Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A tick-borne septicemic disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by EHRLICHIA RUMINANTIUM.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A foul-smelling accumulation of SEBUM and desquaminated epidermal cells, especially the cheesy substance found under the foreskin of the penis and at the base of the labia minor near the clitoris.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Telomeric repeats on small polydisperse circular DNA (spcDNA) and genomic instability. (1/5773)

Small polydisperse circular DNA (spcDNA) is a heterogeneous population of extrachromosomal circular molecules present in a large variety of eukaryotic cells. Elevated amounts of total spcDNA are related to endogenous and induced genomic instability in rodent and human cells. We suggested spcDNA as a novel marker for genomic instability, and speculated that spcDNA might serve as a mutator. In this study, we examine the presence of telomeric sequences on spcDNA. We report for the first time the appearance of telomeric repeats in spcDNA molecules (tel-spcDNA) in rodent and human cells. Restriction enzyme analysis indicates that tel-spcDNA molecules harbor mostly, if not exclusively, telomeric repeats. In rodent cells, tel-spcDNA levels are higher in transformed than in normal cells and are enhanced by treatment with carcinogen. Tel-spcDNA is also detected in some human tumors and cell lines, but not in others. We suggest, that its levels in human cells may be primarily related to the amount of the chromosomal telomeric sequences. Tel-spcDNA may serve as a unique mutator, through specific mechanisms related to the telomeric repeats, which distinguish it from the total heterogeneous spcDNA population. It may affect telomere dynamics and genomic instability by clastogenic events, alterations of telomere size and sequestration of telomeric proteins.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/5773)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. (3/5773)

The cytokine profile of atherosclerotic aortas from apoE-deficient mice was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results clearly showed that the expression of mRNA for IL-12p40 was evident in aortas from 3-month-old apoE-deficient mice. The mRNA for IL-10 was detected in aorta from these mice at the age of 6 months, indicating that expression of IL-12 is earlier than that of IL-10 in these animals. Concurrent with IL-12p40, the mRNA for the T-cell cytokine IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, was detected in aortas of mice at young and old ages. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining further demonstrated the localization of IL-12 in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the expression of costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in macrophages, suggesting that activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages may occur via surface antigens in lesions. When the immunoglobulin isotype of the antioxidized LDL antibodies in sera of apoE-deficient mice was determined, it revealed that both IgM and IgG were present. Furthermore, IgG2a is predominant and comprises approximately 50% of the antioxidized LDL IgG in sera from young mice (3 months), but decreased to lower levels (35%) in older mice (6 months). Daily administration of IL-12 led to an increase in serum levels of antioxidized LDL antibodies and accelerated atherosclerosis in young apoE-deficient mice compared with control mice injected with PBS alone. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-12 plays an active role in regulating the immune response during the early phase of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.  (+info)

Species identification and strain differentiation of dermatophyte fungi by analysis of ribosomal-DNA intergenic spacer regions. (4/5773)

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) identified in the ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) repeat were used for molecular strain differentiation of the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum. The polymorphisms were detected by hybridization of EcoRI-digested T. rubrum genomic DNAs with a probe amplified from the small-subunit (18S) rDNA and adjacent internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The rDNA RFLPs mapped to the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) region of the rDNA repeat and appeared similar to those caused by short repetitive sequences in the intergenic spacers of other fungi. Fourteen individual RFLP patterns (DNA types A to N) were recognized among 50 random clinical isolates of T. rubrum. A majority of strains (19 of 50 [38%]) were characterized by one RFLP pattern (DNA type A), and four types (DNA types A to D) accounted for 78% (39 of 50) of all strains. The remaining types (DNA types E to N) were represented by one or two isolates only. A rapid and simple method was also developed for molecular species identification of dermatophyte fungi. The contiguous ITS and 5.8S rDNA regions were amplified from 17 common dermatophyte species by using the universal primers ITS 1 and ITS 4. Digestion of the amplified ITS products with the restriction endonuclease MvaI produced unique and easily identifiable fragment patterns for a majority of species. However, some closely related taxon pairs, such as T. rubrum-T. soudanense and T. quinkeanum-T. schoenlenii could not be distinguished. We conclude that RFLP analysis of the NTS and ITS intergenic regions of the rDNA repeat is a valuable technique both for molecular strain differentiation of T. rubrum and for species identification of common dermatophyte fungi.  (+info)

Identification of Mycobacterium kansasii by using a DNA probe (AccuProbe) and molecular techniques. (5/5773)

The newly formulated Mycobacterium kansasii AccuProbe was evaluated, and the results obtained with the new version were compared to the results obtained with the old version of this test by using 116 M. kansasii strains, 1 Mycobacterium gastri strain, and 19 strains of several mycobacterial species. The sensitivity of this new formulation was 97.4% and the specificity was 100%. Still, three M. kansasii strains were missed by this probe. To evaluate the variability within the species, genetic analyses of the hsp65 gene, the spacer sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, and the 16S rRNA gene of several M. kansasii AccuProbe-positive strains as well as all AccuProbe-negative strains were performed. Genetic analyses of the one M. gastri strain from the comparative assay and of two further M. gastri strains were included because of the identity of the 16S rRNA gene in M. gastri to that in M. kansasii. The data confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of M. kansasii. Furthermore, a subspecies with an unpublished hsp65 restriction pattern and spacer sequence was described. The genetic data indicate that all M. kansasii strains missed by the AccuProbe test belong to one subspecies, the newly described subspecies VI, as determined by the hsp65 restriction pattern and the spacer sequence. Since the M. kansasii strains that are missed are rare and all M. gastri strains are correctly negative, the new formulated AccuProbe provides a useful tool for the identification of M. kansasii.  (+info)

Development and characterization of complex DNA fingerprinting probes for the infectious yeast Candida dubliniensis. (6/5773)

Using a strategy to clone large genomic sequences containing repetitive elements from the infectious yeast Candida dubliniensis, the three unrelated sequences Cd1, Cd24, and Cd25, with respective molecular sizes of 15,500, 10,000, and 16,000 bp, were cloned and analyzed for their efficacy as DNA fingerprinting probes. Each generated a complex Southern blot hybridization pattern with endonuclease-digested genomic DNA. Cd1 generated an extremely variable pattern that contained all of the bands of the pattern generated by the repeat element RPS of Candida albicans. We demonstrated that Cd1 does not contain RPS but does contain a repeat element associated with RPS throughout the C. dubliniensis genome. The Cd1 pattern was the least stable over time both in vitro and in vivo and for that reason proved most effective in assessing microevolution. Cd24, which did not exhibit microevolution in vitro, was highly variable in vivo, suggesting in vivo-dependent microevolution. Cd25 was deemed the best probe for broad epidemiological studies, since it was the most stable over time, was the only truly C. dubliniensis-specific probe of the three, generated the most complex pattern, was distributed throughout all C. dubliniensis chromosomes, and separated a worldwide collection of 57 C. dubliniensis isolates into two distinct groups. The presence of a species-specific repetitive element in Cd25 adds weight to the already substantial evidence that C. dubliniensis represents a bona fide species.  (+info)

