A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
An unpaired thin ploughshare-shaped facial bone. It is situated in the median plane of the SKULL. The vomer forms the posterior and inferior border of the NASAL SEPTUM.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.
An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
A DNA-binding protein that mediates DNA REPAIR of double strand breaks, and HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE I.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Unsaturated azacyclopropane compounds that are three-membered heterocycles of a nitrogen and two carbon atoms.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.
A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. This strain is a model for Wilson's Disease (see HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.
Enzymes that regulate the topology of DNA by actions such as breaking, relaxing, passing, and rejoining strands of DNA in cells. These enzymes are important components of the DNA replication system. They are classified by their substrate specificities. DNA TOPOISOMERASE I enzymes act on a single strand of DNA. DNA TOPOISOMERASE II enzymes act on double strands of DNA.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A family of structurally-related DNA helicases that play an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecQ helicases were originally discovered in E COLI and are highly conserved across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genetic mutations that result in loss of RecQ helicase activity gives rise to disorders that are associated with CANCER predisposition and premature aging.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An ethylenediamine derivative used as stabilizer for EPOXY RESINS, as ampholyte for ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING and as chelating agent for copper in HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
A family of DNA helicases that participate in DNA REPLICATION. They assemble into hexameric rings with a central channel and unwind DNA processively in the 5' to 3' direction. DnaB helicases are considered the primary replicative helicases for most prokaryotic organisms.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Bacteria ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. ... Genomes are linear, double stranded DNA, and are relatively small (between 16-20 kbp)-hence the term pico-virinae. Picoviruses ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk. ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Diptera with ... Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Willis, Dawn B. (1990). "Taxonomy of ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. ... The double stranded DNA genome is linear, around 40-42kb in length, and encodes ~55 genes. The guanine + cytosine content is ~ ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk.ictvonline.org. International Committee on ...
Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. Dna templated transcription is ... Prasinovirus is a genus of large double-stranded DNA viruses, in the family Phycodnaviridae that infect phytoplankton in the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ...
Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fiber glycoproteins to host ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ...
... double-stranded RNA of viruses; or the unmethylated CpG islands of bacterial and viral DNA; and also of the CpG islands found ... In the case of a viral factor, the infected cell may shut off its protein synthesis and may undergo programmed cell death ( ... Its ligand is retroviral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which activates the TRIF dependent signalling pathway. To explore the ... Other molecules (bacterial lipopeptides, flagellin, and unmethylated DNA) were shown in turn to provoke host responses that are ...
... es have double stranded DNA genomes, with the largest genome size (2.5 million base pairs) of any known viral genus ... In other words, viral DNA is replicated within the cytoplasm of the host cell and assembled into new viral particles followed ... Pandoraviruses have double stranded DNA. Like most giant viruses, Pandoraviruses have a viral life cycle. They lack the ability ... This leads to viral particles to be released into the cytoplasm of the amoeba. Viruses portal DNA virus Introduction to viruses ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fiber glycoproteins to host ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Avian Adenoviruses, reviewed and published ... Diagnosis of aviadenovirus is by histopathology, electron microscopy, viral isolation, ELISA and PCR. In addition, virus ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Capsid ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. After adsorption to ... The genome is a single molecule of linear double-stranded DNA of 15 kilobases in length, and has 30 open reading frames. It ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. "ICTV Ninth Report; ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Insects ... Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV: Master Species List 2018b.v2, on: ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fibers to the host CAR adhesion ... Intermediate genes activate replication of the DNA genome by DNA strand displacement in the nucleus. Expression of L4-22K and ... Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
... is a non-viral method of gene therapy. Chimeraplasty changes DNA sequences using a synthetic strand of RNA and ... This strand of RNA and DNA is known as a chimeraplast. The chimeraplast enters a cell and attaches itself to the target gene. ... The DNA of the chimeraplast and the cell complement each other except in the middle of the strand, where the chimeraplast's ... The DNA repair enzymes then replace the cell's DNA with that of the chimeraplast. This leaves the chimeraplast's new sequence ...
Viral g2p protein nicks RF DNA strand at the origin of replication. (+)strand replication occurs by rolling circle. New (+) ... However, the recombinant viral DNA can prove to be unstable after passaging. SpV1-R8A2 B can be isolated from its host. The ... The proteins of the capsid mediate the injection of the viral DNA through bacterial membranes into cell cytoplasm. Host ... Host cell DNA-dependent DNA polymerase serves as the replicase, and replication occurs by rolling circle. Virion assembly takes ...
SIRV2 has a linear double-stranded DNA genome. The viral DNA is replicated by 4 host DNA polymerases: Dpo1 through Dpo4. The ... in which the alpha-helical major capsid protein of SIRV2 wraps around the DNA, making it inaccessible to solvent. The viral DNA ... SIRV2gp19 was found to be a single-stranded DNA endonuclease in 2011. This was proven by inducing a mutation in the SIRVgp19 ... A virus that infects a hyperthermophile encapsidates A-form DNA". Science. 348 (6237): 914-7. doi:10.1126/science.aaa4181. PMC ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement, via replicative transposition model. DNA-templated transcription is the method ... and degrades the cell wall using viral exolysin enough to eject the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm via long flexible tail ... Once the viral genes have been replicated, the procapsid is assembled and packed. The tail is then assembled and the mature ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 11 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk. ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... Like all members of the Poxviridae family, they are oval, relatively large, double-stranded DNA viruses. Parapoxviruses have a ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Parapoxvirus ICTV Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR ...
... double-stranded segment of DNA. Genomes are linear, around 130-375kb in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into ... Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. International ...
Once uncoated, the viral DNA is expressed and replication follows. Replication of the RCN genome occurs through the strand ... RCN is a double-stranded DNA virus. It is an orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. DNA ... Raccoonpox virus (RCN) is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the orthopoxviruses in the family Poxviridae and ... Assembly and Release: Viral assembly occurs in the cytoplasm. The release of the mature virus particle always results in lysing ...
... the viral genome is packaged into the pre-formed viral procapsid. The packaging of DNA into the procapsid requires a molecular ... Nuclear cleavage occurs in the single strand region linking these two domains. Guo P (2002). Structure and function of phi29 ... Only the first 120 bases of the pRNA are essential for packing the viral DNA. The pRNA is proposed to be composed of two ... Guo PX, Erickson S, Anderson D (1987). "A small viral RNA is required for in vitro packaging of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA". ...
DNA pilot protein (or minor spike protein) J. 60 in virion. Binds to new single-stranded phage DNA; accompanies phage DNA into ... H protein (or the DNA Pilot Protein) pilots the viral genome through the bacterial membrane of E.coli bacteria (Jazwinski et al ... Nicks RF DNA to initiate rolling circle replication; ligates ends of linear phage DNA to form single-stranded circular DNA ... The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus that infects Escherichia coli, and the first DNA- ...
These compounds mutate DNA strands and produce genetic damage, inducing newly lysis and subsequent cell death. Its action on ... viruses, on the other hand, results in damaged nucleic acids and viral inactivation. They have a sensory threshold ranging ... DNA damage. Cancer, particularly leukemia. Leukopenia. Growth reduction. Reproductive deficiencies: sterility, reduction in ... D. radiodurans is capable to resist oxidative stress and DNA damage from radiation, and reduces technetium, uranium and ...
... s are small, double-stranded DNA viral phages that require the co-infection of another virus. The co-infecting viruses ... Virophages have small double-stranded DNA genomes that are either circular or linear in shape. The size of these genomes can ... These virophages can have linear or circular double-stranded DNA genomes. Known virophages in culture have icosahedral capsid ... The host range for virophages include giant viruses with double stranded DNA genomes. Virophages use the transcriptional ...
It carries its genome in a single, linear, double-stranded segment of DNA. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the ... Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ... Core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, viral genome is now free in the cytoplasm. Intermediate phase: ...
... viral DNA into the host cell Conversion of the single strand form to a double stranded intermediate Replication of the viral ... These new single strand DNA sequences become templates for further DNA and RNA synthesis. When sufficient gp5 has accumulated ... The conversion from single-stranded to double-stranded form is carried out by the host's own DNA polymerase. The host's RNA ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp1# New viral genomes ...
The single-strand viral DNA ends are ligated by host DNA ligase. It is not generally appreciated that the 12 bp lambda cohesive ... linear DNA, with 12-base single-strand segments at both 5' ends. These two single-stranded segments are the "sticky ends" of ... The original B-O-B' sequence is changed by the integration to B-O-P'-phage DNA-P-O-B'. The phage DNA is now part of the host's ... The 48 kb DNA fragment of lambda phage is not essential for productive infection and can be replaced by foreign DNA. Lambda ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement, via replicative transposition model. DNA templated transcription is the method ... and viral exolysin degrades the cell wall enough to eject the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm via long flexible tail ejection ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 18 February 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2013 Release". Retrieved 18 February 2015. NCBI. " ... Both complete genomes are available here Viral replication is cytoplasmic. The virus attaches to the host cell's adhesion ...
view of cytosine in single-stranded viral DNA (89278 - ) ... cytosine in single-stranded viral DNA + H2O = uracil in single- ... cytosine in single-stranded viral DNA + H2O = uracil in single-stranded viral DNA + NH3 ... Ligand cytosine in single-stranded viral DNA. Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when ... Links to other databases for cytosine in single-stranded viral DNA. top print hide ...
