about?. If you bought the cells from a vendor or a culture collection, then you can consult their catalog. Many catalogs will list safety and pathogen information -- if you cannot find it, contact the vendor. If you received the cells from another lab, you should find out where they originally came from.. Cell lines can contain harmful viruses. Sometimes, the viral genome is integrated into the cells genome. Most viruses have a limited "host range", which means that they can only infect closely related species. Therefore, viruses living in a human or monkey cell line are likely to be dangerous to humans, but viruses living in an insect cell line probably cannot infect humans. If you work with a cell line from humans or other primates, you should check whether it contains viruses or viral genomic DNA. Viruses have Risk Group numbers, so if your cell line contains any viruses, you must handle it at the ...
Experimentally introduced defective endogenous proviruses are highly expressed in chickens.: We have previously described the experimental introduction of recom
Previously, the Apply to each object separately checkbox had no effect for the Move tab. Now, if several objects are selected, this checkbox is on, and "Relative move" is on, each object is shifted relative to the closest selected object on the left (for X) or below (for Y). For example, if you have a horizontal row of objects and you move them relatively by X=5px with "Apply to each object separately" on, the leftmost object will shift by 5px, the next one to the right by 10px, and so on; the rightmost selected object is displaced by 5*n px where n is the number of selected objects. As a result, the distance in each pair of adjacent objects will increase by 5px and the whole row will be spaced out, much like a letterspacing adjustment spaces out a text string. Moving these objects by X=-5px will, conversely, squeeze them tighter together: the leftmost will move by -5px, the next one by -10px, and so on. For Y, the effect is the same except that the move starts from the object closest to the ...
With a featured publication in the Aug. 7 issue of Science, Montana State University researchers have made a significant contribution to the understanding
During DNA replication, two strands of DNA separate, and each separate strand forms a template to make a new strand. The replication process results in the formation of two identical molecules,...
For purification of viral DNA from up to 200ul serum, plasma samples, cell free body fluids of human origin and rinse liquid from swabs and stool samples on a 96-well format using a centrifuge. ...
Integration of retroviral DNA into the cellular genome is essential for the production of new infectious particles. A strong argument that the novel human
DNA replication is the process of unraveling the Double Helix to create a template of matching DNA strands which creates a second set of DNA molecules. This process continues and is the basis of the reproduction of cells.
The first row is a header if followed by a horizontal rule or a blank line.. Placing : at the left, both, or right sides of a cell gives left-aligned, centered, or right-aligned text, respectively. By default, header cells are centered, and body cells are left-aligned.. The leftmost , is required if the first column contains at least one blank cell. The rightmost , is optional.. ...
Researchers found that they could engineer the system not only to cut viral DNA, but any DNA sequence they desire. To do this, they simply change the guiding RNA to match their target. This can be done in living cells too. Heres how it works: ...
London: Compared to other mammals, the proportion of humans infected with retroviruses is less and we have fewer remnants of viral DNA in our genes, a new research has found.
During the lytic cycle, proviruses are created by integrating viral genetic information within the host cells genetic information. is this true or false? ...
What can you do with the DNA results you have? Many research sites allow you to upload for free, some have cost for a spicific test, but are rare. There are
能量在胚胎的成功植入中起重要作用。 随着线粒体DNA测试和调节IVM技术的发展,现在可以采取以前没有的措施来增加妊娠的可能性。 重要的是,父母知道在植入胚胎之前测试其遗传构成是至关重要的。 它可以防止产生具有遗传疾病或病症的儿童,如果早期发现这些将不会存在。 这些DNA测试和程序会使您得到更健康的婴儿。 Load more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. T2 - Investigation of three cases using in situ hybridization with JC virus biotinylated DNA probe. AU - Aksamit, Allen J.. AU - Mourrain, Pascale. AU - Sever, John L.. AU - Major, Eugene O.. PY - 1985/10. Y1 - 1985/10. N2 - Using the technique of in situ DNA‐to‐DNA hybridization, a JC virus biotinylated DNA probe was developed and applied to formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded, or fixed, frozen sections of brain tissue from three subjects with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Light microscopy was carried out to correlate the presence of JC virus DNA with the selective infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in PML. Oligodendrocytes (lytically infected) showed the greatest evidence of viral DNA. More astrocytes showing bizarre morphological changes had evidence of viral DNA than did astrocytes that were simply reactive. Viral DNA was not evident in vascular endothelial cells using this technique. Viral DNA ...
BioAssay record AID 478525 submitted by ChEMBL: Selectivity index, ratio of TC50 for human HepG2(2.2.15) cells to IC50 for Hepatitis B virus DNA replication.
Plays an essential role in replication and partitioning of viral genomic DNA during latent viral infection. During this phase, the circular double-stranded viral DNA undergoes replication once per cell cycle and is efficiently partitioned to the daughter cells. EBNA1 activates the initiation of viral DNA replication through binding to specific sites in the viral latent origin of replication, oriP. Additionally, it governs the segregation of viral episomes by mediating their attachment to host cell metaphase chromosomes. Also activates the transcription of several viral latency genes. Finally, it can counteract the stabilization of host p53/TP53 by host USP7, thereby decreasing apoptosis and increasing host cell survival.
Preferred Name: Valacyclovir Definition: The hydrochloride salt of the L-valyl ester of the antiviral drug acyclovir. Orally administered, valacyclovir is rapidly converted to acyclovir which inhibits viral DNA replication after further conversion to the nucleotide analog acyclovir triphosphate by viral thymidine kinase, cellular guanyl cyclase, and a number of other cellular enzymes. Acyclovir triphosphate competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase; incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain; and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by HSV thymidine kinase. NCI-GLOSS Definition: A substance that is being studied in the prevention of fungal, bacterial, and viral infections in patients undergoing donor stem cell transplantation with cells that are infected with cytomegalovirus. It belongs to the family of drugs ...