Molecular evidence for the existence of additional members of the order Chlamydiales. (7/5773)

Respiratory tract infections in man may be caused by several members of the genus Chlamydia and also by two Chlamydia-like strains, 'Simkania negevensis' (Z-agent) and 'Parachlamydia acanthamoebae' (Bng). To facilitate diagnostic procedures a PCR assay able to detect all known Chlamydiaceae sequences in one reaction was developed. For this purpose, primers were selected to amplify a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Characterization of the amplified fragments was done by hybridization with specific probes and by sequencing. PCR assays were carried out using DNA isolated from nose/throat specimens or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with respiratory tract infections, and from vessel wall specimens of abdominal aneurysms. Six of the 42 nose/throat swab specimens analysed yielded strong bands and one yielded a faint band. Three of these bands were identified as Chlamydia pneumoniae and one as Chlamydia trachomatis by sequencing. Analysis of the three other bands yielded two different new sequences. DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of one patient yielded a third new sequence. DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four healthy controls was negative. One of the abdominal aneurysm specimens also yielded a strong band. Sequencing revealed a fourth new sequence. All negative controls included during specimen processing and PCR analysis remained negative. The typical secondary structure of microbial 16S genes was present in all four new sequences indicating the validity of the sequence data. All four new sequences were distinct from other bacteria and clustered together with known Chlamydiaceae sequences. Phylogenetic analysis suggested a new lineage, separating the four new sequences, 'S. negevensis' and 'P. acanthamoebae' from the genus Chlamydia with the four known chlamydial species. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the existence of several new members of the order Chlamydiales. Since the source of the Chlamydia-like strains has not been identified and serological and/or molecular cross-reactivities may be expected, results of identification of infecting recognized organisms should be interpreted cautiously.  (+info)

Preimplantation diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 13-, 16-, 18-, 21-, 22-, X-, and Y-chromosome probes. (8/5773)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to select the proper chromosomes for preimplantation diagnosis based on aneuploidy distribution in abortuses and to carry out a feasibility study of preimplantation diagnosis for embryos using multiple-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the selected chromosomes of biopsied blastomeres. METHODS: After determining the frequency distribution of aneuploidy found in abortuses, seven chromosomes were selected for FISH probes. Blastomeres were obtained from 33 abnormal or excess embryos. The chromosome complements of both the biopsied blastomeres and the remaining sibling blastomeres in each embryo were determined by FISH and compared to evaluate their preimplantation diagnostic potential. RESULTS: Chromosomes (16, 22, X, Y) and (13, 18, 21) were selected on the basis of the high aneuploid prevalence in abortuses for the former group and the presence of trisomy in the newborn for the latter. Thirty-six (72%) of 50 blastomeres gave signals to permit a diagnosis. Diagnoses made from biopsied blastomeres were consistent with the diagnoses made from the remaining sibling blastomeres in 18 embryos. In only 2 of 20 cases did the biopsied blastomere diagnosis and the embryo diagnosis not match. CONCLUSIONS: If FISH of biopsied blastomere was successful, a preimplantation diagnosis could be made with 10% error. When a combination of chromosome-13, -16, -18, -21, -22, -X, and -Y probes was used, up to 65% of the embryos destined to be aborted could be detected.  (+info)

The disease is characterized by fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, and swelling of the legs, neck, and head. It can progress to renal failure, anemia, and heart failure, leading to death within a few weeks. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, and observation of tick infestation.

Treatment is largely supportive and includes antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infections, fluid therapy, and restoration of electrolyte balance. Prevention involves controlling ticks and using acaricides, as well as vaccination with live or inactivated Cowdria vaccines.

In the medical field, Heartwater disease is a significant economic and public health concern in many parts of the world due to its high mortality rate and potential for transmission to humans through tick bites. It is important for veterinarians and physicians to be aware of this disease and take appropriate measures to prevent and control it.

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

Types of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

1. Turner Syndrome: A condition where a female has only one X chromosome instead of two (45,X).
2. Klinefelter Syndrome: A condition where a male has an extra X chromosome (47,XXY) or an extra Y chromosome (47,XYYY).
3. XXX Syndrome: A rare condition where a female has three X chromosomes instead of two.
4. XYY Syndrome: A rare condition where a male has an extra Y chromosome (48,XYY).
5. Mosaicism: A condition where a person has a mixture of cells with different numbers of sex chromosomes.

Effects of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

Sex chromosome aberrations can cause a range of physical and developmental abnormalities, such as short stature, infertility, and reproductive problems. They may also increase the risk of certain health conditions, including:

1. Congenital heart defects
2. Cognitive impairments
3. Learning disabilities
4. Developmental delays
5. Increased risk of infections and autoimmune disorders

Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

Sex chromosome aberrations can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Karyotyping: A test that involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes.
2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): A test that uses fluorescent probes to detect specific DNA sequences on chromosomes.
3. Chromosomal microarray analysis: A test that looks for changes in the number or structure of chromosomes by analyzing DNA from blood or other tissues.
4. Next-generation sequencing (NGS): A test that analyzes an individual's entire genome to identify specific genetic variations, including sex chromosome aberrations.

Treatment and Management of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

There is no cure for sex chromosome aberrations, but there are various treatments and management options available to help alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include:

1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): To address hormonal imbalances and related symptoms.
2. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): Such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), to help individuals with infertility or pregnancy complications.
3. Prenatal testing: To identify sex chromosome aberrations in fetuses, allowing parents to make informed decisions about their pregnancies.
4. Counseling and support: To help individuals and families cope with the emotional and psychological impact of a sex chromosome abnormality diagnosis.
5. Surgeries or other medical interventions: To address related health issues, such as infertility, reproductive tract abnormalities, or genital ambiguity.

It's important to note that each individual with a sex chromosome aberration may require a unique treatment plan tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. A healthcare provider can work with the individual and their family to develop a personalized plan that takes into account their medical, emotional, and social considerations.

In conclusion, sex chromosome aberrations are rare genetic disorders that can have significant implications for an individual's physical, emotional, and social well-being. While there is no cure for these conditions, advances in diagnostic testing and treatment options offer hope for improving the lives of those affected. With proper medical care, support, and understanding, individuals with sex chromosome aberrations can lead fulfilling lives.

There are several types of diarrhea, including:

1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.

Symptoms of diarrhea may include:

* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Headache
* Fatigue and weakness

Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea

Complications of diarrhea can include:

* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.

Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.

Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.

There are several types of aneuploidy, including:

1. Trisomy: This is the presence of an extra copy of a chromosome. For example, Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21).
2. Monosomy: This is the absence of a chromosome.
3. Mosaicism: This is the presence of both normal and abnormal cells in the body.
4. Uniparental disomy: This is the presence of two copies of a chromosome from one parent, rather than one copy each from both parents.

Aneuploidy can occur due to various factors such as errors during cell division, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or inheritance of an abnormal number of chromosomes from one's parents. The risk of aneuploidy increases with age, especially for women over the age of 35, as their eggs are more prone to errors during meiosis (the process by which egg cells are produced).