... coli cell extracts and M13 genomic DNA templates bearing mutagenic lesions. The assay is based on the conversion of M13 viral ... we have developed a high-resolution DNA replication system based on E. ... In order to characterize mutagenic translesion DNA synthesis in UVM-induced Escherichia coli, ... The assay is based on the conversion of M13 viral single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bearing a single site-specific DNA lesion to the ...
... hepadnavirus plus-strand DNA synthesis dissociate primer cleavage from translocation and reveal the origin of linear viral DNA. ... Plus-strand DNA synthesis initiates at DR2 on minus-strand DNA, using as a primer a short, DR1-containing oligoribonucleotide ... hepadnavirus plus-strand DNA synthesis dissociate primer cleavage from translocation and reveal the origin of linear viral DNA. ... hepadnavirus plus-strand DNA synthesis dissociate primer cleavage from translocation and reveal the origin of linear viral DNA. ...
Hydroxyapatite-Mediated Separation of Double-Stranded DNA, Single-Stranded DNA and RNA Genomes from Natural Viral Assemblages. ... Separation of Single-stranded DNA, Double-stranded DNA and RNA from an Environmental Viral Community Using Hydroxyapatite ... Discovery of a Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus from a Sea Turtle Fibropapilloma by using Viral Metagenomics. J. Virol. 83, 2500 ... ההפרדה של ה-DNA חד גדילי, פעמיים תקועים DNA ו-RNA מהקהילה ויראלי הסביבה באמצעות כרומטוגרפיה hydroxyapatite. Douglas W. Fadrosh1 ...
... ... The low frequency of HR in mammalian cells can be significantly improved by insertion of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) into ...
Cell lines and viral infections. Wild-type and Lsh−/− MEFs were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin, ... et al. (2010). The ACF1 complex is required for DNA double-strand break repair in human cells. Mol. Cell 40, 976-987. doi: ... 1998). DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5858-5868. doi:10.1074 ... 1999). Megabase chromatin domains involved in DNA double-strand breaks in vivo. J. Cell Biol. 146, 905-916. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
Here, we characterize the fitness effects of random mutations in DNA viruses and compare them with those found in RNA viruses, ... Viral genomics Is the Subject Area "Viral genomics" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are one of the latest additions to the classes of drugs used in antiretroviral ... The viral DNA then releases another enzyme known as integrase, which transports the viral DNA strand into the T-cells nucleus ... preventing the viral DNA strand transfer by the integrase enzyme. The viral DNA is then degraded and cannot multiply. ... it converts its RNA strand into a double-strand DNA using an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase. ...
... that single-stranded DNA produces larger spikes and has a longer translocation time through a nanopore than double-stranded DNA ... Next, the group tested single-stranded viral DNA. They translocated the DNA through a 7-nanometer pore and observed peaks that ... Single-stranded DNA behaves completely differently than double-stranded DNA as it translocates through a nanopore, researchers ... which corresponded to the double-stranded and single-stranded portions of the molecule. They found that the double-stranded end ...
The single-stranded DNA is then extracted with phenol. ... The single-stranded viral DNA is isolated from M13mp18. M13mp18 ... SacI and EcoRI sites within the gene encoding β-Galactosidase.This DNA preparation is useful as a standard and has been tested ... as a template in the dideoxy-nucleotide termination method of sequencing DNA. M13mp18 phage is propagated in E. coli ER2738. ... The single-stranded viral DNA is isolated from M13mp18. M13mp18 is a M13 lac phage vector which contains single HindIII, SphI, ...
Twenty-four hours after infection, viral multiplication was determined by PCR amplification of the viral genomic DNA and by a ... Double-stranded DNA and double-stranded RNA induce a common antiviral signaling pathway in human cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... Fragments of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) forming a right-handed helical structure (B-DNA) stimulate cells to produce type I ... and then DNA was precipitated with isopropanol. To distinguish replicated DNA from input DNA (pHPV11 or pHPV18), the samples ...
... the host genes that participate in the replication of some K12-specific single-stranded DNA phages have been ... Taketo, A.: Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to viral nucleic acid. VI. Capacity of dna mutants and DNA polymerase-less mutants ... Taketo, A. Host genes involved in the replication of single-stranded DNA phage ϕK. Molec. Gen. Genet. 148, 25-29 (1976). https ... Host genes involved in the replication of single-stranded DNA phage ϕK. *Akira Taketo1. ...
... and Double-Stranded DNA. Nozomi Sakakibara,1,2 Rajesh Kasiviswanathan,1,3 and Zvi Kelman4 ... 2Laboratory of Viral Diseases, NIAID, NIH, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. 3Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National ...
Retroviral integrase can efficiently utilise nucleosomes for insertion of the reverse-transcribed viral DNA. In face of the ... Retroviral integrase can efficiently utilise nucleosomes for insertion of the reverse-transcribed viral DNA. In face of the ... Sliding the nucleosomal DNA by approximately two base pairs along the histone octamer accommodates the necessary DNA lifting ... DNA (5-D(*AP*TP*TP*GP*TP*CP*AP*TP*GP*GP*AP*AP*TP*TP*TP*CP*GP*C)-3). M, Q. 19. Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1. ...
Single-stranded DNA encoders containing polyadenine domains endow colloidal gold nanoparticles with programmable bond valence, ... Here we demonstrate a method for patterning colloidal gold nanoparticles with valence bond analogues using single-stranded DNA ... Lane, T., Serwer, P., Hayes, S. J. & Eiserling, F. Quantized viral-DNA packaging revealed by rotating gel-electrophoresis. ... Yao, G., Li, J., Li, Q. et al. Programming nanoparticle valence bonds with single-stranded DNA encoders. Nat. Mater. 19, 781- ...
Elucidation of their unique strategies to replicate in eukaryotic cells is crucial to aid in developing anti-NNS RNA viral ... Elucidation of their unique strategies to replicate in eukaryotic cells is crucial to aid in developing anti-NNS RNA viral ... Non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses belonging to the order Mononegavirales are highly diversified eukaryotic ... Non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses belonging to the order Mononegavirales are highly diversified eukaryotic ...
DNA viral group. Multiple genomes from the same tissue were no more similar in sequence identity to each other than when ... using viral metagenomics. Genome architecture and sequence similarity place these viruses among the rapidly expanding circular ... compared to other known CRESS DNA viruses. The results from this study are the first to describe a virus from a holothurian and ... Viral packaging Is the Subject Area "Viral packaging" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
REGULATED GENE EXPRESSION FROM VIRAL VECTORS. The present disclosure relates to vectors for the controlled expression ... DNA EDITING USING SINGLE-STRANDED DNA. Disclosed are compositions, methods, and kits for modifying DNA within cells as well as ... DNA MICROSCOPY. The present invention relates to DNA microscopy methods to record the cellular co-localization and/or spatial ... DNA POLYMERASES WITH INCREASED 3-MISMATCH DISCRIMINATION. Disclosed are mutant DNA polymerases having increased 3-mismatch ...
DNA pilot protein (or minor spike protein) J. 60 in virion. Binds to new single-stranded phage DNA; accompanies phage DNA into ... H protein (or the DNA Pilot Protein) pilots the viral genome through the bacterial membrane of E.coli bacteria (Jazwinski et al ... Nicks RF DNA to initiate rolling circle replication; ligates ends of linear phage DNA to form single-stranded circular DNA ... The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus that infects Escherichia coli, and the first DNA- ...
... copies the single-stranded genomic RNA to generate the double-stranded viral DNA while degrading the genomic RNA via its ... since it acts to chaperone the strand transfers obligatory for synthesis of the complete viral DNA and flanking long terminal ... The hybridization of complementary viral sequences by the nucleocapsid protein (NC) receives a special focus, ... an obligatory step in retrovirus replication during which the retroviral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) ...
The rate limiting step for introduction of a gene into cells is the conversion from single stranded DNA to double stranded DNA ... Because the viral vector transmits double-stranded DNA, there is a great reduction in the time it takes the cell to express the ... Gene Promoter allows Viral Vectors to Transmit Double-Stranded DNA. Technology #12154 ... the creation of a gene product is conversion by the host cell of virally transmitted single stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA ...
