PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Material prepared from plants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The absence of light.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.

A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. (1/4690)

The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygote-specific cDNAs that encode novel proteins containing ankyrin repeats and WW domains. (2/4690)

Genes that are expressed only in the young zygote are considered to be of great importance in the development of an isogamous green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Clones representing the Zys3 gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared using zygotes at 10 min after fertilization. Sequencing of Zys3 cDNA clones resulted in the isolation of two related molecular species. One of them encoded a protein that contained two kinds of protein-to-protein interaction motifs known as ankyrin repeats and WW domains. The other clone lacked the ankyrin repeats but was otherwise identical. These mRNA species began to accumulate simultaneously in cells beginning 10 min after fertilization, and reached maximum levels at about 4 h, after which time levels decreased markedly. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that Zys3 was a single-copy gene. The Zys3 proteins exhibited parallel expression to the Zys3 mRNAs at first, appearing 2 h after mating, and reached maximum levels at more than 6 h, but persisted to at least 1 d. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed their localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests a role in the morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the synthesis and transport of proteins to the Golgi apparatus or related vesicles.  (+info)

GTPase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin. (3/4690)

A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. We then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An "add-back experiment" was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on beta-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. However, it was found that the recombinant annexin could display ATPase/GTPase activities. The recombinant annexin showed much higher GTPase than ATPase activity. Mg2+ was essential for these activities, whereas a high concentration of Ca2+ was inhibitory. A photolabeling assay showed that this annexin could bind GTP more specifically than ATP. The GTP-binding site on the annexin was mapped into the carboxyl-terminal fourth repeat of annexin from the photolabeling experiment using domain-deletion mutants of this annexin. Northern-blot analysis showed that the annexin gene was highly expressed in the elongation stages of cotton fiber differentiation, suggesting a role of this annexin in cell elongation.  (+info)

A multisubunit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase from soybean. (4/4690)

A multisubunit form of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) from soybean (Glycine max) was characterized. The enzyme catalyzes the formation of malonyl CoA from acetyl CoA, a rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. The four known components that constitute plastid ACCase are biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and the alpha- and beta-subunits of carboxyltransferase (alpha- and beta-CT). At least three different cDNAs were isolated from germinating soybean seeds that encode BC, two that encode BCCP, and four that encode alpha-CT. Whereas BC, BCCP, and alpha-CT are products of nuclear genes, the DNA that encodes soybean beta-CT is located in chloroplasts. Translation products from cDNAs for BC, BCCP, and alpha-CT were imported into isolated pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts and became integrated into ACCase. Edman microsequence analysis of the subunits after import permitted the identification of the amino-terminal sequence of the mature protein after removal of the transit sequences. Antibodies specific for each of the chloroplast ACCase subunits were generated against products from the cDNAs expressed in bacteria. The antibodies permitted components of ACCase to be followed during fractionation of the chloroplast stroma. Even in the presence of 0.5 M KCl, a complex that contained BC plus BCCP emerged from Sephacryl 400 with an apparent molecular mass greater than about 800 kD. A second complex, which contained alpha- and beta-CT, was also recovered from the column, and it had an apparent molecular mass of greater than about 600 kD. By mixing the two complexes together at appropriate ratios, ACCase enzymatic activity was restored. Even higher ACCase activities were recovered by mixing complexes from pea and soybean. The results demonstrate that the active form of ACCase can be reassembled and that it could form a high-molecular-mass complex.  (+info)

Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis gene related to putative zinc-transporter genes from animals can lead to enhanced zinc resistance and accumulation. (5/4690)

We describe the isolation of an Arabidopsis gene that is closely related to the animal ZnT genes (Zn transporter). The protein encoded by the ZAT (Zn transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana) gene has 398 amino acid residues and is predicted to have six membrane-spanning domains. To obtain evidence for the postulated function of the Arabidopsis gene, transgenic plants with the ZAT coding sequence under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were analyzed. Plants obtained with ZAT in the sense orientation exhibited enhanced Zn resistance and strongly increased Zn content in the roots under high Zn exposure. Antisense mRNA-producing plants were viable, with a wild-type level of Zn resistance and content, like plants expressing a truncated coding sequence lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. The availability of ZAT can lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of Zn homeostasis and resistance in plants.  (+info)

The DNA binding site of the Dof protein NtBBF1 is essential for tissue-specific and auxin-regulated expression of the rolB oncogene in plants. (6/4690)

The Dof proteins are a large family of plant transcription factors that share a single highly conserved zinc finger. The tobacco Dof protein NtBBF1 was identified by its ability to bind to regulatory domain B in the promoter of the rolB oncogene. In this study, we show that the ACT T TA target sequence of NtBBF1 in domain B is necessary for tissue-specific expression of rolB. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity of tobacco plants containing a rolB promoter-GUS fusion with a mutated NtBBF1 target sequence within domain B is almost completely suppressed in apical meristems and is severely abated in the vascular system. The ACT T TA motif is shown here also to be one of the cis-regulatory elements involved in auxin induction of rolB. The pattern of NtBBF1 expression in plants is remarkably similar to that of rolB, except in mesophyll cells of mature leaves, in which only NtBBF1 expression could be detected. Ectopic expression of rolB in mesophyll cells was achieved by particle gun delivery if the NtBBF1 binding sequence was intact. These data provide evidence that in the plant, a Dof protein DNA binding sequence acts as a transcriptional regulatory motif, and they point to NtBBF1 as the protein involved in mediating tissue-specific and auxin-inducible expression of rolB.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of SYN1, a RAD21-like gene essential for meiosis in Arabidopsis. (7/4690)

The proper pairing, recombination, and segregation of chromosomes are central to meiosis and sexual reproduction. The syn1 mutation was previously identified as a synaptic mutant in a T-DNA-tagged population of plants. SYN1 has been isolated and found to exhibit similarity to Schizosaccharomyces pombe RAD21 and RAD21-like proteins, which are required for chromosome condensation and sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis. Plants homozygous for syn1 are male and female sterile and show defects in chromosome condensation and pairing beginning at leptonema of meiosis I. Fragmentation of the chromosomes was observed at metaphase I. Alternative promoters produced two SYN1 transcripts. One transcript was expressed at low levels in most tissues, whereas the other was expressed only in prebolting buds. DNA blot analyses suggest that Arabidopsis contains a small RAD21 gene family. Consistent with the DNA blot data, a second Arabidopsis RAD21-like gene has been identified. These results suggest that different RAD21-like proteins play essential roles in chromosome condensation and pairing during both meiosis and mitosis.  (+info)

The FLF MADS box gene: a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis regulated by vernalization and methylation. (8/4690)

A MADS box gene, FLF (for FLOWERING LOCUS F ), isolated from a late-flowering, T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutant, is a semidominant gene encoding a repressor of flowering. The FLF gene appears to integrate the vernalization-dependent and autonomous flowering pathways because its expression is regulated by genes in both pathways. The level of FLF mRNA is downregulated by vernalization and by a decrease in genomic DNA methylation, which is consistent with our previous suggestion that vernalization acts to induce flowering through changes in gene activity that are mediated through a reduction in DNA methylation. The flf-1 mutant requires a greater than normal amount of an exogenous gibberellin (GA3) to decrease flowering time compared with the wild type or with vernalization-responsive late-flowering mutants, suggesting that the FLF gene product may block the promotion of flowering by GAs. FLF maps to a region on chromosome 5 near the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene, which is a semidominant repressor of flowering in late-flowering ecotypes of Arabidopsis.  (+info)

The severity of plant poisoning depends on the type of plant consumed, the amount ingested, and individual sensitivity. Some common plants that are toxic to humans include:

1. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds contain ricin, a deadly toxin that can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
2. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic, and ingestion can cause cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death.
3. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
4. Taxus (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew (Taxus baccata) and Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.
5. Aconitum (Aconitum spp.): Also known as monkshood or wolf's bane, all parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
6. Belladonna (Atropa belladonna): The leaves, stems, and roots contain atropine, which can cause dilated pupils, flushed skin, and difficulty urinating.
7. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Hemlock (Conium maculatum): The leaves and seeds contain coniine and gamma-coniceine, which can cause muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.
9. Lantana (Lantana camara): The berries are toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
10. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
11. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds are particularly toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
12. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves, stems, and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing.
13. Yew (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.