Aneuploidy can be diagnosed through various methods such as karyotyping (examining chromosomes under a microscope), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or quantitative PCR. Treatment for aneuploidy depends on the underlying cause and the specific health problems it has caused. In some cases, treatment may involve managing symptoms, while in others, it may involve correcting the genetic abnormality itself.

In summary, aneuploidy is a condition where there is an abnormal number of chromosomes present in a cell, which can lead to various developmental and health problems. It can occur due to various factors and can be diagnosed through different methods. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and the specific health problems it has caused.

https://www.medicinenet.com › Medical Dictionary › G

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Definition & Facts | Britannica
https://www.britannica.com › science › Genetic-tr...

Genetic translocation, also called chromosomal translocation, a type of chromosomal aberration in which a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material. Genetic translocations are often found in cancer cells and may play a role in the development and progression of cancer.

Translocation, Genetic | health Encyclopedia - UPMC
https://www.upmc.com › health-library › gene...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Genetics Home Reference - NIH
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov › condition › ge...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

In conclusion, Genetic Translocation is an abnormality in the number or arrangement of chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome, resulting in a gain or loss of genetic material that can have significant effects on the individual.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

Symptoms of gonorrhea in men include:

* A burning sensation when urinating
* Discharge from the penis
* Painful or swollen testicles
* Painful urination

Symptoms of gonorrhea in women include:

* Increased vaginal discharge
* Painful urination
* Painful intercourse
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding

Gonorrhea can be diagnosed through a physical exam and laboratory tests, such as a urine test or a swab of the affected area. It is typically treated with antibiotics.

If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause serious complications, including:

* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women
* Epididymitis (inflammation of the tube that carries sperm) in men
* Infertility
* Chronic pain
* Increased risk of HIV transmission

Gonorrhea is a reportable disease, meaning that healthcare providers are required by law to report cases to public health authorities. This helps to track and prevent the spread of the infection.

Prevention methods for gonorrhea include:

* Safe sex practices, such as using condoms or dental dams
* Avoiding sexual contact with someone who has gonorrhea
* Getting regularly tested for STIs
* Using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention

It is important to note that gonorrhea can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms even if they have the infection. Therefore, regular testing is important for early detection and treatment.