JNK2 and IKKβ are required for activating the innate response to viral infection. Immunity 11: 721. ... Distinct CpG DNA and Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Double-Stranded RNA, Respectively, Stimulate CD11c− Type 2 Dendritic Cell ... Distinct CpG DNA and Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Double-Stranded RNA, Respectively, Stimulate CD11c− Type 2 Dendritic Cell ... Distinct CpG DNA and Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Double-Stranded RNA, Respectively, Stimulate CD11c− Type 2 Dendritic Cell ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Characterization of single stranded viral DNA sequences present during replication of adenovirus types 2 and 5. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Characterization of single stranded viral DNA sequences present during ...
Plant Viral Genome Organization. IV. Double-Stranded DNA Viruses. A. Family Caulimoviridae. V. Single-Stranded DNA Viruses. A. ... A. Negative-Sense Single-Stranded RNA Viruses. B. Double-Stranded RNAviruses. C. DNA Viruses. V. Plant Viral Genome Strategies ... F. Negative-Sense Single-Stranded RNA Viruses. G. Double-stranded RNAviruses. H. DNA Viruses. VI. Discussion. Chapter 8 Virus ... V. Methods Involving Properties of the Viral Nucleic Acid. A. Type and Size of Nucleic Acid. B. Cleavage Patterns of DNA. C. ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Bacteria ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. ... Genomes are linear, double stranded DNA, and are relatively small (between 16-20 kbp)-hence the term pico-virinae. Picoviruses ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk. ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ...
Epstein-Barr Virus Immediate-Early Protein Zta Co-Opts Mitochondrial Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein To Promote Viral and ... The Zta-associated proteins included members of the HSP70 family and various single-stranded DNA and RNA binding proteins. The ... Zta is a multifunctional DNA binding protein that stimulates viral gene transcription, nucleates a replication complex at the ... We conclude that Zta interaction with mtSSB serves the dual function of facilitating viral and blocking mitochondrial DNA ...
... and action on DNA synthesis by the viral DNA polymerase. ... Epstein-Barr virus single-stranded DNA-binding protein: ... The purified BALF2 protein bound to single-stranded DNA preferentially over double-stranded DNA or single-stranded RNA. ... Replication of singly primed M13 single-stranded DNA by the EBV DNA polymerase complex in the absence of the BALF2 protein ... Epstein-Barr virus single-stranded DNA-binding protein: purification, characterization, and action on DNA synthesis by the ...
Riguet, E., et al. A peptide nucleic acid-neamine conjugate that targets and cleaves HIV-1 TAR RNA inhibits viral replication. ... Gogoi, K., Mane, M. V., Kunte, S. S., Kumar, V. A. A versatile method for the preparation of conjugates of peptides with DNA/ ... All samples contain 5 µM of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA1) and PNA in 130 µL. (A) Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA1), PNAs (P1, P2, P3 ... Toh, D. F., Patil, K. M., Chen, G. Sequence-specific and Selective Recognition of Double-stranded RNAs over Single-stranded ...
  • In order to characterize mutagenic translesion DNA synthesis in UVM-induced Escherichia coli, we have developed a high-resolution DNA replication system based on E. coli cell extracts and M13 genomic DNA templates bearing mutagenic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Our data indicate that DNA replication is most strongly inhibited by an abasic site, a classic SOS-dependent noninstructive lesion. (nih.gov)
  • The organisation of DNA into chromatin is inhibitory to most biological processes that utilise DNA as a template, such as transcription, replication, recombination and repair. (biologists.org)
  • Antiretroviral therapy is a treatment regimen for HIV infection, using a combination of three or more drugs that prevent viral replication at different stages in its replication cycle. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using various replication mutants of E. coli , the host genes that participate in the replication of some K12-specific single-stranded DNA phages have been determined. (springer.com)
  • Functional products of dnaE,-F,-G and -Z genes are required for the multiplication of ϕK, whereas dnaA,-B,-C(D), H,-I and -P are dispensable for viral replication. (springer.com)
  • Bowes, J.M.: Replication of bacteriophage St-1 in Escherichia coli strains temperature sensitive in DNA synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Taketo, A.: Replication of ϕA and ϕX174 in Escherichia coli mutants thermosensitive in DNA synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Taketo, A.: Inducibility of lambda phage development in Escherichia coli mutants thermosensitive for DNA replication. (springer.com)
  • Wickner, S., Hurwitz, J.: Association of ϕX174 DNA-dependent ATPase activity wth an Escherichia coli protein, replication factor Y, required for in vitro synthesis of ϕX174 DNA. (springer.com)
  • Once inside the host bacterium, replication of the [+] ssDNA genome proceeds via negative sense DNA]] intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mini-review summarizes the process of reverse-transcription, an obligatory step in retrovirus replication during which the retroviral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) copies the single-stranded genomic RNA to generate the double-stranded viral DNA while degrading the genomic RNA via its associated RNase H activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral replication is cytoplasmic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intermediate phase: Intermediate genes are expressed, triggering genomic DNA replication at approximately 100 minutes post-infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zta is a multifunctional DNA binding protein that stimulates viral gene transcription, nucleates a replication complex at the viral origin of lytic replication, and inhibits cell cycle proliferation. (drcalapai.net)
  • The nuclear replication protein A subunits (RPA70 and RPA32) and the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) were confirmed by Western blotting to be specifically enriched in the FLAG-Zta immunopurified complex. (drcalapai.net)
  • A point mutation in the Zta DNA binding domain (C189S), which is known to reduce lytic cycle replication, eliminated mtSSB association with Zta. (drcalapai.net)
  • Mitochondrial DNA synthesis and genome copy number were reduced by Zta-induced EBV lytic replication. (drcalapai.net)
  • We conclude that Zta interaction with mtSSB serves the dual function of facilitating viral and blocking mitochondrial DNA replication. (drcalapai.net)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BALF2 gene product is one of the essential components in the lytic phase of the EBV DNA replication. (neb.com)
  • Replication of singly primed M13 single-stranded DNA by the EBV DNA polymerase complex in the absence of the BALF2 protein exhibited a highly processive mode of replication and generated full length products in addition to some bands of pausing sites. (neb.com)
  • 64, 5976-5987), stimulated DNA synthesis and yielded a distribution of replication products with long lengths in addition to full length products. (neb.com)
  • These properties indicate that the EBV BALF2 protein acts as a single-stranded DNA-binding protein during lytic phase of EBV DNA replication. (neb.com)
  • They also use a typical protein primed DNA polymerase for replication, a property shared with the family Tectiviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report here the crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution of the single-stranded-DNA-binding domain of human replication protein A (RPA) bound to DNA. (rcsb.org)
  • Geider K., Meyer T.F., Bäumel I., Reimann A. (1984) Proteins and Nucleotide Sequences Involved in DNA Replication of Filamentous Bacteriophage. (springer.com)
  • Further viral replication results in viremia, with subsequent infection of the lymphoreticular system, including the liver, spleen, and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood. (medscape.com)
  • In DNA replication , the two strands are unwound from one another. (jrank.org)
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral RNA genome using antigenomic RNA as an intermediate. (uniprot.org)
  • This is largely because RNA virus replication machinery generally does not have an error correction ability, as all other cells and most DNA viruses do. (allafrica.com)
  • On a single strand of genomic DNA the number of As is usually about equal to the number of Ts (and similarly for Gs and Cs), but deviations have been noted for transcribed regions and origins of replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The direct cause of the strand bias structure may be DNA replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 19 ] which also finds that the number of genes and their expression is more abundant near origins of replication (identified by strand bias markers), with transcription and replication usually being in the same direction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They use data on replication timing to support the interpretation of DNA replication: this paper uses an H-rule analysis to support the interpretation of chromatin organisation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA replication appears to be processive because it resists competition with an excess of (dT) 150 /(dA) 20 . (pnas.org)
  • The circular template supports a rolling circle mode of DNA replication generating DNA concatemers late in the infectious cycle. (pnas.org)
  • HSV-1 encodes seven proteins that are essential for DNA replication in vivo ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The origin binding protein, encoded by the UL9 gene, is required for initiation of DNA synthesis at the viral origins of replication oriS and oriL. (pnas.org)
  • The mechanism for initiating lytic DNA replication may differ between the members of the herpesvirus family, but all herpesviruses use the same enzymatic machinery for propagation of replication forks ( 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • To understand the mechanism of rolling circle replication, we have explored the optimal conditions for leading strand synthesis by the HSV-1 DNA polymerase-UL42 complex coupled to the unwinding of duplex DNA by the HSV-1 helicase-primase ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Experiments that use a synthetic minicircle template with a replication fork to study coordinated synthesis of leading and lagging strands by a T7 replication complex have recently been described ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have used a similar strategy to examine HSV-1 DNA replication with purified proteins in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • Transcription of the viral genes, together with extensive replication of long concatameric DNA, takes place once a lytic infection is triggered. (nature.com)