It is important to note that while these plants are toxic, they can also be safely used in herbal remedies when prepared and administered properly under the guidance of a qualified practitioner. It is always best to consult with a medical professional before using any herbal remedy, especially if you have a medical condition or are pregnant or breastfeeding.

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In 2002, Bionova shut down DNA Plant Technology. DNA Plant Technology was founded in 1981 by Dr. William R. Sharp and Dr. David ... ISBN 978-0-19-850674-4. "DNA Plant Technology unveils second-generation genetically-modified tomato". "Dna Plant Technology ... which had been carried out through its DNA Plant Technology subsidiary. In 1991, DNA Plant Technology applied for and were ... Key experiments in the control of plant transgene expression were performed by Jorgensen after he joined DNA Plant Technology ...
... (release 7.1, April 2019). [1] official Plant DNA C-values Database website (Use dmy dates from ... Evolution of DNA amounts across land plants (Embryophyta). Annals of Botany 95: 207-217. Murray, B.G. 1998. Nuclear DNA Amounts ... Release 1.0 of the more inclusive Plant DNA C-values Database was launched in 2001, with subsequent releases 2.0 in January ... The Plant DNA C-values Database ( is a comprehensive catalogue of C-value (nuclear DNA content ...
In land plants, some 11-14% of the DNA in their nuclei can be traced back to the chloroplast, up to 18% in Arabidopsis, ... There have been a few recent transfers of genes from the chloroplast DNA to the nuclear genome in land plants. Of the ... In primitive red algae, the chloroplast DNA nucleoids are clustered in the center of a chloroplast, while in green plants and ... Kolodner R, Tewari KK (January 1979). "Inverted repeats in chloroplast DNA from higher plants". Proceedings of the National ...
... the plant is able to expunge its so-called junk DNA and "have a perfectly good multicellular plant with lots of different cells ... "nonfunctional DNA." Junk DNA is often confused with non-coding DNA[citation needed]. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) ... Non-coding DNA (ncDNA) sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences. Some non-coding DNA ... These are regions of the genome where the DNA replication machinery is assembled and the DNA is unwound to begin DNA synthesis ...
Molecular Plant. Chin Acad Sci+Chin Soc Plant Bio+Shanghai Inst Bio Sci (Elsevier). 10 (8): 1047-1064. doi:10.1016/j.molp. ... A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid ... such as Cot-1 DNA, salmon sperm DNA, calf thymus DNA, PolyA, or PolyT), Denhardt's solution, or formamine. The mixture is ... Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10−12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes (or reporters or oligos). These can ...
... tabacum and other plants by active demethylation. 5-methylcytosine residues are excised and replaced with unmethylated ... Uracil-DNA glycosylases are DNA repair enzymes that excise uracil residues from DNA by cleaving the N-glycosydic bond, ... Lindahl, T. (1986). "DNA Glycosylases in DNA Repair". Mechanisms of DNA Damage and Repair. 38: 335-340. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615- ... This was the most frequent DNA repair abnormality found among the 8 DNA repair genes tested. NEIL1 was also one of six DNA ...
... a fast and versatile method to specify the binding of plant transcription factors to DNA in vitro". Plant Methods. 25 (6): 25. ... was also shown to non-specifically bind to DNA which helps in DNA repair. A distinct group of DNA-binding proteins are the DNA- ... Protein-DNA interactions occur when a protein binds a molecule of DNA, often to regulate the biological function of DNA, ... Also proteins that repair DNA such as uracil-DNA glycosylase interact closely with it. In general, proteins bind to DNA in the ...
"A simple plant high-molecular-weight DNA extraction method suitable for single-molecule technologies". Plant Methods. 16: 38. ... Boom method DNA fingerprinting DNA sequencing DNA structure Ethanol precipitation Plasmid preparation Polymerase chain reaction ... Typical samples with complicated DNA isolation are: archaeological samples containing partially degraded DNA, see ancient DNA ... plasmid DNA can be purified from soluble fraction. A Hirt DNA Extraction is an isolation of all extrachromosomal DNA in a ...
DNA methylation can also be actively removed in plants by DNA glycosylases, which remove methylated cytosines via the base ... RdDM plays a key role in silencing these mobile DNA elements in plants by adding DNA methylation over new TE insertions and ... The combination of DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K4me0 is strongly associated with heterochromatin in plants. Since DNA ... Due to the heritability of DNA methylation patterns in plants, and the self-reinforcing nature of RdDM and other DNA ...
Germann S, Juul-Jensen T, Letarnec B, Gaudin V (October 2006). "DamID, a new tool for studying plant chromatin profiling in ... If Dam is targeted to a specific known DNA locus, distal sites brought into proximity due to the 3D configuration of the DNA ... In transient transfection experiments, the DNA of those plasmids is recovered along with the DNA of the transfected cells, ... DamID identifies binding sites by expressing the proposed DNA-binding protein as a fusion protein with DNA methyltransferase. ...
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and ... DNA exists in many possible conformations that include A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA forms, although only B-DNA and Z-DNA have been ... In DNA replication, DNA-dependent DNA polymerases make copies of DNA polynucleotide chains. To preserve biological information ... DNA at Curlie DNA binding site prediction on protein DNA the Double Helix Game From the official Nobel Prize web site DNA under ...
BMC Plant Biology. 13: 36. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-13-36. PMC 3610141. PMID 23452619. Singleton MR, Sawaya MR, Ellenberger T, ... It is also a primase, making short stretches of RNA that initiates DNA synthesis. It forms a complex with T7 DNA polymerase. ... "DNA is bound within the central hole to one or two of the six subunits of the T7 DNA helicase". Nature Structural Biology. 3 (9 ... "The Arabidopsis At1g30680 gene encodes a homologue to the phage T7 gp4 protein that has both DNA primase and DNA helicase ...
DDM1, Decreased DNA Methylation I, is a plant gene that encodes a nucleosome remodeler which facilitates DNA methylation. The ... Law, Julie A.; Jacobsen, Steven E. (March 2010). "Establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation patterns in plants ... Since DNA methylation occurs mostly in transposable elements (TE), DDM1 is thought to be a crucial function in silencing TEs. ... DDM1 is required for DNA methylation in highly heterochromatin transposable elements. DDM1, therefore, often silences ...
H. S. Chawla (2002). Introduction to Plant Biotechnology. Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57808-228-5. CSD Palma, V Kandavalli, ... DNA supercoiling is important for DNA packaging within all cells. Because the length of DNA can be thousands of times that of a ... Negative supercoiling is also thought to favour the transition between B-DNA and Z-DNA, and moderate the interactions of DNA ... Supercoiling is also required for DNA/RNA synthesis. Because DNA must be unwound for DNA/RNA polymerase action, supercoils will ...
Journal of Plant Physiology. 165 (11): 1134-1141. doi:10.1016/j.jplph.2007.12.008. ISSN 1618-1328. PMID 18295371. Yeung, M. C ... DNA laddering is a feature that can be observed when DNA fragments, resulting from apoptotic DNA fragmentation, are visualized ... DNA laddering can only be used to detect apoptosis during the later stages of apoptosis. This is due to DNA fragmentation ... DNA laddering is a distinctive feature of DNA degraded by caspase-activated DNase (CAD), which is a key event during apoptosis ...
The amplification process of DNA can mean that even small pieces of plant DNA can be detected included those from contaminants ... "Applying Pollen DNA Metabarcoding to the Study of Plant-Pollinator Interactions". Applications in Plant Sciences. 5 (6): ... "An rbcL Reference Library to Aid in the Identification of Plant Species Mixtures by DNA Metabarcoding". Applications in Plant ... Pollen identified using DNA barcoding involves the specific targeting of gene regions that are found in most to all plant ...
