Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species in the genus N4-like viruses, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the longer version of the genome and have no separate cell lysis gene.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Transcription factors that form transcription initiation complexes on DNA, bind to specific DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES and are required to initiate transcription. Although their binding may be localized to distinct sequence and structural motifs within the DNA they are considered non-specific with regard to the specific gene being transcribed.
Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
Genetic loci which direct transcription of ribosomal RNA in bacterial operons. They are designated rrnB, rrnC, rrnD, etc. according to the structural position of the transcription unit in the DNA sequence.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
The discontinuation of transcription at the end of a transcription unit, including the recognition of termination sites and release of the newly synthesized RNA molecule.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (1/6307)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (2/6307)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Efficient synthesis of nucleic acids heavily modified with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups using a mutantT7 RNA polymerase (RNAP). (3/6307)

A T7 RNAP mutant (Y639F) which eliminates discrimination of the chemical character of the NTP ribose 2'-group, facilitates incorporation of non-canonicalsubstrates into nucleic acids. However, transcripts containing a high percentage of non-canonical NMPs are poorly extended due to effects of the 2'-substituents on the transcript:template hybrid conformation. We tested the addition of compounds that stabilize A-type helix geometry to the reaction. High concentrations of polyamines, together with other changes in reaction conditions, greatly increased the synthesis of transcripts heavily substituted with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups. Template structures that facilitate promoter opening increased the efficiency of reactions where non-canonical substrates were incorporated during transcription of +1 to +6.  (+info)

General method of analysis of kinetic equations for multistep reversible mechanisms in the single-exponential regime: application to kinetics of open complex formation between Esigma70 RNA polymerase and lambdaP(R) promoter DNA. (4/6307)

A novel analytical method based on the exact solution of equations of kinetics of unbranched first- and pseudofirst-order mechanisms is developed for application to the process of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaPR promoter (P) open complex formation, which is described by the minimal three-step mechanism with two kinetically significant intermediates (I1, I2), [equation: see text], where the final product is an open complex RPo. The kinetics of reversible and irreversible association (pseudofirst order, [R] >> [P]) to form long-lived complexes (RPo and I2) and the kinetics of dissociation of long-lived complexes both exhibit single exponential behavior. In this situation, the analytical method provides explicit expressions relating observed rate constants to the microscopic rate constants of mechanism steps without use of rapid equilibrium or steady-state approximations, and thereby provides a basis for interpreting the composite rate constants of association (ka), isomerization (ki), and dissociation (kd) obtained from experiment for this or any other sequential mechanism of any number of steps. In subsequent papers, we apply this formalism to analyze kinetic data obtained in the reversible and irreversible binding regimes of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaP(R) promoter (P) open complex formation.  (+info)

The Escherichia coli Ada protein can interact with two distinct determinants in the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase according to promoter architecture: identification of the target of Ada activation at the alkA promoter. (5/6307)

The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) activates transcription from the Escherichia coli ada, aidB, and alkA promoters with different mechanisms. In this study we identify amino acid substitutions in region 4 of the RNA polymerase subunit sigma70 that affect Ada-activated transcription at alkA. Substitution to alanine of residues K593, K597, and R603 in sigma70 region 4 results in decreased Ada-dependent binding of RNA polymerase to the alkA promoter in vitro and impairs alkA transcription both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that these residues define a determinant for meAda-sigma70 interaction. In a previous study (P. Landini, J. A. Bown, M. R. Volkert, and S. J. W. Busby, J. Biol. Chem. 273:13307-13312, 1998), we showed that a set of negatively charged amino acids in sigma70 region 4 is involved in meAda-sigma70 interaction at the ada and aidB promoters. However, the alanine substitutions of positively charged residues K593, K597, and R603 do not affect meAda-dependent transcription at ada and aidB. Unlike the sigma70 amino acids involved in the interaction with meAda at the ada and aidB promoters, K593, K597, and R603 are not conserved in sigmaS, an alternative sigma subunit of RNA polymerase mainly expressed during the stationary phase of growth. While meAda is able to promote transcription by the sigmaS form of RNA polymerase (EsigmaS) at ada and aidB, it fails to do so at alkA. We propose that meAda can activate transcription at different promoters by contacting distinct determinants in sigma70 region 4 in a manner dependent on the location of the Ada binding site.  (+info)

An intrinsic DNA curvature found in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa K-81 affects the promoter activity of rpoD1 encoding a principal sigma factor. (6/6307)

The rpoD1 gene in the unicellular cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa K-81 encodes a principal sigma factor of RNA polymerase and is transcribed under light and dark conditions to produce multiple monocistronic transcripts. In the 5'-upstream region from rpoD1 Promoter 2, which has a sequence of Escherichia coli type, we found a sequence-directed DNA curvature with an AT-rich sequence. Insertions of 2 to 21 base pairs introduced into the curved center changed a gross geometry of the original curved DNA structure. The rpoD1 promoter activities assayed in vivo by using transcriptional lacZ fusions were correlated with the change in the gross geometry in not only a cyanobacterium but also E. coli. In addition, RNA polymerase binding to the rpoD1 promoter region and the efficiency of the mRNA synthesis from the rpoD1 Promoter 2 were also affected in vitro by the change in the geometry. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of the curved DNA is important for the rpoD1 transcription. The deletion of the center region of the curvature resulted in a considerable reduction of the transcription from Promoter 2 in the cyanobacterium. This report demonstrates that a curved DNA plays a significant role in transcription in cyanobacteria, and that this functional curvature is located in the 5'-upstream region from the rpoD gene, which encodes a principal sigma factor in eubacteria.  (+info)

Disruption of substrate binding site in E. coli RNA polymerase by lethal alanine substitutions in carboxy terminal domain of the beta subunit. (7/6307)

Alanine substitution of four amino acids in two evolutionarily conserved motifs, PSRM and RFGEMIE, near the carboxy terminus of the beta subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase results in a dramatic loss of the enzyme's affinity to substrates with no apparent effect on the maximal rate of the enzymatic reaction or on binding to promoters. The magnitude and selectivity of the effect suggest that the mutations disrupt the substrate binding site of the active center.  (+info)

Bone marrow ribonucleic acid polymerase. Effect of testosterone on nucleotide incorporation into nuclear RNA. (8/6307)

The incorporation of 3H-UTP into RNA by isolated rat bone marrow nuclei is stimulated by testosterone. This effect is hormone and tissue specific. Using alpha-amanitine and different ionic strength conditions it was found that testosterone enhances preferentially RNA polymerase I activity. The sedimentation pattern of RNA isolated from bone marrow nuclei shows that the synthesis of RNA species within the 14-30 S range is mainly stimulated by the hormone.  (+info)

ATRPAC43; FUNCTIONS IN: DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, protein dimerization activity, DNA binding; INVOLVED IN: transcription; LOCATED IN: nucleus; EXPRESSED IN: 11 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 4 anthesis, C globular stage, petal differentiation and expansion stage, D bilateral stage, E expanded cotyledon stage; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: DNA-directed RNA polymerase, insert (InterPro:IPR011262), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, dimerisation (InterPro:IPR011261), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, RpoA/D/Rpb3-type (InterPro:IPR011263), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, 30-40 kDa subunit, conserved site (InterPro:IPR001514), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, RBP11-like (InterPro:IPR009025); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: ATRPAC42; DNA binding / DNA-directed RNA polymerase/ protein dimerization (TAIR:AT1G60850.2); Has 1009 Blast hits to 1009 proteins in 248 species: Archae - 155; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 242; Fungi - 224; Plants - 67; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 321 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lifespan Biosciences,Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther ELISA, Western Blot,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
casSAR Dugability of A3N326 | rpoC | DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta - Also known as RPOC_ACTP2, rpoC. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. The RNAP catalytic core consists of 2 alpha, 1 beta, 1 beta and 1 omega subunit. When a sigma factor is associated with the core the holoenzyme is formed, which can initiate transcription.
Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to DNA-directed RNA polymerase sequences,e.g.residues 1-1390 are 64% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain from Escherichia coli (gb,AAB18647.1,). Residues 1-1390 are 64% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 (11348463,). Residues 12-1166 are 45% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain from Chlamydia trachomatis serotype D, strain UW3/Cx (gb,AAC67908.1,).Residues 20-963 are 45% similar and residues 839-1389 are 38% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase, beta subunit from syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum (gb,AAC65229.1 ...
casSAR Dugability of Q6GJC6 | rpoB | DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta - Also known as RPOB_STAAR, rpoB. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. The RNAP catalytic core consists of 2 alpha, 1 beta, 1 beta and 1 omega subunit. When a sigma factor is associated with the core the holoenzyme is formed, which can initiate transcription.
This gene encodes a DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit. The encoded protein contains two potential zinc-binding motifs and may play a role in regulation of cell proliferation. The encoded protein may be involved in cancer and human immunodeficiency virus progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013 ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene. This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA-directed RNA polymerase. The gene product is responsible for mitochondrial gene expression as well as for providing RNA primers for initiation of replication of the mitochondrial genome. Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of bacteriophage and mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000099821 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020329 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Tiranti V, Savoia A, Forti F, DApolito MF, Centra M, Rocchi M, Zeviani M (Jul 1997). Identification of the gene encoding the human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (h-mtRPOL) by cyberscreening of the Expressed Sequence Tags database. Hum Mol Genet. 6 (4): 615-25. ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 5VT0_L | ESCHERICHIA COLI 6S RNA DERIVATIVE IN COMPLEX WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI RNA POLYMERASE SIGMA70-HOLOENZYME | 5VT0
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit 13DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit ADNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit ADNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit BDNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit D
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
GO Terms Descrition:, RNA polymerase II activity, DNA binding, DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, protein binding, nucleus, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, core complex, transcription, DNA-templated, gastrulation, embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching, transferase activity, nucleotidyltransferase activity, mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, metal ion binding, reproduction, mitotic spindle organization, exit from mitosis, asymmetric cell division, developmental process, protein methylation, hatching, nematode larval development, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ...
DNA-directed RNA interference (ddRNAi) is a gene-silencing technique that utilizes DNA constructs to activate an animal cells endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. DNA constructs are designed to express self-complementary double-stranded RNAs, typically short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), that once processed bring about silencing of a target gene or genes. Any RNA, including endogenous mRNAs or viral RNAs, can be silenced by designing constructs to express double-stranded RNA complementary to the desired mRNA target. This mechanism has great potential as a novel therapeutic to silence disease-causing genes. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated across a range of disease models, including viral diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B or hepatitis C, or diseases associated with altered expression of endogenous genes such as drug-resistant lung cancer, neuropathic pain, advanced cancer and retinitis pigmentosa. As seen in Figure 1, a ddRNAi construct encoding an shRNA is packaged into a delivery vector ...
The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit T7 phage-like RNA polymerase (mtRNAP), structurally unrelated to cellular RNAPs. In higher eukaryotes, mtRNAP requires two transcription factors for efficient initiation-TFAM, a major nucleoid protein, and TFB2M, a transient component of mt …
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The ada and aidB genes are part of the adaptive response to DNA methylation damage in Escherichia coli. Transcription of the ada and the aidB genes is triggered by binding of the methylated Ada protein (meAda) to a specific sequence located 40-60 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start, which is internal to an A/T-rich region. In this report we demonstrate that the Ada binding site is also a binding site for RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase is able to bind the -40 to -60 region of the ada and the aidB promoters in the absence of meAda, and its binding is mediated by the alpha subunit. This region resembles the UP element of the rrnB P1 promoter in location, sequence and mechanism of interaction with RNA polymerase. We discuss the function of UP-like elements in positively controlled promoters and provide evidence that Ada does not act by enhancing RNA polymerase binding affinity to the promoter region. Instead, Ada stimulates transcription by modifying the nature of the RNA polymerase-promoter
The RNA polymerase gene of bacteriophage T7 has been cloned into the plasmid pBR322 under the inducible control of the lambda PL promoter. After induction, T7 RNA polymerase constitutes 20% of the soluble protein of Escherichia coli, a 200-fold increase over levels found in T7-infected cells. The overproduced enzyme has been purified to homogeneity. During extraction the enzyme is sensitive to a specific proteolysis, a reaction that can be prevented by a modification of lysis conditions. The specificity of T7 RNA polymerase for its own promoters, combined with the ability to inhibit selectively the host RNA polymerase with rifampicin, permits the exclusive expression of genes under the control of a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. We describe such a coupled system and its use to express high levels of phage T7 gene 5 protein, a subunit of T7 DNA polymerase.. ...
The SCOP classification for the RNA polymerase subunits superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Nascent transcripts in permeabilized HeLa cells were elongated by approximately 30-2,000 nucleotides in Br-UTP or biotin-14-CTP, before incorporation sites were immunolabelled either pre- or post-embedding, and visualized by light or electron microscopy. Analogues were concentrated in approximately 2,100 (range 2,000-2,700) discrete sites attached to a nucleoskeleton and surrounded by chromatin. A typical site contained a cluster (diameter 71 nm) of at least 4, and probably about 20, engaged polymerases, plus associated transcripts that partially overlapped a zone of RNA polymerase II, ribonucleoproteins, and proteins rich in thiols and acidic groups. As each site probably contains many transcription units, these results suggest that active polymerases are confined to these sites, which we call transcription factories. Results are consistent with transcription occurring as templates slide past attached polymerases, as nascent RNA is extruded into the factories.
A gapped BLAST reveals a number of significant hits to proteins described as DNA-directed RNA Polymerase Beta Chain. For example: UU187 residues 1-1413 are 52% similar to residues 1-1387 of RPOB_MYCGA (M.gallisepticum). Other significant hits are against (but not limited to) the RpoB proteins of M.pneumoniae (RPOB_MYCPN), B.subtilis (RPOB_BACSU), S.aureus (RPOB_STAAU) and B.burgdorferi (RPOB_BORBU ...
Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin and Mark Ragan.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q04J38 (RPOZ_STRP2), DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 (strain D39 / NCTC 7466)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0ALU2 (RPOA_LISW6), DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha. Listeria welshimeri serovar 6b (strain ATCC 35897 / DSM 20650 / SLCC5334)
5uhg_E mol:protein length:110 DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega MSISQSDASLAAVPAVDQFDPSSGASGGYDTPLGITNPPIDELLDRVSSKYALVIYAAK RARQINDYYNQLGEGILEYVGPLVEPGLQEKPLSIALREIHADLLEHTEGE ...
Uncharacterized protein; KEGG- tva-TVAG_193760 DNA-directed RNA polymerase, omega subunit family protein Pfam- DUF683 TBPIP bZIP_1 Tektin HalX PspA_IM30 Tup_N GBP_C Vicilin_N priB_priC DMPK_coil PLU-1 DUF812 Cortex-I_coil HALZ LMP UVR ATG16 Prefoldin_2 Syntaxin-6_N Myosin_tail_1 Spectrin Tropomyosin DUF904 SpoOE-like Rab5-bind Filament DUF593 HSBP1 TPR_MLP1_2 Nnf1 PROSITE- GLU_RICH LYS_RICH (509 aa ...
The highly conserved, multifunctional Tudor-SN (also called SND1/p100) modulates gene expression by an assortment of processes in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. The multifunctional properties of Tudor-SN can be attributed to its complex structure, consisting of multiple domains within the 4SN and Tsn modules (Gutierrez-Beltran et al., 2016). As a key component in RNA splicing, processing, and editing, the 4SN module has RNA-binding and RNA cleavage activities (Caudy et al., 2003; Scadden, 2005; Li et al., 2008). This modular region also exhibits unique protein recognition properties, as it interacts with several components of the basal transcription machinery, including ATP-dependent RNA helicase A (Välineva et al., 2006), Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription6 (Yang et al., 2002), DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest subunit, and CREB-binding protein (Välineva et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2007). A subsequent study also demonstrated that the SN-like domains bind to the 3′ UTR ...