  • Relevant kinetic information about this DNA replication system has been obtained from the competition between the input full-length φ29 DNA and its derived truncated versions. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, we have reported a new self-sustained, strand-displacement DNA amplification system based on terminal protein (TP)-primed DNA replication ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • This DNA replication strategy has been found in several prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses and has been proposed for a variety of linear plasmids isolated from bacteria, fungi, and higher plants (reviewed in ref. 14 ) and more recently for the replication of the DNA ends of Streptomyces ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The reported TP-primed DNA amplification system ( 13 ) was based on the use of four highly purified proteins involved in Bacillus subtilis phage φ29 DNA replication (reviewed in ref. 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Initiation of DNA replication takes place by covalently linking dAMP to TP, in a reaction catalyzed by φ29 DNA polymerase. (pnas.org)
  • DNA synthesis is continuous from both DNA origins, without the need of lagging strand replication. (pnas.org)
  • Complete replication of both strands originates two dsDNA molecules with TP attached to their 5′ ends. (pnas.org)
  • As reported in the original characterization of the φ29 DNA amplification system ( 13 ), four DNA replication proteins (DNA polymerase, TP, DBP, and SSB) are required for efficient DNA amplification. (pnas.org)
  • Rapid DNA replication origin licensing protects stem cell pluripotency. (nih.gov)
  • W e investigate model virus systems that provide insights for understanding viral assembly, maturation, entry, localization, and replication. (scripps.edu)
  • Tyzeka is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adult patients with evidence of viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease. (rxlist.com)
  • Helitrons are a relatively new lineage of DNA-based (class II) transposable elements (TEs) that propagate by rolling-circle replication, and are capable of acquiring host DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This class of drugs inhibit the catalytic activity of HIV-1 integrase, an HIV-1-encoded enzyme required for viral replication [1]. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some viruses convert their genomes from RNA to DNA (or vice versa ) for replication and transcription purposes. (news-medical.net)
  • An infectious cycle includes attachment and entry, production of viral mRNA and proteins, genome replication and finally, assembly and release of new particles. (news-medical.net)
  • Those that are present in virions (mature viral particles) are also known as structural proteins, whereas those involved in the assembly, replication and modification of the host innate response to infection are referred to as non-structural proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Viral gene delivery systems consist of viruses that are modified to be replication-deficient and that can deliver the genes to the cells to provide expression. (news-medical.net)
  • Cellular DNA replication in all domains of life employs a common set of proteins including RNA primase, DNA polymerases, a replicative helicase, a DNA sliding clamp and a clamp loader. (elifesciences.org)
  • Taken together, our data reveal a previously unsuspected role of LSH ATPase in the maintenance of genome stability in mammalian somatic cells, which is independent of its function in de novo DNA methylation during development. (biologists.org)
  • The phi X 174 (or ΦX174 ) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA ( ssDNA ) virus that infects Escherichia coli , and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacteriophage has a [+] circular single-stranded DNA genome of 5386 nucleotides encoding 11 proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the mechanism by which the double stranded supercoiled genome is nicked on the positive strand by a virus-encoded A protein, also attracting a bacterial DNA polymerase (DNAP) to the site of cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • As it translocates around the genome it displaces the outer strand of already-synthesised DNA, which is immediately coated by SSBP proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The order Mononegavirales comprises highly diversified eukaryotic viruses with a monopartite negative strand RNA genome (rarely bipartite genomes), which includes important human pathogens [e.g., rabies virus (RABV), measles virus (MeV), Nipah virus (NiV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), Ebola virus (EBOV)] ( Lamb, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, viral genome is now free in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • This core of nucleic acid is known as the viral genome and is covered by a protein coat called a capsid . (angelfire.com)
  • During the penetration process their single-stranded genome is converted into double-stranded DNA which is the main viral component in the first minutes after infection. (springer.com)
  • 2. The genome is either DNA or RNA (single or double stranded). (issuu.com)
  • The viral genome then enters the cell and hijacks it to make multiple copies of itself, and then spreads. (allafrica.com)
  • The mouse genome is shown to have a segmented structure defined by strand bias. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These peculiarities have led to the hypothesis that the genome is composed of strand bias segments and this paper demonstrates this. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a seventh class was added to accommodate the gapped DNA genome of Hepadnaviridae (hepatitis B virus). (news-medical.net)
  • Class V viruses have a negative-sense RNA genome, meaning they must be transcribed by a viral polymerase to produce a readable strand of mRNA. (news-medical.net)
  • Group VI viruses have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome, but replicate through a DNA intermediate. (news-medical.net)
  • The RNA is converted to DNA by reverse transcriptase and then the DNA is spliced into the host genome for subsequent transcription and translation using the enzyme integrase. (news-medical.net)
  • Class VII viruses have a double-stranded DNA genome, but unlike Class I viruses, they replicate via a ssRNA intermediate. (news-medical.net)
  • The dsDNA genome is gapped, and subsequently filled in to form a closed circle serving as a template for production of viral mRNA. (news-medical.net)
  • To reproduce the genome, RNA is reverse transcribed back to DNA. (news-medical.net)
  • All herpesviruses contain a linear double-stranded DNA genome, enclosed within an icosahedral capsid. (nature.com)
  • The portal is the entrance and exit pore for the viral genome, making it an attractive pharmacological target for the development of new antivirals. (nature.com)
  • In early stages of infection, portal proteins are involved in the release of the viral genome from the capsid to the cell. (nature.com)
  • A new self-sustained terminal protein-primed DNA amplification system has been used to describe in vitro evolutionary changes affecting maintenance of the genome size of bacteriophage φ29. (pnas.org)
  • In all these cases, the genome is a linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule with a TP covalently linked to both 5′ ends and an inverted terminal repeat of different length, having a minimum of 6 bp in the case of φ29, an average of 1 kb in the case of linear plasmids, and a maximum of 24 kb for the chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces griseus ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • The HBV virion consists of a DNA genome enclosed within an icosahedral capsid, in turn enclosed within a lipoprotein envelope. (nih.gov)
  • In the target cells that these virions infect, encapsidated A3G can deaminate cytosines to uracils in (−)DNA reverse transcribed from the RNA genome, after the reverse transcriptase associated RNaseH activity enables ssDNA regions on the (−)DNA to be accessed by the enzyme [18] , [19] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Inhibition of integrase prevents covalent insertion of unintegrated, linear HIV-1 DNA into the host cell genome, therefore preventing the formation of HIV-1 provirus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The viral genome contains all the information needed to initiate and complete an infectious cycle within a susceptible, permissive host cell. (news-medical.net)
  • Rhinovirus'' ===Genera=== ''Human rhinovirus A'', ''Human rhinovirus B'', [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Tree&id=348531&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock unclassified Rhinoviruses] ==Description and Significance== Rhinoviruses (RVs) are small (30 nm), nonenveloped viruses that contain a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome within an icosahedral (20-sided) capsid. (kenyon.edu)
  • This results in impaired recruitment of MDC1 and 53BP1 proteins to DNA double-strand breaks and compromises phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase CHK2. (biologists.org)
  • 2009) that de novo H protein was required for optimal synthesis of other viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Zta-associated proteins included members of the HSP70 family and various single-stranded DNA and RNA binding proteins. (drcalapai.net)
  • The single-stranded-DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are essential for DNA function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, mitochondria, phages and viruses. (rcsb.org)
  • The largest subunit, RPA70, binds to single-stranded (ss)DNA and mediates interactions with many cellular and viral proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • 5. The envelope is the outer coating composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which is composed of viral-encoded glycoproteins and sometimes viralencoded matrix proteins. (issuu.com)
  • Genes  Are carried on a chromosome  The basic unit of heredity  Encode how to make a protein  DNARNA proteins  Proteins carry out most of life's function. (issuu.com)
  • The virus consists of genetic material (DNA) inside an icosahedral protein coat (nucleocapsid), enveloped by other proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) play vital roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism in all three domains of life and are characterized by the presence of one or more OB fold ssDNA-binding domains. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Vitravene targets two different viral proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Between the capsid and the envelope is a compartment called the tegument that accommodates viral proteins destined for delivery into a host cell. (nih.gov)
  • On the surface of the viral envelope, two sets of proteins (also known as antireceptors) called gp120 and gp41 attach to CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. (thebody.com)