... dried plant remains, and recently, extractions of animal and plant DNA directly from soil samples. In June 2013, a group of ... Another problem with ancient DNA samples is contamination by modern human DNA and by microbial DNA (most of which is also ... Claims of DNA retrieval were not limited to amber. Reports of several sediment-preserved plant remains dating to the Miocene ... Nuclear DNA degrades at least twice as fast as mtDNA. Early studies that reported recovery of much older DNA, for example from ...
Cupp JD, Nielsen BL (November 2014). "Minireview: DNA replication in plant mitochondria". Mitochondrion. 19 Pt B: 231-7. doi: ... Sutton MD, Walker GC (July 2001). "Managing DNA polymerases: coordinating DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA recombination". ... The main function of DNA polymerase is to synthesize DNA from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The DNA copies ... DNA polymerase V (Pol V) is a Y-family DNA polymerase that is involved in SOS response and translesion synthesis DNA repair ...
In addition to humans, the XRCC4 protein is also expressed in many other metazoans, fungi and in plants. The X-ray repair cross ... DNA-PKcs) to the DNA ends to enable the binding of Artemis protein to one end of each DNA-PKcs. One end of the DNA-PKcs joins ... The second component involves the bridging of DNA to DNA Ligase IV (LigIV), by XRCC4, with the aid of Cernunnos-XLF. DNA-PKcs ... Chen L, Trujillo K, Sung P, Tomkinson AE (2000). "Interactions of the DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 complex with DNA ends and the DNA- ...
Alvarez I, Wendel JF (December 2003). "Ribosomal ITS sequences and plant phylogenetic inference". Molecular Phylogenetics and ... Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA. These sequences regulate transcription initiation and ... Diseases can be associated with DNA mutations where DNA can be expanded, such as Huntington's disease, or lost due to deletion ... DNA regions that are repetitive often undergo recombination events. The rDNA repeats have many regulatory mechanisms that keep ...
Adachi E, Shimamura K, Wakamatsu S, Kodama H (2004). "Amplification of plant genomic DNA by Phi29 DNA polymerase for use in ... motif of phi29 DNA polymerase as a metal ligand during both TP-primed and DNA-primed DNA synthesis". J Mol Biol. 283 (3): 633- ... "Highly efficient DNA synthesis by the phage Φ29 DNA polymerase. Symmetrical mode of DNA replication". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (15): ... Xu Y, Gao S, Bruno JF, Luft BJ, Dunn JJ (2008). "Rapid detection and identification of a pathogen's DNA using Phi29 DNA ...
Fuhrman's DNA was also not found on the glove, thus supporting his claim that he did not plant it. The prosecution argued that ... "Carefully planted seeds of doubt". The Washington Post. "Was DNA Evidence in O.J. Simpson Case Contaminated in LAPD Crime Lab ... "Few Confident in DNA Use Kept for Simpson Jury". Los Angeles Times. 1994-11-02. Retrieved 2019-08-26. "Did Fuhrman Plant ... She stated the DNA sample sizes needed for RFLP testing in this case are too large to be susceptible to the degraded DNA cross- ...
2014), including terrestrial plants too. Even though more than 14 000 species have been described based on structural and ... Microbial DNA barcoding DNA barcoding Fish DNA barcoding DNA barcoding in diet assessment Lobo, Eduardo A.; Heinrich, Carla ... DNA methods can be used to confirm if the cause of death was indeed drowning and locate the origin of drowning. Diatom DNA ... Diatom DNA barcoding is a method for taxonomical identification of diatoms even to species level. It is conducted using DNA or ...
Kress WJ (2017). "Plant DNA barcodes: Applications today and in the future". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 55 (4): 291- ... DNA barcoding Microbial DNA barcoding Pollen DNA barcoding DNA barcoding in diet assessment Consortium for the Barcode of Life ... Another crucial prerequisite for DNA barcoding is the ability to unambiguously trace the provenance of DNA barcode data back to ... "DNA barcoding". The success of identification of fungi by means of DNA barcode sequences stands and falls with the quantitative ...
DNA database Meurant, Gerard (2012). Conservation of Plant Genes : Dna Banking and in Vitro Biotechnology. Stewart, A. (2007). ... List of DNA banks by Global Genome Biodiversity Network[permanent dead link] NIAS DNA bank RBG Kew DNA bank DNA Bank Network ... Some DNA banks also store the DNA of rare or endangered species to ensure their survival. The DNA bank can be used to compare ... The Human DNA Bank India at Lucknow city, the Asia's first Human DNA Bank takes the DNA of common public, stores it for 50 ...
Planted Plant DNA Will Bring the Coppers". DGI Wire. Retrieved 25 August 2015. Mak, Tim (4 October 2013). "Plant DNA markers ... "Crime Prevention". Applied DNA Sciences Inc. Retrieved 25 August 2015. "DNA test has helped slash copper theft by more than 85 ... In suspected thefts, the suspect can also be tested for traces of the DNA marking. DNA marking can be used to prevent thefts of ... DNA marking is a type of forensic identification. It is a method to mark items in a way that is undetectable to the naked eye. ...
Due to a polarity difference in the left and right borders, the right border of the T-DNA enters the host plant first. If the ... A transfer DNA (T-DNA) binary system is a pair of plasmids consisting of a T-DNA binary vector and a vir helper plasmid. The ... Systems in which T-DNA and vir genes are located on separate replicons are called T-DNA binary systems. T-DNA is located on the ... Xiang C, Han P, Lutziger I, Wang K, Oliver DJ (July 1999). "A mini binary vector series for plant transformation". Plant ...
Within DNA barcoding, the trnL approach can be used to identify plant species by using a very short but informative fragment of ... Fish DNA barcoding Aquatic macroinvertebrates DNA barcoding Microbial DNA barcoding Algae DNA barcoding Pollen DNA barcoding ... When studying small herbivores with a cryptic life style, such as voles and lemmings, DNA barcoding of ingested plants can be a ... DNA barcoding in diet assessment is the use of DNA barcoding to analyse the diet of organisms. and further detect and describe ...
Psoralens are natural compounds (furocoumarins) present in plants. These compounds intercalate into DNA at 5'-AT sequence sites ... intrastrand DNA crosslinks, interstrand DNA crosslinks, and DNA-protein crosslinks. When cisplatin generates DNA crosslinks, it ... Cancer treatments have been engineered using DNA cross-linking agents to interact with nitrogenous bases of DNA to block DNA ... Similar to DNA crosslinking, DNA-protein crosslinks are lesions in cells that are frequently damaged by UV radiation. The UV's ...
demonstrated co-segregation of DNA in the cells of plant root tips. Plant root tips labeled with tritiated thymidine tended to ... After pulsing for long enough to label all the newly replicated DNA, the DNA label is chased out (each DNA replication now ... In 2002, he proposed that in addition to using immortal DNA strand mechanisms to segregate DNA, when the immortal DNA strands ... These types of DNA labels will incorporate into the newly synthesized DNA of dividing cells during S phase. A pulse of DNA ...
... came in 1993 with the first maximum parsimony analysis of DNA sequences of the gene rbcL from a large number of seed plants. ... "Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL." Annals of the Missouri Botanical ... Flowering Plant Families of the World. Firefly Books: Ontario, Canada. ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4. Anthony J. Huxley, Mark ... The genus Phyllanthus, one of the largest genera of flowering plants with over 1200 species, has more than half of the species ...
Plant Encyclopedia "Seersucker Plant". Plant Encyclopedia. 11 March 2011. Faden, R. B. (1981). "Peperomia peoppigii Miq.; A ... An analysis of DNA sequences indicate Geogenanthus is closely related to the genus Plowmanianthus followed by Cochliostema. ... The surface as a whole has a "puckered" appearance; hence the common name seersucker plant. This plant is particularly unique ... The stem of the plant is covered in minute brown hairs and, underground, plants possess a short, branching rhizome. This ...
