The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain sinomenine, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, and other ALKALOIDS.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Figures or symbols identifying or representing organizations or societies.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.

Optical mapping of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2. (1/3137)

Detailed restriction maps of microbial genomes are a valuable resource in genome sequencing studies but are toilsome to construct by contig construction of maps derived from cloned DNA. Analysis of genomic DNA enables large stretches of the genome to be mapped and circumvents library construction and associated cloning artifacts. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis purified Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2 DNA as the starting material for optical mapping, a system for making ordered restriction maps from ensembles of individual DNA molecules. DNA molecules were bound to derivatized glass surfaces, cleaved with NheI or BamHI, and imaged by digital fluorescence microscopy. Large pieces of the chromosome containing ordered DNA restriction fragments were mapped. Maps were assembled from 50 molecules producing an average contig depth of 15 molecules and high-resolution restriction maps covering the entire chromosome. Chromosome 2 was found to be 976 kb by optical mapping with NheI, and 946 kb with BamHI, which compares closely to the published size of 947 kb from large-scale sequencing. The maps were used to further verify assemblies from the plasmid library used for sequencing. Maps generated in silico from the sequence data were compared to the optical mapping data, and good correspondence was found. Such high-resolution restriction maps may become an indispensable resource for large-scale genome sequencing projects.  (+info)

A powerful DNA extraction method and PCR for detection of microsporidia in clinical stool specimens. (2/3137)

The diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis has traditionally depended on direct visualization of the parasite in stool specimens or intestinal biopsy samples by light and/or electron microscopy. Limited information about the specificity and sensitivity of PCR for the detection microsporidia in clinical stool specimens is available. To establish a sensitive and specific method for the detection of microsporidia in clinical samples, we studied clinical stool specimens of 104 randomly selected human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with diarrhea to compare light microscopy and PCR. Fluorochrome Uvitex 2B staining was used for light microscopy. To raise the sensitivity of PCR, we used a powerful and fast DNA extraction method including stool sedimentation, glass bead disruption, and proteinase K and chitinase digestion. PCR was performed with primer pairs V1-PMP2, V1-EB450, and V1-SI500, and the nature of the PCR products was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Microsporidiosis was diagnosed by light microscopy in eight patients. Ten patients tested positive for microsporidiosis by PCR. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was found in seven cases, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis was found in four cases. In one case a double infection with E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis was diagnosed by PCR, whereas light microscopy showed only E. bieneusi infection. PCR testing of stool specimens is useful for diagnosis and species differentiation of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV patients.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygote-specific cDNAs that encode novel proteins containing ankyrin repeats and WW domains. (3/3137)

Genes that are expressed only in the young zygote are considered to be of great importance in the development of an isogamous green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Clones representing the Zys3 gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared using zygotes at 10 min after fertilization. Sequencing of Zys3 cDNA clones resulted in the isolation of two related molecular species. One of them encoded a protein that contained two kinds of protein-to-protein interaction motifs known as ankyrin repeats and WW domains. The other clone lacked the ankyrin repeats but was otherwise identical. These mRNA species began to accumulate simultaneously in cells beginning 10 min after fertilization, and reached maximum levels at about 4 h, after which time levels decreased markedly. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that Zys3 was a single-copy gene. The Zys3 proteins exhibited parallel expression to the Zys3 mRNAs at first, appearing 2 h after mating, and reached maximum levels at more than 6 h, but persisted to at least 1 d. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed their localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests a role in the morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the synthesis and transport of proteins to the Golgi apparatus or related vesicles.  (+info)

Identification of Cryptosporidium felis in a cow by morphologic and molecular methods. (4/3137)

Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parasites infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. While some species are limited to a single host group, such as Cryptosporidium baileyi, which infects chickens, other species of this genus, such as C. parvum, infect a wide range of mammalian species from mice to humans. During an investigation of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle on a farm in northern Poland, we identified an infection caused by C. felis, in addition to known infections with C. muris and C. parvum. This new infection was identified based on the size of the oocysts (mean size, 4.3 +/- 0.4 micrometer; range, 3.5 to 5.0 micrometer), as well as by analysis of the molecular sequence of the variable region of the small-subunit rRNA. This finding demonstrates the complex host specificity and circulation in the environment of Cryptosporidium species.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and expression of a stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase-related kinase from Tetrahymena cells. (5/3137)

To identify genes responsive to cold stress, we employed the differential display mRNA analysis technique to isolate a novel gene from Tetrahymena thermophila which encodes a protein kinase of 430 amino acids. A homolog of this kinase with 90% amino acid sequence identity was also found in T. pyriformis. Both kinases contain 11 subdomains typical of protein kinases. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted amino acid sequences resemble those of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), especially p38 and stress-activated protein kinase which are known to be involved in various stress responses. However, it should be noted that the tyrosine residue in the normally conserved MAPK phosphorylation site (Thr-X-Tyr) is replaced by histidine (Thr226-Gly-His228) in this MAPK-related kinase (MRK). The recombinant MRK expressed in Escherichia coli phosphorylated myelin basic protein (MBP) and became autophosphorylated. However, the mutated recombinant protein in which Thr226 was replaced by Ala lost the ability to phosphorylate MBP, suggesting that Thr226 residue is essential for kinase activity. The MRK mRNA transcript in T. thermophila increased markedly upon temperature downshift from 35 to 15 degrees C (0.8 degrees C/min). Interestingly, osmotic shock either by sorbitol (100-200 mM) or NaCl (25-100 mM) also induced mRNA expression of the MRK in T. pyriformis. In addition, the activity of the kinase as determined by an immune complex kinase assay using MBP as a substrate was also induced by osmotic stress. This is the first demonstration of a MAPK-related kinase in the unicellular eukaryotic protozoan Tetrahymena that is induced by physical stresses such as cold temperature and osmolarity. The present results suggest that this MRK may function in the stress-signaling pathway in Tetrahymena cells.  (+info)

Identification of protein kinase B (PKB) as a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate binding protein in Dictyostelium discoideum. (6/3137)

We have searched for phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) binding proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum using beads bearing a PIP3 analogue, PIP3-APB. One of the binding proteins with a molecular mass of 55 kDa was purified and its amino acid sequence was partially analyzed. Database searches showed that the analyzed sequence was identical to that of protein kinase B (PKB) of D. discoideum. The specific activity of D. discoideum PKB, when expressed together with constitutively active PI-3 kinase in mammalian cells, was elevated by about three-fold, suggesting that PKB could also act downstream of PI-3 kinase in Dictyostelium cells.  (+info)

Molecular techniques for detection, species differentiation, and phylogenetic analysis of microsporidia. (7/3137)

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. These parasites are now recognized as one of the most common pathogens in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. For most patients with infectious diseases, microbiological isolation and identification techniques offer the most rapid and specific determination of the etiologic agent. This is not a suitable procedure for microsporidia, which are obligate intracellular parasites requiring cell culture systems for growth. Therefore, the diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves. Although the diagnosis of microsporidiosis and identification of microsporidia by light microscopy have greatly improved during the last few years, species differentiation by these techniques is usually impossible and transmission electron microscopy may be necessary. Immunfluorescent-staining techniques have been developed for species differentiation of microsporidia, but the antibodies used in these procedures are available only at research laboratories at present. During the last 10 years, the detection of infectious disease agents has begun to include the use of nucleic acid-based technologies. Diagnosis of infection caused by parasitic organisms is the last field of clinical microbiology to incorporate these techniques and molecular techniques (e.g., PCR and hybridization assays) have recently been developed for the detection, species differentiation, and phylogenetic analysis of microsporidia. In this paper we review human microsporidial infections and describe and discuss these newly developed molecular techniques.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of histone H3 is required for proper chromosome condensation and segregation. (8/3137)

Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 occurs during mitosis in diverse eukaryotes and correlates closely with mitotic and meiotic chromosome condensation. To better understand the function of H3 phosphorylation in vivo, we created strains of Tetrahymena in which a mutant H3 gene (S10A) was the only gene encoding the major H3 protein. Although both micronuclei and macronuclei contain H3 in typical nucleosomal structures, defects in nuclear divisions were restricted to mitotically dividing micronuclei; macronuclei, which are amitotic, showed no defects. Strains lacking phosphorylated H3 showed abnormal chromosome segregation, resulting in extensive chromosome loss during mitosis. During meiosis, micronuclei underwent abnormal chromosome condensation and failed to faithfully transmit chromosomes. These results demonstrate that H3 serine 10 phosphorylation is causally linked to chromosome condensation and segregation in vivo and is required for proper chromosome dynamics.  (+info)

Jadack, R.A., Yuenger, J., Ghanem, K.G., et al. (2006) Polymerase chain reaction detection of Y-chromosome sequences in vaginal fluid of women accessing a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33, 22-25. doi10.1097/01.olq.0000194600.83825.81
Richie, Thomas L., Charoenvit, Yupin, Wang, Ruobing, Epstein, Judith E., Hedstrom, Richard C., Kumar, Sanjai, Luke, Thomas C., Freilich, Daniel A., Aguiar, Joao C., Sacci, Jr., John B., Sedegah, Martha, Nosek, Jr., Ronald A., De La Vega, Patricia, Berzins, Mara P., Majam, Victoria F., Abot, Esteban N., Ganeshan, Harini, Richie, Nancy O., Banania, Jo Glenna, Baraceros, Maria Fe B., Geter, Tanya, Mere, Robin, Bebris, Lolita, Limbach, Keith, Hickey, Bradley W., Lanar, David E., Ng, Jennifer, Shi, Meng, Hobart, Peter M., Norman, Jon A., Soisson, Lorraine A., Hollingdale, Michael R., Rogers, William O., Doolan, Denise L., and Hoffman, Stephen L. (2012) Clinical trial in healthy malaria-naïve adults to evaluate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and efficacy of MuStDO5, a five-gene, sporozoite/hepatic stage Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine combined with escalating dose human GM-CSF DNA. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polymerase chain reaction detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in Macaca fascicularis using archived tissues. AU - Williams, Jeff T.. AU - Mubiru, James N.. AU - Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.. AU - Rubicz, Rohina C.. AU - VandeBerg, John L.. AU - Dick, Edward J.. AU - Hubbard, Gene B.. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - This study describes conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods developed to detect and quantify Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks archived for periods of up to 6 years. The highest concentration of T. cruzi DNA was found in the myocardium, urinary bladder, stomach, lymph node, adrenal gland, and colon. The concentration of T. cruzi DNA detected in cardiac tissues was 10-100-fold greater than found elsewhere; the mean concentrations of T. cruzi DNA in non-cardiac tissues were otherwise comparable. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was amplified from cerebrum but not cerebellum or ...
Emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has created an urgent need for new drug targets. DNA polymerase δ is an essential enzyme required for chromosomal DNA replication and repair, and therefore may be a potential target for anti-malarial drug development. However, little is known of the characteristics and function of this P. falciparum enzyme. The coding sequences of DNA polymerase δ catalytic subunit (PfPolδ-cat), DNA polymerase δ small subunit (PfPolδS) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PfPCNA) from chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant P. falciparum strain K1 were amplified, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS. PfPolδ-cat was biochemically characterized. The roles of PfPolδS and PfPCNA in PfPolδ-cat function were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effects of 11 compounds were tested on PfPolδ-cat activity and on in vitro parasite growth using SYBR Green I
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus monkeys were immunized four times with one of three DNA plasmids expressing important Plasmodium falciparum blood stage vaccine candidate proteins or with a mixture containing all three vaccines. The three vaccines encoded sequences from apical merozoite antigen-1 (AMA-1), …
To improve understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis, over 8,000 Cryptosporidium isolates were submitted for typing to the species level over a four year period. The majority were either Cryptosporidium parvum (45.9%)
by Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Alejandro G. Schijman, Vincent Veron, Christine Aznar, Francis Steurer, Alexandre J. da Silva Background The laboratory diagnosis of Chagas disease is challenging because the usefulness of different diagnostic tests will depend on the stage of the disease. Serology is the preferred method for patients in the chronic phase, whereas PCR can be successfully used to diagnose acute and congenital cases. Here we present data using a combination of three TaqMan PCR assays to detect T
The purpose of this study was to show that individual malaria rapid diagnosis tests (MRDTs) could also be used to isolate Plasmodium DNA for genetic studies. We extracted and amplified Plasmodium DNA using two commercial MRDT kits. Phenol/chloroform extraction followed by a nested polymerse chain reaction (PCR) can be used to identify Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from MRDTs. The PCR on MRDT-isolated DNA was more sensitive than antigen capture by MRDT. Satisfactory results were also obtained if older MRDT tests were used, even after long periods of storage at ambient temperature, with no special preservation.