Transcription is a crucial step in gene expression, orchestrated by RNA polymerase (RNAP), a molecular machine that transfers genetic information from DNA to RNA . Bacterial transcription provides a tractable model system which provides mechanistic insights on its more complex eukaryotic counterpart. Bacterial transcription is initiated after an RNAP holoenzyme (core RNAP bound to a σ initiation factor) melts the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) around the transcription start to form a transcription bubble in the RNAP-promoter DNA open complex (RPo). Subsequently, RNAP performs cycles of RNA synthesis and dissociation (abortive initiation) and at a certain point, escapes from the promoter and enters elongation. RNAP has been studied extensively using genetic, biochemical and structural methods. Recent X-ray structures 3,4 vastly improved our understanding of transcription, leading to mechanistic proposals, and experiments that tested these proposals and further examined RNAP function. However, crystal
TY - PAT. T1 - Therapeutics for Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections: Inhibitors of Bacterial RNA Polymerase. AU - Ebright, Richard. AU - Feng, Yu. AU - Zhang, Yu. PY - 2017/1. Y1 - 2017/1. N2 - Invention Summary: Bacterial infectious diseases kill 100,000 persons each year in the US and 11 million persons each year worldwide, representing nearly a fifth of deaths each year worldwide. For six decades, antibiotics have been our bulwark against bacterial infectious diseases. However, now this bulwark is collapsing. For all major bacterial pathogens, strains resistant to at least one current antibiotic have arisen, and, for several bacterial pathogens, strains resistant to all current antibiotics have arisen. There is an urgent national and international need for new classes of antibacterial agents effective against bacterial pathogens resistant to current antibacterial agents. Rutgers researchers have identified five new drug targets within the structure of bacterial RNA polymerase, the enzyme ...
ZNRD1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_740753), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit. The encoded protein contains two potential zinc-binding motifs and may play a role in regulation of cell proliferation. The encoded protein may be involved in cancer and human immunodeficiency virus progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the 58 kilodalton subunit of DNA primase, an enzyme that plays a key role in the replication of DNA. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a 49 kilodalton subunit. This heterodimer functions as a DNA-directed RNA polymerase to synthesize small RNA primers that are used to create Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the DNA. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. This gene has a related pseudogene, which is also present on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014 ...
General Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that form transcription initiation complexes on DNA, bind to specific DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES and are required to initiate transcription. Although their binding may be localized to distinct sequence and structural motifs within the DNA they are considered non-specific with regard to the specific gene being transcribed.
FIG. 4. Role of RssB-ClpXP and putative signal input in the σS recognition and degradation pathway. The response regulator RssB is an essential, specific, and direct σS recognition factor. RssB delivers σS to the ClpXP protease, where σS is unfolded and completely degraded whereas RssB is released. σS binding requires RssB phosphorylation, but it is unclear whether the catalytic cycle of RssB involves obligatory dephosphorylation during release and subsequent rephosphorylation. Stress signals may affect (i) the phosphorylation of RssB and therefore RssB-σS complex formation; (ii) the cellular level of RssB (which in growing cells is rate limiting for σS proteolysis); (iii) the synthesis of σS such that RssB becomes titrated on σS overproduction; (iv) σS association with RNA polymerase core enzyme, which protects against binding by RssB; and (v) the function of the ClpXP protease itself (see the text for details). However, the molecular details of the stress signal input pathways ...
Our lab studies transcription, the first step in gene expression, whereby the genetic information coded in the DNA is utilized for the synthesis of RNA. Most regulation of gene expression occurs at the level of transcription. Transcription in all cells is carried out by multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) that are conserved in sequence
E. coli RNA Polymerase, Holoenzyme is the core enzyme saturated with sigma factor 70. The Holoenzyme initiates RNA synthesis from sigma 70 specific bacterial and phage promoters.
DNA transcription follows a chain of events: initiation, elongation and termination, in which initiation usually the slowest. This is mainly due to the process of RNA-polymerase (RNAP) proper binding to the promoter region on DNA and formation of the open transcription bubble, but also due to many failed attempts of the initially-transcribing complex (ITC) to escape the promoter region and transition to elongation. The latter involves multiple polymerization rounds of short transcript that are depleted from the complex after RNAP aborts a transcription trial to try again (abortive initiation). Traditionally, each round of abortive initiation was thought to be rapid. Using single-molecule FRET as well as magnetic tweezers nanomanipulation tools we have recently discovered an abortive initiation intermediate in which a short transcript on its way to be depleted, stabilizes the complex in a unique conformation with blockage of the nucleotide entry channel (the secondary channel). Even more ...
This gene encodes one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases ...
Purified MalE-SoxS fusion protein specifically stimulated in vitro transcription of the Escherichia coli zwf, fpr, fumC, micF, nfo, and sodA genes, indicating that activation of the superoxide regulon requires only SoxS. As in vivo, a 21 bp sequence adjacent to the zwf promoter was able to activate …
Catalytic subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes share hundreds of ultra-conserved amino acids. Remarkably, the plant-specific RNA silencing enzymes, Pol IV and Pol V differ from Pols I, II and III at ~140 of these positions, yet remain capable of RNA synthesis. Whether these amino acid changes in Pols IV and V alter their catalytic properties in comparison to Pol II, from which they evolved, is unknown. Here, we show that Pols IV and V differ from one another, and Pol II, in nucleotide incorporation rate, transcriptional accuracy and the ability to discriminate between ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Pol IV transcription is notably error-prone, which may be tolerable, or even beneficial, for biosynthesis of siRNAs targeting transposon families in trans. By contrast, Pol V exhibits high fidelity transcription, suggesting a need for Pol V transcripts to faithfully reflect the DNA sequence of target loci in order to recruit siRNA-Argonaute protein ...
Using molecular modeling approach, potential antibacterial agents with triazole core were proposed. A moderate to weak level of antibacterial activity in most of the compounds have been observed, with best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.003 mg/mL, as shown by the 15 against S. epidermidis. Studied compounds were also submitted to the antifungal assay. The best antifungal activity was detected for 16 with MIC at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively.
1FruR represses the nirB operon in the absence of glucose binding to its promoter. It is suggested that Cra probably interferes with RNA polymerase binding to its site or with the RNA polymerase interaction with FNR and other components for transcription initiation.1The nir promoter is 100% dependent on FNR. If there is no FNR, there is no activity. This activity can be efficiently repressed by FruR (-16.5 site) and less efficiently by HNS and Fis (+23 site). FNR-dependent activation of the nir promoter is repressed by IHF (-88 site) and Fis (-142 site), DNA-binding proteins that play a role in shaping the folded bacterial chromosome. Although Fis and IHF repress FNR-dependent activation of the nir promoter, they do not prevent FNR binding. Thus, Fis, IHF, and FNR can bind simultaneously.1Although Fis and IHF repress FNR-dependent activation of the nir promoter, they do not prevent FNR binding. Thus, Fis, IHF, and FNR can bind simultaneously ...
casSAR Dugability of P25441 | RPC53 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4 - Also known as RPC4_YEAST, RPC53, RPC4. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. Essential for tRNA synthesis. The RPC53/RPC4-RPC37/RPC5 subcomplex is required for terminator recognition and reinitiation. Component of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex consisting of 17 subunits. Interacts with RPC37/RPC5. RPC53/RPC4, RPC37/RPC5 and RPC11/RPC10 probably form a Pol III subcomplex.
DNA (5-D(*CP*TP*AP*CP*CP*CP*AP*TP*AP*AP*CP*CP*AP*CP*AP*GP*GP*CP*TP*CP*CP*TP*CP*TP*CP*CP*AP*TP*C)-3)DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11
SCDNAALG2 X87947 3123bp DNA PLN 16-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae ALG2 gene. ALG2 gene; glycosyltransferase; ALG2. SCJ1PROM Z49780 573bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae promoter DNA (573 bp). SCVRP1GEN X87806 3423bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae VRP1 gene. verprolin; vrp1 gene; vrp1. YSCF4121 D44598 18837bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI phage 4121. DNA-directed RNA polymerase mitochondrial; GTP-binding protein YPT1; actin; tubulin beta chain; ACT1; ACTIN; YPT1; GTP-BINDING PROTEIN YPT1(YP2); TUB2; TUBULIN BETA CHAIN; RPO41; DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE MITOCHONDRIAL. YSCF9965 D44597 36230bp DNA PLN 28-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9965. hexokinase A; mitochondrial ribosomal protein; nuclearintegrity protein 1; proteosome component PRE4; YMR31; PRE4; NIN1; nuclearintegrity protein 1; HXK1; HEXOKINASE A. YSCF9993 D44603 35881bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9993. To obtain any of the yeast GenBank sequences you can ...