Funk's research included detailing evolutionary relationships and biogeography using plant DNA. She co-discovered the ... In 2010, she was awarded the Stebbins' Medal for the best publication in Plant Systematics or Plant Evolution in the period ... "2018 Asa Gray Award". American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Retrieved November 24, 2018. "Honors and Awards" (PDF). The Plant ... International Plant Names Index. V.A. Funk. Public profile at Bionomia, showing samples collected and identified by Funk, and ...
Meanwhile, Abby determines that the hat was planted at the scene recently. With Gibbs busy on the Bin Atwa case, DiNozzo and ... so they are told that the NCIS plans to use DNA to confirm if the body is Singer's. Commander Harmon Rabb leaves the room ...
For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical ... The planted motif search is another motif discovery method that is based on combinatorial approach. Motifs have also been ... In 2018, a Markov random field approach has been proposed to infer DNA motifs from DNA-binding domains of proteins. The E. coli ... The authors were able to show that the motif has DNA binding activity. A similar approach is commonly used by modern protein ...
Blood sample DNA sequencing of the 26S ribosomal subunit can definitively identify C. blankii. In nature, Candida blankii forms ... An Indian study of seven bee species and 9 plant species found 45 yeast species from 16 genera colonise the nectaries of ...
Kochanski asks the living Lister to fill an in-vitro tube which already has Kochanski's DNA inside with his own, as Kochanski, ... fewer words than he had shared with his rubber plant. In the same episode, Lister mentions that he had always been crazy about ... Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (21 February 1991). "DNA". Red Dwarf. Series IV. Episode 2. BBC. BBC2. ... Kochanski's previously established history with Lister where she barely interacted with him is retconned in "DNA" (1991), when ...
... a plant DNA bank and a seed bank. The Kew Fungarium houses approximately 1.25 million specimens of dried fungi. The Library, ... The extant Aroid House (now the Nash Conservatory) was designated Plant House No. 1 and the Water Lily House was Plant House No ... The Sustainable Uses of Plants Group (formerly the Centre for Economic Botany), focuses on the uses of plants in the United ... It contains plants and trees from all the temperate regions of the world, some of which are extremely rare. It was commissioned ...
This information is protected by DNA repair mechanisms and propagated through DNA replication. Many viruses have an RNA genome ... Ohlrogge JB, Jaworski JG (June 1997). "Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... while plants and cyanobacteria have two. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II uses light energy to remove ... Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 50: 47-65. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.47. PMID 15012203. ...
In both plants and mammals there are two major mechanisms that are involved in establishing the imprint; these are DNA ... Martienssen RA, Colot V (August 2001). "DNA methylation and epigenetic inheritance in plants and filamentous fungi". Science. ... Alleman M, Doctor J (June 2000). "Genomic imprinting in plants: observations and evolutionary implications". Plant Molecular ... Magee DA, Sikora KM, Berkowicz EW, Berry DP, Howard DJ, Mullen MP, Evans RD, Spillane C, MacHugh DE (October 2010). "DNA ...
... genome sizes Human genome Junk DNA List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes Non-coding DNA Plant DNA C-values Database Selfish DNA ... Animal Genome Size Database Plant DNA C-values Database Fungal Genome Size Database Fungal Database Archived 2008-03-10 at the ... Bennett, Michael David; Riley, Ralph (1972-06-06). "Nuclear DNA content and minimum generation time in herbaceous plants". ... Some single-celled organisms have much more DNA than humans, for reasons that remain unclear (see non-coding DNA and C-value ...
International Plant Names Index. Chautems. (Articles with hCards, Botanists with author abbreviations, Articles with ISNI ... evidence from phylogenetic analyses of six plastid DNA regions and nuclear ncpGS. American Journal of Botany 90(3): 445-460. ...
In 2017 he co-founded a beverage startup called Tempo, which produces plant-based, functional, and clean beverages for the ... Mitochondrial DNA Part B. 6 (9): 2662-2664. doi:10.1080/23802359.2021.1964394. ISSN 2380-2359. PMC 8381894. PMID 34435112. "The ...
Phylogenetic relationships of Sparassis inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and a protein-coding gene (rpb2 ... on plant substrates in pure culture". Ukrainian Botanical Journal. 76 (6): 493-498. doi:10.15407/ukrbotj76.06.493. ISSN 0372- ...
Garden plants, Herbs, Lamiaceae genera, Medicinal plants, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus, Subshrubs). ... Through DNA sequencing, Salvia was shown to not be monophyletic but to consist of three separate clades (Salvia clades I-III) ... Plant Biology 5: 33-41. El-Gazzar, A.; Watson, L.; Williams, W. T.; Lance, G. N. (1968). "The taxonomy of Salvia: a test of two ... The Plant List has 986 accepted species names. A selection of some well-known species is below. Salvia apiana: white sage; ...
Aphragma (R.Br.) Kuntze". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian ... Mast, Austin R., Eric H. Jones and Shawn P. Havery (2005). "An assessment of old and new DNA sequence evidence for the ... Aphragma R.Br". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian ... Mast and Thiele have foreshadowed publishing a full arrangement once DNA sampling of Dryandra is complete. Brown, Robert (1830 ...
This is the first dataset related to Monkeypox viral DNA in wastewater in Bangkok. Monkeypox viral DNA was first detected in ... Closure of World's Only Manufacturing Plant for Monkeypox Vaccine Raises Questions About World's Ability to Meet Rising Demand ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ... From the first week of July, the number of viral DNA copies increased. Sanger sequencing confirmed the identification of the ...
The manufacturing plant was set up in the early 1960s in Tirupathi. The first model, the Motobécane Mobylette, was designed in ... "MOPEDS TAKE THE SLOW ROAD TO EXTINCTION". DNA - Daily News Analysis. Retrieved 27 April 2016. "Suvega Mopeds, the pride of ...
However, plants and invertebrate fauna were less affected. During the Paleogene, dispersing tetrapod lineages from Asia ... "Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution". Science. 344 (6186): 898-900 ... in the dispersal of many animal and plant clades across Africa, Europe, Madagascar, Asia and possibly even Oceania. Still, ...
Kim, Chan-Soo (2009). "Vascular Plant Diversity of Jeju Island, Korea" (PDF). Korean Journal of Plant Resources. 22 (6): 558~ ... 2017). "Chloroplast Noncoding DNA Sequences Reveal Genetic Distinction and Diversity between Wild and Cultivated Prunus ... As of 2017, most of the cherry trees planted in South Korea are Yoshino cherry trees known to have come from Japan or have been ... King cherry is a rare plant and listed as an endangered species. As of April 2017, 194 king cherry trees were growing around Mt ...
Horvath S (2013). "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types". Genome Biology. 14 (10): R115. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14- ... Immortality Life extension Index of topics related to life extension Mitohormesis Old age Oxidative stress Phenoptosis Plant ... Pan MR, Li K, Lin SY, Hung WC (May 2016). "Connecting the Dots: From DNA Damage and Repair to Aging". International Journal of ... Sugars such as glucose and fructose can react with certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine and certain DNA bases such ...
He purchases a second cell phone to redirect calls from the first, then plants the first phone on a leaving train to throw ... Harland rejects this, showing that Vincent was reported dead a year prior, a burnt body identified by DNA. Will is forced to ...