Previously, we observed that heterochromatic 4 and Y chromosomes that had experienced breakage in the male germline were frequently transmitted to progeny. Their behavior suggested that they carried functional telomeres. Here we show that efficient healing by de novo telomere addition is not unique to heterochromatic breaks. ...
Education and information about Crypto, Cryptosporidium Infection, Cryptosporidiosis, fact sheets, information for special groups, prevention and control, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.
This is a temporary file and hence do not link it from a website, instead link the URL of this page if you wish to link the PDF file ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the analytical and diagnostic performance of a digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples. AU - Ramírez, Juan David. AU - Herrera, Giovanny. AU - Hernández, Carolina. AU - Cruz-Saavedra, Lissa. AU - Muñoz, Marina. AU - Flórez, Carolina. AU - Butcher, Robert. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Background: The recent development of novel Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technologies that confer theoretical advantages over quantitative PCR has considerable potential in the diagnosis of low load infections, such as Trypanosoma cruzi in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. We evaluated the utility of the digital droplet (dd)PCR platform in the detection of T. cruzi infection. Methodology/Principal findings: We imported a validated qPCR assay targeting the T. cruzi satellite tandem repeat (TcSTR) region to the ddPCR platform. Following optimization, we tested and repeated a standard curve of TcI ...
Relationships among Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum multilocus sequence subtypes at 5 genetic loci. Parasite population from Jamaica was compared with tha
Systematic hypotheses for Ulvaceae were tested using sequences for the chloroplast gene encoding the large subunit of RUBISCO (rbc L) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA). Ulvaceae sensu Floyd and OKelly ...
At the end of this unit, the student is able to:  Classify the Protozoans  Describe the morphology of each protozoa  Explain the pathophysiology, life cycle…
Health is described as the state of complete physical, mental, and social well being. Being healthy is far more than just being free from diseases.
Looking for online definition of Entamoeba moshkovskii in the Medical Dictionary? Entamoeba moshkovskii explanation free. What is Entamoeba moshkovskii? Meaning of Entamoeba moshkovskii medical term. What does Entamoeba moshkovskii mean?
During macronuclear development in hypotrichous ciliated protozoans, several thousand macronuclear DNA molecules are amplified several-hundred fold. We investigated the regulation of this amplification by determining the copy numbers of three different macronuclear DNA molecules in the hypotrichous ciliate Euplotes crassus. Two of the macronuclear DNA molecules were present in approximately 1,000 copies per cell, while the third was present in approximately 6,500 copies per cell. These reiteration levels were achieved either during macronuclear development, or shortly thereafter, and were maintained during vegetative growth. The most abundant macronuclear DNA molecule is present as a single-copy sequence in the micronuclear genome. Thus, its high copy number results from differential amplification. These results indicate that DNA amplification during macronuclear development is regulated individually for each macronuclear DNA molecule.
BACKGROUND:Plasmodium ovale curtisi and wallikeri are perceived as relapsing malarial parasites. Contrary to Plasmodium vivax, direct evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. The aim of this prospective study was to characterize the reappearance patterns of ovale parasites. METHODS:P. ovale spp. infected patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine and followed biweekly for up to 1 year for the detection of reappearing parasitemia. Molecular analysis of reappearing isolates was performed to identify homologous isolates by genotyping and to define cases of relapse following predefined criteria. RESULTS:At inclusion, 26 participants were positive for P. ovale curtisi and/or P. ovale wallikeri. The median duration of follow-up was 35 weeks. Reappearance of the same P. ovale species was observed in 46% of participants; 61% of P. ovale curtisi and 19% of P. ovale wallikeri infection-free intervals were estimated to end with reappearance by week 32. Based on the predefined criteria, 23% of participants
Molecular genetic studies of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been hampered in part due to difficulties in stably cloning and propagating parasite genomic DNA in bacteria. This is thought to be a result of the unusual A+T bias (|80%) in the parasites DNA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic separation of P. falciparum chromosomes has shown that large chromosomal polymorphisms, resulting from the deletion of DNA from chromosome ends, frequently occur. Understanding the biological implications of this chromosomal polymorphism will require the analysis of large regions of genomic, and in particular telomeric, DNA. To overcome the limitations of cloning parasite DNA in bacteria, we have cloned genomic DNA from the P. falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial chromosomes. A pYAC4 library with an average insert size of approximately 100 kb was established and found to have a three to fourfold redundancy for single-copy genes. Unlike bacterial hosts, yeast stably maintain and propagate
Spano, F.; Putignani, L.; McLauchlin, J.; Casemore, D.P.; Crisanti, A., 1997: PCR-RFLP analysis of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene discriminates between C. wrairi and C. parvum, and between C. parvum isolates of human and animal origin
Telomeric guanine-quadruplex DNA has been shown to form in vitro under physiological conditions (6-8). It has been suggested that this structure plays an important role in vivo in the protection of telomeric ends, and attempts have been made to use the guanine-quadruplex structure as a target for cancer therapy (12). However, until now, to the best of our knowledge, no experimental data exist that this structure actually occurs in the eukaryotic cell. We therefore decided to generate in vitro specific antibodies against the Oxytricha/Stylonychia telomeric guanine-quadruplex structure in the parallel conformation, using a synthetic antibody library and a cell-free selection and evolution system. The selected antibodies were applied for in situ localization of quadruplex DNA in the nuclei of the ciliated protozoan S. lemnae.. We selected our scFvs in vitro from a large synthetic library by ribosome display in six selection cycles. In RIA control experiments with a variety of competitors, we ...
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Chagas disease has a high incidence in Mexico and other Latin American countries. Because one of the most important known methods of prevention is vector control, which has been effective only in certain areas of South America, the development of a vaccine to protect people at risk has been proposed. In this study, we assessed the cellular and humoral immune response generated following immunization with pBCSP and pBCSSP4 plasmids containing the genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (present in all three forms of T. cruzi) and an amastigote specific glycoprotein, respectively, in a canine model. Thirty-five beagle dogs were divided randomly into 5 groups (n = 7) and were immunized twice intramuscularly with 500 μg of pBCSSP4, pBCSP, pBk-CMV (empty plasmid) or saline solution. Fifteen days after the last immunization the 4 groups were infected intraperitoneally with 500 000 metacyclic trypomastigotes. The fifth group was unimmunized/infected. The parasitaemia in the immunized/infected dogs was for a
The fight against Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for 90 % of the lethal forms of human malaria, took a new direction with the publication of its genome in 2002. However, the hopes that the genome should help bringing to the foreground the expected new vaccines candidates or targets of new medicines were disappointed by the low number of genes that could be functionally annotated - less than 40 % upon the genome publication, just over 50 % eight years later. This 10 % gain of knowledge was made possible by the efforts of the entire scientific community in many directions which include: the production of transcriptomic and proteomic profiles at various stages of the parasite development and in response to drug or stress treatments; the proteomic study of subcellular compartments; the sequencing of numerous Plasmodium related species (allowing whole genome comparisons) and the sequencing of numerous P. falciparum strains (allowing investigations of gene polymorphism). In parallel with
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidia.
Acanthamoeba sp. ATCC ® PRA-219™ Designation: UWC1/UV-7 Isolation: Acanthamoeba sp. UWC1 coincubated with activated sludge. Plattling, Bavaria, Germany.
Cryptosporidium parvum ATCC ® PRA-67D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Cryptosporidium parvum Strain Iowa [ATCC ® PRA-67™] Isolation: Feces, animal, 2002
Among 1521 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples screened, 50 were negative by HRP2 based RDT test. Molecular testing was carried out using these 50 RDT negative samples by assuming that 1471 RDT positive samples carried pfhrp2 gene. It was found that 2.4% (36/1521) and 1.8% (27/1521) of samples were negative for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes, respectively. However, the frequency of pfhrp2 deletions varied between the sites ranging from 0-25% (2.4, 95% CI; 1.6-3.3). The frequency of both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion varied from 0-8% (1.6, 95% CI; 1.0-2.4 ...
Se prezintă sub două forme: trofozoit şi chist. Hpv and cancer signs Giardia lamblia Giardioza - simptome și tratament - bebeplanet.
Biology Assignment Help, Heliozoans - protozoan, Heliozoans - Protozoan Heliozoans are spherical protozoan that occur in the sea or in still bodies of fresh water. They are mainly located in the bottom debris. Fine needle like pseudopodia radiate from the surface of the body. These are known a
Colorized electron micrograph showing malaria parasite [protozoa]Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Protozoa and rosacea has not been considered in any clinical paper known to date. However, there is a link between protozoa, vitamin B12 deficiency, acne and depression according to at least one c...
Rapid identification of the two major species of Cryptosporidium associated with human infections, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, is important for investigating outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. This study reports the development and validation of a real-time PCR TaqMan procedure for detection of Cryptosporidium species and identification of C. hominis and C. parvum in stool specimens. This procedure comprised a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium species, as well as two other TaqMan assays for identification of C. hominis and C. parvum. The generic Cryptosporidium species assay can be duplexed with the C. parvum-specific assay. The generic Cryptosporidium species assay was able to detect ten Cryptosporidium species and did not cross-react with a panel of ten other protozoan parasites. The generic Cryptosporidium species assay could detect 1-10 oocysts in a 300 μl stool specimen, whilst each of the species-specific TaqMan assays had
Genetic mapping is a powerful method to identify mutations that cause drug resistance and other phenotypic changes in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. For efficient mapping of a target gene, it is often necessary to genotype a large number of polymorphic markers. Currently, a community effort is underway to collect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the parasite genome. Here we evaluate polymorphism detection accuracy of a high-density tiling microarray with 2.56 million probes by comparing single feature polymorphisms (SFP) calls from the microarray with known SNP among parasite isolates. We found that probe GC content, SNP position in a probe, probe coverage, and signal ratio cutoff values were important factors for accurate detection of SFP in the parasite genome. We established a set of SFP calling parameters that could predict mSFP (SFP called by multiple overlapping probes) with high accuracy (≥ 94%) and identified 121,087 mSFP genome-wide from five parasite isolates
The aim of this study was to develop a simple, field-practical, and effective in vitro method for determining the sensitivity of fresh erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax isolates to a range of antimalarials. The method used is a modification of the standard World Health Organization (WHO) microtest for determination of P. falciparum drug sensitivity. The WHO method was modified by removing leukocytes and using a growth medium supplemented with AB(+) serum. We successfully carried out 34 in vitro drug assays on 39 P. vivax isolates collected from the Mae Sod malaria clinic, Tak Province, Thailand. The mean percentage of parasites maturing to schizonts (six or more merozoites) in control wells was 66.5% +/- 5.9% (standard deviation). This level of growth in the control wells enabled rapid microscopic determination (5 min per isolate per drug) of the MICs of chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, WR238605 (tafenoquine), and sulfadoxine. P. vivax was relatively sensitive to chloroquine (MIC = 160 ng/ml, 50% inhibitory
Ciliated protozoan (Tetrahymena vorax), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Tetrahymena vorax is a fresh water, holotrichous, oligohymenophoran, ciliate. Shown here are 3 cells with nice ciliated pellicle surfaces. Tetrahymena are free-living ciliated protozoa that can switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival. They are common in freshwater ponds. Tetrahymena species are used as model organisms. Magnification: x260 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0976
Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1-alpha) genes are useful genetic markers for genotypic analysis of the intestinal protozoan, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), the cause of enteric disease in humans. To quantitatively compare the discriminatory power of these loci, 43 fecal samples were collected from central, northern and eastern Thailand and G. duodenalis specimens were analyzed using PCR-based genotyping and subcloning methods. Approximately equal prevalence of assemblage A (21) and B (22) were present among these populations. Analysis of Simpsons index and Wallace coefficient values from assemblage B isolates together with the data obtained from Gen Bank showed that the combination of two loci provides a higher discrimination power for subgenotyping G. duodenalis than using any single locus.. ...