Viral DNA polymerase in complex with DNA. Computer model showing the active site of a phi29 DNA polymerase molecule (grey ribbons) in complex with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, yellow). Phi29 DNA polymerase is an enzyme from the phi29 bacteriophage virus that catalyses DNA replication. It is increasingly being used in DNA amplification procedures. - Stock Image C010/4979
There seems to be a potential problem that falls back on to the Renata case insofar as Dr. Lees findings in Jasmines blood and spleen tissue and the above findings. Can you please tell us about that?. Yes, Catherine, there are multiple potential problems with discovering HPV-16 L1 DNA in Jasmines samples. We must emphasize that what was discovered in the Gardasil® vaccine and in Jasmines samples are viral DNA fragments, not the infective wild viruses.. First, HPV infection is confined to epithelium. This virus does not survive in the blood or in other organs of a healthy woman. Any naked HPV DNA fragments in the circulating blood would be degraded by serum or intracellular DNA nucleases (enzymes) if these fragments are taken up by the macrophages (a component of the white blood cells), and eliminated from the body in 24-48 hours.. Since the HPV-16 L1 gene DNA fragments were discovered 6 months after Jasmines last Gardasil® vaccination, we have to assume these HPV DNA fragments were either ...
ATP-dependent DNA helicase required for initiation of viral DNA replication. It forms a complex with the viral E2 protein. The E1-E2 complex binds to the replication origin which contains binding sites for both proteins. During the initial step, a dimer of E1 interacts with a dimer of protein E2 leading to a complex that binds the viral origin of replication with high specificity. Then, a second dimer of E1 displaces the E2 dimer in an ATP-dependent manner to form the E1 tetramer. Following this, two E1 monomers are added to each half of the site, which results in the formation of two E1 trimers on the viral ori. Subsequently, two hexamers will be created. The double hexamer acts as a bi-directional helicase machinery and unwinds the viral DNA and then recruits the host DNA polymerase to start replication.
Valniche is a brand of Valganciclovir, a pro-drug of gancilcovir which, after oral administration, is rapidly converted to ganciclovir by intestinal and hepatic esterases. The virustatic activity of ganciclovir is due to inhibition of viral DNA synthesis by: (a) competitive inhibition of incorporation of deoxyguanosine-triphosphate into DNA by viral DNA polymerase, and (b) incorporation of ganciclovir triphosphate into viral DNA causing termination of, or very limited, further viral DNA elongation. For kidney transplant patients, the recommended dose is 900 mg once daily with food, starting within 10 days of transplantation until 200 days post-transplantation. ...
KLF15 knockdown also reduced the HBV DNA level in the serum (Fig. 7C). Similar to HBsAg profiles, this reduction effect was more prominent with 50 than with. 30 μg of KLF15 RNAi construct. To further confirm the effect of KLF15 on HBV replication, we generated an HBV genome with the CPm2 mutations that abolished the stimulatory effect of KLF15 on the core promoter (Fig. 2D). The replication efficiency of this HBV mutant plasmid in mice was then compared with that of the wild-type plasmid by hydrodynamic Alisertib molecular weight injection. As shown in Fig. 8, mice injected with the mutant genome had significantly lower levels of viral DNA in the sera than those injected with the wild-type genome (Mann-Whitney U = 27.0, P = 0.030, two-tailed). These results demonstrated the importance of the KLF15 response element in the core promoter in HBV replication. In this study, we demonstrated that the transcription factor, KLF15, could activate HBV major surface and core promoters (Figs. 1 and 2). The ...
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ DNA replication complex GINS protein PSF2 variant - \ 10-288-22115F for more molecular products just contact us
Doria, If you have a pure virus prep, maybe you could titrate it (to get PFU/mL value), and then extract viral DNA and estimate the number of viral particles based on the amount of viral DNA present, knowing that parvoviruses have a single-stranded DNA genome about 5.2 kbp in size? Just a thought... Magda -----Original Message----- From: virology-bounces from oat.bio.indiana.edu [mailto:virology-bounces from oat.bio.indiana.edu] On Behalf Of virology-request from oat.bio.indiana.edu Sent: Thursday, 8 May 2008 5:04 a.m. To: virology from magpie.bio.indiana.edu Subject: Virology Digest, Vol 29, Issue 1 Send Virology mailing list submissions to virology from net.bio.net To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/virology or, via email, send a message with subject or body help to virology-request from net.bio.net You can reach the person managing the list at virology-owner from net.bio.net When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more ...
The present invention relates to a novel method of inserting viral DNA, which optionally may contain cargo-DNA, into plants or viable parts thereof, but preferably into plants of the monocotyledon class, and most preferably into plants of the family Gramineae, using suitable transfer microorganisms. Further comprised by the invention are recombinant DNA, plasmid and vector molecules suitably adapted to the specific conditions of the process according to the invention and the transgenic plant products obtainable in accordance with the said process.
Viruses are parasitic infectious agents with a nanoscale shell, known as the capsid, that encapsulates the genomic material. Most bacteriophage viruses invade bacteria by transferring their genome inside the host cell while leaving the capsid outside. Thus, the foremost event of bacteriophage infection is the ejection of genomic material into the host bacterium after the virus has recognized and bound to surface receptor sites. How ejection is triggered is yet unknown. We show, by manipulating individual mature T7 phage particles, that tapping the capsid wall with an oscillating atomic-force-microscope cantilever triggers rapid DNA ejection via the tail complex. Triggering rate increases exponentially as a function of force, hence follows transition-state theory, across an activation barrier of 23 kcal/mol at 1.2 nm along the reaction coordinate. The conformation of the ejected DNA molecule revealed that it had been exposed to a propulsive force. This force, arising from intra-capsid pressure, assists
Definition of Nucleic acid hybridization with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Capsid ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. After adsorption to ... The genome is a single molecule of linear double-stranded DNA of 15 kilobases in length, and has 30 open reading frames. It ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Caldentey J, ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fibers to the host CAR adhesion ... Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is ... Intermediate genes activate replication of the DNA genome by DNA strand displacement in the nucleus. Expression of L4-22K and ... Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Büchen-Osmond, C. ( ... After initial infection of the viral genome the virus may become latent within the host. Lysogeny involves integration into the ... supercoiled double-stranded DNA, 12 kilobase pairs in length. The genome has a rather high G-C content of ~32%. The genome has ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... The virus and wasp are in a symbiotic relationship: expression of viral genes prevents the wasp's host's immune system from ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Dna templated ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... Polydnavirus DNA is Integrated in the DNA of Its Parasitoid Wasp Host-article from the Proceedings of the National Academy of ... They promote viral RNA destruction. MicroRNA attach to viral-RNA because they are complementary. Then the complex is recognised ... "Polydnavirus DNA is integrated in the DNA of its parasitoid wasp host". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 88 (21 ...