The plant is entirely without hairs. The leaves are alternate and without stipule, with leafstems of 2-5 cm long and leafblades ... Hershkovitz, M.A.; Hernandez-Pellicer, C.C.; Arroyo, M.T.K. (2006). "Ribosomal DNA evidence for the diversification of ... In good garden soil plants grow more vigorous and climb up to 2 m. In its native area it flowers from September to February. ... Chilensia (Tropaeolaceae)" (PDF). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 260: 1-24. doi:10.1007/s00606-006-0428-7. S2CID 41902374. ...
In most plants the synascidiate (i.e. "united bottle-shaped") and symplicate zones are fertile and bear the ovules. Each of the ... The present understanding of the Apiales is fairly recent and is based upon comparison of DNA sequences by phylogenetic methods ... The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. The families are those recognized in the APG III system. This is typical of the ... "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical ...
... jets used laser-guided bombs to destroy the Lang Chi hydroelectric power plant, one of the largest power plants in North ... The remains were exhumed on 14 May 1998 and identified as Blassie through DNA testing. Later in 1998 he was reburied at ... p. 2. "Enemy plant again crippled, U.S. says". The New York Times. 17 August 1972. p. 3. Joseph Treaster (18 August 1972). "U.S ... 23 May U.S. jets bombed power plants at Hongai and Nam Định and shot down five VPAF MiGs.: 123 The 39th Rangers captured two SA ...
They built a new plant featuring proprietary solid substrate fermentation technology based on a semi-automated tray culture ... "New facility opened at Bangalore's Mazumdar-Shaw Cancer Center". DNA India. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2014. "Biocon ...
They also commonly eat grass, shoots, and many other forms of plant matter, as well as fungi, insects and other arthropods, ... However, studies of mitochondrial DNA show that the divergence between each of the three chipmunk groups is comparable to the ... Around humans, chipmunks can eat cultivated grains and vegetables, and other plants from farms and gardens, so they are ...
To get past the ensuing crisis, at the discretion of Infante Dom Henrique, settlers began the planting of sugarcane - rare in ... Tenth- or eleventh-century fragments of mouse bone found in Madeira, along with mitochondrial DNA of Madeiran mice, could maybe ... the introduction of Sicilian beets as the first specialized plant and the technology of its agriculture. Sugarcane production ...
Phylogenetic studies of nuclear mitochondrial DNA pseudogenes show that the house sparrow is closely related genetically to the ... and other plant materials. Young birds are fed mostly on insects, and adults also feed on insects and other animals during and ... wild plants, and seeds from the previous year. The Spanish sparrow nests in large colonies of closely spaced or even multiple ...
... as a Mechanism for Invasive Aquatic Plant Management in Florida". Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 53: 95-104. Estes, J. A ... The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the polar bear diverged from the brown bear roughly 150,000 years ago. Further, some clades of ... West Indian manatees eat up to 60 different species of plants, as well as fish and small invertebrates to a lesser extent. Sea ... When eating, they ingest the whole plant, including the roots, although when this is impossible they feed on just the leaves. A ...
... automated purification of genomic DNA (gDNA) from plant tissue samples. ... RSC Plant DNA Kit is used with the Maxwell® RSC Instrument (Cat.# AS4500) to provide an easy method for efficient, ... Automated DNA Extraction from Plant Tissue The Maxwell® RSC Plant DNA Kit is used with the Maxwell® RSC and RSC 48 Instruments ... DNA purified with the Maxwell® RSC Plant DNA Kit is ready for use in downstream applications, including qPCR. PCR using DNA ...
Synchron and Festo worked together very closely to develop an automated DNA extraction system with very high throughput rates. ... The DNA is extracted from shredded plant material. Festo components carry out important functions in all phases of the ... After rinsing, clean DNA remains in the microwell plate and is fed via the transport system to the final processing step, DNA ... Rinsing: Metallic microspheres are added to separate the DNA from the other material. The DNA attaches itself to the ...
plant/fungus mixed DNA library. Taxonomy ID: 2545449 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid2545449). current name. ... Plastid genetic code: Translation table 11 (Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid). Lineage( full ). cellular organisms; ...
Environmental DNA surveillance of biocontamination in a drinking water treatment plant Kyu-Young Shim 1 , Heesang Shin 1 , In- ... Environmental DNA surveillance of biocontamination in a drinking water treatment plant Kyu-Young Shim et al. J Hazard Mater. ... Environmental DNA metabarcoding: Transforming how we survey animal and plant communities. Deiner K, Bik HM, Mächler E, Seymour ... Environmental DNA metabarcoding for benthic monitoring: A review of sediment sampling and DNA extraction methods. Pawlowski J, ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
Xuanli Ma, and Guijun Yan, (2014). APPLICATION OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN BREEDING PROTEACEOUS PLANTS. Acta Hortic. 1031, 97-105. DOI ... considerable progress has been made in the application of DNA technology in breeding proteaceous plants. The research and ... Since the development of a reliable DNA extraction method on ten genera of Proteaceae in 1994 by Maguire et al., ... application can be divided into the following areas: 1) DNA diversity studies for parent selection in breeding programmes, for ...
Evaluation of the uniformity and stability of T-DNA integration and gene expression in transgenic apple plants ... Evaluation of the uniformity and stability of T-DNA integration and gene expression in transgenic apple plants ... Evaluation of the uniformity and stability of T-DNA integration and gene expression in transgenic apple plants ... Individual plants with partially or completely silenced transgenes were identified as well as plants with non-detectable T-DNA ...
Sedimentary ancient DNA shows terrestrial plant richness continuously increased over the Holocene in northern Fennoscandia. ... Sedimentary ancient DNA shows terrestrial plant richness continuously increased over the Holocene in northern Fennoscandia. ... Here, we generated a sedimentary ancient DNA dataset covering 10 lakes and applied novel methods for data harmonization. We ... assessed the impact of Holocene climate changes and nutrients on terrestrial plant richness in northern Fennoscandia. We find ...
Plant DNA Kit is designed for isolation of high quality DNA from from a wide variety of plant species. ... AceMag™ Plant DNA Kit is designed for isolation of high quality DNA from from a wide variety of plant species. Up to 100 mg of ... Ordering AceMag™ Plant DNA Kit We know how valuable your research is to you, but are you wondering what you can expect to pay ... High DNA yield. * Rapid isolation of high quality and ready to use DNA. * No hazardous chemicals. * Easy and quick to use. * ...
... forensic dna, genetic dna, human dna, molecular dna, nucleic acid dna, peptide dna, plant dna, plants dna, sequence dna, ... dna animation, dna binding, dna buffer, dna cell, dna electrophoresis, dna enzyme, dna function, dna gel, dna gene, dna genes, ... dna genetics, dna molecular weight, dna mrna, dna mutation, dna ppt, dna protein, dna proteins, dna protocol, dna replication, ... success ppt, transcription dna, transgenic dna, translation dna, types of success. Posted in Program/Product Reviews , Comments ...
Grip op DNA Voor planten die zich via bloemen voortplanten is goede vorming van deze bloemen essentieel. Master regelaar hierin ... The science of plants and more Grip op DNA. Posted byFemke de Jong. 14 February 2023. 06 February 2023. Posted inartikel ... Tags:artikel bespreking, Bloemen, gen regulatie, Nederlands, Plant biology Published by Femke de Jong A plant scientist who ... UFO helpt LEAFY letterlijk grip op het DNA te krijgen. De onderzoekers analyseerde of het F-box gedeelte van UFO nodig was voor ...