This report aims to propose a new species of Cryptosporidium isolated from reptiles. Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan parasites of a wide range of animals. Due to their biology, ecology and epidemiology these protozoa are globally distributed. The vertebrate hosts become infected through host-to-host contact or through ingestion of contaminated food or water [1, 2]. The taxonomy of Cryptosporidium has been debated and several doubts and uncertainties still exist. For a long time the only recognized species have been Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris. However, numerous other isolates were present in animals but described only in the last decades [3]. The difficulties in addressing Cryptosporidium taxonomy and in delineating new species mainly rely on the inability to morphologically discriminate the biological stages and on the difficulties in establishing monospecific experimental infections [3]. With the advent of nucleic acid-based techniques and sequencing, important ...
Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.
Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.
Ntoumi F, Bakoua D Fesser A, Kombo M, Vouvoungui J.C., Koukouikila-Koussounda F. 2016. Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection in pregnant women from the Republic of Congo. Acta Tropica 153 (2016) 111-115. Alimuddin Zumla, Jeremiah Chakaya, Michael Hoelscher, Francine Ntoumi, et al. 2015. Towards host-directed therapies for tuberculosis. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. Jul 17. doi: 10.1038/nrd4696.. Koukouikila-Koussounda Felix, Bakoua Damien, Fesser Anna, Nkombo Michael, Vouvoungui Christevy, Ntoumi Francine. 2015. High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. S1567-1348(15)00132.. Mathieu Ndounga, Pembe Mayengue Issamou, Prisca Nadine Casimiro, Félix Koukouikila-Koussounda, Michel Bitemo, Brunelle Diassivy Matondo, Lee Aymar Ndounga Diakou, Leonardo K Basco, Francine Ntoumi. 2015. Amodiaquine-artesunate versus ...
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This disclosure describes, in one aspect, a method of transfecting a Cryptosporidium organism. Generally, the method includes introducing into a Cryptosporidium organism a heterologous polynucleotide comprising at least one coding region, and incubating the Cryptosporidium organism under conditions effective for the Cryptosporidium organism to express the coding region.
Researchers at the University of East Anglia have discovered unexpectedly large genetic differences between two similar species of the pathogenic Cryptosporidium parasite.
From a minimal and simplified viewpoint, life is a succession of events leading to transmission of genes from parents to offspring. For certain organisms, like protozoan parasites, these events must include a meeting with someone else: another eukaryote to act as an invertebrate or vertebrate host and occasionally a human host. To get a successful gene transmission, parasites must have a positive outcome of the infection event (or series of events, as the infection for some parasites means a complex cycle between two or more hosts). But infection does not represent a one way event: it is a disruptive phenomenon, by which the metabolic balance of one organism is perturbed in favour of the survival and gene dissemination of another one, the intruder. It is thus a two sided event that implies several biochemical and immunological defense mechanisms being mounted by the host, and molecular barriers which need to be past by the parasite. If left without human intervention, this interaction would ...
許多古蟲界的物種缺乏典型的粒線體,被稱作「無粒線體原生生物」(amitochondriate),雖然大多數可能包含了功能上類似於粒線體、形態有很大變化的細胞器。其它的古蟲界的生物有粒線體,粒線體嵴呈管狀、盤狀、薄片狀。大多數古蟲界物種有兩個、四個甚至更多的鞭毛[3],很多物種有顯著的腹部攝食溝(feeding groove)超微結構,內部由微管支撐。[4]如果有系統發生的基因證據,其它缺乏這一特徵的物種也可以歸屬於古蟲界。. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Strongyloides stercoralis infection increases the likelihood to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in peripheral blood in Chagas disease patients. AU - Salvador, Fernando. AU - Sulleiro, Elena. AU - Piron, Maria. AU - Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián. AU - Sauleda, Silvia. AU - Molina-Morant, Daniel. AU - Moure, Zaira. AU - Molina, Israel. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Objectives: In a previous study performed by our group, Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with Chagas disease was associated with higher proportion of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to confirm this association in a larger cohort of patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study of all patients with Chagas disease diagnosed from 2005 to 2015 during blood donation at the Catalan Blood Bank. Demographic data and T. cruzi RT-PCR were collected. S. stercoralis infection diagnosis was based on a serological test. Results: Two hundred and two ...
The first chapter of this thesis encompasses progress towards the X-ray structure determination and drug design for the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) enzyme from the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii, along with another mutant construct of this protein. Solving the structure of the mutant construct, along with wildtype Tg DHFR-TS, will help elucidate both the nature of pyrimethamine resistance and inhibitor selectivity. In addition to being an excellent model for malarial resistance, T. gondii is a pathogen infecting 50% of the worlds population. T. gondii is an HIV opportunistic infection. In protozoa, DHFR-TS is a bifunctional enzyme, but in humans, DHFR and TS are separate monofunctional enzymes. The difference in connectivity makes DHFR-TS an excellent target for pathogen-specific drugs. Another important factor making DHFR-TS a good drug target is that the enzyme catalyzes reactions that are essential to all life, two sequential reactions in DNA nucleotide synthesis. ...
Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute, deadly disease of cattle and buffaloes associated with colossal economic loss in the livestock industry in the Asian regions particularly Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate on the Polymerase chain reaction detection of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 in mice inoculated through different routes with river water contaminated with infected mice carcasses. Sixty five mice were used for the study; five mice were placed in each tank containing river water for 24, 48 and 72 h. The groups comprise of five mice each made up of the control, intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. A dose of 1 mL 109 CFU of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 obtained from the infected river water were inoculated into each group intraperitoneally and the aerosol route while, 0.4 mL of 109 CFU of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 was inoculated orally into the group. The control group was inoculated with 1 mL buffer saline pH 7. The PCR results in the present ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Clinical Acanthamoeba Isolates. AU - Iovieno, Alfonso. AU - Ledee, Dolena R.. AU - Miller, Darlene. AU - Alfonso, Eduardo C. PY - 2010/3/1. Y1 - 2010/3/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the presence of 4 clinically relevant bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolates obtained from patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and the possible contribution of endosymbionts to the pathogenesis of AK. Design: Experimental study. Participants: Acanthamoeba isolates (N = 37) recovered from the cornea and contact lens paraphernalia of 23 patients with culture-proven AK and 1 environmental isolate. Methods: Acanthamoeba isolates were evaluated for the presence of microbial endosymbionts belonging to the bacterial genera Legionella, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Chlamydia using molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization) and transmission electron microscopy. Corneal toxicity and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental noise and population dynamics of the ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila in aquatic microcosms. AU - Laakso, Jouni. AU - Loytynoja, K. AU - Kaitala, Veijo. PY - 2003/9. Y1 - 2003/9. KW - VARIABILITY. KW - PREDATION. KW - DENSITY. KW - BIOMASS. KW - ECOLOGY. KW - IMPACT. KW - COLOR. KW - COST. KW - BLUE. KW - SIZE. M3 - Article. VL - 102. SP - 663. EP - 671. JO - Oikos. JF - Oikos. SN - 0030-1299. IS - 3. ER - ...
Bifunctional enzyme. Involved in de novo dTMP biosynthesis. Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, DNA precursor synthesis, and for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP (By similarity).
Sequences of small-subunit rRNA genes have been obtained for four new isolates of Entamoeba. Phylogenetic analyses give new insights into the evolution of these organisms. A novel Entamoeba from pigs in Vietnam that produces uninucleate cysts proved to be unrelated to other uninucleated cyst-producing species. Revival of the name Entamoeba suis for this organism is proposed. Instead of being related to Entamoeba polecki, it shares a recent common ancestor with the non-encysting Entamoeba gingivalis in a lineage that is basal to the tetranucleate cyst-producing clade. This suggests that species producing cysts with four nuclei are descended from an ancestor that produced cysts with a single nucleus. An Entamoeba from a horse was isolated in culture. No cysts were observed in the original stool sample but the sequence is placed unequivocally within the clade of tetranucleate cyst-producing species with no other sequences being specifically related. Revival of the name Entamoeba equi for this organism is
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes invasive intestinal and extraintestinal infections in about 50 million people world-wide resulting in a death toll of up to 100,000 people annually. It remains a significant cause of human death in developing countries such as Bangladesh and Vietnam. However, four out of five E. histolytica infections remain asymptomatic. What determines the outcome of an E. histolytica infection is largely unknown. The DNA content of E. histolytica grown in axenic cultures (in the absence of bacteria) is at least 10 fold higher than in xenic cultures. In turn, re-growth of axenized parasites in the presence of bacteria leads to reduction of DNA content to the original xenic values. A similar reversible increase in genomic DNA content has been described during passage from cyst to trophozoite in E. invadens, a model organism for encystations. There exists evidence to suggest that variation in genome content is the result of the accumulation of multiple copies ...
ABSTRACT. Xenophyophorea are giant deep-sea rhizopodial protists of enigmatic origins. Although species were described as Foraminifera or sponges in the early literature, the xenophyophoreans are currently classified either as a class of Rhizopoda or an independent phylum. To establish the phylogenetic position of Xenophyophorea, we analysed the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of Syringammina corbicula Richardson, a newly described xenophyophorean species from the Cape Verde Plateau. The SSUrDNA analyses showed that S. corbicula is closely related to Rhizammina algaeformis, a tubular deep-sea foraminiferan. Both species branch within a group of monothalamous (single-chambered) Foraminifera, which include also such agglutinated genera as Toxisarcon, Rhabdammina, and Saccammina, and the organic-walled genera Gloiogullmia and Cylindrogullmia. Our results are congruent with observations of similar cytoplasmic organisation in Rhizammina and Syringammina. Thus, the Xenophyophorea appear to be a ...
Malaria - Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans. It is one of several species of Plasmodium parasit
Plasmodium falciparum expresses on the host erythrocyte surface clonally variant antigens and ligands that mediate adherence to endothelial receptors. Both are central to pathogenesis, since they allow chronicity of infection and lead to concentration of infected erythrocytes in cerebral vessels. Here we show that expression of variant antigenic determinants is correlated with expression of individual members of a large, multigene family named var. Each var gene contains copies of a motif that has been previously shown to bind diverse host receptors; expression of a specific var gene correlated with binding to ICAM-1. Thus, our findings are consistent with the involvement of var genes in antigenic variation and binding to endothelium.
In 1993, almost 25% of the residents of Milwaukee, Wisconsin came down with severe stomach cramps, fever, and diarrhea. Over 100, mostly elderly or immunocompromised residents, died. The cause? The most common water-borne disease in the developed world: Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of many species of this group of apicomplexan parasites, distant relatives to those that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis. Water supplies may be tainted with the oocysts of these parasites, which are then consumed by people. In the small intestine, the parasites attach to the villi and begin to asexually divide. Eventually they will produce gametocytes - macrogametocytes are female, microgametocytes are male. These stages fuse and then produce two types of zygotes. Some have thin walls only - these serve to keep the infection going in the same host. Others, though, develop thicker walls and are released into the environment to infect new hosts. There isnt a very good treatment for those that become ...
Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites that infect humans and a wide variety of animals. This study was aimed at identifying Cryptosporidium species and genotypes isolated from avian hosts. A total of 90 samples from 37 different species of birds were collected throughout a 3-month period from April 2008 to June 2008 in the National Zoo of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Prior to molecular characterization, all samples were screened for Cryptosporidium using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Subsequently samples were analysed with nested-PCR targeting the partial SSU rRNA gene. Amplicons were sequenced in both directions and used for phylogenetic analysis using Neighbour-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods. Although 9 (10) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium via microscopy, 8 (8.9) produced amplicons using nested PCR. Phylogenetic trees identified all the isolates as Cryptosporidium parvum. Although C. parvum has not been reported to cause infection in birds, and the role of ...
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Background Plasmodium vivax continues to be the most widely distributed malarial parasite species in tropical and sub-tropical areas, causing high morbidity indices around the world. Better understanding of the proteins used by the parasite during the invasion of red blood cells is required to obtain an effective vaccine against this disease. This study describes characterizing the P. vivax asparagine-rich protein (PvARP) and examines its antigenicity in natural infection. Methods The target gene in the study was selected according to a previous in silico analysis using profile hidden Markov models which identified P. vivax proteins that play a possible role in invasion. Transcription of the arp gene in the P. vivax VCG-1 strain was here evaluated by RT-PCR. Specific human antibodies against PvARP were used to confirm protein expression by Western blot as well as its subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Recognition of recombinant PvARP by sera from P. vivax-infected individuals was ...
The crystal structure of the Tl+ form of the G-quadruplex formed from the Oxytricha nova telomere sequence, d(G4T4G4), has been solved to 1.55 A. This G-quadruplex contains five Tl+ ions, three of which are interspersed between adjacent G-quartet planes and one in each of the two thymine loops. The …
Tlr elements are a novel family of ~30 putative mobile genetic elements that are confined to the germ line micronuclear genome in Tetrahymena thermophila. Thousands of diverse germ line-limited sequences, including the Tlr elements, are specifically eliminated from the differentiating somatic macronucleus. Macronucleusretained sequences flanking deleted regions are known to contain cis-acting signals that delineate elimination boundaries. It is unclear whether sequences within deleted DNA also play a regulatory role in the elimination process. In the current study, an in vivo DNA rearrangement assay was used to identify internal sequences required in cis for the elimination of Tlr elements. Multiple, nonoverlapping regions from the ~23-kb Tlr elements were independently sufficient to stimulate developmentally regulated DNA elimination when placed within the context of flanking sequences from the most thoroughly characterized family member, Tlr1. Replacement of element DNA with macronuclear or
Due to its central role in both evolutionary change and human disease, mutation has been the focus of intensive research. The probability that a spontaneous mut...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
When you want sustained transgene expression without introducing any foreign DNA-such as for model animal and gene therapy development-Minicircle Technology is a great gene expression option. Produced as small excised, circular DNA fragments from a parental plasmid, the non-viral, episomal Minicircle expression cassette is free of any bacterial plasmid DNA sequences, and comes with a variety of promoter and reporter combinations. Their small size facilitates more efficient transfection than whats possible with standard-sized plasmids, and, while Minicircles do not replicate with the host cell, expression lasts for 14 days or longer in dividing cells, and can continue for months in non-dividing cells.. Product Note:. Parental minicircle plasmids and the ZYCY10P3S2T Producer Bacterial Strain are available for purchase by not-for-profit researchers only. Commercial users may purchase pre-made, ready-to-transfect minicircle DNA only. SBI also offers custom parental plasmid cloning and minicircle ...
Cryptosporidium infection is caused by small parasites that infect the intestines, causing diarrhea that can become life-threatening if you have a weak immune system.
A side view of Stylonychia as it uses its bristle-like cilia to move across a piece of vegetation; under darkfield illumination at a magnification of 200x.
A side view of Stylonychia as it uses its bristle-like cilia to move across a piece of vegetation; under darkfield illumination at a magnification of 200x.
Since protozoa are eukaryotic organisms, they contain vacuoles, a cell membrane and all the other cellular machinery found in the cells of plants, fungi, animals and other eukaryotes. For example, protozoa use their cell membrane and vacuoles for food absorption and digestion. Their cell membranes assist in the engulfing of food and their vacuoles can give off useable nitrogen during digestion. Generally, protozoa feed on other organic matter, bacteria, fungi and other protozoans in some cases.. Protozoa are not a huge concern when it comes to human illnesses because they are usually harmless. With this being said however, protozoa are the cause of malaria and dysentery. Malaria is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes, but these infected mosquitoes carry a microorganism from the genus Plasmodium, in which five specific species are infectious. Protozoa are truly remarkable microorganisms. They are capable of reproducing by the process of fission, they can move in a variety of ways despite having ...
Identification of nuclear proteins that interact differentially with Plasmodium falciparum var gene promoters.: The Plasmodium falciparum virulence factor PfEMP
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3B Protozoa Microscopic Slides Available From Lab World Online Store Today. With Free UK Delivery On Orders Over 50. Shows Multiple Illnesses For Examination.
Prescott, D. M. (June 1994). "The DNA of ciliated protozoa". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (2): 233-267. doi:10.1128/MMBR.58.2. ... Intriguing phenomena including controlled autophagic degradation of some DNA as well as production of nuclear envelope-limited ... Metakaryotic stem cell nuclei use pangenomic dsRNA/DNA intermediates in genome replication and segregation. Organogenesis. 10(1 ... where the processes appear to accompany changes in DNA essential for the newly created differentiated dome cells. Finally, the ...
Prescott DM (1994). "The DNA of ciliated protozoa". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (2): 233-67. doi:10.1128/MMBR.58.2.233-267.1994 ... The process involves creating recombinant DNA molecules through manipulating a DNA sequence. That DNA created is then in ... Archaea have a single, circular chromosomes that contain multiple origins of replication for initiation of DNA synthesis. DNA ... Some fungi and protozoa are also subjects used to study in this field. The studies of microorganisms involve studies of ...
ISBN 978-0-19-922905-5. Prescott, DM (1994). "The DNA of ciliated protozoa". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (2): 233-67. doi: ... Mobile DNA II. pp. 730-758. ISBN 978-1-55581-209-6. Bina Pani Das (2003). "Chilodonella uncinata - a protozoa pathogenic to ... They are defined as sections of DNA removed from the diploid micronuclear genome during which a copy of the micronuclear genome ... Yao, Meng-Chao; Duharcourt, Sandra; Chalker, Douglas L. (2002). "Genome-Wide Rearrangements of DNA in Ciliates". In Craig, ...
"DNA of ciliated protozoa." Chromosome 34.4 (1971): 355-366.. ...
While protozoa reproduce mainly asexually, some protozoa are capable of sexual reproduction.[31] Protozoa with sexual ... allows for efficient recombinational repair of DNA damage [13] and a greater range of genetic diversity by combining the DNA of ... "Protozoa". www.microbeworld.org. Retrieved 2015-11-23.. *^ "Ciliophora: ciliates, move with cilia". www.microscope-microscope. ... "amoeba , protozoan order". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-11-23.. *^ Kelso AA, Say AF, Sharma D, Ledford LL, Turchick ...
Prescott, D M (June 1994). "The DNA of ciliated protozoa". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (2): 233-267. doi:10.1128/MMBR.58.2.233- ...
Prescott DM (June 1994). "The DNA of ciliated protozoa". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (2): 233-67. doi:10.1128/MMBR.58.2.233- ... As a ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila exhibits nuclear dimorphism: two types of cell nuclei. They have a bigger, non ... Treatment with the DNA alkylating agent methyl methane sulfonate also resulted in substantially elevated Rad 51 protein levels ... Through natural or artificial selection, this method of DNA partitioning in the somatic genome can lead to clonal cell lines ...
1971). "DNA of ciliated protozoa". Chromosoma. 34 (4): 355-366. doi:10.1007/bf00326311. S2CID 5013543. Berger, James D. ( ... Thus, DNA damage in the macronucleus appears to be the cause of aging in P. tetraurelia. In this single-celled protist, aging ... DNA Repair (Amst). 2019 May;77:96-108. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2019.03.011. Epub 2019 Mar 22. PMID 30928893 Media related to ... Meiosis appears to be an adaptation for DNA repair and rejuvenation in P. tetraurelia. In P. tetraurelia, CtlP protein is a key ...
The nucleus is an organelle that houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged ... Scamardella, J. M. (1999). "Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista ... van Wolferen M, Wagner A, van der Does C, Albers SV (2016). "The archaeal Ced system imports DNA". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... DNA Repair: New Research. Nova Sci. Publ. pp. 1-49. ISBN 978-1-62100-808-8. Cavalier-Smith T (1 December 1993). "Kingdom ...
"Distinct DNA Exit and Packaging Portals in the Virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus". PLoS Biology. 6 (5): e114. doi:10.1371/ ... the phylogenic analysis of their amino acid sequences does not cluster them with any known protozoan clade, but rather connect ... Fischer, M. G.; Suttle, C. A. (2011). "A Virophage at the Origin of Large DNA Transposons". Science. 332 (6026): 231-4. doi: ... The Megavirus chilensis genome is a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA with 1,259,197 base pairs in length. This makes it ...
In protozoans, there is no transcription, since the puff consists only of DNA. Polytene chromosomes were originally observed in ... The dark bands contain more DNA and less RNA. The interbands contain more RNA and less DNA. The amount of DNA in interbands ... They are formed of DNA, RNA and a few proteins. As they are the site of transcription, transcription mechanisms such as RNA ... Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands. They provide a high level of function in ...
"In Kimura, Sakura; Shimizu, Sora (eds.). DNA repair as the primary adaptive function of sex in bacteria and eukaryotes. DNA ... The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are ... The nucleus is an organelle that houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged ... Their genome is usually a circular bacterial chromosome - a single loop of DNA, although they can also harbor small pieces of ...
"In Kimura, Sakura; Shimizu, Sora (eds.). DNA repair as the primary adaptive function of sex in bacteria and eukaryotes. DNA ... Rothschild, L. J. (1989). "Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista: what's in a name?". J Hist Biol. 22 (2): 277-305. doi:10.1007/ ... The nucleus is an organelle that houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged ... Their genome is usually a circular bacterial chromosome - a single loop of DNA, although they can also harbor small pieces of ...
Ovine protozoan myeloencephalitis is a recognised syndrome that may occur in outbreaks. The usual pathological findings in such ... discovered DNA. Similar structures were found in pig muscle in 1865, but these remained unnamed until 1899, when the name ... Because of this pattern, the genus may have evolved in the Northern Hemisphere from a pre-existing protozoan species that ... Sarcocystis is a genus of protozoan parasites, the majority of species infecting mammals, and some infecting reptiles and birds ...
"DNA evidence for global dispersal and probable endemicity of protozoa". BMC Evol. Biol. 7: 162. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-162. ... Genetic studies place the cercomonads among the Cercozoa, a diverse group of amoeboid and flagellate protozoans. They are ... nov., the dominant gliding zooflagellates in soil (Protozoa: Cercozoa)". Protist. 160 (2): 159-189. doi:10.1016/j.protis. ... Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas, and Cavernomonas gen. Nov". Protist. 160 (4): 483-521. doi: ...
Some mitochondria and some plastids contain single circular DNA molecules that are similar to the DNA of bacteria both in size ... Angomonas deanei, a protozoan that harbours an obligate bacterial symbiont. *Hatena arenicola, a species that appears to be in ... release DNA which is imported into the nucleus and incorporated into the nuclear DNA using non-homologous end joining (repair ... The nuclear membrane may have evolved as an adaptive innovation for protecting against nuclear genome DNA damage caused by such ...
Out of 51 faecal samples from habituated individuals, 25 were shown to have Plasmodium DNA. Laverania, which is a subgenus of ... the parasitic protozoan genus Plasmodium, was found in these studies. Varying exposure to different Anopheles mosquitoes ...
Thomas Cavalier-Smith & Ema E.-Y. Chao (October 2003). "Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa)". Protist. ... David Bass & Thomas Cavalier-Smith (November 2004). "Phylum-specific environmental DNA analysis reveals remarkably high global ... biodiversity of Cercozoa (Protozoa)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 54 (6): 2393-2404. doi ...