... and viral exolysin degrades the cell wall enough to eject the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm via long flexible tail ejection ... Replication follows the DNA strand displacement, via replicative transposition model. DNA templated transcription is the method ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 18 February 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2013 Release". Retrieved 18 February 2015. NCBI. " ... Both complete genomes are available here Viral replication is cytoplasmic. The virus attaches to the host cell's adhesion ...
DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export, and tubule- ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Grigoras, Ioana (May ... guided viral movement. Legume plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (the virus does not ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. DNA-templated ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 13 August 2015. Viralzone: ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... but the females are the ones responsible for the amplification of the viral DNA. Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: ... The virus does not replicate inside the wasp's host, but expression of viral genes prevents its immune system from killing the ... The genome of the virus is enveloped with 35 double stranded DNA (dsDNA) all of which are circular. ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Pyrobaculum and thermoproteus ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Häring M, Peng X, ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. DNA-templated ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Janekovic, D.; ...
Immature capsids are formed from coiled DNA. L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". ... Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... The E genes are also transcribed before viral DNA replication, but are dependent on the IE gene products. After entering the ... Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ...
The "dumbbell-shaped" structure inside the virion is the viral core, which contains the viral DNA; Mag. = ~370,000× ... The viral envelope is made of modified Golgi membranes containing viral-specific polypeptides, including hemagglutinin.[42] ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... the most important of which is a viral-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ...
Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... Viral. *AIDS (HIV-1/HIV-2). *Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile cancer, Anal cancer (Human ... The viral infection is limited to a localized area on the topmost layer of the superficial layer of the skin.[16] Once the ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC), sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin that results in small, raised, pink ...
Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... A PCR (DNA) test of the mother's amniotic fluid can also be performed, though the risk of spontaneous abortion due to the ... Weller TH (1997). "Varicella-herpes zoster virus". In Evans AS, Kaslow RA (eds.). Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and ... Infection in adults is associated with greater morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or ...
Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... by a generic and highly sensitive PCR strategy for long DNA fragments". J. Gen. Virol. 94 (Pt 3): 524-33. doi:10.1099/vir. ...
Some mitochondria and some plastids contain single circular DNA molecules that are similar to the DNA of bacteria both in size ... Viral eukaryogenesis, hypothesis that the cell nucleus originated from endosymbiosis. References[edit]. *^ "Mereschkowsky's ... release DNA which is imported into the nucleus and incorporated into the nuclear DNA using non-homologous end joining (repair ... Some of the endosymbionts lysed (burst), and high levels of DNA were incorporated into the nucleus. A similar mechanism is ...
These less common forms can be potentially more serious.[2] Anti-viral treatments will not have an effect in non-viral cases. ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... The initial viral replication occurs at the entry site in the skin or mucous membrane.[7] ...
Viral exanthem: Viral infections are often accompanied by a rash which can be described as morbilliform or maculopapular. This ... It has a double-stranded DNA genome and on morphological grounds appears to be a member of the Siphoviridae. ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... Their presence indicates it is more likely a viral infection. ...
Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ...
Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... Two viral warts on a middle finger, being treated with a mixture of acids (like salicylic acid) to remove them. A white ... Sharquie KE, Khorsheed AA, Al-Nuaimy AA (September 2007). "Topical zinc sulphate solution for treatment of viral warts". Saudi ... Al-Gurairi FT, Al-Waiz M, Sharquie KE (March 2002). "Oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts: ...
They are readily detectable by HBV DNA in serum, but hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg) is absent. The X gene codes for HBxAg. The ... The precore region is not necessary for viral replication. Precore mutants can replicate. ... The mutations are changes in DNA bases from guanine to adenine at base position 1896 (G1896A), and from cytosine to thymine at ... It codes for DNA polymerase. The C gene codes for HBeAg and HBcAg. The C gene has a precore and a core region. If translation ...
Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... DNA virus. Herpesviridae. Alpha. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. HSV. *Herpes simplex ... When the viral infection affects both face and mouth, the broader term orofacial herpes is used, whereas herpetic stomatitis ... Post-scab (12-14 days): A reddish area may linger at the site of viral infection as the destroyed cells are regenerated. Virus ...
1 DNA-Viren *1.1 Doppelsträngige DNA-Viren (dsDNA: double stranded DNA). *1.2 Einzelsträngige DNA-Viren (ssDNA: single stranded ... Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ... Viren mit DNA-Genom bilden keine taxonomische Einheit. Doppelsträngige DNA-Viren (dsDNA: double stranded DNA)[Bearbeiten , ... Einzelsträngige DNA-Viren (ssDNA: single stranded DNA)[Bearbeiten , Quelltext bearbeiten]. Viren mit Einzelstrang-DNA-Genom ...
The DNA-based human papilloma virus attacks skin and mucous membranes, causing warts or infections that can lead to ... Detecting viral DNA. BioPhotonics. Jan 2008 Surface hybridization advances possible clinical screening technique. Gary Boas ... The technique could provide a robust alternative for clinical screening and quantification of viral DNA in cells. Because no ... Researchers have described the use of surface hybridization with single-molecule spectroscopy for the detection of viral DNA ...