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Herbivory on plants with high δ15N values cannot be ruled out based on this method, however. Here we apply an approach using ... The analysis yielded strong signals of reliance on plants for Romanian cave bears based on the δ15N values of glutamate and ... Heavy reliance on plants is rare in Carnivora and mostly limited to relatively small species in subtropical settings. The ... Gansauge, M.-T. & Matthias, M. Single-stranded DNA library preparation for the se-quencing of ancient or damaged DNA. Nat. ...
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Diversity of plant DNA in stool is linked to dietary quality, age, and household income.. Petrone, Brianna L; Aqeel, Ammara; ... Here, we develop a molecular tool to quantify human dietary plant diversity by applying DNA metabarcoding with the chloroplast ... Dieta Estado Nutricional Adolescente Humanos DNA de Plantas/genética Plantas/genética Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico ... The number of plant taxa per sample (plant metabarcoding richness or pMR) correlated with recorded intakes in interventional ...
... has received four bids in a retender to build a petrochemical plant at its complex in Jubail, industry ... New Threat To Privacy? Scientists Sound Alarm About DNA Tool. * How The Border Crisis May Affect Biden 2024 Campaign. ... Saudi Kayan receives four bids in plant retender. By IBT Staff Reporter 12/22/09 AT 1:25 PM EST. ... Kayan has also received final bids from Daelim and CTCI for the construction of a 300,000 tpy low density polyethylene plant ( ...
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... The DNA of Church Planting.mp3[/podcast] View DNA: The Essence of What Is Being ... In church planting it really matters what we think we are planting, because the worrying reality is that we can reproduce our ... Here we meet two words, Church and Plant. The first is obviously ecclesial and planting rightly sounds missional. I want to ... "Church planting is the process by which a seed of the life and message of Jesus [thats a way to say gospel] embodied by a ...
DNA barcoding to promote social awareness and identity of neglected, underutilized plant species having valuable nutritional ... DNA-based techniques can help achieve this mission. In particular, the DNA barcoding approach has gained a role of primary ... Here, we discuss the advantages in using DNA barcoding for the identification of some of the most representative NUS species, ... It is estimated that about 7000 plant species and a large number of cultivars and varieties have been cultivated for ...
The woman whose DNA from a sexual assault case was used by San Francisco police to arrest her in an unrelated property crime ... Superblooms beautiful, but some may devastate native plants Some species of invasive plants thrive under long, wet winters like ... Woman whose rape DNA led to her arrest to sue San Francisco FILE - San Francisco District Attorney Chesa Boudin holds a report ... The woman whose DNA from a sexual assault case was used by San Francisco police to arrest her in an unrelated property crime ...
equipment and reagents for dna extraction of plant equipment and reagents for dna extraction of plant materials . Plant DNA Kit ... CTAB DNA extraction buffer for plant DNA extraction. CTAB DNA extraction buffer is more suitable for extracting DNA from the ... Plant DNA Purification Kits , Biocompare. Plant DNA purification is fundamentally more complex, due to the nature of plant ... DNeasy Plant Mini Kit QIAGEN Online Shop. The DNeasy Plant Mini Kit provides fast and easy silicabased plant DNA extraction in ...
Systematic Botany is the scientific journal of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and publishes four issues per year.. ... DNA Sequence Variation among Conspecific Accessions of the Legume Coursetia caribaea Reveals Geographically Localized Clades ... 2011 ISI Journal Citation Reports® Rankings: 87/190 - Plant Sciences. 34/45 - Evolutionary Biology ...
1The State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, ... Some large DNA viruses are equipped with their own ribonucleotide reductase to facilitate DNA synthesis for virus production.18 ... DNA synthesis: a general viral strategy that may contribute to the protective antiviral effects of selenium. doi: 10.20944/ ... 1The State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, ...
The book aims to equip the students with the basics of plant taxonomy and at the same time also update them with the most ... Relevant literature has been added to provide a better picture of the most recent updates in the field of plant systematics. ... recent advances in the field of plant systematics. The book has been organized into 21 chapters that introduce and explain ... Pandey, A.K., & Kasana, S. (2021). Plant Systematics (1st ed.). CRC Press. ...
The QuickExtract™ Plant DNA Extraction Solution provides a rapid, inexpensive method for isolating PCR-ready DNA from plant ... DNA Extraction Systems *oKtopure Bead-Based Automated DNA Extraction System. *Genespin Semi-Automated High-Throughput DNA ... Total nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) purification in single kit and included ability to select for DNA or RNA. 3-8 minutes ... Automated DNA extraction and purification systems. The oKtopure™ automated DNA extraction and purification system is a platform ...
... an eudicot plant of the Rosaceae family, to the genome of Erythronium dens-canis, a monocot plant of the Liliaceae family, was ... During analyses of the newly sequenced genome of Erythronium dens-canis, the presence of a horizontal transfer of ribosomal DNA ... Among these analyses, the isolation of the ribosomal DNA genomic sequence from Potentilla from the genome of Erythronium dens- ... This publication describes a unique example of horizontal DNA transfer from nucleus to nucleus between non-parasitic eudicot ...
  • The A and B DNA components of each virus have cis-acting sequences necessary for replication, and their A components encode trans-acting factors are required for this process. (
  • A DNA sequence required for geminivirus replication also mediates transcriptional regulation. (
  • Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), a member of the geminivirus family, requires a single virus-encoded protein for DNA replication. (
  • These experiments revealed that the repeated motifs in the AL1 binding site contribute differentially to repression, as has been observed previously for AL1-DNA binding and viral replication. (
  • Interaction between a geminivirus replication protein and origin DNA is essential for viral replication. (
  • Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and Norfloxacin are second-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic in opposition to bacterial DNA gyrase, which reduces DNA pressure all through replication. (
  • The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa. (
  • Dissimilar effects of β-lapachone- and hydroxyurea-induced DNA replication stress in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. (
  • This indicates that even in the absence of DNA replication, a distinct subset of IR-induced damage is recognized by ATR. (
  • Our portfolio of high-performance DNA and RNA extraction and purifications kits, automated DNA purification instruments, and tailor-made extraction services deliver high-quality DNA and RNA for downstream sequencing and PCR applications enabling you to make critical research decisions and advance traits to market. (
  • The generation of transgenic apple plants relies on the molecular analysis of transgene integration and expression based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, blotting techniques and enzymatic assays on vitro leaves of putative transgenic regenerates. (
  • Plants were evaluated using standard molecular techniques, such as PCR, Southern blot, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and propagated in vitro on non-selective antibiotic-free media for four years to mimic natural conditions in the field. (
  • The MasterPure Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit enables rapid, high yield purification of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA, total cellular RNA and Total Nucleic Acid (TNA) from many different sample types. (