The mechanism is not well understood; it probably inhibits DNA replication, but also has affinity to RNA. Acute side effects ... It is effective against certain protozoa such as Babesia, Trypanosoma, and Cytauxzoon. The drug may also be effective against ...
The damaged DNA undergoes uncontrolled replication, thus making the cell cancerous. The high mortality and morbidity caused by ... Lucius, R.; Roberts, C.W. (2017). "Biology of Parasitic Protozoa". In Lucius, R.; Loos-Frank, B.; Lane, R.P.; Poulin, R.; ... This in turn activates an enzyme called activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which tends to cause mutation in the DNA ( ... Genetic diversity indicates that the human protozoan emerged around 10,000 years ago. The closest relative of P. falciparum is ...
December 1993). "beta-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil: a novel modified base present in the DNA of the parasitic protozoan T. ... Base J was the first hypermodified base that was known in eukaryotic DNA and had been found in Trypanosoma brucei DNA in the ... December 2014). "DNA hydroxymethylation profiling reveals that WT1 mutations result in loss of TET2 function in acute myeloid ... TET2 may also be a candidate for active DNA demethylation, the catalytic removal of the methyl group added to the fifth carbon ...
"Effects of sequence alignment and structural domains of ribosomal DNA on phylogeny reconstruction for the protozoan family ... DNA studies suggest that this genus should be merged with Sarcocystis. Despite several recommendations, abolition of this genus ... Protozoa, Apicomplexa) to Sarcocystis falcatula Stiles 1893: is the genus Sarcocystis paraphyletic?". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. ...
Her doctoral dissertation was "RNA editing and the evolution of mitochondrial DNA in kinetoplastid protozoa." In 1994, ... DNA Based Computers II (1998), Landweber, L. and Baum, E., eds, American Mathematicsl Society Genetics and the Extinction of ... 1999 - Sigma Xi Young Investigator Award 2001 - Tulip Award for DNA Computing 2005 - American Association for the Advancement ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "List of Award Winners". International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular ...
Kinetoplast DNA undergoes synthesis then the kinetoplast divides coupled with separation of the two basal bodies. Nuclear DNA ... an unusual feature unique to the kinetoplastid protozoans. The kinetoplast and the basal body of the flagellum are strongly ... numerous circular DNA structures (which together form the mitochondrial DNA disc) and functions as a single large mitochondrion ... In the 1980s, DNA analyses of the developmental stages of T. brucei started to indicate that the trypomastigote in the tsetse ...
This genus like those of many protozoa may be further modified once additional DNA sequences are available. For instance, many ... DNA studies should help to clarify this area but to date have rarely been undertaken. The gametocytes have five basic forms ... The protozoa are intracellular parasites that infect the erythrocytes. They are transmitted by blood sucking insects including ... The genus Haemocystidium was resurrected again by Telford in 1996 when he described three new species of protozoa in geckos ...
This genus like those of many protozoa may be further modified once additional DNA sequences are available. Haemocystidium is ... The genus Haemocystidium was resurrected again by Telford in 1996 when he described three new species of protozoa in geckos ...
After DNA analysis showed significant differences in the human variant, the proposal was made again in 1999 and has come into ... Frenkel and those before him believed that all Pneumocystis were protozoans, but soon afterwards evidence began accumulating ... since the organism was believed to be a protozoan. After it became clear that it was a fungus, the name was changed to ... reflecting the initial misdetermination as a protozoan parasite. It is an extracellular fungus. All stages are found in lungs ...
The first study of the protozoa in blue and black wildebeest showed the presence of 23 protozoan species in the rumen, with ... comparative cytogenetics and analysis of mitochondrial DNA". The Journal of Heredity. 82 (6): 447-52. doi:10.1093/ ... Booyse, D. G.; Dehority, B. A. (November 2012). "Protozoa and digestive tract parameters in Blue wildebeest (Connochaetes ...
The examination of preserved museum specimens has found Borrelia DNA in an infected Ixodes ricinus tick from Germany that dates ... Except for one study in Europe,[229] much of the data implicating lizards is based on DNA detection of the spirochete and has ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... Schmidt BL, Aberer E, Stockenhuber C, Klade H, Breier F, Luger A (March 1995). "Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by ...
Są to liniowe fragmenty DNA związanego z licznymi białkami, które chronią go, powielają i precyzyjnie sterują ekspresją. ... Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa. „European Journal of Protistology". 39 (4), s. 338-348, 2006. ...
Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous 'letter on the protozoa', gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria ... a year before the structure of DNA was reported by Watson and Crick. They published their initial findings in Nature and ...
The DNA sequence could be distinguished by the specific modulating effect of the four bases on the ionic current through the ... In 1957, Deamer submitted his research on self-organizing protozoa to the Westinghouse Science Talent Search and was among the ... His work led to a novel method of DNA sequencing and a more complete understanding of the role of membranes in the origin of ... The first publications appeared in 2015, one of which used the MinION to sequence E. coli DNA with 99.4% accuracy relative to ...
In anaerobic protozoa, such as Plagiopyla frontata, archaea reside inside the protozoa and consume hydrogen produced in their ... For example, thermostable DNA polymerases, such as the Pfu DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus, revolutionized molecular ... 2011). "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili". Mol Microbiol. 82 (4): 807-17. doi: ... When the hyperthermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus[150] and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius[151] are exposed to the DNA ...
For this process the cell goes through the steps of the cell cycle and development which involves cell growth, DNA replication ... In the case of eukaryotic cells - which are made up of animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells - the shapes are generally ... and protozoa cells which all have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, with various shapes and sizes.[10] Prokaryotic cells, ... DNA replication, damage and repair - are considered to be the interphase portion of the cycle. While the M phase (mitosis and ...
DNA vaccination. *Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / ...
radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified protein derivative ( ... DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response relationship - double-blind study - drug resistance - drug-drug ... DNA) - Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS/HHS or DHHS) - desensitization - diabetes mellitus (DM) - diagnosis - ...
Repair of psoralen DNA adducts[edit]. PUVA treatment produces both DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and monoadducts. The ICLs ... protozoa) in platelet and plasma blood components prepared for transfusion support of patients. Prior to clinical use, ... defects in DNA repair increase gene copy number variation". DNA Repair (Amst.). 21: 87-96. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.05.011. ... the affinity of the psoralen for DNA is directly related to the concentration of the psoralen in the DNA chamber after ...
Lange M; Westermann P; Ahring BK; Lange, M; Westermann, P; Ahring B.K. (2005). "Archaea in protozoa and metazoa". Applied ... Rosenshine I, Tchelet R, Mevarech M. (1989). "The mechanism of DNA transfer in the mating system of an archaebacterium". ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili". Mol Microbiol (82(4)): 807-17. PMID 21999488 ... "DNA-binding proteins and evolution of transcription regulation in the archaea". Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (23): 4658-70. PMC ...
... that attack and destroy specific regions of the viral DNA of invading bacteriophages. Methylation of the host's own DNA marks ... Intracellular protozoa. *Plasmodium malariae. *Leishmania donovani. no. no. no Extracellular protozoa. *Entamoeba histolytica ...
... s are vectors for viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases of humans and other animals, as well as of protozoan and ... 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome oxidase II, and elongation factor 1-alpha) for 128 flea taxa from around the world. The ... and Trypanosome protozoans.[30]:74 The chigoe flea or jigger (Tunga penetrans) causes the disease tungiasis, a major public ...
Cellulase, a suite of enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis (i.e. the ...
These protozoa are not phytopathogenic themselves, but parasitic. Transmission of the virus takes place when they become ... 3% require a reverse transcriptase enzyme to convert between RNA and DNA. 17% of plant viruses are ssDNA and very few are dsDNA ... A number of virus genera are transmitted, both persistently and non-persistently, by soil borne zoosporic protozoa. ...
Mitochondriálna DNA a plastidová DNA sú v porovnaní s jadrovou DNA relatívne malé a uzavreté do kruhu. Považujú sa za ... Zatiaľ čo niektoré systémy sa stále držia taxónov prvoky (Protozoa), Protista či Chromista[53], iné systémy s týmito termínmi ... Mitochondriálna DNA má veľa spoločných znakov s DNA alfa proteobaktérií, plastidová vykazuje príbuznosť s DNA cyanobaktérií ( ... Označuje sa tiež ako junk DNA, súvisiace termíny sú tiež intróny, či repetitívna DNA.[16] ...
Ríša: Protozoa - prvoky - v starom systéme niektoré nižšie rastliny (Thallobionta) a huby (Fungi) a všetky živočísne ... Toto delenie je výsledkom kombinácie fylogenetického prístupu založeného na bázových sekvenciách DNA na jednej strane a ...
Use of DNA in forensic entomology. *G.D. Hale Carpenter joined the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and took the ... Trypanosomes are animal parasites, specifically protozoans of the genus Trypanosoma. These organisms are about the size of red ... a reactive oxygen species that damages DNA. These defenses limit the population of infected flies. ...
PCR identifies the parasite DNA but this technique is not rapid and cannot be used for routine identification. PCR is also ... Protozoan infection: SAR and Archaeplastida (A07, B50-B54,B58, 007, 084). SAR. ...
Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. DNA adenine ... The leverage of ciliate protozoa". Dev. Biol. (NY). 7: 229-58. PMID 1804215. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-6823-0_11.. ... DNA damage can also cause epigenetic changes.[27][28][29] DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average about 60,000 times ... Chromatin is the complex of DNA and the histone proteins with which it associates. If the way that DNA is wrapped around the ...
Lauckner, G. (1980). Diseases of protozoa. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Kinne, O. (ed.). Vol. 1, p. 84, John Wiley & Sons, ... However, the problem with this theory is that it is still not known how each organism's DNA could be incorporated into one ... Modern phylogenetics uses sophisticated techniques such as alloenzymes, satellite DNA and other molecular markers to describe ... or even in protozoa.[21] For example, plant galls have been characterized as tumors[22] but some authors argue that plants do ...
The most accurate diagnosis is by qPcr DNA antigen assay, not generally available by primary care physicians in the USA: most ... Human parasites include various protozoa and worms which may infect humans that cause parasitic diseases. Human parasites are ...
DNA vaccination. *Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / ...
Green signal from anti-tubulin antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488) and nuclei (blue signal from DNA stained with DAPI) in ...
Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabia (Yemen,[18] Oman,[19] Qatar,[20] Kuwait,[21] Saudi Arabia[22] ... In addition, the organisms living in symbiosis with the Red Sea coral, the protozoa and zooxanthellae, have a unique hot ... 2013) Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape. PLoS ONE 8(2): ...
The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide created by a cell is in turn determined by the stretches of DNA called genes. In all ... Primitive species such as bacteria, protozoa, algae, and plants often have single-globin hemoglobins. Many nematode worms, ... Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ...
It has been speculated that the dying cells release DNA which serves as an immune alarm. Some studies found that DNA from dying ... single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing DNA.[4] Because immune systems have evolved to ... "In Lowrie DB, Whalen RG (eds.). DNA Vaccines: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press. ISBN 978-0-89603-580-5. .. ... "The Use of Conventional Immunologic Adjuvants in DNA Vaccine Preparations" ...
On March 22, 2010, the detection of DNA from porcine circovirus types 1 and 2 within RotaTeq and Rotarix prompted the FDA to ... DNA vaccines, and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued using animal models and, in the case of the NRRV P2- ... suspend the use of rotavirus vaccines while conducting an investigation the finding of DNA from porcine circovirus-1 (PCV1) in ...
"DNA Repair. doi:10.5772/25117. ISBN 978-953-307-697-3. Archived from the original on 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2013-07-29.. ... Raikov, IB (1994). "The diversity of forms of mitosis in protozoa: A comparative review". European Journal of Protistology. 30 ... Mitotic cells irradiated with X-rays in the G1 phase of the cell cycle repair recombinogenic DNA damages primarily by ... Chapter 19 in DNA Repair. Inna Kruman editor. InTech Open Publisher. DOI: 10.5772/25117 Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol; e ...