Further comprised by the invention are recombinant DNA, plasmid and vector molecules suitably adapted to the specific ... which optionally may contain cargo-DNA, into plants or viable parts thereof, but preferably into plants of the monocotyledon ... The present invention relates to a novel method of inserting viral DNA, ... the distance between viral DNA and the T-DNA border sequence(s) being chosen such that the viral DNA, including any Cargo-DNA ...
... Grant Winners. *Paula A. Waziry, Ph.D. - College ... To determine whether statins alter genomic methylation of DNA as a mechanism for modulation of gene expression, we propose to ( ... The mechanisms behind such drug actions on modulation of gene expression (both viral and cellular) remain unclear. At a ... By examining epigenetic control of gene expression during oncolytic viral infection, we link the fields of genomics, virology, ...
Branched DNA for quantification of viral load.. Wilber JC1.. Author information. 1. Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California ... Genetic subtypes A-F quantified within a factor of 1.5, indicating that the bDNA assay can be used to measure viral load in ... Detection of change in viral load is important in determining the efficacy of therapy. The bDNA assay for HCV RNA can be used ... Alkaline phosphatase-labeled probes bind to each arm of the branched DNA molecules. Detection is achieved by incubating the ...
... the viral DNA incorporates itself into the host genome. When the cell divides, the viral DNA also gets duplicated. As long as ... A closer look at the viral genetic material prior to infection revealed that the DNA packaged inside the virus tended to be ... In the lytic pathway, viral DNA quickly commandeers the host cells own resources to make hundreds of copies of itself. The new ... Evilevitch looked instead at the stresses and strains on the viral DNA molecules just before they are injected into a host. ...
Interestingly, we found a nuclear association between viral capsid proteins and the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNA (cytosine ... DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A associates with viral proteins and impacts HSV-1 infection.. Rowles DL1, Tsai YC1, Greco TM1, Lin ... Viral infections can alter the cellular epigenetic landscape, through modulation of either DNA methylation profiles or ... The DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A associates with viral proteins and impacts HSV-1 infection ...
... many research trials with non-viral vectors have been performed to enhance their efficiency to a level comparable to the viral ... So far, viral vectors have been mainly used because of their inherently high transfection efficiency of gene. However, there ... This US-enhanced expression of plasmid DNA will be discussed to emphasize the technical feasibility of US in gene therapy and ... Keywords: cavitation; gene expression enhancement; in vitro and in vivo transfection; plasmid dna; ultrasound ...
Viral DNA May Help Human Body Fight Infections Pew scholar unlocks immune system trait that is possible key to survival Article ... These viral DNA remnants, which make up nearly 8 percent of the human genome, can serve as a circuit switch, activating nearby ... Eldes study suggests that our bodies appropriation of viral DNA has been critically important to our survival as a species. ... As a result, cells without viral DNA failed to express proteins that are necessary to fight off an infection. ...
... understanding how viral DNA ejection is triggered carries important application potential. The unique features of the single- ... understanding how viral DNA ejection is triggered carries important application potential. The unique features of the single- ... particle mechanics method employed here may be useful in uncovering the fine details of viral DNA ejection. Financing: FP7, ... particle mechanics method employed here may be useful in uncovering the fine details of viral DNA ejection. Financing: FP7, ...
... dna viral include Purifying the Impure: Sequencing Metagenomes and Metatranscriptomes from Complex Animal-associated Samples ... Isolation of Viral Replication Compartment-enriched Sub-nuclear Fractions from Adenovirus-infected Normal Human Cells, ... DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses. Purifying the Impure: Sequencing Metagenomes ... Isolation of Viral Replication Compartment-enriched Sub-nuclear Fractions from Adenovirus-infected Normal Human Cells. Paloma ...
... and Rich continue Virology 101 with a second installment of their discussion of how viruses with DNA genomes replicate their ...
The scientists scanned three different human cell lines for ERVs in their DNA that... ... Viral Fossils In Our DNA May Help Us Fight Infection (sciencemag.org) 20 Posted by BeauHD on Thursday March 03, 2016 @06:33PM ... The researchers predicted that if they remove this viral DNA from the cell, the transcription factors would not function ... Viral Fossils In Our DNA May Help Us Fight Infection. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ...
The PureLink Viral Mini Kit is specifically designed to isolate high-q ... The PureLink Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit provides a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously purify viral RNA/DNA from fresh or ... The PureLink® Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit provides a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously purify viral RNA/DNA from fresh or ... The PureLink® Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit contains enough reagents for 50 reactions.. Kit Contents:. • 32 ml Viral Lysis buffer (L22 ...
A Mix Of Tiny Gold And Viral Particles "" And The DNA Ties That Bind Them. by Sam Savage ... The scientists created specific pieces of DNA and then attached them to gold nanoparticles and viral particles, choosing the ... While people commonly think of DNA as a blueprint for life, the team used DNA instead as a tool to guide the precise ... Central to the work is the unique attraction of each of DNAs four chemical bases to just one other base. ...
... can induce a strong DNA damage response following low multiplicity of infection. The response is dependent upon active viral ... Thus, DNA damage signaling in response to parvovirus replication facilitates virus replication, perhaps in part by promoting ... Our results suggest that MVM exploits aspects of the cellular DNA damage response machinery early in infection to enhance its ... We show here that autonomous parvoviruses, single-stranded linear DNA viruses that infect many animal species including humans ...
Gene therapy and genetically modified therapy involve the introduction of a therapeutic DNA (the gene of interest) in the body ... such as viral infections, cancers, and inherited disorders. ... The global viral vector and plasmid DNA manufacturing market is ... Detailed examination of the Viral Vectors and Plasmid DNA Manufacturing Market:. October 5th, 2017 ALLIED MARKET RESEARCH ... The major factors that fuel the growth of the viral vectors and plasmid DNA manufacturing market include rise in number of ...