Figure 2.Ascoviridae: Phylogenetic tree obtained with nine core proteins shared by the members of Ascoviridae, Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. The tree was calculated using Mafft or Muscle alignments curated with Gblock (parameters were: -t=p -e=-gb1 -b2=N -b3=40 -b4=2 -b5=a -v=120), except for the RNase III orthologues, for which the complete sequence alignment was used. Alignments of the homologues of HvAV-3g ORF1 (DNA polymerase), 11 (DNA-directed RNA polymerase), 15 (DEAD-like helicase), 70 (DNA-directed RNA polymerase II), 74 (hypothetical protein), 81 (hypothetical protein), 85 (serine/threonine protein kinase), 122 (ATPase), 160 (hypothetical protein) were concatenated and trees based on maximum likelihood were calculated with PhyML. Parameters used were WAG (substitution matrix), 0 (proportion of invariable sites), 7 in a, and 5 in f (number of relative substitution rate categories), and F (substitution model). The protein substitution model, the proportion of invariable sites, the ...
Shop Probable RNA polymerase sigma factor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable RNA polymerase sigma factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7; DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. NRPB7 is part of a subcomplex with NRPB4 that binds to a pocket formed by NRPB1, NRPB2 and NRPB6 at the base of the clamp element. The NRBP4-NRPB7 subcomplex [...] (176 aa ...
Microbial pathogens like Salmonella utilize numerous strategies to rapidly sense and respond to a myriad of environmental stresses. Oxidative, nitrosative, and nutritional stress imposed by the innate immune response are prominent among the antimicrobial pressures encountered by Salmonella during their association with mammalian hosts. The stringent response to nutritional stress, which is under the control of the RNA polymerase-binding protein DksA and the nucleotide alarmone guanosine penta/tetraphosphate [(p)ppGpp], is essential for Gram-negative pathogens to respond to nutrient limiting conditions. This stress program activates transcription of amino acid biosynthetic genes while repressing the expression of translational machinery. Investigations presented in this thesis indicate that, in addition to controlling the stringent response to nutritional stress, DksA and (p)ppGpp promote the transcription and translation of genes encoding the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) virulence ...
RNA polymerase II elongation complex. Computer model showing yeast RNA polymerase (grey) complexed with DNA (green) and RNA (pink). This enzyme synthesises a complementary mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) strand from a strand of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) during a DNA transcription. The RNA polymerase molecule uses the original DNA strand as a template for the mRNA. - Stock Image C035/5381
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Author(s): Long, Chunhong; E, Chao; Da, Lin-Tai; Yu, Jin | Abstract: An elongation cycle of a transcribing RNA polymerase (RNAP) usually consists of multiple kinetics steps, so there exist multiple kinetic checkpoints where non-cognate nucleotides can be selected against. We conducted comprehensive free energy calculations on various nucleotide insertions for viral T7 RNAP employing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. By comparing insertion free energy profiles between the non-cognate nucleotide species (rGTP and dATP) and a cognate one (rATP), we obtained selection free energetics from the nucleotide pre-insertion to the insertion checkpoints, and further inferred the selection energetics down to the catalytic stage. We find that the insertion of base mismatch rGTP proceeds mainly through an off-path along which both pre-insertion screening and insertion inhibition play significant roles. In comparison, the selection against dATP is found to go through an off-path pre-insertion screening along
CX-5461 is a first-in-class non-genotoxic small molecule targeted inhibitor of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) that activates the p53 pathway without causing DNA damage. CX-5461 selectively inhibits rRNA synthesis by Pol I in the nucleolus, but does not inhibit mRNA synthesis by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) and does not inhibit DNA replication or protein synthesis. Inhibition of Pol I results in nucleolar stress and release of ribosomal proteins (RP) from the nucleolus. The RP bind to Mdm2 and liberate p53 to orchestrate apoptosis in cancer cells. CX-5461 demonstrates a favorable preclinical profile, potently and selectively kills cancer cells, demonstrates robust in vivo efficacy in multiple models, and has demonstrated oral bioavailability in multiple species.
Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilmans The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
RNA polymerases, often abbreviated to RNAP, are the enzymes in a cell responsible for synthesizing strands of RNA. Because this function is essential to life, all organisms (and quite a few viruses) contain at least one type of RNA polymerase (most organisms contain at least three types). Depending on the RNA polymerase, transcription requires either a DNA or an RNA template; although, in most contexts, RNA polymerase refers to the DNA-dependant RNA polymerases that use a DNA template to transcription genes into mRNA (messenger RNA). Reverse transcriptases are enzymes (usually associated with retroviruses)that perform the opposite function, using an RNA template to synthesize a DNA product. ...
T7 RNA Polymerase is a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that exhibits high specificity for the bacteriophage T7 promoter sequence 5-TAATACGACTCACTATA-3. The enzyme can incorporate labeled or unlabeled nucleoside triphosphates into an RNA transcript. Large quantities of RNA can be synthesized from a DNA sequence cloned downstream of the T7 promoter due to the high processivity and transcription frequency of T7 RNA Polymerase. The enzyme is supplied in a buffer of 20 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.9), 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM DTT, 0.1 mM EDTA and 50% glycerol.. ...
My interest in understanding how molecular machines function began with my graduate work on Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP). Employing biochemical, biophysical, and molecular genetic methods, I investigated the mechanistic details by which the small molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) acts as both a positive and negative regulator of transcription initiation in E. coli. I found that ppGpp shortens the half-lives of RNAP-promoter complexes formed on all promoters, even those promoters unaffected by ppGpp in vivo. The kinetic properties of a particular promoter determined whether or not the effect of ppGpp on half-life results in inhibition. Furthermore, I found that ppGpp stimulated amino acid promoter activity in vivo, but not in purified transcription assays. These and other data led me to propose that direct inhibition of the highly transcribed rRNA genes by ppGpp results in a dramatic increase in the free RNAP concentration, which leads to an increase in initiation from amino ...
As in DNA replication, only one of the two DNA strands is transcribed. This strand is called the template strand, because it provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript. The other strand is called the coding strand. Its sequence is the same as the newly created RNA transcript (except for thymine being substituted for uracil). The DNA template strand is read 3 → 5 direction by RNA polymerase and the new RNA strand is synthesized in the 5→ 3 direction. RNA polymerase binds to the 3 end of a gene (promoter) on the DNA template strand and travels toward the 5 end. ...
Sigma factors [1] are bacterial transcription initiation factors that promote the attachment of the core RNA polymerase to specific initiation sites and are then released. They alter the specificity of promoter recognition. Most bacteria express a multiplicity of sigma factors. With regards to sequence similarity, sigma factors can be grouped into two classes: the sigma-54 and sigma-70 families. The sigma-70 family includes, in addition to the primary sigma factor, a wide variety of sigma factors. It also includes a divergent subfamily [2] that regulates gene encoding for proteins with extracytoplasmic function. The proteins that are currently known to belong to this sigma factor subfamily, known as ECF, are: ...
A comparison was drawn between the action of Cibacron Blue F3GA on the enzymic activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from different sources, e.g. Escherichia coli, calf thymus and wheat germ (polymerase II). Sensitivity towards this inhibitor was determined for polymer formation and primed abortive synthesis of trinucleotide UpApU. In case of E. coli polymerase and wheat germ polymerase II the dye inhibits both polymer formation and abortive synthesis. Calf thymus polymerase II is inhibited only in the polymerisation step. The primed initiation reaction was found to be resistant towards the dye. In case of E. coli polymerase and wheat germ polymerase II the sensitive step is the formation of internucleotide bond whereas in case of calf thymus polymerase II the translocation of the enzyme is influenced. An analysis of kinetic data indicates more than one binding site for the dye on RNA polymerase II from calf thymus and wheat germ. Cibacron blue does not inhibit specific transcription ...