... is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the ... DNA glycosylases: Oxoguanine glycosylase. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cellulase&oldid=985917139" ...
... protozoan genomic DNA Panel is comprised of nucleic acid preparations isolated from taxonomic and medically-relevant strains. ... The ATCC Protozoa DNA Panels comprise nucleic acid preparations isolated from taxonomic and medically-relevant strains. Each ...
Structure and Characterization of Extrachromosomal DNA of Killer Xenosomes, Intracellular Symbionts of a Marine Protozoan. ... A physical map of nonkiller plasmid DNA revealed the presence of two circular 63-kb du-plexes, each with a single BamHI site ... Soldo, A.T., S.A. Brickson, and E. Larin (1983) The size and structure of the DNA genome of symbiont particles in the ciliate ... Soldo, A.T., and A.F. Freytag (1986) Symbiont xenosome DNA is a chimera with respect to Dam methylation of GATC sequences. Nucl ...
Fragments of the maxicircle DNA from both species were also cloned in pBR322. No homology with the cloned minicircles was ... This developmental system is amenable for the study of the role of the kinetoplast DNA in the extensive mitochondrial ... Abstract The kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania tarentolae and Trypanosoma brucei was studied in terms of genetic organization and ... The Kinetoplast DNA of the Hemoflagellate Protozoa * Larry Simpson, Agda M. Simpson, Getachew Kidane, Linda Livingston, Terence ...
Many studies have validated the concept of using DNA vaccines for both protection and therapy against these protozoan parasites ... We review here some of the advances and challenges for the development of DNA vaccines against these diseases. ... DNA vaccines have gone from a scientific curiosity to one of the most dynamic research field and may offer new alternatives for ... DNA Vaccines against Protozoan Parasites: Advances and Challenges. @article{Dumonteil2007DNAVA, title={DNA Vaccines against ...
Will complex, folded synthetic DNA molecules one day serve as capsules to deliver drugs to cancer cells? ...
A study of black widow spiders suggests that the arachnids leave traces of their own genetic material and DNA from prey in ...
The cellular response to DNA damage mainly consists of six ... cell viability highly relies on genome stability and DNA ... DNA repair mechanisms in eukaryotes: Special focus in Entamoeba histolytica and related protozoan parasites. ... Particularly, protozoan parasites survival depends on DNA repair mechanisms that constantly supervise chromosomes to correct ... Here we reviewed the current knowledge about DNA repair mechanisms in the most relevant human protozoan pathogens. Additionally ...
title = "Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans",. abstract = "This chapter discusses the DNA-protein ... Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans. Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology. 1988 Jan 1;2(C):291-307. ... Gottschling, Daniel E. ; Zakian, Virginia A. / Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans. In: Advances in ... Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans. / Gottschling, Daniel E.; Zakian, Virginia A. ...
Ex 27 DNA Fingerprinting Applied Genetics. Ex 28 Transformation Microbes & Disease Ex 29 Parasitic Protozoans Ex 30 Parasitic ... Ex 5 Protozoans. Ex 6 The Fungi. Ex 7 Motility: Hanging Drop Method. Staining Techniques. Ex 8 Introduction to Staining. Ex 9 ...
Clostridium septicum Alpha-Toxin Is Active against the Parasitic Protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and Targets Members of the SAG ... Insertional mutagenesis and marker rescue in a protozoan parasite: cloning of the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase locus from ... Insertional mutagenesis and marker rescue in a protozoan parasite: cloning of the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase locus from ... Insertional mutagenesis and marker rescue in a protozoan parasite: cloning of the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase locus from ...
... our protozoa will help teachers demonstrate cell behavior, population studies, and ecology. ... DNA Gel Electrophoresis. Carolina makes DNA gel electrophoresis easy when studying forensics or genetics. Theres a simple set ... DNA Learning Center. DNA Learning Center resources are the best in scientific educational materials. Kits and materials for ... Carolina Protozoa and Invertebrate Manual. Complete care instructions and tips for Protozoa and Invert ...
... definition of protozoa is the close relationship between some protozoa and A photomicrograph of the protozoa Euglena. ... Most are free-living and eat bacteria, algae, or other protozoa. Protozoa are important components of aquatic and soil ... SEE ALSO Algae ; Cell Motility ; Cytoskeleton ; Lysosomes ; Osmoregulation ; Plankton ; Protista ; Protozoan Diseases ... Most protozoa are animal-like (heterotrophic) because their carbon and energy must be obtained by eating or absorbing organic ...
As the only large service repository of parasitic protozoa in the world, ATCC offers over 1000 strains of parasites. ... Nucleic Acids - DNA/ RNA (8) Tissue. * Blood (8) Cell Origin. * Bovine (46) ... Parasitic Protozoa * Naegleria fowleri Carter (ATCC® 30809™) ATCC® Number: 30809™ Organism: Naegleria fowleri ...
As the only large service repository of parasitic protozoa in the world, ATCC offers over 1000 strains of parasites. ... Nucleic Acids - DNA/ RNA (7) Tissue. * Blood (8) Cell Origin. * Bovine (46) ... Parasitic Protozoa * Blastocystis hominis Brumpt (ATCC® 50610™) ATCC® Number: 50610™ Organism: Blastocystis hominis ...
DNA, Protozoan. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Silverchair Information Systems. *Europe PubMed Central ...
DNA, Protozoan/blood*. *DNA, Protozoan/genetics. *Hot Temperature*. *Humans. *Malaria, Falciparum/blood ... Unlike PCR, the LAMP assay does not require purified DNA for efficient DNA amplification, thereby reducing the cost and ... To evaluate the assay, DNA from these samples was purified and tested by PCR. Results from the LAMP and PCR assays were ... Sensitive and inexpensive molecular test for falciparum malaria: detecting Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from heat-treated ...
They found the parasites DNA in all nine Bay sharks; they didnt find it in any of four sharks that had died in gillnets ... Miamiensis avidus is a ciliate protozoan that has been tied to a number of deaths in hatchery or farmed fish, especially in ... Retallack took Okihiros leopard shark samples and used a technique called next-generation sequencing to look at all the DNA ... to look specifically for Miamiensis avidus DNA in samples from 13 leopard sharks, nine of which were from the Bay. ...
DNA binding and oxidative DNA damage induced by climacostol-copper(II) complexes: Implications for anticancer properties ... DNA cleavage by di- and trihydroxyalkylbenzenes. Characterization of products and the roles of O2, Cu(II), and alkali. J. Am. ... The protozoan toxin climacostol inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human tumor cell lines. Chem.-Biol. Interact. 176: 151 ... The protozoan toxin climacostol and its derivatives: Cytotoxicity studies on 10 species of free-living ciliates ...
... to identify methylated DNA in this parasite. Ribosomal DNA and ribosomal DNA … ... In the present study, we developed a new technique, based on the affinity of methylated DNA to 5-methylcytosine antibodies, ... The DNA methylation status of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica was heretofore unknown. ... to identify methylated DNA in this parasite. Ribosomal DNA and ribosomal DNA circles were isolated by this method and we ...
DNA (vec); ДНК (bg); ADN (ro); DNA (so); DNA (sv); кислотаи дезоксирибонуклеат (tg); DNA (lo); DNA (ko); DNA (fo); DNA (eo); ... DNA (nds); ДНК (ba); DNA (cy); DNA (lmo); ADN (sq); دی‌ان‌ای (fa); 脱氧核糖核酸 (zh); DNA (da); დეზოქსირიბონუკლეინის მჟავა (ka); DNA ... DNA (nov); dezoksiribonuklein turşusu (az); DNA (ja); DNA (nan); DNA (om); DNA (he); дезоксирибонуклеин кислотасы (tt); ਡੀ.ਐਨ.ਏ ... ácido desoxirribonucleico (es); DNA (is); DNA (ms); DNA (en-gb); ډي ان اې (ps); DNA (tr); ڈی این اے (ur); deoxyribonukleová ...
DNA (en-ca); DNA (ja); ADN (ku); डिएनए (ne); DNA (li); ԴՆԹ (hy); دېئوكسىرىبونۇكلېئىك كىسلاتا (ug); DNA (nan); DNA (om); DNA (he ... DNA transport (cargo),. DNA transmembrane transporter activity (cargo),. protein-DNA-RNA complex,. protein-DNA complex,. DNA 3 ... DNA (nds); ДНК (ba); DNA (cy); DNA (lmo); ADN (sq); دی‌ان‌ای (fa); 脱氧核糖核酸 (zh); DNA (da); დეზოქსირიბონუკლეინის მჟავა (ka); DNA ... DNA (sv); кислотаи дезоксирибонуклеат (tg); DNA (lo); DNA (ko); DNA (fo); DNA (eo); ADN (pap); acido desoxirribonucleico (an); ...
DNA, Protozoan / chemistry * DNA, Protozoan / genetics * DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry * DNA, Ribosomal / genetics ...
DNA Clearance of Uncomplicated Trichomonas Vaginalis Infections in HIV Negative Women. The safety and scientific validity of ... However, rescreening for TV should not happen until there is sufficient time for the parasites and DNA to clear from the ... Biospecimen Retention: Samples With DNA. 1 vaginal swab collected at screening for In-pouch 3 vaginal swabs collected at ... The outcome of interest will be a negative PCR result indicating that TV DNA has cleared. ...
Protozoan Infections. Parasitic Diseases. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections. Herpesviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Virus ...
The protozoan parasite is transmitted by female mosquitoes and undergoes obligatory. Posted on March 15, 2017. by Alma Moreno ... The protozoan parasite is transmitted by female mosquitoes and undergoes obligatory development within a parasitophorous ...
Mold, protozoan, and coelenterate mitochondrial + Mycoplasma / Spiroplasma 4 TGA UGA Trp (W) Stop * Includes the translation ... It can also be represented in a DNA codon table. The DNA codons in such tables occur on the sense DNA strand and are arranged ... Standard DNA codon table[edit]. Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic ↓ Termination: stop codon * ... Inverse DNA codon table[edit]. Inverse table for the standard genetic code (compressed using IUPAC notation)[14] Amino acid. ...
abstract = "To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo at least three major developmental ... keywords = "DNA microarray, Expression profiling, Gene expression, Genome, Leishmania, Transcriptional regulation",. author = " ... N2 - To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo at least three major developmental ... AB - To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo at least three major developmental ...
"The DNA of ciliated protozoa". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (2): 233-67. PMC 372963 . PMID 8078435.. ... Protozoa[edit]. Protozoa are unicellular organisms, which have nuclei, and ultramicroscopic cellular bodies within their ... Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. Transduction is a common ... Both DNA and RNA viruses can undergo recombination. When two or more viruses, each containing lethal genomic damage infect the ...
The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia ... only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. The aim of the present ... The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia ... Demonstration of microbial/protozoan DNA from bat faeces is not only informative on prey insect (or bat intestinal) pathogens. ...
Protozoa. The group of organisms known as protozoa are defined by a few of their shared characteristics. Protozoa are non- ... The protozoa can have very diverse lifecycles with multiple morphological stages, depending on species. Most protozoa have a ... Protozoa are divided into four main groups based on how the organism moves. The Flagellates move by waving long, whip-like ... Many protozoa cause diseases in animals and humans. Some, like Plasmodium, which causes malaria, can be devastating to people ...