  • To prove the phenomenon was real, a combination of genomic, molecular and cytogenetic analyses were performed to confirm the exogenous origin of the DNA considered. (
  • This project encompasses many basic plant systematic activities: plant collection and herbarium curation, DNA extraction and PCR amplification, molecular sequence and phylogenetic analysis. (
  • Here, we develop a molecular tool to quantify human dietary plant diversity by applying DNA metabarcoding with the chloroplast trnL-P6 marker to 1,029 fecal samples from 324 participants across two interventional feeding studies and three observational cohorts. (
  • Obtaining high-quality, intact DNA is often the first and most critical step in many fundamental molecular biology applications, such as DNA cloning , sequencing , PCR , and electrophoresis . (
  • DNA extraction from cells is one of the most widely used molecular biology techniques. (
  • In fact, the researchers found single-stranded DNA rings that originated in viruses, which they named bovine meat and milk factors (BMMF), in the intestines of patients with colon cancer. (
  • 2022. Probing the mechanisms of two exonuclease domain mutators of DNA polymerase ε. (
  • 2022. Ribonucleotide incorporation by eukaryotic B-family DNA replicases and its consequences. (
  • Dr. Nabel and his colleagues previously have shown the DNA vaccine approach to be effective against influenza viruses in animal models, including highly pathogenic viruses such as the H5N1 strain and the H1N1 virus that caused the deadly 1918 pandemic. (
  • The DNA vaccine used in this study is similar to other investigational vaccines evaluated by the VRC that hold promise for controlling other viruses, such as HIV, Ebola, SARS and West Nile. (
  • With this study, the investigators hope to learn whether new technologies, such as DNA vaccines, can provide protection against such viruses. (
  • Papillomaviruses, as well as human herpes and Epstein-Barr viruses (EBV), polyomaviruses, and retroviruses, cause cancer in a direct way: by inserting their genes into the DNA of human cells. (
  • Among these analyses, the isolation of the ribosomal DNA genomic sequence from Potentilla from the genome of Erythronium dens-canis was performed at the CNRGV. (
  • For example, many DNA extraction methods will work equally well for tissues such as liver, but fibrous tissues such as heart, fatty tissues such as brain, and nuclease-rich tissues like spleen present challenges for DNA isolation. (
  • Our kits come with a complete set of tools for collecting plant and animal tissue samples in an automation-friendly format. (
  • Isolating intact total DNA from tissue samples varies in difficulty with the physical and biochemical nature of the tissue. (
  • Following efficient homogenization using a SpeedMill, other homogenizer, or a mortar and liquid nitrogen, the plant material is lysed, and proteins and polysaccharides are effectively removed in a single precipitation step. (
  • Because of the high content of the secondary metabolites, proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds into the plant cell CTAB DNA extraction buffer is the first choice in the plant DNA extraction. (
  • Once inside the body, the DNA instructs human cells to make proteins that act as a vaccine against the virus. (
  • In the lab, TAL effectors can be fused with DNA-breaking proteins called nucleases. (
  • CTAB DNA extraction buffer is more suitable for extracting DNA from the plant tissues. (
  • Analysis of protein extracts from healthy plants and plants infected with TGMV by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting showed that a protein corresponding to the predicted AL3 gene product is produced only in infected plants. (
  • 22. Impact of phytochemicals and plant extracts on viability and proliferation of NK cell line NK-92 - a closer look at immunomodulatory properties of goji berries extract in human colon cancer cells. (
  • Using cells in the lab, the investigators designed mitoTALENs to bind and cut mitochondrial DNA that had a specific mutation in the gene Complex I, which causes LHON. (
  • Teaches BIOL 1150: General Biology II, BOTY 1010: Plant Biology for non-majors, BOTY 3700: Flowering plants, and BOTY 3130: Plant, algae, and fungi morphology. (
  • Ancient algae New scanning technology gives scientists an extraordinary view inside the cells of what may be 1.6 billion-year-old red algae, the oldest plant-like fossils ever found. (
  • Since the development of a reliable DNA extraction method on ten genera of Proteaceae in 1994 by Maguire et al. (
  • A possible solution relies on the exploitation of plant biodiversity and particularly on the so-called NUS (Neglected and Underutilized Species). (
  • How Does Environmental DNA Help Protect Biodiversity? (
  • The Stanislaus State Herbarium houses and catalogs thousands of plant specimens, with more added regularly. (
  • It is estimated that about 7000 plant species and a large number of cultivars and varieties have been cultivated for consumption in human history. (
  • According to this letter of intent, DNA Genetics and Segra will transition a set of existing DNA Genetics cannabis cultivars into tissue culture for genetic preservation and production purposes. (
  • Peptide biorecognition provides high delivery efficiency and specificity of QD with chemical cargoes to chloroplasts in plant cells in vivo (74.6 ± 10.8%) and more specific tunable changes of chloroplast redox function than chemicals alone. (
  • In order to assess the uniformity and the stability of transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration and gene expression, we studied 26 transgenic apple lines carrying the attacin E gene from Hyalophora cecropia , the β-glucuronidase gene, and the nptII gene. (
  • These data reveal the transitory nature of telomere stability, and the robust and flexible nature of DNA repair mechanisms elicited by telomere dysfunction. (
  • Viral DNA extraction poses unique challenges for good recovery and detection sensitivity. (
  • We have developed DNA purification products that are optimized to provide maximum viral DNA yield, purity, and integrity from a broad range of sample types in several format options. (
  • Which kit for viral DNA extraction is right for you? (
  • The chemistry underlying the innuPREP Plant RNA Kit, which has been specially adapted for isolating plant materials ( leaves, caulis, root, blossom), guarantees highly efficient lysis and effectively deactivates endogenous and exogenous RNases. (
  • The research and application can be divided into the following areas: 1) DNA diversity studies for parent selection in breeding programmes, for systematics and for ecological characterisation. (
  • The quality of DNA produced from this method needed to be high enough for downstream PCRbased genetic analysis. (
  • Pairing the oKtopure system with sbeadex chemistry provides an industry-leading solution driving laboratory efficiency and obtaining high quality and high-throughput DNA extraction and purification to feed downstream NGS, microarray and PCR workflows. (
  • The instrument delivers high quality DNA suitable for downstream applications such as sequencing, microarrays and SNP genotyping. (
  • Whether you prefer organic reagents, filter columns, or magnetic beads, our DNA purification products are designed for sensitive, scalable extraction and are compatible with a range of downstream applications. (
  • Rapid genomic and phenotypic change in response to climate warming Predicting the distribution of plants under climate change constrained by our limited understanding of the potential for rapid adaptive evolution. (
  • The aim of our study was to develop a rapid and cost efficient method for extraction of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Zea mays and dry leaves of Anacardium occidentale. (
  • The QuickExtract™ Plant DNA Extraction Solution provides a rapid, inexpensive method for isolating PCR-ready DNA from plant tissue and other sample types, making this kit ideal for processing hundreds of samples simultaneously. (
  • Genetic Engineering of Plant Secondary Metabolism, 313. (
  • Transmission was confirmed when the DNA fingerprints of source and secondary cases matched. (
  • Our research is currently centered on two projects: A DNA barcode-based community phylogeny of our campus plants and developing methods to quantify Downingia floral shape to allow us to reconstruct floral evolution with the group. (