The σ54-dependent Po promoter drives transcription of an operon that encodes a suite of enzymes for (methyl)phenols catabolism. Transcription from Po is controlled by the sensor-activator DmpR that binds (methyl)phenol effectors to take up its active form. The σ54 factor imposes kinetic constraints on transcriptional initiation by the σ54-RNA polymerase holoenzyme which cannot undergo transition from the closed complex without the aid of the activator. DmpR acts from a distance on promoter-bound σ54-holoenzyme, and physical contact between the two players is facilitated by the DNA-bending protein IHF. The bacterial alarmone ppGpp and DksA directly bind RNA polymerase to have far reaching consequences on global transcriptional capacity in the cell. The work presented in this thesis uses the DmpR-regulated Po promoter as a framework to dissect how these two regulatory molecules act in vivo to control the functioning of σ54-dependent transcription. The strategies employed involved development ...
The ongoing debate over junk DNA often revolves around data collected by ENCODE and others. The idea that most of our genome is transcribed (pervasive transcription) seems to indicate that genes occupy most of the genome. The opposing view is that most of these transcripts are accidental products of spurious transcription. We see the same opposing views when it comes to transcription factor binding sites. ENCODE and their supporters have mapped millions of binding sites throughout the genome and they believe this represent abundant and exquisite regulation. The opposing view is that most of these binding sites are spurious and non-functional.. The messy view is supported by many studies on the biophysical properties of transcription factor binding. These studies show that any DNA binding protein has a low affinity for random sequence DNA. They will also bind with much higher affinity to sequences that resemble, but do not precisely match, the specific binding site [How RNA Polymerase Binds to ...
The ongoing debate over junk DNA often revolves around data collected by ENCODE and others. The idea that most of our genome is transcribed (pervasive transcription) seems to indicate that genes occupy most of the genome. The opposing view is that most of these transcripts are accidental products of spurious transcription. We see the same opposing views when it comes to transcription factor binding sites. ENCODE and their supporters have mapped millions of binding sites throughout the genome and they believe this represent abundant and exquisite regulation. The opposing view is that most of these binding sites are spurious and non-functional.. The messy view is supported by many studies on the biophysical properties of transcription factor binding. These studies show that any DNA binding protein has a low affinity for random sequence DNA. They will also bind with much higher affinity to sequences that resemble, but do not precisely match, the specific binding site [How RNA Polymerase Binds to ...
The ongoing debate over junk DNA often revolves around data collected by ENCODE and others. The idea that most of our genome is transcribed (pervasive transcription) seems to indicate that genes occupy most of the genome. The opposing view is that most of these transcripts are accidental products of spurious transcription. We see the same opposing views when it comes to transcription factor binding sites. ENCODE and their supporters have mapped millions of binding sites throughout the genome and they believe this represent abundant and exquisite regulation. The opposing view is that most of these binding sites are spurious and non-functional.. The messy view is supported by many studies on the biophysical properties of transcription factor binding. These studies show that any DNA binding protein has a low affinity for random sequence DNA. They will also bind with much higher affinity to sequences that resemble, but do not precisely match, the specific binding site [How RNA Polymerase Binds to ...
The ongoing debate over junk DNA often revolves around data collected by ENCODE and others. The idea that most of our genome is transcribed (pervasive transcription) seems to indicate that genes occupy most of the genome. The opposing view is that most of these transcripts are accidental products of spurious transcription. We see the same opposing views when it comes to transcription factor binding sites. ENCODE and their supporters have mapped millions of binding sites throughout the genome and they believe this represent abundant and exquisite regulation. The opposing view is that most of these binding sites are spurious and non-functional.. The messy view is supported by many studies on the biophysical properties of transcription factor binding. These studies show that any DNA binding protein has a low affinity for random sequence DNA. They will also bind with much higher affinity to sequences that resemble, but do not precisely match, the specific binding site [How RNA Polymerase Binds to ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Second largest core
The BBa_R0062 promoter contains a binding site for a LuxR-AHL complex as well as an RNA polymerase binding site. Our system needs different sensitive promoters to detect different concentrations of AHL according to the number of surrounding mines. Therefor we need to engineer this promoter in order to shift the dose response curve (which we first had to characterize). Finally after some research we decided to do site directed saturation mutagenesis in the palindromic LuxR binding sites of the luxbox according to the results taken from literature Antunes et. al., 2007. (see Figure 2 ...
I will then examine the catalytic mechanism of the T7 RNA polymerase with an emphasis of the different stages. Based on recent studies, I will provide evidences supporting the transition from transcription initiation to elongation and to the abortive intermediate transcripts. I will then show the kinetic parameters corresponding for transcription initiation, and then I will describe the two-metal ions catalytic mechanism of the enzymes. Finally, I will briefly go over the evidences that support a common ancestor for the nucleic acid polymerases. I will compare important structural motifs that are present in the Klenow fragment, HIV-1 RT, and T7 RNA polymerase. And lastly, I will consider the factors that are involved in the unique specificity found in some polymerases. Genetic Analysis of T7 RNA Polymerase:. The genome of bacteriophage T7 was sequenced by Dunn et. al. 1983 and Moffatt et. al., 1984. The whole DNA sequence consists of 399,336 base pairs. The coding region of T7 RNA polymerase is ...
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UAB scientists report surprising findings regarding the enzymes that make RNA, called RNA polymerases, in a study published August 29, 2013 in Cell Re...
Interaction of a nascent RNA structure with RNA polymerase is required for hairpin-dependent transcriptional pausing but not for transcript release
Reverse Transcriptase received a mention in an earlier Molecule of the Month: RNA Polymerase. This enzyme, like all nucleic acid polymerases takes the building blocks of nucleic acids, ATP, CTP etc for RNA or dATP, dCTP etc. for DNA and inserts them one by one in a single direction, as directed by the complementary sequence of bases on the template DNA (or RNA). RT carries out the opposite reaction to a typical RNA polymerase: the enzyme synthesises DNA from an RNA template. The single strand is then copied into a double stranded form and the resultant duplex is incorporated (or integrated) into the host genome by an enzyme called an Integrase. These two reactions are distinctive. Whilst there are many similarities to host nucleic acid polymerases, there are also significant mechanistic differences. This presents an opportunity for drug development. (Students, think about this concept: it is an important aspect in the design of new drugs such as antibiotics and anticancer agents). The first drug ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3D gene. This gene complements a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3D polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D, 44kDa". Jang KL, Collins MK, Latchman DS (1992). "The ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... Jackson AJ, Ittmann M, Pugh BF (1995). "The BN51 protein is a polymerase (Pol)-specific subunit of RNA Pol III which reveals a ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2C gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2C polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, 33kDa". De Angelis R, Iezzi S, Bruno T, Corbi N, Di ... third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLRMT polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed)". Hillen, HS; Morozov, YI; Sarfallah, A; Temiakov, D; Cramer ... Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O00411 (Human DNA-directed RNA polymerase, ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2K gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2K polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 7.0kDa". Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, ... This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. POLR2K has been shown to interact with POLR2C. GRCh38: ... encodes one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ...
Some large viruses have their own DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Transfers of "infectious" nuclei have been documented in many ... In 2006, researchers suggested that the transition from RNA to DNA genomes first occurred in the viral world. A DNA-based virus ... Forterre P (March 2006). "Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: a hypothesis ... In the original paper it was also an RNA cell at the origin of eukaryotes, but eventually more complex, featuring RNA ...
Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR3G gene. Model ... "Entrez Gene: Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)". Retrieved 2014-04-01. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... Chiu, Y. H.; MacMillan, J. B.; Chen, Z. J. (2009). "RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits". ...