  • Most are free-living and eat bacteria, algae, or other protozoa. (biologyreference.com)
  • Protozoa are important components of aquatic and soil ecosystems, where they eat bacteria that are too small to be efficiently captured by most animals and are in turn eaten by other organisms. (biologyreference.com)
  • Unlike the relatively simple bacteria, protozoa can have many different intracellular organelles performing specific tasks. (study.com)
  • The term 'germs' refers to the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Protozoa (pronounced: pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • Antoni van Leeuwenhoek's contribution to the microscopic protozoa and microscopic bacteria yielded to scientific observations and descriptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria-like absence of mitochondrial outer-membrane channel Tom40 and DNA replication origin-recognition complexes from trypanosomatid Euglenozoa roots the eukaryotic tree between Euglenozoa and all other eukaryotes (neokaryotes), or within Euglenozoa. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Electron microscopic discoveries eventually led to Bacteria being separated as a distinct kingdom and a five-kingdom system for eukaryotes: basal Protozoa and four derived kingdoms: the ancestrally heterotrophic Animalia and Fungi, and ancestrally phototrophic Plantae and Chromista ( Cavalier-Smith 1981 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bacteria contain plastids, or small loops of DNA, that can be transmitted from one cell to another, either in the course of sex (yes, bacteria have sex) or by viruses. (freedrinkingwater.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria have been conducting an "arms race" for billions of years. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The new observation that strains of V. cholerae can be expelled into the environment after being ingested by protozoa, and that these bacteria are then primed for colonisation and infection in humans, could help explain why cholera is so persistent in aquatic environments. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Parcels known as expelled food vacuoles (EFVs), which are encased in a membrane, protect the bacteria in the protozoan gut and after they are ejected into the environment. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Our hypothesis is that these bacteria have adaptive traits that have allowed them to either escape or survive being eaten by protozoan predators. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Particularly, protozoan parasites survival depends on DNA repair mechanisms that constantly supervise chromosomes to correct damaged nucleotides generated by cytotoxic agents, host immune pressure or cellular processes. (pasteur.fr)
  • However, rescreening for TV should not happen until there is sufficient time for the parasites and DNA to clear from the vaginal cavity after treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some protozoa are parasites, which means that they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some protozoa are parasites. (kidshealth.org)
  • To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo at least three major developmental transitions. (wustl.edu)
  • Sex-associated hormones and immunity to protozoan parasites. (ajtmh.org)
  • Protozoan parasites within the species Trypanosoma brucei are the etiological agent of human sleeping sickness and Nagana in animals. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Piroplasmoses in cattle is caused by tick-borne protozoan parasites comprising several Theileria and Babesia species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These parasites possess a single reticular mitochondrion with a concatenated structure of mitochondrial DNA known as kinetoplast or kDNA. (medworm.com)
  • Abstract The Trypanosomatid family are a diverse and widespread group of protozoan parasites that belong to the higher order class Kinetoplastida. (medworm.com)
  • Among those was a surprising DNA polymerase type Delta (only found in Eukaryotes), and two genes with closest homology to genes from human parasites of the urogenital tract. (mdpi.com)
  • Most protozoa are animal-like (heterotrophic) because their carbon and energy must be obtained by eating or absorbing organic compounds originating from other living organisms. (biologyreference.com)
  • While the term 'protozoa' is commonly used, it has little basis in evolutionary history, or phylogeny, of these organisms. (biologyreference.com)
  • As is appropriate for heterotrophic organisms that capture food, most protozoa are motile (able to move). (biologyreference.com)
  • In this lesson, we will examine the protozoa, a diverse group of organisms that didn't really fit anywhere else. (study.com)
  • What resulted was a group of distantly related organisms forever lumped together and collectively called 'protozoa. (study.com)
  • The group of organisms known as 'protozoa' are defined by a few of their shared characteristics. (study.com)
  • Protozoa are a diverse group of organisms with defining characteristics. (study.com)
  • Protozoa are an elaborate group of unicellular organisms that have a nucleus and are mobile. (icr.org)
  • In the very year he and Wallace published their natural selection ideas, Owen (1858) established the kingdom Protozoa for the most primitive unicellular organisms, which eventually undermined the two-kingdom animal-vegetable viewpoint dominating biological thinking since Linnaeus. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • PROGRAMMED DNA rearrangements occur in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms. (genetics.org)
  • Some fungi and protozoa are also subjects used to study in this field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike previously known microalgae-infecting viruses, TsV is a small (60 nm) DNA virus, with a 31 kb genome. (mdpi.com)
  • Modern taxonomic treatments recognize these similarities and group protozoa, photosynthetic unicellular algae, and slime molds together as protists or protoctists. (biologyreference.com)
  • Ecologists differentiate between autotrophic and heterotrophic components of an ecosystem, and it is natural to separate the animal-like protozoa from the photosynthetic algae based on their nutritional mode. (biologyreference.com)
  • However, Euglena, which can be induced to lose their chloroplast, illustrate why unicellular algae are included with protozoa. (biologyreference.com)
  • Fragments of the maxicircle DNA from both species were also cloned in pBR322. (ajtmh.org)
  • Some species of protozoa have structures that are analogous to mouths, GI tracts, and anuses. (study.com)
  • The protozoa can have very diverse lifecycles with multiple morphological stages, depending on species. (study.com)
  • In the environment, L. pneumophila is a parasite of at least 13 species of amoebae and ciliated protozoa ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • [13] When S. solfataricus and S. acidocaldarius are exposed to DNA damaging agents, species-specific cellular aggregation is induced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular aggregation is thought to enhance species specific DNA transfer between Sulfolobus cells in order to provide increased repair of damaged DNA by means of homologous recombination . (wikipedia.org)
  • One of four species of plasmodium protozoa? (sporcle.com)
  • A real-time PCR assay was designed to assess DNA extraction methods and to detect three Encephalitozoon species in feces. (asm.org)
  • A review of the systematics, species identification and diagnostics of the Trypanosomatidae using the maxicircle kinetoplast DNA: from past to present. (medworm.com)
  • By analyzing DNA from a wide range of species, scientists have been closing in on the closest microbe relatives of plants and animals in recent years. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Kean's vibrant storytelling makes science entertaining, explaining human history and whimsy while showing how DNA will influence our species' future. (goodreads.com)
  • Protozoa (meaning 'first animals') are heterotrophic, single-celled or colonial eukaryotes. (biologyreference.com)
  • As eukaryotes they have several organelles , including at least one nucleus that contains most of the cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (biologyreference.com)
  • The protozoan phylum Euglenozoa differs immensely from other eukaryotes in its nuclear genome organization (trans-spliced multicistronic transcripts), mitochondrial DNA organization, cytochrome c -type biogenesis, cell structure and arguably primitive mitochondrial protein-import and nuclear DNA prereplication machineries. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The simpler picture for Protozoa, with only seven phyla of distinctive cellular body plan, makes it easier to solve longstanding problems of the position of the root of the eukaryotic tree ( Roger & Simpson 2009 ) and nature of the first eukaryotes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These are illuminated here by the hypothesis that the eukaryotic root lies between the protozoan phylum Euglenozoa and all the remaining eukaryotes (neokaryotes). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • their DNA forms a tangle known as a nucleoid, but there is no membrane around the nucleoside, and the DNA is not bound to proteins as it is in eukaryotes. (freedrinkingwater.com)
  • Ciliated protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes that maintain two related and differentiated genomes within a common cytoplasm: the micronucleus (MIC) and the macronucleus (MAC). (genetics.org)
  • The kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania tarentolae and Trypanosoma brucei was studied in terms of genetic organization and transcriptional activity. (ajtmh.org)
  • Brack, C., Delain, E.: Electron microscopic mapping of A-T rich regions and E.coli RNA polymerase binding sites on the circular kinetoplast DNA of Trypanosoma oruzi . (springer.com)
  • Additionally, we described the recent advances to understand DNA repair mechanisms in Entamoeba histolytica with special emphasis in the use of genomic approaches based on bioinformatic analysis of parasite genome sequence and microarrays technology. (pasteur.fr)
  • The DNA methylation status of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica was heretofore unknown. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we developed a new technique, based on the affinity of methylated DNA to 5-methylcytosine antibodies, to identify methylated DNA in this parasite. (nih.gov)
  • The protozoan parasite is transmitted by female mosquitoes and undergoes obligatory development within a parasitophorous vacuole in hepatocytes before it is released into the bloodstream. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • We hypothesize that L. pneumophila has evolved as a protozoan parasite in the environment but has acquired loci specific for intracellular replication within macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Fast and reliable extraction of protozoan parasite DNA from fecal specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • Histone proteins form the dynamic packaging material that DNA is wound around to form chromosomes. (icr.org)
  • Fragmentation of germline-derived chromosomes and chromatin diminution occur in every ciliated protozoan so far investigated ( P rescott 1994 ). (genetics.org)
  • Protozoa are non-phototrophic, unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms with no cell walls. (study.com)
  • Oroya fe- tonella DNA in ticks, some healthcare providers believe that ver (and its chronic manifestation verruga peruana), caused these microorganisms are transmitted by ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • Eukaryotic cell viability highly relies on genome stability and DNA integrity maintenance. (pasteur.fr)
  • Even in the human genome, where they account for only 3% of genomic DNA, there are almost 400,000 individual elements ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The transposase catalyzes DNA cleavage during the "cut and paste" process, whereby the element is excised from the donor site (causing a double-strand break) and inserted elsewhere in the genome. (pnas.org)
  • 2000. Genome gymnastics: unique modes of DNA evolution and processing in ciliates. (icr.org)
  • The excision of internal eliminated sequences (IESs) from the germline micronuclear DNA occurs during the differentiation of a new macronuclear genome in ciliated protozoa. (genetics.org)
  • During sexual reproduction, the old macronucleus is destroyed and a new macronuclear genome is created from the micronuclear DNA. (genetics.org)
  • Nonmammalian Genomic Analysis: A Practical Guide covers the "how to" aspects of preparation, handling, cloning, and analysis of large DNA and the creation of chromosome and genome maps. (google.com.au)
  • Genome-wide profiling of DNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine during rat Sertoli cell maturation. (uio.no)
  • One of the most interesting protozoan groups are called ciliates , which are covered with hair-like flagella structures that not only propel them around but are used for crawling, attachment, feeding, and sensing their environment. (icr.org)
  • Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans Lukashenko, N. 2009-08-25 00:00:00 The review summarizes current evidence, including the findings related to molecular phylogeny of ciliates (type Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. (deepdyve.com)
  • The review summarizes current evidence, including the findings related to molecular phylogeny of ciliates (type Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. (deepdyve.com)
  • The standard procedures of commercial DNA extraction kits are usually insufficient for this purpose due to the tough walls of spores. (degruyter.com)
  • This study aimed to test the significance of pretreatments by glass beads and freeze-thawing processes in DNA isolation from microsporidia spores. (degruyter.com)
  • However, according to the DNA stool mini kit, the detectable amount of spores was found to be 1,000 spores/100 μl of stool sample when pretreated with both the freeze-thawing and glass beads methods.In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that further pretreatments are an essential process for DNA extraction from the stool specimens in order to avoid possible false negativity in the diagnosis of microsporidiosis. (degruyter.com)
  • Demonstration of microbial/protozoan DNA from bat faeces is not only informative on prey insect (or bat intestinal) pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protozoa love moisture, so intestinal infections and other diseases they cause, such as amebiasis and giardiasis, often spread through contaminated water. (kidshealth.org)
  • Chlorazol Black E (CBE) stain has been used for the detection and identification of intestinal parasitic protozoa. (edu.pl)
  • Modification and evaluation of Kohn's one-step staining technic for intestinal protozoa in feces or tissue. (edu.pl)
  • Comparison of DNA extraction kits for PCR-DGGE analysis of human intestinal microbial communities from fecal specimens. (degruyter.com)
  • Babesiosis is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Methods intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Babesiosis is a globally important zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of the genus Babesia (phylum apicomplexa). (frontiersin.org)
  • We identified 32 mutants with various degrees of defects in cytopathogenicity, intracellular survival, and replication within human macrophages, and most of the mutants exhibited wild-type phenotypes within protozoa. (asm.org)