  • Plant DNA purification is fundamentally more complex, due to the nature of plant tissue, which includes tough cell walls, complex polysaccharides, and other compounds that may affect DNA quality. (
  • Using the innuPREP Plant DNA KitIPC16 allows users to isolate highly pure genomic DNA from a variety of plant materials. (
  • يمكنك الحصول على سعر Equipment And Reagents For Dna Extraction Of Plant Materials وسيتصل بك ممثل A&C في غضون يوم عمل واحد. (
  • Many commercial kits and reagents are now available, specifically designed to tackle the plant tissue for fast and efficient extraction of DNA. (
  • Quantum dot (QD) fluorescence emission in a low background window allows confocal microscopy imaging and quantitative detection by elemental analysis in plant cells and organelles. (
  • Targeted delivery of nanomaterials with chemical cargoes guided by biorecognition motifs has a broad range of nanotechnology applications in plant biology and bioengineering, nanoparticle-plant interactions, and nano-enabled agriculture. (
  • The oKtopure™ automated DNA extraction and purification system is a platform which combines standardised high-throughput DNA extraction from plant tissue with our proprietary sbeadex magnetic bead based extraction chemistry. (
  • The oKtopure instrument uses the proprietary sbeadex magnetic bead based chemistry to perform automated DNA extraction from 8 x 96-well plates in parallel. (
  • In the next several decades, scientists would learn more about genes and the special substance called DNA that carried each living thing's specific traits. (
  • An aging power plant in St. Petersburg's Kolpino district, which encompasses more than 30 large industrial and manufacturing companies, has been unable to meet the area's constantly growing demand for power. (
  • This paper describes a method for DNA extraction from symptomatic plant material in the field and the use of a portable realtime PCR platform (Cepheid SmartCycler) for accurate onsite detection of P. ramorum within 2 h. (
  • The absence of translational regulation of ferritin in plants contrasts with ferritin regulation in animals. (
  • During analyses of the newly sequenced genome of Erythronium dens-canis , the presence of a horizontal transfer of ribosomal DNA from Potentilla, an eudicot plant of the Rosaceae family, to the genome of Erythronium dens-canis , a monocot plant of the Liliaceae family, was observed. (
  • For this purpose, we constructed a BAC library from the nuclei of the Erythronium dens-canis genome sorted by flow cytometry by the Centre of Plant Structural and Functional Genomics - Czech Republic , a method allowing to eliminate all cytoplasmic ribosomal DNA contaminations. (
  • The process that takes place in the machine is used in the agricultural industry for plant breeding. (
  • Publicly available and validated DNA reference sequences useful for phylogeny estimation and identification of fungal pathogens are an increasingly important resource in the efforts of plant protection organizations to facilitate safe international trade of agricultural commodities. (
  • By borrowing a tool from bacteria that infect plants, scientists have developed a new approach to eliminate mutated DNA inside mitochondria-the energy factories within cells. (
  • Most cells contain thousands of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies. (
  • This phosphorylated H2AX (gamma-H2AX) is involved in the retention of repair and signaling factor complexes at sites of DNA damage. (
  • We assessed the impact of Holocene climate changes and nutrients on terrestrial plant richness in northern Fennoscandia. (
  • The number of plant taxa per sample ( plant metabarcoding richness or pMR) correlated with recorded intakes in interventional diets and with indices calculated from a food frequency questionnaire in typical diets (ρ = 0.40 to 0.63). (
  • Climate sensitivity The plant life of Australia's outback does not respond to sudden increases in rainfall because it has 'learned' that drought will soon follow, according to satellite-based maps tracking the impact of changing climatic conditions. (
  • Polymerase chain reaction: locates and makes copies of parts of the DNA contained in the castor bean plant. (
  • Achieve greater flexibility and efficiency with our DNA and RNA extraction services. (
  • To support this effort and to promote projects like the Kolpino power plant, the Russian government has launched initiatives for energy infrastructure investment and energy efficiency," said Ruslan Pakhomov, GE Energy executive director, Russia. (
  • GE's gas turbine technology has been selected for a power plant upgrade that will help meet the energy needs of a rapidly growing industrial district in St. Petersburg, the capital of Russia's northwest region. (
  • The histone variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated at the sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). (
  • Sequence analysis revealed that, relative to tert ku70, chromosome fusion junctions in tert ku70 lig4 mutants contained less microhomology and less telomeric DNA. (
  • Scientists recently began using TAL effectors to modify DNA in a variety of organisms. (
  • DNA Genetics is interested in utilizing micropropagated plantlets to further optimize its production capability, preserve genetics, and reduce the pathogen risks associated with traditional cannabis nursery operations. (
  • DNA Genetics is a world-leading supplier of the highest quality cannabis seeds for the medicinal and recreational markets. (
  • Established over thirteen years ago in Amsterdam, DNA Genetics has developed an exceptional global cannabis brand. (
  • Winners of numerous awards at The High Times Cannabis Cup, Emerald Cup, Spannabis, Chalice, and ExpoWeed, DNA Genetics has a proven track record of driving product trends in the global marketplace. (
  • As a result, customers in the seed industry can collect DNA from up to 40,000 samples per day. (
  • In adolescents unable to collect validated dietary survey data, trnL metabarcoding detected 111 plant taxa, with 86 consumed by more than one individual and four ( wheat , chocolate , corn , and potato family ) consumed by >70% of individuals. (
  • We have expertise in extracting nucleic acid material from over 100 different species and tissue types, and our scientists are ready to work with you on obtaining high quality DNA extractions from your toughest samples. (
  • The first human trial of a DNA vaccine designed to prevent H5N1 avian influenza infection began on December 21, 2006, when the vaccine was administered to the first volunteer at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Scientists from the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the NIH Institutes, designed the vaccine. (
  • We demonstrate a nanoscale platform that targets and delivers nanomaterials with biochemicals to plant photosynthetic organelles (chloroplasts) using a guiding peptide recognition motif. (
  • The search specifically identifies the DNA of the gene that produces the ricin protein. (
  • We tested the air for chemicals commonly found in surgical smoke produced by What Morton Plant Hospital Managers electrocautery knives during surgery. (
  • DNA fingerprinting was used to evaluate epidemiologically linked case pairs found during routine tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations in seven sentinel sites from 1996 to 2000. (
  • In nature, TAL effectors are found only in certain types of plant-infecting bacteria. (
  • It is found in water, soil, and air, and is a source of much needed nitrogen for plants and animals. (
  • DIY killers Carnivorous plants around the world all developed their killer habit in surprisingly similar fashion, according to a genetic study of distantly related pitcher plants from Australia, Asia and America. (
  • The DNA of Success System" is wonderful, uplifting, and inspiring… full of practical wisdom and guidance you can use to achieve all your goals. (
  • DNA-based techniques can help achieve this mission. (
  • This publication describes a unique example of horizontal DNA transfer from nucleus to nucleus between non-parasitic eudicot and monocot. (
  • They enable the bacteria to use plant DNA to multiply and spread infection. (