Thermo Scientific MagJET Viral DNA and RNA Kit For 96 preparations Life Sciences:Biochemicals and Reagents:DNA Extraction and ... The MagJET Viral DNA and RNA Kit has been tested by isolating DNA and RNA from 200 µL of human plasma spiked with plasmid DNA ... Thermo Scientific MagJET Viral DNA and RNA Kit Purifies viral nucleic acids from human and animal samples, including plasma, ... The Thermo Scientific MagJET Viral DNA and RNA Kit is designed for fast and efficient purification of viral nucleic acids from ...
Viruses contain DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid), never both. DNA consists of two strands (red and blue) twisted into a double ... Artwork of an enveloped virus behind a test tube containing a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The virus consists of ... DNA contains sections called genes, which encode an organisms genetic information. - Stock Image G210/1004 ... genetic material (DNA) inside an icosahedral protein coat (nucleocapsid), enveloped by other proteins. ...
... saliva and any other biological samples stored in DNA/RNA Shield. DNA/RNA Shield ensures nucleic acid stability during sample ... The Quick-DNA/RNA Viral Kit is a fast viral DNA/RNA purification kit for viral DNA and RNA from plasma, serum, cell culture ... The Quick-DNA/RNA Viral Kit is a fast viral DNA/RNA purification kit for viral DNA and RNA from plasma, serum, cell culture ... Viral DNA/RNA is bound to the column, washed, and eluted. The isolated high-quality viral DNA/RNA are ready for all downstream ...
Gardasil victim found to have HPV DNA in her blood 2 Years Post-Vaccination 13 different vaccine vials - 13 different lots of ... Gardasil from around the world tested Results - 100% contamination with HPV Recombinant DNA. - PR11645909 ... Announces the Discovery of Viral HPV DNA Contaminant in Gardasil. ... 2. Wild DNA is any DNA found in nature.. 3. Viral DNA is any DNA isolated or derived from the genome of a virus.. 4. ...
Pilot Peg-Interferon-a2b in Decreasing Viral DNA in HIV. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Open-label Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Peg-IFN-a2b in Decreasing the Levels of Cell-associated Integrated Viral DNA in ... We propose to test our primary hypothesis that treatment with Peg-IFN-α-2b will result in a decrease in integrated HIV DNA in ... Change from baseline in copies of HIV DNA per CD4+ T cell at Week 24 [ Time Frame: Week 0 and 24 ]. Assessed by Alu-HIVgag ...
Viral RNA and DNA capture, purification and qRT-PCR and qPCR analyses; featuring PureLink™, RNA UltraSense™, & Dynabeads® ... Specific Capture of Viral RNA/DNA Target a specific viral RNA or DNA sequence and capture only that specific nucleic acid ... Dynabeads® SILANE Viral RNA/DNA Sensitive and highly consistent isolation of viral RNA and DNA from cell-free samples. These ... Viral RNA/DNA purification Both spin-column and 96-well plate kits are designed for fast and easy isolation of viral RNA or DNA ...
Abstract: L7.00005 : Viral DNA Packaging at Base Pair Resolution. 4:54 PM-5:30 PM. ... we determined how the motor engages the DNA by challenging the motor with a series of short regions of chemically modified DNA ... The DNA is then packaged in not one step but in a coordinated burst of four 2.5-base-pair steps. In parallel, ... Homomeric ring-ATPases of the ASCE family are responsible for a variety of important cellular functions, ranging from DNA ...
Viral DNA delivery mechanisms offer an opportunity to obtain useful information in systems in which the process can be arrested ... PRD1 is an icosahedral double-stranded (ds)DNA bacterial virus with … ... DNA translocation across the barriers of recipient cells is not well understood. ... The viral protein P11 is shown to function as the first DNA delivery protein needed to penetrate the OM. We also report a DNA ...
... the eukaryotic nucleus evolved from a complex DNA virus. It is proposed that the virus established a persistent presence in the ... In the theory of viral eukaryogenesis I propose here, ... Viral Eukaryogenesis: Was the Ancestor of the Nucleus a Complex ... In the theory of viral eukaryogenesis I propose here, the eukaryotic nucleus evolved from a complex DNA virus. It is proposed ... It is proposed that several characteristic features of the eukaryotic nucleus derive from its viral ancestry. These include ...