  • Transcription initiation regulation is mediated by sequence-specific interactions between DNA-binding proteins (transcription factors) and cis-elements, where BRE, TATA, INR, DPE and MTE motifs constitute canonical core motifs for basal transcription initiation of genes. (sanbi.ac.za)
  • 4 It consists of five proteins in a ring that wraps around the DNA strand. (icr.org)
  • Each of the five proteins goes through a sequence of events: binding ATP (enabled by the exact placement of a specific amino acid, arginine), binding the DNA, cranking the DNA upward, then releasing and resetting. (icr.org)
  • When all of the structural proteins have been produced, viral assembly takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither DNA polymerase I nor polymerase II appears to be required for the observed translesion DNA synthesis because essentially similar results are obtained with extracts from polA- or polB-defective cells. (nih.gov)
  • dnaG gene product, a rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerase, initiates the conversion of a single-stranded coli phage DNA to its duplex replicative form. (springer.com)
  • Capacity of dna mutants and DNA polymerase-less mutants for multiplication of ϕX174. (springer.com)
  • Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reference: Epstein-Barr virus single-stranded DNA-binding protein: purification, characterization, and action on DNA synthesis by the viral DNA polymerase. (neb.com)
  • It is therefore likely that the EBV BALF2 protein functions to melt out the regions of secondary structure on the single-stranded DNA template, thereby reducing and eliminating pausing of the EBV DNA polymerase at specific sites. (neb.com)
  • Conformational transitions in mammalian DNA ligases III (LigIII) and IV (LigIV), as well as in PARP-1 [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1], were analysed upon binding to double-stranded DNA by changes in tryptophan emission and FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) from tryptophan to DNA-conjugated Alexa Fluor® 532. (portlandpress.com)
  • A molecule called DNA polymerase runs the length of each strand, making a complementary copy of each strand. (jrank.org)
  • The synthesis of double-stranded DNA by a rolling circle mechanism was reconstituted in vitro with a replisome consisting of the DNA polymerase-UL42 complex and the heterotrimeric helicase-primase encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1. (pnas.org)
  • It consists of a DNA polymerase with a processivity factor (the product of the UL30 and UL42 genes), a heterotrimeric helicase-primase complex (the product of the UL5, UL8, and UL52 genes), and the single-strand DNA binding protein ICP8 (the product of the UL29 gene). (pnas.org)
  • We also noted that the rate of unwinding was not stimulated further by the HSV-1 DNA polymerase ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The viral protein p6 dsDNA-binding protein (DBP) forms a nucleoprotein complex with both φ29 DNA ends, which is further recognized by a heterodimer formed between φ29 DNA polymerase and a free molecule of TP. (pnas.org)
  • It has an outer envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid, which contains viral DNA polymerase and has a diameter of 27nm. (bartleby.com)
  • Samples from the patients and environments were collected and tested by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), viral culture, and haemagglutination inhibition assay. (bmj.com)
  • The virus carries DNA polymerase which is used to transcribe its genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • LSH, a protein related to the SNF2 family of chromatin-remodelling ATPases, is essential for the correct establishment of DNA methylation levels and patterns in plants and mammalian cells. (biologists.org)
  • HIV is a microscopic scrap of genetic matter that consists of a single strand of RNA encased in a protein capsule. (medicinenet.com)
  • Once integrated with the host DNA, the virus can build the necessary protein chain to create more viral particles. (medicinenet.com)
  • This is the only viral capsid protein of ΦX174 to lack a crystal structure for a couple of reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in H protein that prevent viral incorporation, can be overcome when excess amounts of protein B, the internal scaffolding protein, are supplied. (wikipedia.org)
  • As D protein is the most abundant gene transcript, it is the most protein in the viral procapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybridization of complementary viral sequences by the nucleocapsid protein (NC) receives a special focus, since it acts to chaperone the strand transfers obligatory for synthesis of the complete viral DNA and flanking long terminal repeats (LTR). (mdpi.com)
  • The purified BALF2 protein bound to single-stranded DNA preferentially over double-stranded DNA or single-stranded RNA. (neb.com)
  • Although the BALF2 protein behaved as if it converts a low processive enzyme of the EBV Pol catalytic subunit to a highly processive form like the BMRF1 Pol accessory subunit, challenger DNA experiments revealed that the EBV Pol catalytic subunit is transferred to challenger DNA even in the presence of the BALF2 protein. (neb.com)
  • We analysed protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions relevant to the repair of DNA DSBs (double-strand breaks) by NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). (portlandpress.com)
  • Binding of Ku to DNA was accompanied by conformational changes in the protein and intermolecular FRET from dansyl chromophores of the labelled Ku to the Alexa Fluor® chromophores of Alexa Fluor® 532-conjugated DNA. (portlandpress.com)
  • Binding of LX to Ku-DNA complexes is associated with conformational changes in Ku, translocating the protein further towards the DNA ends. (portlandpress.com)
  • The protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions detected and analysed generate a framework for the characterization of molecular interactions fundamental to the function of NHEJ pathways in higher eukaryotes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Our laboratory previously demonstrated that the dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 can potently inhibit the two central DDR kinases, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Later in the life cycle, viral single strands are formed and complexed with gene 5 protein. (springer.com)
  • b. mRNA codes for viral protein and enzymes necessary for nucleic acid synthesis. (issuu.com)
  • In case of infection by influenza A strain H3N2, PAF1C associates with viral NS1 protein, thereby regulating gene transcription. (uniprot.org)
  • Consistent with a role for RpaC in DNA repair, elevated expression of this protein leads to enhanced resistance to DNA damage. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The single-strand DNA binding protein ICP8 is not required, and high concentrations of ICP8 can, in fact, inhibit lagging strand synthesis. (pnas.org)
  • DNA synthesis was independent of the origin and the origin binding protein and proceeded by a rolling circle mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • The single-strand DNA binding protein ICP8 promoted the unwinding of duplex DNA by preventing the reannealing of the complementary strands generated as a consequence of helicase action ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • 7. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 6 , wherein the said crystalline protein is encoded by a synthetic B.t. gene. (google.com)
  • Here, we found that Mn2+ was required for the host defense against DNA viruses by increasing the sensitivity of the DNA sensor cGAS and its downstream adaptor protein STING. (ovid.com)
  • Viral portal protein plays a key role in the procapsid assembly and DNA packaging. (nature.com)
  • The detailed architecture of this protein suggests that it plays a functional role in DNA retention during packaging. (nature.com)
  • These vaccines include DNA-based, viral vector-based, and recombinant protein-based vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • We are studying viral entry and early expression and assembly of the capsid protein. (scripps.edu)
  • and packaging of DNA to high density by a viral motor protein, the terminase. (nih.gov)
  • The polerovirus F-box P0 protein triggers AGO1 degradation as a viral counterdefense. (plantcell.org)
  • 2. A DNA molecule encoding a human Tumor Necrosis Factor Stimulated Gene 6 (TSG-6), protein having the amino acid sequence SEO ID NO:2, substantially free of other human nucleotide sequences. (google.com)
  • An icosahedral capsid (the protein shell surrounding the viral nucleic acids) contains linear double-stranded DNA. (britannica.com)
  • Sequence Searcher is a Java program that allows users to search for specific sequence motifs in protein or DNA sequences. (virology.ws)
  • The input tab is where you can import DNA or protein sequences (must be in FASTA format) and type in the specific pattern to search within in the sequence(s). (virology.ws)
  • Each protein takes its turn, running counterclockwise, to shove two DNA bases at a time into its capsid. (icr.org)
  • SUMO1 is a small protein that interacts with several partners and hence is related to many processes, including DNA repair and signal transduction. (senescence.info)
  • Our technologies can be used in different combinations to purify large macromolecular complexes such as viruses, virus-like particles, viral subassemblies, exosomes, membrane vesicles, large protein complexes, ribonucleoprotein complexes etc. (helsinki.fi)
  • Extrachromosomal histone H2B was biologically crucial for cell-autonomous responses to protect against multiplication of DNA viruses but not an RNA virus. (asm.org)
  • This gene promoter can be combined with self-complementary adeno-associated viruses (scAAVs) to transmit double-stranded DNA to target cells. (ufl.edu)
  • Researchers at the University of Florida have solved this problem by creating a long acting, small, ubiquitous promoter that has the ability to be packaged into adeno-associated viruses in double stranded form. (ufl.edu)
  • Non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses belonging to the order Mononegavirales are highly diversified eukaryotic viruses including significant human pathogens, such as rabies, measles, Nipah, and Ebola. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since gene products as well as RNA genomes of these non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses share structural and functional similarities, they are believed to have evolved from a common ancestor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "DNA viruses" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Two classes of nucleic acids, bacterial DNA containing unmethylated CpG motifs and dsRNA in viruses, induce the production of type I IFN that contributes to the immunostimulatory effects of these microbial molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • Two classes of nucleic acids, namely 1) bacterial CpG DNA that contains immunostimulatory unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific flanking bases (referred to as CpG motifs) ( 4 ) and 2) dsRNA synthesized by various types of viruses ( 5 ), represent important members of the microbial components that enhance immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The genetic information in the DNA or RNA has the codes for producing and assembling more viruses. (angelfire.com)