... of the DNA directed RNA polymerase III. This subunit includes the catalytic site of RNA polymerase III.[citation needed] ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3E gene. POLR3E has been shown ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3E polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide E (80kD)". Hu, Ping; Wu Si; Sun Yuling; Yuan Chih-Chi; ... 2002). "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III ... "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III Subunits" ( ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2B gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2B polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; ... second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2E gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2E polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E, 25kDa". Bertolotti, A; Melot T; Acker J; Vigneron M; ... This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases and is present in two-fold molar excess over the other ... and RNA polymerase subunit 5, which contributes to the association between TFIIF and RNA polymerase II". J. Biol. Chem. United ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, also known as RPB1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2A polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Krum SA ... This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ... forms the DNA-binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. POLR2A has been ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2I gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2I polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide I, 14.5kDa". Jeang KT (1998). "Tat, Tat-associated kinase, ... forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. The product of this ... subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit, in ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2L gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2L polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L, 7.6kDa". Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, ... Like its counterpart in yeast, this subunit may be shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. POLR2L has been shown ... encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3F gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3F polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide F, 39 kDa". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... "Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against subunits of human RNA polymerases I, II, and III". ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11-a is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2J gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2J polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J, 13.3kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... interacts in vitro with a novel variant of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, subunit 11". Genomics. 79 (6): 809-17. doi:10.1006/ ... subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene ...
... one of the essential subunits of RNA polymerase II that is shared by the other two eukaryotic DNA-directed RNA polymerases, I ... DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2H gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2H polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide H". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; Kedinger C; ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3K gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3K polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 12.3 kDa". Jang KL, Collins MK, Latchman DS (1992). "The ... 2002). "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III ... Chedin S, Riva M, Schultz P, Sentenac A, Carles C (Jan 1999). "The RNA cleavage activity of RNA polymerase III is mediated by ...
DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J, has been shown to encode a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase ... DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene, also known as POLR2J2, is a human gene. This gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2J2 DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene". Shpakovskii DG, Shematorova EK, Shpakovskii GV ... interacts in vitro with a novel variant of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, subunit 11". Genomics. 79 (6): 809-817. doi:10.1006/ ...
"A Single Subunit from Avian Myeloblastosis Virus with Both RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase and Ribonuclease H Activity". ... Chedd, Graham (1971). "RNA to DNA: a revolution in reverse". New Scientist. Retrieved July 17, 2016 - via Google Books. " ... He coupled this basic research to the effort to detect RNA tumor viruses in human cancer. Tremendous effort was directed to the ... Green, Maurice; Fujinaga, K (1966). "The mechanism of viral carcinogenesis by DNA mammalian viruses: viral-specific RNA in ...
The Bordetella phages of this genus contains an RNA-directed DNA polymerase which plays a role in tropism. Viral replication is ... Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ZNRD1 gene. This gene encodes a ... protein with similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rpa12p subunit of RNA polymerase I. Alternate splicing of this gene ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Entrez Gene: POLR1A polymerase (RNA) I polypeptide A, 194kDa". Zhu L, Perlaky L, Henning D, Valdez BC (1998). "Cloning and ... Chen HK, Pai CY, Huang JY, Yeh NH (2000). "Human Nopp140, which interacts with RNA polymerase I: implications for rRNA gene ... 2001). "hRRN3 is essential in the SL1-mediated recruitment of RNA Polymerase I to rRNA gene promoters". EMBO J. 20 (6): 1373-82 ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2G gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2G polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide G". Bertolotti, A; Melot T; Acker J; Vigneron M; Delattre O ... seventh largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
"RPO132 - DNA-directed RNA polymerase 132 kDa polypeptide - Ectromelia virus (strain Moscow) (ECTV) - RPO132 gene & protein". ... Since GVA is a disease that affects the RNA of the plant, new RNA is added to the sample and it combines with the infected RNA ... A reading frame begins with a start codon (codon that begins the translation to RNA from the DNA strand) and ends with a stop ... This is the protein that helps the DNA or RNA connect with amino acids. Even further research of the genomes of GVA traced ...
Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)-like also known as POLR3GL is a protein which in humans is encoded by ... TAR syndrome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome "Entrez Gene: POLR3GL Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) ...
In the EC system of classification, the accepted name for RNA polymerase is DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Described primarily ... end of an existing DNA molecule. Terminal transferase is one of the few DNA polymerases that can function without an RNA primer ... For example, RNA polymerase is the modern common name for what was formerly known as RNA nucleotidyltransferase, a kind of ... a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. In practice, many ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I and III subunit RPAC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR1C gene. POLR1C has been ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... RNA polymerase I 16-kDa subunit able to associate with 40-kDa subunit is a homolog of yeast AC19 subunit of RNA polymerases I ... RNA polymerase I 16-kDa subunit able to associate with 40-kDa subunit is a homolog of yeast AC19 subunit of RNA polymerases I ...
... the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes, that is also shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA ... DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2F gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2F polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide F". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; Kedinger C; ... "A 14.4 KDa acidic subunit of human RNA polymerase II with a putative leucine-zipper". DNA Seq. 4 (5): 329-31. doi:10.3109/ ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3C gene. POLR3C has been shown ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3C polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide C (62kD)". Hsieh YJ, Wang Z, Kovelman R, Roeder RG (July ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... Wang Z, Roeder RG (May 1997). "Three human RNA polymerase III-specific subunits form a subcomplex with a selective function in ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA34 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CD3EAP gene. CD3EAP has been shown to ... 2006). "RNA polymerase I-specific subunit CAST/hPAF49 has a role in the activation of transcription by upstream binding factor ... "Multiple protein-protein interactions by RNA polymerase I-associated factor PAF49 and role of PAF49 in rRNA transcription". Mol ...
December 1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the ... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals.[1] Spread may ... The viral RNA polymerase, encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive- ...
... which is related to RNA polymerases found in bacteria. Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is ... Huang CY, Ayliffe MA, Timmis JN (March 2003). "Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus". ... and four RNA polymerase subunits,[22][23] involved in protein synthesis. For photosynthesis, the chloroplast DNA includes genes ... The two RNA polymerases may recognize and bind to different kinds of promoters within the chloroplast genome.[35] The ribosomes ...
Herr A.J. et al (2005). "RNA polymerase IV directs silencing of endogenous DNA". Science 308 (5718): 118-20. doi:10.1126/ ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ... X-ray crystallography of DNA and RNA polymerases show that, other than having a Mg2+ ion at the catalytic site, they are ...
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • heart looping. • blood vessel development. • membrane protein ectodomain ... Stahl B, Diehlmann A, Südhof TC (April 1999). "Direct interaction of Alzheimer's disease-related presenilin 1 with armadillo ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ...
DNA binding. • DNA-dependent ATPase activity. • recombinase activity. • chromatin binding. • DNA polymerase binding. • protein ... "Direct imaging of human Rad51 nucleoprotein dynamics on individual DNA molecules". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ... DNA repair. • response to X-ray. • response to drug. • DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication. • cellular response to ...
The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... and a poliovirus clone was the first infectious DNA clone made of an RNA virus in animals. Along with rhinovirus, poliovirus ... "Sequence Requirements for Viral RNA Replication and VPg Uridylylation Directed by the Internal cis-Acting Replication Element ( ... the RNA polymerase). Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements and they are required for both negative and ...
... directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter.[144] However, other archaeal transcription factors are closer ... For example, thermostable DNA polymerases, such as the Pfu DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus, revolutionized molecular ... Werner F (September 2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. doi:10.1111/ ... Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference from repetitive DNA sequences that are related to the genes of the ...
POLR3K: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10. *PRR35: encoding protein Proline rich 35 ... Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in ... SNORD71: encoding protein Small nucleolar RNA, C/D box 71. *SPSB3: encoding protein SplA/ryanodine receptor domain and SOCS box ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ...
Li J, Moazed D, Gygi SP (Dec 2002). "Association of the histone methyltransferase Set2 with RNA polymerase II plays a role in ... DNA damage[edit]. Marking sites of DNA damage is an important function for histone modifications. It also protects DNA from ... "Histone H3 methylation by Set2 directs deacetylation of coding regions by Rpd3S to suppress spurious intragenic transcription ... Compacting DNA strands[edit]. Histones act as spools around which DNA winds. This enables the compaction necessary to fit the ...