  • 7. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 6 , wherein the said crystalline protein is encoded by a synthetic B.t. gene. (google.com)
  • Using sophisticated genetic sequencing and gene-editing techniques, Elde and his colleagues deleted certain viral remnants from human DNA and found that, without them, cells infected with a pathogen could not fully respond to interferon, a protein signal that jump-starts our immune responses. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Homomeric ring-ATPases of the ASCE family are responsible for a variety of important cellular functions, ranging from DNA translocation to protein degradation. (aps.org)
  • The viral protein P11 is shown to function as the first DNA delivery protein needed to penetrate the OM. (nih.gov)
  • New binding target for oncogenic viral protein ( The DNA tumor virus simian virus 40 pro. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our results highlight the value of integrative proteomics in deducing protein function and establish IFIX as an antiviral DNA sensor important for mounting immune responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A small sequence of DNA in the envelope (Env) protein of a mouse breast tumor virus (called MMTV) can transform breast cells into cancer cells, according to a study by Katz et al. (bio-medicine.org)
  • An intriguing wrinkle to this study is the previously reported presence of sequences highly homologous to MMTV Env protein in the DNA of as many as 40% of human breast tumors, although a human homologue of MMTV has yet to be found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A protein of approximately 20 kDa has been associated with purified virions and is assumed to be the viral coat protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • The N-terminus of this protein was sequenced and compared to the predicted amino acid sequence of the large ORF of BBTV DNA-1 to 6. (deepdyve.com)
  • This comparison indicated that the ORF of BBTV DNA-3, which potentially encodes a protein of 19.3 kDa, was the coat protein gene of BBTV. (deepdyve.com)
  • The ORF sequence of BBTV DNA-3 was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector, pMAL-c2, and the resulting maltose binding-BBTV coat protein fusion product was purified and used for the production of polyclonal antiserum in a rabbit. (deepdyve.com)
  • The resultant antiserum was able to detect the presence of BBTV in infected leaf tissue confirming that the large virion sense ORF of BBTV DNA-3 encodes the viral coat protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. (asm.org)
  • While sensing was initially thought to occur only in subcellular compartments devoid of cellular DNA, we and others have recently demonstrated that interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) binds to DNA of nucleus-replicating herpesviruses and stimulates cytokine expression within infected nuclei ( 1 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Currently, it is well established that, upon DNA stimulation, signaling is propagated in the cytosol first through stimulator of interferon genes (STING) ( 5 , 6 ), then serine/threonine protein kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1) ( 7 ) and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) ( 8 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Details and Download Full Text PDF: Structural alteration of DNA induced by viral protein R of HIV-1 triggers the DNA damage response. (pubfacts.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpr (viral protein R) arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, a process that requires activation of the ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related) pathway. (pubfacts.com)
  • In terms of application, the market has been categorized into gene and cancer therapies, viral vaccines, protein expression studies, and others. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • Dashed lines suggest potential paths of the DNA strands through each protein conformation. (prolekare.cz)
  • While a virus, essentially, may be nothing more than a dollop of DNA packed into a protective coating of protein called a capsid, the packaging of that DNA is critical. (berkeley.edu)
  • HIV1-viral protein R (Vpr) mutations: associated phenotypes and relevance for clinical pathologies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An advanced lesson that requires students to analyze partial DNA sequences of the Mc1r gene and identify the effects of mutations on the MC1R protein pathway. (hhmi.org)
  • It encodes a protein which controls the expression of all other early viral genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Workflows and considerations for investigating protein interactions of viral DNA sensors. (princeton.edu)
  • Additionally, as viral infections and immune responses are known to induce prominent changes in cellular protein abundances, we provide a workflow for investigating these protein associations in the context of proteome alterations. (princeton.edu)
  • This protein domain, often found in bacterial species, is actually of viral origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein forms an oligomer and functions as an alkaline exonuclease, or in simpler terms, an enzyme that digests double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of this protein domain is to digest DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids in patient samples can be quantified directly using a solid phase nucleic acid hybridization assay based on branched DNA (bDNA) signal amplification technology. (nih.gov)
  • DNA/RNA Shield ensures nucleic acid stability during sample storage/transport at ambient temperatures (4°C-25°C). The reagent effectively lyses cells and inactivates nucleases and infectious agents (virus). (zymoresearch.com)
  • Target a specific viral RNA or DNA sequence and capture only that specific nucleic acid sequence directly from crude lysates or other biological fluids. (thermofisher.com)
  • These Dynabeads® have an optimized surface chemistry for viral nucleic acid purification and provide efficient kinetics and a high sensitivity. (thermofisher.com)
  • The nested PCR amplified integrated proviral DNA in nucleic acid extracted from plasma in PPT and EDTA specimens with high viral load values. (asm.org)
  • A nucleic acid vaccine for dengue-2 virus was developed, consisting of a plasmid DNA vector with the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes expressed from a cytomegalovirus promoter. (ajtmh.org)
  • Eluted purified Nucleic Acid is suitable for all common applications, including PCR, real-time PCR, RT-PCR, One-step qRT-PCR, and DNA Sequencing. (bioquote.com)
  • This 2-part Maya animation depicts the process of nucleic acid packing/assembly into the viral capsid. (dnatube.com)
  • Viral nucleic acid was isolated with Omega Bio-tek's Mag-Bind® Viral DNA/RNA Kit and with a comparable kit from Company A according to recommended protocols. (omegabiotek.com)
  • Based on the structural difference between rcDNA and dlDNA, we developed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) clamping assay to measure the proportions of dlDNA in total HBV DNA in sera obtained from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) or LC-developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (snfge.org)
  • To determine whether statins alter genomic methylation of DNA as a mechanism for modulation of gene expression, we propose to (Specific Aim I) study methylation patterns by comparing statin-treated, infected and non-treated cells, followed by (Specific Aim II) correlation of such changes in methylation with statins' modulation of gene expression. (nova.edu)
  • Is it possible to isolate genomic DNA or viral nucleic acids with PAXgene Blood miRNA protocol? (qiagen.com)
  • Contaminating proviral DNA was detected using a nested PCR targeting the Alu repeat in human genomic DNA and HIV pol gene simultaneously. (asm.org)
  • Likewise, a semiquantitative densitometric analysis revealed that the total amount of genomic DNA in the PPT was higher than that in the EDTA tube. (asm.org)
  • HBV has two forms of genomic DNA, relaxed-circular DNA (rcDNA) and duplex-linear DNA (dlDNA). (snfge.org)