  • Viruses contain DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid), never both. (sciencephoto.com)
  • For example, positive strand RNA viruses and certain double strand DNA viruses that utilize host polymerases contain nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of the viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses, on the other hand, may have genomes made of strings of DNA or ribonucleic acid (RNA) nucleotides. (allafrica.com)
  • Viruses in general mutate faster than host genomes, and RNA viruses generally mutate faster than DNA viruses. (allafrica.com)
  • Double stranded RNA viruses replicate in the core capsid in the host cell cytoplasm and do depend as heavily on host polymerases as DNA viruses. (news-medical.net)
  • 4. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene upon expression leads to resistance against plant pathogens selected from the group consisting of insects, fungi, bacteria and viruses. (google.com)
  • Mn-deficient mice showed diminished cytokine production and were more vulnerable to DNA viruses, and Mn-deficient STING-deficient mice showed no increased susceptibility. (ovid.com)
  • These findings indicate that Mn is critically involved and required for the host defense against DNA viruses. (ovid.com)
  • The cGAS-STING pathway is required for host defense against DNA viruses. (ovid.com)
  • Herpesviridae is a vast family of enveloped DNA viruses that includes eight distinct human pathogens, responsible for diseases that range from almost asymptomatic to severe and life-threatening. (nature.com)
  • RNA interference is believed to be an ancient means of protecting against double-stranded RNA viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These viruses have genomes of single-stranded RNA, and double-stranded DNA. (scripps.edu)
  • Rivailler P, Abernathy E, Icenogle J. Genetic diversity of currently epidemic can occur when rubella virus is transported from circulating rubella viruses: a need to define more precise viral rubella-endemic countries and the infection occurs in suscep- groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Practically all DNA viruses which infect humans and animals contain double-stranded DNA. (news-medical.net)
  • Almost all RNA viruses contain single-stranded RNA. (news-medical.net)
  • Other RNA viruses can be broadly subdivided to two groups: viruses with positive strand RNA genomes ( i.e. genomes of the same polarity as mRNA) and viruses with negative strand RNA genomes ( i.e. genomes of the opposite polarity to mRNA). (news-medical.net)
  • VI Negative-Sense Single- Stranded RNA Viruses (reviewed by Kormelink et al. (scribd.com)
  • Hepadnaviruses replicate their circular DNA genomes via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. (asm.org)
  • Genomes are linear, double stranded DNA, and are relatively small (between 16-20 kbp)-hence the term pico-virinae. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cells have genomes made of strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (allafrica.com)
  • Mutations in virus and cell genomes (substitutions, additions or deletions in the cellular DNA and viral DNA or RNA sequences) occur continually. (allafrica.com)
  • Many mutations in viral genomes are silent: they do not alter the function of the virus in any way, and they don't result in changes in disease severity or immune responses. (allafrica.com)
  • Herpesviruses consists of large double-stranded DNA genomes that become circular at a very early stage of the infectious cycle ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Using this classification system, messenger RNA (mRNA) is at the center, and different pathways to mRNA from DNA or RNA genomes denote the different classes. (news-medical.net)
  • This movement may facilitate the shuttling of DNA elements among insect genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus genomes consist of either DNA or RNA and may be single stranded or double stranded. (news-medical.net)
  • [1] Of these 11 genes, only 8 are essential to viral morphogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate limiting step for delivery of genes from a viral vector to the creation of a gene product is conversion by the host cell of virally transmitted single stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA which is usable by the host. (ufl.edu)
  • DNA contains sections called genes, which encode an organism's genetic information. (sciencephoto.com)
  • However, these strand bias segments influence the position of genes and their unspliced length. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The position of genes within the strand bias structure affects the probability that a gene is switched on and its expression level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biological methods we use include the genetic engineering of viral genes and their expression in Escherichia coli , mammalian cells, insect cells, and yeast and the characterization of these gene products by physical methods. (scripps.edu)
  • The assay is based on the conversion of M13 viral single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bearing a single site-specific DNA lesion to the double-stranded replicative form (RF) DNA, and permits one to quantitatively measure the efficiency of translesion synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the efficiency of translesion synthesis across SOS-independent lesions such as O6-methylguanine and DNA uracil is around 90%, very close to the values obtained for control DNA templates. (nih.gov)
  • The close parallels in the efficiency of translesion DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo for the five site-specific lesions included in this study suggest that the assay may be suitable for modeling mutagenesis in an accessible in vitro environment. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations affecting hepadnavirus plus-strand DNA synthesis dissociate primer cleavage from translocation and reveal the origin of linear viral DNA. (asm.org)
  • Plus-strand DNA synthesis initiates at DR2 on minus-strand DNA, using as a primer a short, DR1-containing oligoribonucleotide derived by cleavage and translocation from the 5' end of pregenomic RNA. (asm.org)
  • This permits the "real time" examination of DNA synthesis . (jrank.org)
  • Lagging strand synthesis is stimulated by ribonucleoside triphosphates. (pnas.org)
  • Our results demonstrate efficient coordinated synthesis of leading and lagging strands by a HSV-1 replisome that gives rise to double-stranded DNA concatemers. (pnas.org)
  • The uracils in the (−)DNA are used as a template by reverse transcriptase during (+)DNA synthesis and result in guanine to adenine mutations. (prolekare.cz)
  • The RNA's untranslated region at the 5' end is 600-1200 bases long and is important in translation, virulence and possibly encapsidation while its' untranslated region at the 3' end is shorter, 50-100 bases, and is instrumental in (-) strand synthesis. (kenyon.edu)
  • M13mp18 is a M13 lac phage vector which contains single HindIII, SphI, SbfI, PstI, SalI (AccI/ HincII), XbaI, BamHI, SmaI (XmaI), KpnI (Acc65I), SacI and EcoRI sites within the gene encoding β-Galactosidase.This DNA preparation is useful as a standard and has been tested as a template in the dideoxy-nucleotide termination method of sequencing DNA. (neb.com)
  • The loss-of-function mutation of the DNase I gene has been found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and, in fact, DNase I − / − mice manifest SLE-like symptoms with anti-DNA antibody (Ab) production ( 18 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Because the viral vector transmits double-stranded DNA, there is a great reduction in the time it takes the cell to express the gene product. (ufl.edu)
  • Virus is pre-packaged with double stranded DNA, thus greatly reducing the time necessary to express the gene product. (ufl.edu)
  • The rate limiting step for introduction of a gene into cells is the conversion from single stranded DNA to double stranded DNA. (ufl.edu)
  • Disclosed are compositions, methods, and kits for modifying DNA within cells as well as compositions and methods for modifying gene expression in a cell. (patents.com)
  • Complementary DNA Cloning and Analysis of Gene Structure of Pyruvate Kinase From Drosophila melanogaster . (jrank.org)
  • Recovery of Infectious Ebola Virus From Complementary DNA: RNA Editing of the GP Gene and Viral Cytotoxicity. (jrank.org)
  • 3. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein the said expressible DNA comprises a structural gene. (google.com)
  • 5. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 4 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a polypeptide that is toxic to insects and/or their larvae. (google.com)
  • 8. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a lytic peptide. (google.com)
  • DNA microarrays, when bearing multiple rRNA (or other phylogenetic marker) gene sequences as probes, can be used to track variations in population structure and thus (indirectly) in community function over time and space. (nap.edu)
  • Transformation by the uptake of DNA is recognized to be a significant route of horizontal gene transfer among bacteria, and there is overwhelming evidence that horizontal gene transfer and recombination have been responsible for the recent resurgence of drug and antibiotic resistant infectious diseases. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Investigation of the mechanism of action of antisense RNA led to the surprising discovery that naturally occurring double-stranded RNA molecules (dsRNA) suppress gene expression as well as or better than antisense sequences. (encyclopedia.com)
  • DNA-based vaccines include plasmids or viral vectors containing the gene encoding one of the BoNT heavy chain receptor binding domains (HC). (mdpi.com)
  • Double-stranded DNA has historically been the template of choice for gene insertions, but recent research has shown the superiority of ssODNs as a donor template for HDR. (genewiz.com)
  • We determined an asymmetric reconstruction of this particle that revealed spooled DNA, the dodecameric portal, and the location of the 9 gene products known to be in the particle. (scripps.edu)
  • All together the data support a model in which the way these enzymes scan DNA can predict the magnitude of mutagenesis induced and the target motif can predict ability to cause gene inactivation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Efficient gene targeting mediated by adeno-associated virus and DNA double-strand breaks. (stanford.edu)
  • 1. A DNA molecule encoding Tumor Necrosis Factor Stimulated Gene 6 (TSG-6), wherein said DNA molecule comprises base pairs 69 to 899 of SEQ ID NO:1. (google.com)
  • Adenoviruses, retroviruses, lentiviruses, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus are most often used for viral gene delivery. (news-medical.net)