Sigma Life Science provides products such as custom DNA/RNA oligos; custom DNA and LNA probes; siRNA; isotopically-labelled ...
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2012) "Labeling of DNA Probes by Nick Translation". Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Park, K; Kim, J; Lim, S; Han, S; ... There are many different types of FISH probes available, such as repeat probes, probes that detect specific genes or telomeres ... CISH probes are approximately 20 nucleotides in length and are designed for DNA targets. They are complementary to the targeted ... Probe design for CISH is very similar to that for FISH with differences only in labelling and detection. FISH probes are ...
Anneal probe to genomic target DNA Probes are added to the genomic DNA sample. After a denaturation followed by an annealing ... Exonuclease treatment removes these non-reacted probes as well as any remaining linear DNA in the reaction. Probe release In ... If array-based approach is used, the probe may optionally contain a probe-specific tag that uniquely identifies the probe as ... a number of factors should be considered when designing probes: The sequences of the probe that are complementary to the DNA ...
"Array-based electrical detection of DNA with nanoparticle probes". Science. 295 (5559): 1503-1506. doi:10.1126/science.1067003 ... When strands of DNA bins to the oligonucleotides it closes a gap between two electrodes, changing the conductivity. She worked ... Her research was the first to show that DNA could be used to form nanoparticle assemblies with tuneable inter-particle ... Her doctoral research on the physical properties of DNA-linked nanoparticles was awarded the American Chemical Society Nobel ...
The multicolour probes attach to a certain DNA fragment. MLPA is a test that finds and records DNA copy change numbers through ... Lastly, EHMT1 sequencing is a process in which a single-strand of DNA from the EHMT1 gene is removed, and DNA polymerase is ... The geneticists examined how a missense mutation would affect the function of the DNA by looking at DNA models. After, they ... tracks chromosome deletions and or amplifications using fluorescent dyes on genomic sequences of DNA samples. The DNA samples ( ...
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Kilvington, Simon; Beeching, John (June 1995). "Identification and Epidemiological Typing of Naegleria fowleri with DNA Probes ...
Commercial DNA probe hybridization tests (e.g., AccuProbe Streptococcus pneumoniae culture identification test; Gen-Probe, San ...
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Didenko, Vladimir V. (November 2001). "DNA Probes Using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET): Designs and Applications ... ADAR1 DNA supercoil E3L Mechanical properties of DNA Proteopedia Z-DNA Satellite DNA Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) Zuotin ... Z-DNA is thought to be one of three biologically active double-helical structures along with A-DNA and B-DNA. Left-handed DNA ... Z-DNA is quite different from the right-handed forms. In fact, Z-DNA is often compared against B-DNA in order to illustrate the ...
"Deletion mapping of human chromosome 5 using chromosome-specific DNA probes". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 37 (5): 839-52. PMC 1684692. ...
Zhang J, Smaga LP, Satyavolu NS, Chan J, Lu Y (December 2017). "DNA Aptamer-Based Activatable Probes for Photoacoustic Imaging ... An mRNA molecule transfers a portion of the DNA code to other parts of the cell for making proteins. DNA therapeutics needs ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to one of the DNA strands of a gene. ... Broadly, aptamers are small molecules composed of either single-stranded DNA or RNA and are typically 20-100 nucleotides in ...
Chin made the same algorithm-based obvious argument in DNA probes. Google and other technology companies founded the LOT ... Gene Probes are Unpatentable Printed Matter. Fed. Cir. BJ, 20, p.527. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original ... For example, a Professor of Law at the University of North Carolina School of Law, has demonstrated a method to protect DNA ... A. Chin.Artful prior art and the quality of DNA patents. Ala. L. Rev. 57 (2005): 975. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) ...
"DNA tests probe the genomic ancestry of Brazilians". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 42 (10): 870-876. ... According to an autosomal DNA study from 2010, a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, ... Similar DNA tests showed that people self-classified as Mulatto or White and Black mix, span from 62% to 85% European (mostly ... DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo. .folha.uol.com.br (1970-01-01). Retrieved on 2012-05-19. De Assis Poiares, ...
DNA tests probe the genomic ancestry of Brazilians. Introduction, first paragraph.: Little is known about the number of ... Pena, S. D. J.; Bastos-Rodrigues, L.; Pimenta, J. R.; Bydlowski, S. P. (October 1, 2009). "DNA tests probe the genomic ancestry ... "An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European ... Analyzing their mitochondrial DNA, that comes from female ancestors though maternal line, 85% of them have at least a female ...
These are known as capture probe DNA molecules. Next, an extender DNA molecule is added. Each extender has two domains; one ... The branching of the DNA allows for very dense decorating of the DNA with the enzyme, which is important for the high ... This results in a base peppered with capture probes, which are hybridized to extender probes, which in turn are hybridized to ... Several different short single-stranded DNA molecules (oligonucleotides) are used in a branched DNA-assay. The capture and ...
The immobilized RNA is then probed using DNA. (1996) Eastern-western blot was first used by Bogdanov et al. The method involved ... This could be seen as similar to a Southern blot, however the interaction is between a DNA molecule (the aptamer) and a protein ... The membrane is then probed with antibodies for epitopes of interest. This method has also been discussed in later work by the ... in that they use lectin probes and other staining reagents. (2009) Eastern blot has been used to describe a blot of proteins on ...
Pena, S.D.J.; Bastos-Rodrigues, L.; Pimenta, J.R.; Bydlowski, S.P. (11 September 2009). "DNA tests probe the genomic ancestry ... The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in all human beings and passed down through the maternal line, i.e. the mother of a ... The mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome suffer only minor mutations through centuries, thus can be used to establish the ... Another study (autosomal DNA study, from 2010) found out that European ancestry predominates in the Brazilian population as a ...
ISBN 0-7506-3083-3. Pena, S.D.J.; Bastos-Rodrigues, L.; Pimenta, J.R.; Bydlowski, S.P. (11 September 2009). "DNA tests probe ...
Pena, S.D.J.; Bastos-Rodrigues, L.; Pimenta, J.R.; Bydlowski, S.P. (11 September 2009). "DNA tests probe the genomic ancestry ... This is consistent with the estimate based on Y-chromosomal DNA, which places the split between ca. 806-447 kya. In terms of ... In human mitochondrial genetics, L is the mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup that is at the root of the anatomically modern ... Alvarez L, Santos C, Ramos A, Pratdesaba R, Francalacci P, Aluja MP (August 2010). "Mitochondrial DNA patterns in the Iberian ...
French, DJ; Archard, CL; Brown, T; McDowell, DG (December 2001). "HyBeacon probes: a new tool for DNA sequence detection and ... He is best known for his contribution in the field of DNA Repair, DNA Click chemistry, and in the application of Molecular ... In early part of his academic career, Brown studied base-pair mismatch and DNA repair. Later he worked on the mutagenic effect ... "First Swine Flu DNA Test Produced". Science Daily. 10 May 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2016. "Healthcare Company Novacyt Launches ...
DOI: 10.1007/BF00277052 Anamthawat-Jónsson K, Reader SM (1995). Preannealing of total genomic DNA probes for simultaneous ... Discrimination between closely related Triticeae species using genomic DNA as a probe. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 79: 721 ... and their triploid hybrids in Iceland inferred from cp-DNA haplotype variation. Journal of Biogeography 37: 2098-2110. DOI: ... Isolation and characterization of genome-specific DNA sequences in Triticeae species. Molecular and General Genetics 240: 151- ...
Conversely, LNA-incorporated probes demonstrated increased hybridization efficiency in both DNA and RNA. The improved ... Phusion DNA polymerase, a commercially designed enzyme based on a Pfu DNA polymerase, efficiently incorporates LNA into DNA. ... LNA can be incorporated into DNA and RNA using the promiscuity of certain DNA and RNA polymerases. ... "Improved in situ hybridization efficiency with locked-nucleic-acid-incorporated DNA probes". Applied and Environmental ...