  • ATCC offers purified genomic DNA from tumor and normal human cell lines. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC offers genomic DNA from a variety of fungi, including Geomyces destructans , the pathogen responsible for White Nose Syndrome in bats. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC offers genomic DNA from many of our 2600 strains of protists (including 265 strains of algae) representing nearly 750 species and 340 genera. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC offers viral genomic DNA from infected cells or allantoic fluid. (atcc.org)
  • The scientists scanned three different human cell lines for ERVs in their DNA that could bind to innate immunity transcription factors, which turn on genes to ramp up the immune system's attack against pathogens. (slashdot.org)
  • The researchers predicted that if they remove this viral DNA from the cell, the transcription factors would not function properly, potentially disrupting genes involved in the innate immune response. (slashdot.org)
  • We propose to test our primary hypothesis that treatment with Peg-IFN-α-2b will result in a decrease in integrated HIV DNA in peripheral blood and tissue in chronically HIV-infected immune-reconstituted individuals (see section 3.1) in a prospective, interventional, 1-arm, open label clinical trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ART interruption), will result in activation of intrinsic and/or immune-mediated anti-HIV mechanisms resulting in a decrease in the levels of viral reservoir in chronically HIV-infected, immune-reconstituted individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Further, when cells lacking the viral DNA element near the AIM2 immune defense gene were infected with virus, their ability to execute an effective immune response was greatly reduced. (utah.edu)
  • It's likely no accident that innate immune systems reclaimed some of these viral remnants", says Elde. (utah.edu)
  • This information is then used to guide the bacteria's immune system to destroy the invading viral DNA. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The functional interactome of PYHIN immune regulators reveals IFIX is a sensor of viral DNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To generate a viral antigen for presentation to the immune system without the limitations of direct peptide delivery or viral vectors, plasmid DNA encoding influenza A nucleoprotein was injected into the quadriceps of BALB/c mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The DNA sequence in question is usually found in immune cells and helps trigger the activation and proliferation of the cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The capsids of HIV-1 and HIV-2 determine immune detection of the viral cDNA by the innate sensor cGAS in dendritic cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A vesicular stomatitis virus-based mucosal vaccine promotes dendritic cell maturation and elicits preferable immune response against coxsackievirus B3 induced viral myocarditis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA vaccine has been developed for VHSV, but to sustain the immune response of this DNA vaccine for a long time adjuvant studies are required. (org.in)
  • The DNA tumor virus simian virus 40 produces the Large T antigen which. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a blood-based biomarker for mutation detection is an exciting, highly sensitive approach in the clinical management of oncology patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of EBV in HRS cells and higher plasma EBV-DNA copy numbers correlated to an increased frequency of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ macrophages in lymph node biopsies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The strong correlations of circulating EBV-DNA to parameters of disease activity, such as stage, the international prognostic score, and new biomarkers, as cell-free circulating DNA and the number of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ macrophages, make EBV-DNA a meaningful marker for the biological and clinical presentation of EBV-associated HL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA copy number analysis was done on pure tumor cell samples enriched with flow sorting. (eurekamag.com)
  • DNase I-resistant nucleic acids were purified using either the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit or the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). To detect viral RNA, first-strand cDNA synthesis was performed using 200 U of SuperScript II RNase H − reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) primed with 5 pmol random hexamers (GIBCO, Gaithersburg, MD) at 42°C for 1 h. (asm.org)
  • In this study, two commercially available kits were compared to assess their performance, the MO BIO PowerViral Environmental DNA/RNA Isolation kit and the Qiagen QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit. (iwaponline.com)
  • The inverse correlations of circulating EBV-DNA to lymphocyte counts and EB nuclear antigen titers point to a reduction in immunosurveillance in EBV-associated HL, favoring the expansion of EBV in HL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Researchers have described the use of surface hybridization with single-molecule spectroscopy for the detection of viral DNA such as human papilloma virus (HPV). (photonics.com)
  • An Epstein-Barr viral gene (ZEBRA) is identified that, in human lymphoblastoid cells, activates a switch causing the virus to shift from the latent to the replicative phase of its life cycle. (pnas.org)
  • The viral load test is helpful in several areas: For medical researchers , the test proved that HIV is never "latent" but is always multiplying. (thebody.com)
  • The HDAC inhibitor romidepsin was able to awaken latent HIV in resting T-cells, causing it to start producing new virus, but this was not associated with a decrease in the size of the viral reservoir on T-cells, researchers reported on Tuesday at the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) in Melbourne. (aidsmap.com)
  • This strategy involves using various agents to reactivate latent proviral DNA in resting cells. (aidsmap.com)
  • The structure "" a distinctive mix of hard, metallic nanoparticles and organic viral pieces known as capsids, linked by the very stuff of life, DNA "" marks a remarkable step in scientists' ability to combine an assortment of materials to create infinitesimal devices. (redorbit.com)
  • We have shown that a 2.7-kilobase-pair rearranged Epstein-Barr virus DNA fragment of this gene (BamHI fragment WZhet) induced transient expression of viral replicative antigens and polypeptides when it was transfected into a somatic cell hybrid, which was derived from the fusion of an epithelial line cell with a Burkitt lymphoma cell. (pnas.org)
  • The structure of intracellular viral DNA from a number of cell lines arising by clonal transformation of human lymphocytes in vitro with Epstein-Barr virus was analyzed. (asm.org)
  • Circulating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in peripheral blood is an indicator and biomarker for EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These CRISPR-associated machines are programmable nucleases (molecular scissors) that are now being exploited for precisely altering the DNA sequence of almost any cell type of interest. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We discover that IFIX detects viral DNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, binding foreign DNA via its HIN domain in a sequence-non-specific manner. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Evolutionary relationships remain detectable at the amino acid level for longer time periods than they do at the DNA sequence level ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Viral DNA sequence a possible trigger for bre. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A small sequence of DNA in the envelope. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 1 min 8 sec) Once the structure of DNA was discovered, the next challenge was determining how the sequence of letters coded for the 20 amino acids. (hhmi.org)