  • Although non-viral vector systems such as hydrodynamic delivery, lipid-mediated vectors and the gene gun have been tried, to date none have approached the efficacy of the viral delivery systems. (news-medical.net)
  • As the hybrid molecule passed through the nanopore, the researchers observed different levels of current spikes, which corresponded to the double-stranded and single-stranded portions of the molecule. (genomeweb.com)
  • The structural data along with complementary single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements reveal twisting and sliding of the nucleosomal DNA arm proximal to the integration site. (rcsb.org)
  • The average distance of 5.7 nm calculated from FRET data is consistent with a location of Ku at the very end of the DNA molecule. (portlandpress.com)
  • Artwork of an enveloped virus behind a test tube containing a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (sciencephoto.com)
  • In the lock in key scenario, an A pairs with the U) on the other strand, and a C always pairs with a G. Complementary RNA (cRNA) is a copy of a strand of RNA that will bind to the appropriate region of the original molecule. (jrank.org)
  • 2. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 1 , wherein the said DNA comprises a chimaeric DNA construct comprising an expressible DNA in operable linkage with expression signals active in plant cells, wherein said expression signals are selected from the group consisting of promoter and termination sequences. (google.com)
  • 10. The recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein said DNA further comprises coding sequences of the 5′ region, 3′ region, or 5′ and 3′ region. (google.com)
  • 3. A DNA molecule according to claim 2 which is cDNA. (google.com)
  • 5. A DNA molecule according to claim 2 having the nucleotide sequence SEQ ID NO:1. (google.com)
  • 6. A DNA molecule according to claim 2 which is comprised in an expression vector. (google.com)
  • 7. A DNA molecule according to claim 6, wherein said vehicle is a plasmid. (google.com)
  • For cytologic studies of viral entry and infection, we use fluorescence and electron microscopy and particles assembled in heterologous expression systems. (scripps.edu)
  • The rapid spread of Helitrons among animal lineages by HTT is facilitated by shuttling in viral particles or by unknown mechanisms mediated by close organism associations (e.g. between hosts and parasites). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fragments of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) forming a right-handed helical structure (B-DNA) stimulate cells to produce type I interferons (IFNs). (asm.org)
  • Such effects are more evident when double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is transduced into the intracellular compartment by use of a transfection agent or electroporation method, suggesting that the DNA sensing system recognizes aberrant DNA fragments inside the cell ( 6 , 21 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Such effects of dsDNA were corroborated by the observation in mice deficient for DNase II, in which intracellular accumulation of undegraded DNA fragments resulted in hyperproduction of IFN-β, dysregulation of erythropoiesis, and symptoms resembling rheumatoid arthritis ( 12 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Mn2+ enhanced the sensitivity of cGAS to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and its enzymatic activity, enabling cGAS to produce secondary messenger cGAMP in the presence of low concentrations of dsDNA that would otherwise be non-stimulatory. (ovid.com)
  • Our fragments are derived from clonally purified double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), producing the highest quality results possible. (genewiz.com)
  • They translocated the DNA through a 7-nanometer pore and observed peaks that were around 10-fold larger than expected based on the volume of DNA, again due to the fact that the ssDNA hybridizes with itself. (genomeweb.com)
  • Recent research in CRISPR/Cas9 technology has shown that the use of long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) donor templates greatly enhances the efficiency of homology directed repair (HDR) enabling researchers to optimize the process of efficiently generating transgenic animal models and cell lines. (genewiz.com)
  • Viral DNA or RNA serves as the template for mRNA production. (issuu.com)
  • Because its sequence is used for translation , mRNA is called a "sense" strand or sense sequence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For instance, if the mRNA sequence was AUGAAACCCGUG, the antisense strand would be UACUUUGGGCAC. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Short antisense strands of DNA can be introduced into cells, which then bind with target mRNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • the antisense strand of such a segment then peels off and binds with its complementary mRNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection? (medicinenet.com)
  • Integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are one of the latest additions to the classes of drugs used in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency ( HIV ) infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • HIV infection has no cure, but ART can effectively control viral growth and keep an HIV infected person healthy and active for many years. (medicinenet.com)
  • Host immune response to the viral infection includes CD8+ T lymphocytes with suppressor and cytotoxic functions, the characteristic atypical lymphocytes found in the peripheral blood. (medscape.com)
  • Mn2+ was released from membrane-enclosed organelles upon viral infection and accumulated in the cytosol where it bound directly to cGAS. (ovid.com)
  • Recently, studies on viral entry indicated the presence of an "eluted" particle early in infection that has initiated its disassembly program but is then eluted back into the medium. (scripps.edu)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to fight against viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • They are found in bacteria and archaea and are though to have evolved as a defence against viral infection. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Taketo, A.: Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to viral nucleic acid. (springer.com)
  • A virus contains a single type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, never both. (angelfire.com)
  • They spontaneously generate miniphages of about 1 kb (2, 3), but they can also comprise artificial DNA sequences up to a length of 15 kb, if the phage packaging signal is provided (4). (springer.com)
  • When a new "phage" is assembled within a host cell, it is faced with a difficulty-how to package its DNA, which is 1,000 times longer than the diameter of its capsid, the tiny vessel that holds it. (icr.org)
  • 2007. Single phage T4 DNA packaging motors exhibit large force generation, high velocity, and dynamic variability. (icr.org)
  • 2008. The Structure of the Phage T4 DNA Packaging Motor Suggests a Mechanism Dependent on Electrostatic Forces. (icr.org)
  • To clarify the mechanism of DNA looping by integrase, we determined a 3.9 Å resolution structure of the prototype foamy virus intasome engaged with a nucleosome core particle. (rcsb.org)
  • Assembly of progeny virions starts in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing an spherical immature particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virion is the entire viral particle. (issuu.com)
  • and the structure of the Primary Enveloped Virion - the particle produced when the mature, DNA-filled capsid buds out of the nucleus where it assembles into the perinuclear space. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant AAV (rAAV) is used as the vehicle for delivery of genetic materials, therefore it has no associated pathological human condition and does not contain native viral coding sequences resulting in persistent expression of delivered transgenes. (ufl.edu)
  • And third, there must be genetic information in the form of DNA. (angelfire.com)
  • Adeno-associated Virus- small, single stranded DNA that insert genetic material at a specific point on chromosome 19 From parvovirus family- causes no known disease and doesn't trigger patient immune response. (issuu.com)
  • Naked nucleic acids are DNA/RNA produced in the laboratory and intended for use in, or as the result of genetic engineering (1). (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The nucleocapsid needs to be partially dissolved so that the virus's RNA can be converted into DNA, a necessary step if HIV's genetic material is to be incorporated into the T-cell's genetic core. (thebody.com)
  • The HIV viral levels reached a peak six to eight weeks after the treatment was stopped, and then only gradually declined in the three participants who did not immediately restart medication, or already have one strand of their own DNA with the genetic mutation. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The genetic modification was performed to mimic a naturally occurring DNA mutation that some people have and is thought of affect around 1% of the population. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In several studies it was possible to discover that the nucleolus contains most of the cell's genetic material, structured as multiple long linear DNA molecules. (ipl.org)
  • This can be used in genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases and viral infections. (news-medical.net)
  • The viral genetic material is contained in double stranded linear DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, the viral core dissolves, and the genetic material is bare within the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the virus enters through the cell membrane into the T-cell's cytoplasm (fluid inside the cell), it converts its RNA strand into a double-strand DNA using an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase. (medicinenet.com)
  • The viral DNA then releases another enzyme known as integrase, which transports the viral DNA strand into the T-cell's nucleus and inserts it into the T-cell's DNA. (medicinenet.com)
  • The integrase strand-transfer inhibitors bind metallic ions at the insertion site in the T-cell DNA, preventing the viral DNA strand transfer by the integrase enzyme. (medicinenet.com)
  • Guide RNA forms a complex with Cas9 directing enzyme to cleave target DNA resulting in a double-stranded break (DSB). (genewiz.com)
  • Molecular model of the type II restriction enzyme EcoRV (pink and blue) bound to a cleaved section of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, white). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The enzymes modify cytosine in DNA which induces mutations. (prolekare.cz)
  • If A3G can induce sufficient numbers of these mutations, the resulting proviral DNA will be functionally inactivated. (prolekare.cz)
  • Filamentous phages are quite flexible on the size of the DNA to be packaged. (springer.com)
  • Schaller, H., Beck, E. and Takanami, M. (1978) in: "The Single-Stranded DNA phages" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harobor pp. 139. (springer.com)