  • Topics include gene transfer for assessing the role of defined DNA sequences in triggering DNA replication, nucleic acid hybridization probes for analyzing the regulation of specific genes during the cell cycle, and cloned DNAs for studying genes expressed with proliferation and differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • This book also introduces the reader to the role of the cell division cycle in induced differentiation, gene regulation in muscle cells, regulation of nonmuscle actin gene expression during early development, and sequences at ends of cellular DNA molecules in relation to telomere replication and function. (elsevier.com)
  • DNA rearrangements in Euplotes crassus coincide with discrete periods of DNA replication during the polytene chromosome stage of macronuclear development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, these tests' performance relies on the isolation of DNA in a good concentration. (degruyter.com)
  • Modifications of the MagNA Pure LC DNA isolation kit protocol (Roche Applied Sciences, Indianapolis, Ind. (asm.org)
  • Heterologous priming-boosting with DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing tryparedoxin peroxidase promotes long-term memory against Leishmania major in susceptible BALB/c Mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparison of potential protection induced by three vaccination strategies (DNA/DNA, Protein/Protein and DNA/Protein) against Leishmania major infection using Signal Peptidase type I in BALB/c mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sensitive and inexpensive molecular test for falciparum malaria: detecting Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from heat-treated blood by loop-media. (nih.gov)
  • Soldo, A.T., and A.F. Freytag (1986) Symbiont xenosome DNA is a chimera with respect to Dam methylation of GATC sequences. (springer.com)
  • Southern, E. (1975) Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. (springer.com)
  • The DNA sequences were identical human cases of babesiosis in Italy and Austria and provide for the organism from the two patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Several types of developmentally regulated DNA rearrangements occur as part of this process, including fragmentation of the germline chromosomes, de novo addition of telomeres, and DNA splicing events that eliminate thousands of non-coding sequences called IESs (internal eliminated sequences). (genetics.org)
  • The determination of the macronuclear and micronuclear DNA sequences for different variable surface protein genes has allowed the comparison of evolutionarily related IESs in Paramecium. (genetics.org)
  • The change in copy numbers of macronucleus-destined gene sequences was followed in anlagen DNA during postconjugational development inEuplotes crassus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A study of black widow spiders suggests that the arachnids leave traces of their own genetic material and DNA from prey in their sticky webs. (the-scientist.com)
  • The cellular response to DNA damage mainly consists of six biological conserved pathways known as homologous recombination repair (HRR), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER), mismatch repair (MMR), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and methyltransferase repair that operate in a concerted way to minimize genetic information loss due to a DNA lesion. (pasteur.fr)
  • Our data indicated that in addition to differences in mechanisms of uptake of L. pneumophila by macrophages and protozoa, there were also genetic loci required for L. pneumophila to parasitize mammalian but not protozoan cells. (asm.org)
  • They are simply genetic material (DNA or RNA) packaged inside of a protein coating. (kidshealth.org)
  • Further purification of the eluted DNA may be required in some samples because PCR inhibitors may not be completely removed using the described procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA purification was performed according to different tissue kits and stool kit procedures with and without any pretreatment. (degruyter.com)
  • The objective of this study is to screen treated Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) positive women weekly using culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to determine how long TV DNA is detectable post treatment and to examine potential confounders to clearance such as bacterial vaginosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Crystal structure of DNA polymerase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1. (edu.pl)
  • Color enhanced platinum-shadowed electron micrograph (freeze-fracture TEM) showing characteristic attachment of RNA polymerase molecules to DNA strands. (gettyimages.com)
  • This chapter discusses the DNA-protein complexes found at telomeres in the macronuclei of ciliated protozoans, with special attention given to studies in Oxytricha (a hypotrichous ciliate) and Tetrahymena (a holotrichous ciliate). (princeton.edu)
  • The Tetrahymena rDNA termini also provided the first indication that telomeres exist in a non-nucleosomal DNA-protein complex. (princeton.edu)
  • The terminal ∼135 bp of Oxytricha macronuclear DNA molecules are packaged in a non-nucleosomal protein complex. (princeton.edu)
  • section specifies the position and type of each DNA-binding domain present within the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • The subsequent chapters explore the DNA and RNA structure and the protein and enzyme content of some protists. (google.com)
  • Most protozoa reproduce most of the time by equal binary fission, in which a cell divides into two daughter cells after the chromosomes have been duplicated and distributed between them. (biologyreference.com)
  • Whereas eukaryote DNA is organized into linear pieces, the chromosomes, bacterial DNA forms loops. (freedrinkingwater.com)
  • Cut-and-paste DNA transposable elements are major components of eukaryotic genomes and are grouped into superfamilies (e.g., hAT , P ) based on sequence similarity of the element-encoded transposase. (pnas.org)
  • I discuss eukaryotic deep phylogeny and reclassify the basal eukaryotic kingdom Protozoa and derived kingdom Chromista in the light of multigene trees. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Among all the eukaryotic phyla, some of the most dramatic and extensive examples of DNA rearrangement occur in ciliated protozoa. (genetics.org)
  • Detection of Toxoplasma DNA in 20 (8.1%) of the IgG-positive cases suggests a recent infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • The current study aimed to assess the protozoan infection of rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district, southwestern Iran. (hindawi.com)
  • Will complex, folded synthetic DNA molecules one day serve as capsules to deliver drugs to cancer cells? (the-scientist.com)
  • Genomic DNA of trophozoites grown with 5-AzaC (23 microM) was undermethylated and the ability of 5-AzaC-treated trophozoites to kill mammalian cells or to cause liver abscess in hamsters was strongly impaired. (nih.gov)
  • These observations have suggested that many of the mechanisms utilized by L. pneumophila to parasitize mammalian and protozoan cells are similar, but our data have not excluded the possibility that there are unique mechanisms utilized by L. pneumophila to survive and replicate within macrophages but not protozoa. (asm.org)
  • None of the mil mutants was resistant to NaCl, and the dot or icm NaCl r mutants are severely defective within mammalian and protozoan cells. (asm.org)
  • For example, the protozoa that causes malaria grows inside red blood cells, eventually destroying them. (kidshealth.org)
  • Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer between two cells through the intervening medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. volcani forms cytoplasmic bridges between cells that appear to be used for transfer of DNA from one cell to another in either direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA is found in the nucleus of your cells. (expertsmind.com)
  • For instance, naturally occurring polyploid placental cells have been shown capable of producing nuclei with diploid or near-diploid complements of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • I transfer the formerly protozoan Heliozoa and infrakingdoms Alveolata and Rhizaria into Chromista, which is sister to kingdom Plantae and arguably originated by synergistic double internal enslavement of green algal and red algal cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Protozoan and their cysts are generally bigger than fungal cells and very much like human cells in structure and function, these single-celled entities are quite able to obtain nutrients and energy from their environment and reproduce on their own, sometimes via sexual means. (freedrinkingwater.com)
  • This text also deals with topics such as the use of cloned SV40 DNA fragments to examine signals for cell proliferation, expression of dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase genes in mammalian cells, and gene expression during the cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (elsevier.com)
  • Members of the genus Paramecium (from the classical Greek, παραμηκησ, oblong or oval‐shaped) are ciliated protozoa with an elongated shape (length approximately three to four times the width), a uniform distribution of cilia over the cell surface and a ciliated oral groove leading from the anterior of the cell to a midventral deep oral cavity. (els.net)
  • Abstract Trypanosomatids are unicellular parasitic protozoa. (medworm.com)
  • In this study, protozoan DNA was amplified from preserved human fecal specimens stained with CBE that were positive for Giardia intestinalis (syn. (edu.pl)
  • Giardia intestinalis: DNA extraction approaches to improve PCR results. (degruyter.com)
  • Studies of Tetrahymena recombinant DNA (rDNA) termini provided the first telomeric DNA sequence. (princeton.edu)
  • The usage of recombinant DNA technology is a process of this work. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process involves creating recombinant DNA molecules through manipulating a DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant DNA and Cell Proliferation focuses on the use of recombinant DNA technology in investigating the regulation of cell proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • Many protozoa cause diseases in animals and humans. (study.com)
  • DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of each rodent and PCR was used to identify the DNA of T. gondii . (hindawi.com)
  • Microarrays were developed containing 11,484 PCR products that included a number of known genes and 10,464 random 1 kb genomic DNA fragments. (wustl.edu)
  • The uptake of donor DNA and its recombinational incorporation into the recipient chromosome depends on the expression of numerous bacterial genes whose products direct this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the micronuclear DNA, IESs frequently interrupt coding regions and their precise removal is required to maintain an open reading frame in the transcriptionally active macronuclear genes. (genetics.org)
  • The recombinant Ehmeth has a weak but significant methyltransferase activity when E.histolytica genomic DNA is used as substrate. (nih.gov)
  • [2] [3] The mRNA sequence is determined by the sequence of genomic DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transposable elements (TEs) are fragments of DNA that can move to new genomic locations. (pnas.org)
  • This developmental system is amenable for the study of the role of the kinetoplast DNA in the extensive mitochondrial biogenesis that occurs at this time. (ajtmh.org)
  • This code is also used for the kinetoplast DNA (maxicircles, minicircles). (bioinformatics.org)
  • Apicomplexa, formerly called Sporazoa, is a fourth group of generally obligate parasitic protozoa. (biologyreference.com)
  • Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasitic protozoa infecting the wide variety of hosts and are commonly known as a cause of chronic diarrhea particularly in immunocompromised individuals. (degruyter.com)
  • Over the past 15 years, DNA vaccines have gone from a scientific curiosity to one of the most dynamic research field and may offer new alternatives for the control of parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We review here some of the advances and challenges for the development of DNA vaccines against these diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This compendium has eleven chapters written by leading experts in their field and provides current research information on the molecular biology of parasitic protozoans causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases around the world. (nhbs.com)
  • name- the presence of a microbial agent within a tick does not im- ly, if a DNA sequence is not present in GenBank, surely ply that the tick might transmit it during the course of blood it must represent something novel, the extensive classical feeding or that it is pathogenic. (cdc.gov)
  • In Paramecium, IESs are generally short (28-882 bp), AT rich DNA elements that show few conserved sequence features with the exception of an inverted-terminal-repeat consensus sequence that has similarity to the ends of mariner /Tc1 transposons ( K lobutcher and H errick 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • Analysis of sequence variability in the macronuclear DNA of Paramecium tetraurelia: a somatic view of the germline. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In recent years, genotyping of protozoa has been performed to examine pathogenicity and for epidemiologic analysis. (edu.pl)
  • Some protozoa are encapsulated in cysts, which help them live outside the human body and in harsh environments for long periods of time. (kidshealth.org)
  • Unlike PCR, the LAMP assay does not require purified DNA for efficient DNA amplification, thereby reducing the cost and turnaround time for P. falciparum diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • Transfer the supernatant to a clean, labeled tube and store the DNA sample at 4°C until PCR amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • Store the purified DNA at 4°C until PCR amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA from CBE-stained smears of G. intestinalis, E. histolytica, and P. hominis was amplified, whereas any amplification product could not be obtained from one of three smears of C. mesnili. (edu.pl)
  • Storage term and protozoan number had no association with results of PCR amplification. (edu.pl)
  • Comparative detection of trypanosomal DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and PCR from flinders technology associates cards spotted with patient blood. (curehunter.com)
  • The aims were to evaluate loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of trypanosomal DNA in clinical samples and to characterize the infecting trypanosomes to the subspecies level. (curehunter.com)
  • Standard curve parameters such as, amplification efficiency, coefficient of determination and intercept were evaluated, as well as different procedures to generate standard samples containing pre-established T. cruzi DNA concentration. (curehunter.com)
  • Analysis of an origin of DNA amplification in Sciara coprophila by a novel three-dimensional gel method. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA amplification in DNA puff II/9A of Sciara coprophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At the end of the lesson, you'll be tested on things such as the different types of protozoa and their unique characteristics. (study.com)
  • This parasitic protozoan was found in 1984 in Central and South China and then named as B. orientalis in 1997 based on its differences in transmitting host, morphology, pathogenicity and characteristics of in vitro cultivation when compared with B. bigemina and B. bovis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunogenicity of a multicomponent DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, the present study was initiated to screen bat samples for arthropod-borne protozoa (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida and related groups). (biomedcentral.com)