  • Not only can synthetic molecules mimic the structures of their biological models, they can also take on their functions and may even successfully compete with them, as an artificial DNA sequence designed by LMU chemist Ivan Huc now shows. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In the current study, Huc and his colleagues have focused on enzymes that are generically capable of binding to DNA, irrespective of its base sequence. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • With the elucidation in recent years of the promoter sequence of various viral genes and the expression of these genes in bacteria or yeast, the understanding of many viral gene functions has made great progress. (springer.com)
  • To investigate if CP might also be involved in viral DNA nuclear transport, Escherichia coli -expressed CP, together with TOTO-1-labeled viral ss or ds DNA, was microinjected into maize and tobacco epidermal cells. (apsnet.org)
  • In cells, such DNA accumulates into nuclear foci with a signaling apparatus that involves DNA polymerase delta, ATR, TopBP1, RPA, and the Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 complex but not ATM or NBS1. (epfl.ch)
  • These extrachromosomal elements are usually considered to be autonomous entities that do not interact with nuclear DNA. (asm.org)
  • In this study we demonstrate that the expression of Vpr does not cause DNA double-strand breaks but rather induces ATR activation, as indicated by induction of Chk1 phosphorylation and the formation of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 nuclear foci. (pubfacts.com)
  • Analysis of the viral elements required in the nuclear import of HIV-1 DNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Discrepancies in viral load (VL) measurements obtained in different plasma collection tubes have underscored the importance of specimen collection and handling in the determination of accurate results in HIV viral load assays. (asm.org)
  • Elevated HIV-1 viral loads in plasma specimens collected and frozen in PPTs and quantified in the standard and ultrasensitive Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assays ( 2 , 4 , 13 ) have led investigators to believe that it may have an impact on therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients ( 1 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • HIV -2 Antibody Screening B. Viral Identification Assays 1. (thebody.com)
  • Researchers with the Ames Laboratory of the US Department of Energy and with Iowa State University, also in Ames, previously reported an improved single-molecule strategy using a flow system based on fluorescently labeled target DNA molecules passing through a thin fused-silica capillary. (photonics.com)
  • For example, HIV RNA is detected in a plasma sample by hybridization of multiple specific synthetic oligonucleotides to the target, 10 of which capture the target onto the surface of a microwell plate and 39 of which mediate hybridization of branched DNA molecules to the pol region of each HIV RNA molecule. (nih.gov)
  • Alkaline phosphatase-labeled probes bind to each arm of the branched DNA molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Evilevitch looked instead at the stresses and strains on the viral DNA molecules just before they are injected into a host. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heat made the DNA molecules inside the capsid more flexible, reducing the sliding friction between them, he said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Adding positively charged ions reduced the repulsion between the negatively charged DNA molecules, also making the DNA more fluid. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for conserved viral antigens can respond to different strains of virus, in contrast to antibodies, which are generally strain-specific. (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (DNA- PCR ) 2. (thebody.com)
  • polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) orbranched DNA (bDNA). (thebody.com)
  • Viral load can be measured by two different lab tests: a polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) test or a branched DNA (bDNA) test. (thebody.com)
  • In the lytic pathway, viral DNA quickly commandeers the host cell's own resources to make hundreds of copies of itself. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yield of nucleic acids was evaluated by RT-qPCR and qPCR, and compared with spiked DNA (linearized plasmid DNA, 10 5 copies/sample) and RNA (RNA transcript, 10 6 copies/sample) copy number. (fishersci.com)
  • We studied the number of viral DNA copies and the level of HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression in 75 HPV 16-positive or HPV 18-positive International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ib and IIa cervical cancer patients. (eurekamag.com)
  • The number of viral DNA copies was not predictive of survival in cervical cancer patients. (eurekamag.com)
  • No correlation was observed between DNA copy number and the level of HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression, which reflects that not all DNA copies are equally transcriptionally active. (eurekamag.com)
  • Up to one-third of people with very high viral loads (more than one million viral copies per milliliter of blood) will develop cirrhosis over a decade, compared to only 4.5% of those with low viral loads (less than 300 viral copies per milliliter). (emedical-help.com)
  • Transgenic plants contained from 10 to 30% of the amount of viral DNA detected in nontransformed control plants showing severe symptoms. (www.gov.uk)
  • One test measures the 'viral load,' that is, the amount of viral DNA in the blood. (emedical-help.com)
  • In order to reproduce and multiply - a requirement of "life" - a virus must invade a living cell, eject its DNA into that of the cell, and commandeer the cell's biological machinery. (berkeley.edu)
  • and (iv) DNA translocation. (nih.gov)
  • In this latest effort, he and his collaborators modified their standard two-bead optical-tweezers packaging assay by introducing a third "rotor bead" that enabled them to monitor changes in the angle of the DNA around its axis while simultaneously observing DNA translocation into the viral capsid. (berkeley.edu)
  • Many people with no symptoms of AIDS and high CD4 cell counts also had high viral loads. (thebody.com)
  • Genetic subtypes A-F quantified within a factor of 1.5, indicating that the bDNA assay can be used to measure viral load in clinical samples regardless of genotype. (nih.gov)
  • However, there are some problems to be resolved for the clinical applications, such as the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of viral vectors themselves. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Two years later, her blood was tested by a local clinical laboratory and found to be positive for HPV DNA. (prlog.org)
  • In human papillomavirus-associated malignancies like anal cancer, a viral-specific probe can be utilized for ctDNA detection in the majority of patients to predict clinical outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We were interested in the detection and quantification of cell-free plasma EBV-DNA as an indicator of biological and clinical characteristics in EBV-associated HL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data were correlated to histological and clinical characteristics, EBV serology, circulating cell-free DNA, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We further explored associations of EBV-DNA plasma load to biological and clinical characteristics of HL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the dlDNA proportion relative to total HBV DNA and its clinical significance in patients remain to be investigated. (snfge.org)
  • Eyevensys has received regulatory approval in France to start clinical trials using eye gene therapy technology that eliminates the need for viral vectors. (labiotech.eu)
  • Plasma HIV RNA also increased, despite participants being on ART, reaching quantifiable levels in five of the six participants using a standard clinical viral load assay. (aidsmap.com)
  • Viral analysis of biological and environmental samples requires the use of advanced technologies to assure assay effectiveness. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our investigation clearly shows that both proviral DNA and intracellular RNA are amplified simultaneously in the COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assay and that proviral DNA contributes to the elevated VL in plasma frozen in PPTs. (asm.org)
  • Using the Roche proviral DNA assay, the authors were able to detect HIV-1 proviral DNA in the specimens with higher cell counts and corresponding elevated VLs. (asm.org)