  • These tumors were then treated with ionizing radiation and/or NVP-BEZ235 and analyzed for DNA-PKcs and ATM activation, DSB repair inhibition, and attenuation of growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A point mutation at the terminal nucleotide of DR1 has a striking phenotype: normal levels of duplex viral DNA are produced, but nearly all of the DNA is linear rather than circular. (asm.org)
  • Filamentous bacteriophages (fd, M13, f1) contain single-stranded circular DNA of about 6400 bases (1). (springer.com)
  • Cell lysis is associated with a release of virions, with viral spread to contiguous structures, including salivary glands and oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Retroviral integrase can efficiently utilise nucleosomes for insertion of the reverse-transcribed viral DNA. (rcsb.org)
  • Antisense nucleotides are strings of RNA or DNA that are complementary to "sense" strands of nucleotides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is DNA in which the sequence of the constituent molecules on one strand of the double stranded structure chemically matches the sequence on the other strand. (jrank.org)
  • HK97 is a double-stranded DNA virus similar to bacteriophage λ. (scripps.edu)
  • The bacteriophage motor also has gears, a handy feature when DNA needs to be unraveled before packaging. (icr.org)
  • The initial product of reverse transcription, minus-strand DNA, contains two copies of a short direct repeat (DR) sequence, termed DR1 and DR2. (asm.org)
  • Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription is known to cause a strand bias and numerous analyses are presented to show that the strand bias in question is not caused by transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The strand bias segments represent a further biological feature, the chromatin structure, which in turn influences the ease of transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The process by which HIV's RNA is converted to DNA is called reverse transcription. (thebody.com)
  • Plus, of course, a delivery method - viral capsids minus the viral DNA, manufactured by genetically engineered E. coli. (halfbakery.com)
  • Further comprised by the invention are recombinant DNA, plasmid and vector molecules suitably adapted to the specific conditions of the process according to the invention and the transgenic plant products obtainable in accordance with the said process. (google.com)
  • To clarify the sequence requirements for plus-strand primer cleavage and translocation, we have constructed mutants of the duck hepatitis B virus bearing base changes in or around the DR1 sequence in the primer. (asm.org)
  • For example, if the original DNA stand had a sequence of ATT, the complementary sequence will be TAA. (jrank.org)
  • The original DNA sequence is amplified to make a billion copies within minutes. (jrank.org)
  • If the original RNA stand had a base sequence of AUU, for example, the sequence of the cRNA strand would be UAA. (jrank.org)
  • For DNA, the searches are conducted by finding the motif within a sequence from the 5' to 3' end on the top strand. (virology.ws)
  • The results can also be filtered by sequence and strand by selecting the drop down menus at the top. (virology.ws)
  • the membrane is cleaved and then resealed around the virion, thus becoming the viral envelope. (issuu.com)
  • Once this has occurred, the viral envelope and the cell membrane are brought into direct contact and essentially melt into each other. (thebody.com)
  • Changes in cell morphology: morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation and changes in plasma membrane occur. (ipl.org)
  • PARP-1 displays a single high-affinity DNA-binding site and can displace bound DNA fragments from the low-affinity site of LigIII, consistent with its mediator role in LigIII-DNA interactions. (portlandpress.com)
  • Recapitulating formation of the RNA-induced silencing complex in a cell-free system revealed that this mutation impairs RNA unwinding, leading to stalled forms of AGO1 still bound to double-stranded RNAs. (plantcell.org)
  • The viral RNA is protected in the nucleocapsid. (thebody.com)
  • Generally single-stranded DNAs are not cut by restriction enzymes. (neb.com)
  • Restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, recognise specific nucleotide sequences and cut the DNA at these sites. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Type II restriction enzymes cut double stranded DNA. (sciencephoto.com)
  • APOBEC3F (A3F) and APOBEC3G (A3G) are members of a family of seven single-stranded (ss)DNA cytosine deaminases (A3A, A3B, A3C, A3D, A3F, A3G, and A3H) [1] and play a role in restriction of the retrovirus HIV-1 (referred to as HIV) [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • There are four common types of bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). In the chemical "lock and key" fit, an A on one strand always pairs with a T on the other strand. (jrank.org)
  • Vif was implicated in a number of functions, but its precise role in viral infectivity remained elusive for a long time. (mdpi.com)
  • The two strands are described as complementary to one another. (jrank.org)
  • Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a copy of a region of a strand of DNA. (jrank.org)
  • The cDNA will bind to the complementary site on the DNA strand. (jrank.org)
  • Complementary DNA is important naturally, in the manufacture of new copies of DNA, and has become an important experimental tool. (jrank.org)
  • In other words, each strand acts as a blueprint to produce a complementary strand. (jrank.org)
  • The two new strands are complementary to one another, and so can join together in a process called annealing. (jrank.org)
  • Complementary DNA has been exploited to develop research techniques and to produce genetically altered commercial products. (jrank.org)
  • Because ribonucleic acid (RNA) is made using DNA as the blueprint, the phenomenon of complementary strands also extends to RNA. (jrank.org)
  • If the complementary DNA is labeled with a compound that fluoresces, then the binding of the fluorescent probe can actually be visualized using a microscope . (jrank.org)
  • Full-length Complementary DNA of Hepatitis C Virus From an Infectious Blood Sample. (jrank.org)
  • Complementary sequences will pair up in RNA just as they do in DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Between the two strands are nucleotide bases. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The chemical molecules that make up DNA are known as nucleotide bases. (jrank.org)
  • The low frequency of HR in mammalian cells can be significantly improved by insertion of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) into the target locus through expression of a site-specific endonuclease. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that LSH-deficient mouse and human fibroblasts show reduced viability after exposure to ionizing radiation and repair DNA double-strand breaks less efficiently than wild-type cells. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ability of LSH to hydrolyse ATP is necessary for efficient phosphorylation of H2AX at DNA double-strand breaks and successful repair of DNA damage. (biologists.org)
  • Single-stranded DNA behaves completely differently than double-stranded DNA as it translocates through a nanopore, researchers reported last month in Nano Letters - a finding that could have implications for nanopore sequencing. (genomeweb.com)
  • Most researchers developing nanopore sequencing methods are looking to use single-stranded DNA to ensure that the correct base is being read as it passes through the nanopore, yet because it is trickier to work with, much of the work characterizing nanopores themselves has been done with double-stranded DNA. (genomeweb.com)
  • They found that the double-stranded end entered the pore first about 80 percent of the time, and produced a lower current spike than the single-stranded end. (genomeweb.com)
  • The DNA or RNA may be double or single-stranded. (angelfire.com)
  • Currently, there are no DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair inhibitors that have been successful in treating glioblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA consists of two strands (red and blue) twisted into a double helix. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A double stranded DNA virus enters the host nucleus before it begins to replicate. (news-medical.net)
  • Antisense DNA strands can also be made (note that in the double helix, the side of the DNA that is transcribed is itself antisense). (encyclopedia.com)
  • This new, double-stranded RNA is then subject to further nuclease attack. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Double-stranded breaks are generated through CRISPR/Cas9 editing , then repaired by the endogenous cellular pathways of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and HDR. (genewiz.com)
  • Assembly and maturation of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • Assembly and maturation of a double-stranded RNA virus, cystovirus phi6. (nih.gov)
  • MOF and histone H4 acetylation at lysine 16 are critical for DNA damage response and double-strand break repair. (stanford.edu)
  • Hepatitis B Virus Characteristics: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a double-stranded DNA virus in the Hepadnaviridae family. (bartleby.com)
  • Exceptions include the Reoviridae (e.g., rotaviruses) which contain double-stranded RNA. (news-medical.net)
  • The Evolution And Molecular Epidemiology Of Single-Stranded DNA and RNA Viral Pathogens Of Humans Other Animals And Plants. (sanbi.ac.za)
  • In face of the structural constraints imposed by the nucleosomal structure, integrase gains access to the scissile phosphodiester bonds by lifting DNA off the histone octamer at the site of integration. (rcsb.org)
  • Nucleosomes, linker DNA, and linker histone form a unique structural motif that directs the higher-order folding and compaction of chromatin. (nature.com)
  • How Do Integrase Strand-Transfer Inhibitors Work in ART for HIV? (medicinenet.com)
  • The first integrase strand-transfer inhibitor came into use in 2007, as part of the ART regimen with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (medicinenet.com)
  • Inhibitors of the DNA damage response (DDR) have great potential for radiosensitization of numerous cancers, including glioblastomas, which are extremely radio- and chemoresistant brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the cover: Mutant forms of HIV-1 IN reduce the therapeutic effectiveness of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). (cancer.gov)
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors are one of the newest class of antiretroviral drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Taketo, A.: Properties of bacterial virus ϕA and its DNA. (springer.com)
  • has shown that bacterial DNA or synthetic ODNs containing unique palindromic CpG motifs induce human PBMC ( 10 ) and mouse spleen cells ( 11 ) to produce type I IFN (IFN-αβ) (reviewed in Ref. 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Viral meningitis is often less severe than bacterial meningitis. (issuu.com)