"Grand Masti faces probe for loose talks - Entertainment - DNA". Daily News and Analysis. 17 September 2013. Retrieved 26 ... "With Grand Masti, John Day and Horror Story lined up for release, enjoy a mix of genres this weekend - Entertainment - DNA". ... "Here comes Grand Masti part3 - Entertainment - DNA". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Wikimedia Commons has ... "Grand Masti laughter gives youth heart attack, dies - Entertainment - DNA". Daily News and Analysis. 22 September 2013. ...
David Zhang, Juexiao Sherry Wang (2015). "Simulation-guided DNA probe design for consistently ultraspecific hybridization". ... single-stranded probe or primer molecules capture DNA or RNA target molecules of complementary strands. Therefore, the design ... "Conditionally fluorescent molecular probes for detecting single base changes in double-stranded DNA". Nature Chemistry. 5 (9): ... Yin's group concluded that discrimination factors of these probes were between 3 and 100 + with the median 26. The probes ...
The DNA within the condoms also did not match Laude's DNA. The cause of death was reported as "asphyxiation by drowning". ... "Demand attendance of 4 US Marines in Laude death probe, DFA, DOJ told". GMA News. Per Liljas. "Philippines: Transgender Murder ... "Pemberton, Laude DNA don't match those in condoms: lawyer". ABS-CBN News. Trefor Moss (October 19, 2014). "U.S. Won't Surrender ... "DNA samples in Laude case do not match Pemberton's". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 28, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014 ...
On January 15, some members of the Jat community protested to start a fresh probe. The court ordered the Central Bureau of ... "Dog's barking triggered Mirchpur Dalit killings, reveals 209-page verdict". DNA India. 2018-08-24. Retrieved 2020-10-29. " ...
The probe previously found that weak law enforcements and laws that being broken as the main cause of the tragedy in addition ... which it was confirmed as part of the missing victims through DNA report on 6 February as the body have become decomposed. The ... "Sabah probe shows sunken tourist catamaran left from unsanctioned jetty". The Malay Mail. Today Online. 31 January 2017. ... Dina Murad (30 January 2017). "Najib orders full probe into Sabah boat mishap". The Star. Retrieved 30 January 2017. "Sabah CM ...
When a pollinator probes a male stage flower for nectar, (pushing the posterior anther theca) the lever causes the stamens to ... Through DNA sequencing, Salvia was shown to not be monophyletic but to consist of three separate clades (Salvia clades I-III) ...
"Investigators probe incitement to suicide in self-immolation attempt at United Russia public center in Novosibirsk (Part 2)". ... "Student commits suicide for Telangana, Osmania Univ tense". dna. Retrieved December 20, 2014. "Party officials removed after ... "Police Probe Self-Immolation Act In Ruling Party's Office In Siberia". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. July 18, 2012. Retrieved ...
Farouk Arnaz (July 25, 2019). "Tes DNA, Polri Temukan Keluarga Terduga Pengebom Gereja Filipina" [DNA Test, Polri Found ... "MNLF urges govt: Talk with rebels in Jolo church blast probe". ABS-CBN News. January 28, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019. ... Through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) test by Indonesian police, the deceased couple family were able to be traced as both being ... A senior counter-terror source in Jakarta told BenarNews that there were no DNA profile of the couple, no finger prints ...
"Demand for CBI probe into Zaheera's u-turn". The Hindu. 13 November 2004. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 4 ... Sources like The Times of India and DNA reported Indian Shia population during that period between 40,000,000 to 50,000,000 of ...
comparing non-coding DNA to a woman's lifetime exposure to estrogen can now determine a woman's probability of developing ... More invasive prenatal methods are slightly more risky for the fetus and involve needles or probes being inserted into the ... However, comprehensive genetic testing (such as through the use of DNA arrays or full genome sequencing) allows for the ... Collins, F. The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine. Harper, 2010. Brigham, K. Predictive Health ...
... 슈퍼 DNA로 나선다 mk 23 Dec 2021 이천수, 딸 이주은 펜싱 소질에 "국가대표까지"→남현희 호출+잔소리(살림남2) Newsen 15 May 2022 은퇴하는 '괴짜검객' 최병철 "올림픽 메달에 별명까지, 감사했습니다 ... Jeon was probed by the culture ministry and related sports authorities in 2018 over allegations that he helped cover up sexual ...
DNA analysis was used to estimate how many colonies these individuals came from. Brown, Lesley; Stevenson, Angus (2007). ... The longer the tongue, the deeper the bumblebee can probe into a flower and bees probably learn from experience which flower ...
The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario is the world's first centre for high-volume DNA barcoding-the rapid identification of ... Doyle, Michael (February 25, 2020). "University of Guelph faculty demand transparent probe into school's handling of Scott- ...
An Environment-Sensitive Fluorescence-Lifetime Probe for DNA Interactions and Applications in Live-Cell Microscopy". Angew. ... In the field of chemical biology, Hocek and his laboratories have developed a simple two-step synthesis of base-modified DNA ... The methodology is widely used for enzymatic synthesis of DNA or RNA-bearing fluorescent, redox, or reactive labels, as well as ... Dadová J, Orság P, Pohl R, Brázdová M, Fojta M, Hocek M (2013). "Vinylsulfonamide and Acrylamide Modification of DNA for ...
"Justice for Madani Forum demands NIA probe in Bangalore blast case". DNA India. 18 September 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2020 ... "Conspiracy to kill RSS ideologue: No interference in probe, says crime branch". The Times of India. 14 February 2017. Retrieved ... should be probed by any agency outside the state of Karnataka, preferably by the National Investigation Agency. There are a ...
"List of lunar impact events" (PDF). Amos, Jonathan (27 October 2022). "Nasa space probes document big impacts on Mars". BBC ... Stanley-Becker, Isaac (15 October 2018). "Stephen Hawking feared race of 'superhumans' able to manipulate their own DNA". The ...
For example, the stability of DNA with respect to the UV irradiation is due to such conical intersection. The molecular wave ... Farag, M. H.; T. L. C. Jansen; J. Knoester (2016). "Probing the Inter-State Coupling near a Conical Intersection by Optical ... "Intrinsic Lifetimes of the Excited State of DNA and RNA Bases". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (44): 12958-12959. doi:10.1021/ja027627x ... vision and the photostability of DNA. The conical intersection involving the ground electronic state potential energy surface ...
Victoria Ahearn, "Canadian director and Samuel L. Jackson probe transatlantic slave trade in 'Enslaved'". CP24, October 16, ... Jackson to reconnect with his African heritage through DNA testing, diving projects to locate and recover shipwrecks in which ...
Small molecules may present a better way to target RNA and subsequently DNA because they can be designed to be more "drug-like ... "Using Genome Sequence to Enable the Design of Medicines and Chemical Probes". Chemical Reviews. 118 (4): 1599-1663. doi:10.1021 ... In 2009, the Zimmerman group discovered a compound to target the trinucleotide repeat expanded RNA and DNA that cause DM1. ... Traditionally, RNA was thought to be a mediator between DNA sequence-encoded instructions and functional protein. However, ...
He seeks to create a superior generation of his New Men by using mutant DNA, mutating humans into beast-like beings, instead of ... Deadpool's face is also seen in a flashback while Professor X is probing the mind of Sabretooth. In the "Phoenix Saga," an evil ... Sinister genetically modified her with Magneto's DNA. Later on, she joins the Nasty Boys who were also working for Mr. Sinister ...
Saliva samples and the DNA results connected him to the murder of Janene Weinhold. That murder connected him to the others by ... Platte, Mark (15 March 1991). "Health Club Link Probed in Serial Slayings". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 December 2014. ... Prince was tied to her murder through DNA testing. Her parents donated money to purchase playground equipment at the South ... Montes, Eduardo (16 January 1991). "Slayings probe focuses on alleged rapist". Ocala Star-Banner. Associated Press. Retrieved ...
Except for one study in Europe, much of the data implicating lizards is based on DNA detection of the spirochete and has not ... Molecular and Cellular Probes. 31: 22-27. doi:10.1016/j.mcp.2016.08.003. PMID 27523487. Stanek G, Reiter M (April 2011). "The ... The 2010 autopsy of Ötzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old mummy, revealed the presence of the DNA sequence of Borrelia burgdorferi ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ...
Thorpe, Vanessa (January 30, 2010). "The 'only son' of Orson Welles to take DNA test". Archived from the original on October 19 ... brought low by homosexual scandal-and the Italian journalist probing for the truth of the relationship between these men. ... Lindsay-Hogg initiated a DNA test that proved inconclusive. In his 2011 autobiography, Lindsay-Hogg reported that his questions ...
To build an item outside the vessel, the Maker relies on a special probe mounted on the underside of the starship. It is the ... Icon's lifepod altered his DNA so he would resemble a normal human being, thus enabling him to blend among Earth's natives. A ... probe that facilitates the Maker repairing or remodeling Icon's possessions over great distances. Icon has often employed this ...
Now Met Police probes 'The Sun' after union chief raises concerns, The Independent, 9 February 2011 Tara Conlan (5 July 2011 ... "DNA may solve killing that shamed Met", The Guardian. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 9 July 2011. Nick Davies. "Jonathan Rees' ... The man is the sixth person to be arrested in the UK under the News International-related legal probe, Operation Elveden. The ... 26 April 2012: Ofcom probe moves from a monitoring phase to an "evidence gathering" phase. 3 May 2012: Police arrest a retired ...
... but follow up with a DNA B probe has provided negative results. This mosaic disease may be a new strain of ICMV affecting J. ...
Plotkin LL, Labutin AL, Lebedev LV, Khanukov LA, Zelikson OS (1975). "[Balloon probe for the removal of emboli and thrombi]". ... June 1998). "Recruitment of octamer transcription factors to DNA by glucocorticoid receptor". Molecular and Cellular Biology. ... DNA-binding domain (DBD) D - hinge region E - ligand-binding domain (LBD) F - C-terminal domain In the absence of hormone, the ... DNA and Cell Biology. 23 (4): 193-205. doi:10.1089/104454904773819789. PMID 15142377. Lu NZ, Cidlowski JA (June 2004). "The ...
However, DNA profiling completed later that year excluded Garecht as a possibility; the bones believed to have been hers were ... Lee, Henry K. (March 10, 2015). "Speed Freak Killers investigators stymied kidnap probe, suit says". San Francisco Chronicle. ... "DNA Results Of Commingled Remains Of Speed Freak Killers' Victims Released". CBS Sacramento. Sacramento, California. January 9 ... While bone fragments discovered in one of Herzog and Shermantine's disposal sites was thought to belong to Garecht, DNA ...
Nevertheless, the US researchers were able to isolate the pathogen's DNA and piece together its entire genome, comparing it ... The scientist had charmed, wrangled, and nagged politicians on two continents from 1979 to 1992 for permission to probe a ... The samples had been fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin and the DNA was, as a result, badly degraded. ...
Gössl, Illdiko; Shu, Lijin; Schlüter, A. Dieter; Rabe, Jürgen P. (2002-06-01). "Molecular Structure of Single DNA Complexes ... employing scanning probe microscopies, light, and molecularly modified graphite surfaces, which has been used to correlate ...
A semen sample was found on the maid's shirt, and on 24 May it was reported that DNA tests showed a match to a DNA sample ... "French Strauss-Kahn sex assault probe dropped". Reuters. 13 October 2011. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved ... "Dominique Strauss-Kahn DNA 'linked to maid'". BBC News. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 21 ... "French prosecutor drops Strauss-Kahn 'gang rape' probe". CNN. 2 October 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. ...
The device can also be used to test the DNA of crew members to monitor their health and bodily reactions to space station ... This is different from a space probe, whose missions are to conduct scientific investigations. Automated cargo spacecraft have ... Biomolecule Sequencer A biomolecule sequencer is a tool that can be used by crew members to sequence the DNA of microorganisms ... Before the production of the biomolecule sequencer, DNA sequencing was limited to Earth because of the equipment and materials ...
Workshop on DNA Probes and PCR for Detection of Filarial Parasites in Vectors, New England Biolabs, Beverly, Massachusetts, USA ... Workshop on DNA Probes and PCR for Detection of Filarial Parasites in Vectors (‎1993 : Beverly, Massachusetts, USA)‎ (‎World ... Workshop on DNA Diagnostics and Filariasis and Symposium on Filariasis and Onchocerciasis, Jakarta, Indonesia, 18-20 December ... UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases; Workshop on DNA Diagnostics and ...
High Salt Lysates: a Simple Method to Store Blood Samples Without Refrigeration for Subsequent Use with DNA Probes published ... Blood specimens to be tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum using specific DNA probes can be stored as high salt ... High Salt Lysates: a Simple Method to Store Blood Samples Without Refrigeration for Subsequent Use with DNA Probes ... of the parasite DNA in the supernatant. The reduced protein content of the samples, when applied to solid supports, results in ...
A citologia convencional apresenta importantes limitações em relação a sua sensibilidade e cobertura populacional, o que limita a maior redução das taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo do útero. Por estas razões ...
DNA probes : applications in genetic and infectious disease and cancer / edited by Leonard S. Lerman. Contributor(s): Lerman, ... DNA -- diagnostic use , Genetic diseases, Inborn -- diagnosis , Communicable diseases -- diagnosis , Neoplasms -- diagnosisNLM ...
2023-2028 Global and Regional DNA Probes Industry Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report Standard Version ... 7.1 Europe DNA Probes Consumption and Value Analysis 7.1.1 Europe DNA Probes Market Under COVID-19 7.2 Europe DNA Probes ... 11.1 Africa DNA Probes Consumption and Value Analysis 11.1.1 Africa DNA Probes Market Under COVID-19 11.2 Africa DNA Probes ... Chapter 12 Oceania DNA Probes Market Analysis 12.1 Oceania DNA Probes Consumption and Value Analysis 12.2 Oceania DNA Probes ...
A SpectrumOrange-labeled probe specific for the alpha satellite (centromeric) region, 8p11.1-q11.1. For use with FISH testing. ... Each CEP 8 SpectrumOrange DNA Probe Kit includes:. *CEP 8 SpectrumOrange alpha satellite DNA for centromere region 8p11.1-q11.1 ... The Vysis CEP 8 SpectrumOrange DNA Probe Kit is a SpectrumOrange labeled probe specific for the alpha satellite (centromeric) ... The CEP 8 SpectrumOrange DNA Probe Kit is available for in vitro diagnostic use and may be used as an adjunct to standard ...
DNA/análise DNA/genética Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA Dinamarca Humanos Recém-Nascido/sangue Programas de Rastreamento/ ... Detecting 22q11.2 deletions by use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on DNA from neonatal dried blood spot ... It is thereby concluded that the novel MLPA probe design is successful and reliable using minimal amounts of DNA. This allows ... However, the DNA concentration necessary for a standard MLPA analysis (20 ng) could not be attained from DBSS, and a novel MLPA ...
In particular, DNA origami offers precise organization of nucleic acids that enables the construction of both 2D and 3D ... Here we show a high resolution tapping mode AFM image of a 2D DNA origami rectangle in a TAE buffer obtained using an encased ... To visualize the detailed structure of DNA origami assemblies, gentle imaging conditions are required. ...
DNA Probes. There are two U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, commercially available nucleic acid amplification ... These tests are able to differentiate the DNA of different species of M. tuberculosis, also called DNA fingerprinting or ... The second approved probe is the amplified M. tuberculosis direct (Hologic Amplified MTD) test, which uses transcription- ... Using genotyping, researchers have shown that each strain has a distinct DNA fingerprint and that all samples sharing the same ...
Protocols are presented for DNA purification, probe construction, probe labeling, and DNA array hybridizations. ... labeling of DNA probes is combined with the possibility of detecting several different probes simultaneously by DNA array ... Protocols for 16S rDNA Array Analyses of Microbial Communities by Sequence-Specific Labeling of DNA Probes. ... Protocols for 16S rDNA Array Analyses of Microbial Communities by Sequence-Specific Labeling of DNA Probes. ...
DNA probes (AccuProbe and GenoType line-probe assays [Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany]) were used. Because MAC was not ... DNA probes (AccuProbe; Hologic Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA) were used for speciation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and M ...
Electrochemical methods for probing DNA damage mechanisms and designing cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy ... Electrochemical methods for probing DNA damage mechanisms and designing cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. ... Cisplatincombination therapyDNA damageelectrochemical analysisreduced graphene oxideChemotherapyCancer Cell Biology ...
By preloading probes in Thermus thermophilus Argonaute (TtAgo), miRNAs detection speed is accelerated by more than 20 times. ... 1g), TtAgo-loaded DNA probes exhibited significantly increased binding rates of DNA probes compared to bare DNA probes; ... of bare DNA probes (red) and TtAgo-loaded DNA probes (black). i Comparison of dissociation rate constants (koff) of bare DNA ... To obtain kon and koff of Ago-loaded DNA probes, 10 min imaging time was used. To obtain kon and koff of bare DNA probes, 1 h ...
A novel means to develop strain-specific DNA probes for detecting bacteria in the environment. Pristine environments harbor a ... Results reveal that the probes can be developed and utilized without prior knowledge of the host strain and that DNA probe ... A novel means to develop strain-specific DNA probes for detecting bacteria in the environment. Article Abstract:. The means to ... develop strain-specific DNA probes for detecting bacteria in the environment was examined using the polymerase chain reaction ( ...
dna probe, nucleic acid amplification, chlamydia 510(k) Number. K962217. Device Name. GEN-PROBE AMPLIFIED CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS ...
"I challenge Israel to bring the suspects there in order to undergo a DNA test and compare them with the samples we have," he ... Australian investigators arrived in Israel last week in order to probe the use of Australian passports belonging to three ... Interpol secretary-general says Dubai polices thorough probe has established clear link between passport records, security ... although the Dubai police insist that they have obtained DNA samples of the assassins. Police chief Dhahi Khalfan Tamim on ...
Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. ... Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing. In: FEMS Microbiology ... Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing. / Cébron, Aurélie; Bodrossy ... title = "Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing", ...
Iadna-dna/rna probe tq 6-11 Group 2. (1 Code) Group 2 Paragraph Note: Providers are reminded to refer to the long descriptors ...
DNA Extraction. *. DNA Probes. *. DNA Viral Testing. *. Environmental Controls. *. Environmental Monitoring, Controls. ...
Resolution of mitochondrial DNA mixtures using a probe capture next generation sequencing system and phylogenetic-based ... Resolution of mitochondrial DNA mixtures using a probe capture next generation sequencing system and phylogenetic-based ... Mitochondrial DNA. Use Search Filters Select Filters. Type - Any -. Content (All). Media (All). Article. Award. Event. Funding ... Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in the emerging field of massively parallel sequencing Date Published ...
Withdraw the swab and place it in the appropriate transport medium (culture, EIA, or DNA probe testing) or use the swab to ... Nucleic Acid Hybridization Tests (DNA Probe). Nucleic acid hybridization methods can be used for the diagnosis of chlamydial ... In the hybridization assay, a chemiluminescent DNA probe that is complimentary to a specific sequence of C. trachomatis ... DNA} probe testing) or prepare a slide (direct fluorescent antibody {DFA} testing). The following guidelines are recommended ...
DNA test by nose swap probe at hospital in flat design vector. Covid-19 coronavirus testing carried out by a medical ... DNA test by nose swap probe at hospital in flat design vector. pap smear stock illustrations. ... Swab stick - equipment for dna testing Swab stick with test tube - equipment for dna testing samples pap smear stock ...
The labeled DNA probe combines with amplicon to form stable RNA: DNA hybrids. The Selection Reagent differentiates hybridized ... The GEN-PROBE TMA reaction replicates a specific region of the small ribosomal subunit from trichomonas vaginalis via DNA and ... A single-stranded chemiluminescent DNA probe, which is complementary to a region of the target amplicon, is labeled with ... During the detection step, light emitted from the labeled RNA: DNA hybrids is measured as photon signals in a luminometer, and ...
Charles Grassleys aides has been targeted by the FBI in a probe related to an April health care announcement. ... New Threat To Privacy? Scientists Sound Alarm About DNA Tool. * How The Border Crisis May Affect Biden 2024 Campaign. ... FBI Insider Trading Probe Targets Senator Grassleys Aide. By Amrutha Gayathri @AmruthaGayathri 06/11/13 AT 6:43 AM EDT. ... As part of a widening insider trading probe that involves the U.S. Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation is trying to ...
Research in the Delaney Laboratory probes the chemistry and biology of DNA damage repair. We are particularly interested in ... Our research is focused on the determination of mechanisms of formation and repair of DNA damage and its role in mutagenic and ... Research in the Deaconescu lab is centered on bacterial mechanisms involved in responses to stress signals, particularly DNA ... To visualize signal transduction events, we design and generate novel fluorescent probes using molecular biology techniques, ...
Rare Quadruple-Helix DNA Found in Living Human Cells With Glowing Probes ... A New Twist on DNA Origami: Meta-DNA Structures Transform the DNA Nanotechnology World ... High Capacity DNA Data Storage: Could All Your Digital Photos Be Stored As DNA? ... Studying linear DNA does not capture this phenomenon, but our supercoiled minicircles reveal these dynamic properties of DNA as ...
DNA、. 抗原及抗体) 扩增型 扩增性 时刻;. 随机;. 随意;. 瞬间 核糖核酸;. Ribonucleic acid 猪的 猪科 猪科的 经过扩增的 脱氧核糖核酸探针. ... Probe.amp.tar. Additional Names. Short Name. PRRSV European RNA Spec Ql NAA+probe. Display Name. PRRSV European strain RNA NAA+ ... Synonyms: probe.amp.tar. ru-RU. Russian (Russian Federation). Свиного репродуктивного и респираторного синдрома вирус ... PRRSV European strain RNA [Presence] in Specimen by NAA with probe
A communication source for sharing mutants, strains, molecular probes, DNA libraries, antisera, etc. *** Opportunities for ...
  • DNA stores a cell's genetic information in a stable and protected form that is readily accessible for the cell to carry on its activities," said corresponding author Dr. Lynn Zechiedrich, Kyle and Josephine Morrow Chair in molecular virology and microbiology at Baylor. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The parasite DNA was found to be undegraded, as shown by the unaltered pattern of repetitive sequences obtained after storage of up to 1 month at 37°C, due to the inhibition of DNA degrading enzymes by the cesium salt. (ajtmh.org)
  • The means to develop strain-specific DNA probes for detecting bacteria in the environment was examined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of target sequences. (readabstracts.com)
  • The openings expose that particular DNA code, making it accessible to proteins looking for specific sequences to interact with the DNA, for instance, to repair it or make a copy of it. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Our findings stimulate future work on how DNA may use its shape to govern accessibility to specific sequences in a variety of situations, like in response to drugs, infection or points in the cell cycle. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Fluorescently labeled probes detect the amount of specific double-stranded DNA sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • The RAPD (Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA) allows the amplification of DNA sequences and is a simple and quick technique that does not require prior knowledge on the genomes to characterize organisms, using one randomly determined (usually a decamer) primer 17 . (bvsalud.org)
  • RNA or DNA) sequences of interest in organisms present in a clinical specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • The universally conserved regions are used for PCR amplification primers, while the variable regions are used for the specific probes. (nofima.com)
  • Microelectrophoretic approaches borrow microfabrication techniques from the semiconductor industry to miniaturize and integrate the amplification, purification and electrophoretic sequencing of DNA. (nature.com)
  • The GEN-PROBE APTIMA trichomonas vaginalis assay combines the technologies of target capture, Transcription-Mediated Amplification (TMA), and Dual Kinetic Assay (DKA). (cdc.gov)
  • A technique that amplifies (copies) DNA or RNA segments, in Amplification (NAA) order to directly identify microorganisms in sputum specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • In these protocols, the specificity obtained by sequence-specific labeling of DNA probes is combined with the possibility of detecting several different probes simultaneously by DNA array hybridization. (nofima.com)
  • DNA was extracted using the alkaline-lysis and the production of extended-spectrum - method of Birnboim and Doly [16] and was lactamases by multidrug resistant E.coli has used in dot blot hybridization. (who.int)
  • Blood specimens to be tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum using specific DNA probes can be stored as high salt lysates (HSL) without refrigeration. (ajtmh.org)
  • The Vysis CEP 8 SpectrumOrange DNA Probe Kit is a SpectrumOrange labeled probe specific for the alpha satellite (centromeric) region, 8p11.1-q11.1. (molecular.abbott)
  • In multi-site clinical trials, the CEP 8 SpectrumOrange DNA Probe Kit for interphase analysis was 96% sensitive and 98% specific as compared to traditional cytogenetic analysis. (molecular.abbott)
  • A novel means to develop strain-specific DNA probes for detecting bacteria in the environment. (readabstracts.com)
  • The stress can promote the separation of the strands of the double helix at specific distant sites, exposing the DNA bases, which may facilitate repair, replication, transcription, or other aspects of DNA function. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The GEN-PROBE TMA reaction replicates a specific region of the small ribosomal subunit from trichomonas vaginalis via DNA and RNA intermediates and generates RNA amplicon molecules. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, in our study, E. coli complex, multi-factorial mechanism involv- isolates from diarrhoeal cases were ana- ing a large number of virulence factors that lysed using specific DNA probes for genes vary with pathotype. (who.int)
  • Specific probes bind to the DNA, in order to determine what type of polio present. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • A single-stranded chemiluminescent DNA probe, which is complementary to a region of the target amplicon, is labeled with different acridinium ester molecule. (cdc.gov)
  • A piece of single-stranded nucleic acid that hybridizes specifically to the complementary sequence of RNA or DNA in the sample. (cdc.gov)
  • These aim to reduce the cost of DNA sequencing by several orders of magnitude. (nature.com)
  • Nearly three decades have passed since the invention of electrophoretic methods for DNA sequencing. (nature.com)
  • During the detection step, light emitted from the labeled RNA: DNA hybrids is measured as photon signals in a luminometer, and are reported as Relative Light Units (RLU). (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of PCR products in real time can be accomplished by using fluorescent dyes or probes. (cdc.gov)
  • While fluorescent dyes detect only the amount of double-stranded DNA, in this video we are going to look at the principles behind fluorescent dye-based detection method. (cdc.gov)
  • We propose that variations in these novel DNA shapes could have potential nanotechnology applications, such as gene therapy. (scitechdaily.com)
  • We examined DNA methylation levels at more than 472,506 CpG probes through the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Protocols are presented for DNA purification, probe construction, probe labeling, and DNA array hybridizations. (nofima.com)
  • These results were supported by analysis of mmoX genes in (13)C-DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolates were screened for presence different toxins and 2 (2.2%) isolates were of genes encoding LT and ST enterotoxins, positive with all 4 DNA probes. (who.int)
  • Reference: "Supercoiling and looping promote DNA base accessibility and coordination among distant sites" by Jonathan M. Fogg, Allison K. Judge, Erik Stricker, Hilda L. Chan and Lynn Zechiedrich, 28 September 2021, Nature Communication . (scitechdaily.com)
  • To visualize the detailed structure of DNA origami assemblies, gentle imaging conditions are required. (scubaprobe.com)
  • Results reveal that the probes can be developed and utilized without prior knowledge of the host strain and that DNA probe sensitivity and selectivity observed conform with those in other PCR-based methods. (readabstracts.com)
  • Studying linear DNA does not capture this phenomenon, but our supercoiled minicircles reveal these dynamic properties of DNA as it is found in cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In the instrument, viral RNA is copied into DNA and then the DNA is amplified. (cdc.gov)
  • In recent decades, traditional methods of microorganism phenotyping have been replaced or added by the procedures associated to recombinant DNA 12-14 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The method was used without imposing the need to determine the nucleic acid sequence of the probe to produce the PCR primers. (readabstracts.com)
  • Organisms achieve this seemingly paradoxical goal by storing DNA in supercoiled loops. (scitechdaily.com)
  • As part of a widening insider trading probe that involves the U.S. Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation is trying to determine if an aide to Sen. Charles Grassley's played a part in illegally divulging a key government decision to private corporations this spring, the Wall Street Journal reported on Monday. (ibtimes.com)
  • The identity of active methanotrophs in Roscommon landfill cover soil, a slightly acidic peat soil, was assessed by DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). (elsevier.com)
  • The labeled DNA probe combines with amplicon to form stable RNA: DNA hybrids. (cdc.gov)
  • I challenge Israel to bring the suspects there in order to undergo a DNA test and compare them with the samples we have," he said in an interview to the UAE-based al-Khaleej newspaper. (ynetnews.com)
  • Australian investigators arrived in Israel last week in order to probe the use of Australian passports belonging to three Israelis during the Dubai operation. (ynetnews.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{DNA probes. (who.int)
  • An example of the The antibiotic susceptibility test showed results of the dot blot test with the EAST-1 that 140 (70.0%) isolates carried resistance probe is shown in Figure 1. (who.int)
  • The identity of active methanotrophs was revealed by analysis of (13)C-labelled DNA fractions. (elsevier.com)
  • The purified fragments analysis showed that 92 (46.0%) of the were used as probes after labelling with a 200 isolates examined were toxigenic. (who.int)
  • In the current study, we investigated how supercoiling and looping modulate DNA activity. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Our study rebrands DNA from a passive biomolecule to an active one," said co-author Hilda Chan, graduate student in the Medical Scientist Training Program. (scitechdaily.com)
  • For two decades, scientists have been comparing every person's full set of DNA they study to a template that relies mostly on genetic material from one man affectionately known as "the guy from Buffalo. (cbs42.com)
  • Here we show a high resolution tapping mode AFM image of a 2D DNA origami rectangle in a TAE buffer obtained using an encased cantilever. (scubaprobe.com)
  • Our cells have created many complex processes to deal with storing and using DNA, and the shape of that DNA affects all of them," said co-author Allison Judge, graduate student in the Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology. (scitechdaily.com)
  • It is carried out by hybridizing target DNA to high-density microarrays that are designed to query the identity of individual bases. (nature.com)
  • Congressional aides are rarely targeted in federal probes, as the official duties of legislative-branch employees are protected under the Constitution. (ibtimes.com)
  • The global DNA Probes market is expected to reach US$ XX Million by 2028, with a CAGR of XX% from 2023 to 2028, based on HNY Research newly published report. (worldwidemarketreports.com)
  • The investigation into the Mabhouh assassination has yet to yield new findings, although the Dubai police insist that they have obtained DNA samples of the assassins. (ynetnews.com)
  • Zechiedrich and her collaborators began by making small pieces of supercoiled DNA, like those present in living cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • 1982. Activity of organophosphorus insecticides in bacterial tests for mutagenicity and DNA repair. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we showed that no protein is needed to access DNA, it can make itself accessible on its own," Zechiedrich said. (scitechdaily.com)
  • FILE - This undated image made available by the National Human Genome Research Institute shows the output from a DNA sequencer. (cbs42.com)
  • Interpol Secretary-General Ronald Noble said that a thorough investigation by the Dubai police established a clear link between the passport records and the security footage, as well as DNA, evidence from eyewitnesses, credit card records and phone calls. (ynetnews.com)
  • This supercoiling and looping are known to influence every aspect of DNA activity, but how this happens has not been clear. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The effects of supercoiling stress at one site of the loop can be transmitted along the DNA backbone to a distant site. (scitechdaily.com)
  • It was unexpected because the models indicate that supercoiled DNA circles would behave more like a twisted rubber band. (scitechdaily.com)
  • We conducted separate linear mixed models to examine associations of DNA methylation levels at each CpG with AC and DC. (cdc.gov)