2005). "RNA polymerase IV directs silencing of endogenous DNA". Science. 308 (5718): 118-20. doi:10.1126/science.1106910. PMID ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ... RNA polymerase. class of enzymes that synthesize RNA from a DNA template ...
"Phylogenetic analysis of Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum using polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA-specific DNA". ... Schmidt TM, Relman DA (1994). Phylogenetic identification of uncultured pathogens using ribosomal RNA sequences. Methods in ... "Biology Direct 10 (35): 35. PMC 4496867. PMID 26156036. doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0065-6.. ... "Primers, 16S ribosomal DNA - François Lutzoni's Lab". lutzonilab.net. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 2012-12-27.. ...
"Induction of direct repeat recombination by psoralen-DNA adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: defects in DNA repair increase ... One inaccurate process for repairing psoralen crosslinks appears to employ a DNA polymerase to fill in the gap formed in the ... Research on psoralen has historically focused on interactions with DNA and RNA (in particular, ICL formation). Psoralen, ... Repair of psoralen DNA adducts[edit]. PUVA treatment produces both DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and monoadducts. The ICLs ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... Rosenshine I, Tchelet R, Mevarech M. (1989). "The mechanism of DNA transfer in the mating system of an archaebacterium". ... Direct 1: 7. PMC 1462988. PMID 16545108. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-7.. ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili". Mol Microbiol (82(4)): 807-17. PMID 21999488 ...
Main articles: RNA and DNA. The major difference between RNA and DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2'-position of ... synthesized RNA strand, this allowed the team to isolate successful polymerases. The isolated RNA polymerases were again used ... There are hypotheses that are in direct conflict to the RNA world hypothesis. The relative chemical complexity of the ... The RNA world hypothesis is supported by RNA's ability to store, transmit, and duplicate genetic information, as DNA does. RNA ...
DNA 중합효소(DNA polymerase) 등이 그 예이다. 동일한 화학 반응을 촉해하는 서로 다른 효소들을 동질효소라고 한다.[2] ... 효소는 5,000가지 이상의 생화학 반응 유형들을 촉매하는 것으로 알려져 있다.[5] 대부분의 효소들은 단백질이지만, 일부 효소들은 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA 분자이다. 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA를 리보자임이라고 한다 ... Jaeger KE, Eggert T (August 2004). "Enantioselective biocatalysis optimized by directed evolution". 》Current Opinion in ... 여기서 DNA 중합효소와 같은 효소는 첫 번째 단계에서 반응을 촉매한 다음, 두 번째 단계에서 생성물이 올바른지를 확인한다.[32] 이러한 두 단계 반응은 높은 정확도를 가지고 있는 포유류의 DNA 중합효소에서 평균적으로 1억 ...
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... "Cyclin-dependent kinases are inactivated by a combination of p21 and Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylation after UV-induced DNA damage ... "C/EBPalpha arrests cell proliferation through direct inhibition of Cdk2 and Cdk4". Mol. Cell. 8 (4): 817-28. doi:10.1016/S1097- ...
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ... thus excluding direct interactions with intracellular adaptor proteins. ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • ...
3% require a reverse transcriptase enzyme to convert between RNA and DNA. 17% of plant viruses are ssDNA and very few are dsDNA ... In TMV, this extra sequence of polypeptide is an RNA polymerase that replicates its genome. Some viruses use the production of ... Ding, S. W.; Voinnet, O. (2007). "Antiviral Immunity Directed by Small RNAs". Cell. 130 (3): 413-426. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ...
Integration occurs following production of the double-stranded viral DNA by the viral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase reverse ... Human chromatin-associated protein LEDGF, which tightly binds HIV IN and directs HIV PIC towards highly expressed genes for ... The main function of IN is to insert the viral DNA into the host chromosomal DNA, a step that is essential for HIV replication ... ends of the viral DNA to expose the invariant CA dinucleotides at both 3'-ends of the viral DNA. the strand transfer reaction, ...
Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.[22][23] ... Polymerase chain reaction[edit]. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are the most commonly used molecular technique to ... Direct contact - Touching an infected host, including sexual contact. *Indirect contact - Touching a contaminated surface ... Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ...
Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the viral genome makes an ... Influenza produces direct costs due to lost productivity and associated medical treatment, as well as indirect costs of ... The sequencing of the influenza genome and recombinant DNA technology may accelerate the generation of new vaccine strains by ... The viral RNA (vRNA) molecules, accessory proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase are then released into the cytoplasm (Stage ...
The mechanism in which CTCF binds to these regions is currently unknown, but could include either a direct DNA-CTCF interaction ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • osteoblast differentiation. • in utero embryonic ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling ... Neidhart, M (2016). DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease (1st ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. p. 22.. ISBN 978-0124201941 ...
Generally this is achieved through the use of reverse transcription of the RNA followed by polymerase chain reaction. RNA-based ... Both the DNA and RNA based tests require that a pathologist examine the bone marrow to determine which leukaemic specific ... are helpful for directing treatment and preventing relapse. A single remaining leukemic cell can be fatal, as malignant cells ... However, RNA is a much less stable target for diagnostics than DNA and requires careful handling and processing. ...
Leonhardt H, Page AW, Weier HU, Bestor TH (November 1992). "A targeting sequence directs DNA methyltransferase to sites of DNA ... RNA signalling includes differential recruitment of a hierarchy of generic chromatin modifying complexes and DNA ... ribose polymerase) and its product poly(ADP)-ribose (PAR) accumulate at sites of DNA damage as part of a repair process.[32] ... Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. DNA adenine ...
For fundamental discoveries in DNA replication and protein biochemistry; for visionary leadership in directing national and ... Pioneering studies on eukaryotic RNA polymerases and the general transcriptional machinery, which opened gene expression in ... Discoveries that revealed an unanticipated world of tiny RNAs that regulate gene function in plants and animals.[32] ... For discoveries concerning the DNA-damage response-a fundamental mechanism that protects the genomes of all living organisms.[ ...
Inside this capsid the genome is converted from RNA to pdsDNA through activity of the polymerase as an RNA-dependent-DNA- ... The shorter strand overlaps this divide and is connected to the longer strand on either side of the split through a direct ... This enzyme is unique among viral polymerases in that it has reverse transcriptase activity to convert RNA into DNA to ... called covalently-closed-circular DNA or cccDNA). The genome then undergoes transcription by the host cell RNA polymerase and ...
Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms ... Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray ... Proteins make up half the dry weight of an Escherichia coli cell, whereas other macromolecules such as DNA and RNA make up only ... as well as manipulating DNA in processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. Some enzymes act on other ...
... random primers and DNA polymerase from bacteriophage phi29. In 30 degree isothermal reaction, DNA is amplified with included ... To target larger non-poly(A) RNAs, such as long non-coding mRNA, histone mRNA, circular RNA, and enhancer RNA, size selection ... sequencing also offers a route for direct methylation sequencing without fragmentation or modification to the original DNA. ... as well as the limited amount of DNA extracted from a single cell. Due to scant amounts of DNA, accurate analysis of DNA poses ...
Transcription is when RNA is made from DNA. During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as ... The primary challenges of RNA therapy center on delivering the RNA to directed cells, more even than determining what sequence ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ...
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator ... "Direct interaction between Nrf2 and p21(Cip1/WAF1) upregulates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response". Mol. Cell. 34 (6): 663 ... a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair.[17][18][19] ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • cytokine-mediated ...
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003899 DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, subunit N/Rpb10 (IPR000268). Short name: RNAP_N/Rpb10 ... Evolution of Complex RNA Polymerases: The Complete Archaeal RNA Polymerase Structure.. PLoS Biol. 7 e102 2009 ... three different forms of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (EC:2.7.7.6) transcribing different sets of genes. Each class of RNA ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases EC:2.7.7.6 (also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerases) are responsible for the polymerisation of ... GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003899 DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase ... there are three different forms of DNA-directed RNA polymerases transcribing different sets of genes. Most RNA polymerases are ... Eukaryotic nuclei contain three distinct types of RNA polymerases that differ in the RNA they synthesise: *RNA polymerase I: ...
Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunitUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... DNA-directed RNA polymeraseUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
RNA polymerase III type 2 promoter sequence-specific DNA binding. *polymerase III regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... Complex: DNA-directed RNA polymerase III complex Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These ... 2013) Yeast RNA polymerase III transcription factors and effectors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1829(3-4):283-95 PMID: 23063749 *SGD ... DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase activity. * ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase III promoter. ...
Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunitUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... DNA-directed RNA polymeraseUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
Promotes RNA polymerase assembly. Latches the N- and C-terminal regions of the beta subunit thereby facilitating its ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit delta. NP_720573.3. *Best Blastp Hit: dbj,BAB07512.1, (AP001520) DNA-directed RNA ... RNA polymerase, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG) RNA polymerase, organism-specific biosystem. RNA polymerase ... RNA polymerase, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) RNA polymerase, conserved biosystem. RNA polymerase ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit delta. Locus tag. SMU_96. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. PROVISIONAL. Organism. ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C4. DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit D. RNA polymerase III subunit C4. NP_ ... Polr3d polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D [Mus musculus] Polr3d polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide ... polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide Dprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1914315 See related. Ensembl: ... Polr3d polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 67065, updated on 23-Jun-2021 ...
View mouse Polr3f Chr2:144527745-144541779 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit G-like, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC7-like, MGC3200, RNA polymerase III ... POLR3GL - polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed).... Homo sapiens. Synonyms: ...
Synonyms: B150, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 140 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2, RNA polymerase ... RNA polymerase II subunit RPB10 is essential for yeast cell viability. Woychik, N.A., Young, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed ... RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) encoding the second largest protein subunit in Phaeosphaeria nodorum and P. avenaria. Malkus, A ... RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9 is required for accurate start site selection. Hull, M.W., McKune, K., Woychik, N.A. Genes Dev. ...
Plants encode subunits for a fourth RNA polymerase (Pol IV) in addition to the well-known DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, ... features of RNA polymerases suggests that Pol IV is an active RNA polymerase with important differences from RNA polymerases I ... IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 ... RNA polymerase subunit families from plants, worms, and yeast. I to IV on the right of each tree indicates RNA polymerase ...
DNA directed RNA polymerase II 14.4 kda polypeptide , DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit F , DNA-directed RNA polymerases I ... Target Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) * Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) ... anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide E, 25kDa Antibodies * anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide D ... anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide C, 33kDa Antibodies * anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide B ...
... it - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Recombinant DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha rpoA DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha rpoA Suppplier: ... Methylibium petroleiphilum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit. Methylibium petroleiphilum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit ... Halobacterium salinarum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit A rpoA2 Suppplier: MBS Recombinant. Price: 2 340.51 USD ...
Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther ELISA, Western Blot, ... Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lifespan ... Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther Sub-Family: not assigned- ... Chicken Anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L Antibody, Unconjugated from CHEMICON. 9. Chicken Anti-Rab GDP ...
Plants encode subunits for a fourth RNA polymerase (Pol IV) in addition to the well-known DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, ... IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 ... A newly described polymerase found only in plants is required for small RNAs to silence transgenes and a retroelement in ... A newly described polymerase found only in plants is required for small RNAs to silence transgenes and a retroelement in ...
... the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. The carboxy-terminal domain of ... this subunit shares a high degree of sequence similarity to the carboxy-terminal domain of an RNA polymerase II elongation ... This gene encodes a small essential subunit of RNA polymerase III, ... DNA directed RNA polymerase III subunit K; DNA directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10; DNA directed RNA polymerases III 12.5 ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I/A γ. θ. ν. T7. Taq. II/B α. δ. ε. ζ. Pfu. III/C. IV/X β. λ. μ. TDT. ... RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, officially DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is an enzyme ... Template-directed. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. ssRNAP POLRMT. Primase 1. 2. PrimPol. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[30]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5. ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation From Type 1 Promoter 28 RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation From Type 2 ... The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- ...
... polr2i rna polymerase ii 14 5 subunit rna polymerase ii subunit b9 rpb14 5 dna di ... dna directed rna polymerase ii subunit i dna directed rna polymerase ii subunit rpb9 ... RNA pol. DNA-directed RNA polymerase I largest subunit,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit A,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I ... RNA-di. DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A,DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1,DNA-directed RNA polymerase III ...
A portion (approximately 45%) of the molecule displays extensive structural homology to the polymerase domain of Klenow ... The crystal structure of T7 RNA polymerase reveals a molecule organized around a cleft that can accommodate a double-stranded ... bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase * HIV Reverse Transcriptase * RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase * DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases ... Crystal structure of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase at 3.3 A resolution Nature. 1993 Aug 12;364(6438):593-9. doi: 10.1038/ ...
All three influenza virus polymerase (P) proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes from microinjected in vitro transcribed ... DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / genetics * DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / immunology * DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / physiology ... suggesting that the system has considerable promise for the reconstruction of an active influenza RNA polymerase. Examination ... Complex formation between influenza virus polymerase proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes Virology. 1989 Jul;171(1):162-9. doi ...
We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. The Stoffel ... of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the ... Phage particles displaying SF polymerases, which are able to extend the attached oligonucleotide primer by incorporating ... substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. ...
2010) An RNA polymerase II- and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. Nature 465: 106-109. doi:10.1038/ ... An RNA polymerase II-and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. ... An RNA polymerase II-and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. ... is a component of RNA polymerases IV and V and is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation. ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for DNA-directed RNA polymerases I and III subunit RPAC1. ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... UniProt Keyword for DNA-directed RNA polymerases I and III subunit RPAC1. ... Compartment GO Terms for DNA-directed RNA polymerases I and III subunit RPAC1. ...
"RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" by people in this website by year, and whether "RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" was a major or minor ... RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase*RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase. *RNA Directed DNA Polymerase ... "RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" by people in Profiles. ...
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  • 19 Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) Antibodies from 6 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A section of DNA containing the codons for the amino acids which make a polypeptide chain is called a gene. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The transgene contains a tyrosinase gene under the control of a polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A (Polr2a) promoter. (jax.org)
  • Halobacterial S9 operon contains two genes encoding proteins homologous to subunits shared by eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here. (nih.gov)
  • POLR3K has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (creativebiomart.net)
  • All three influenza virus polymerase (P) proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes from microinjected in vitro transcribed mRNA analogs, with yields of up to 100 ng per oocyte. (nih.gov)
  • As seen in virus-infected cells, all three P proteins associated into an immunoprecipitable complex, suggesting that the system has considerable promise for the reconstruction of an active influenza RNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • The heterodisperse sedimentation rate seen for complexes of all three P proteins did not appear to result from their binding to RNA, suggesting the incorporation of additional polypeptides in the polymerase complex. (nih.gov)
  • The Stoffel fragment (SF) of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently we showed that archaeo-eukaryotic type primases (and prim-pol proteins with both primase and DNA polymerase activity) also contain a derived version of this fold, which is further related to DNA-binding domains of certain viral replication initiation proteins and the catalytic domain of rolling circle replicator tyrosine recombinases [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Networks representing this contextual information also suggest that different families of DNA polymerases, primases, helicases and associated replication proteins frequently displace each other in different genomes or mobile elements, thereby reinforcing their functional equivalence (Fig. 1A ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kelleher, R. J. 3rd, Flanagan, P. M. & Kornberg, R. D. A novel mediator between activator proteins and the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus. (nature.com)
  • The complete sequence for tRNA-Leu and partial sequence of DNA fragments encoding several proteins, such as RNA polymerase β subunit-1, 18S rRNA, mitochondrial DNA directed RNA polymerase and carboxytransferase β-subunit are reported in this paper. (defence.pk)
  • Most RNA polymerases are multimeric enzymes and are composed of a variable number of subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The core RNA polymerase complex consists of five subunits (two alpha, one beta, one beta-prime and one omega) and is sufficient for transcription elongation and termination but is unable to initiate transcription. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Eukaryotic RNA polymerases, whose molecular masses vary in size from 500 to 700 kDa, contain two non-identical large (>100 kDa) subunits and an array of up to 12 different small (less than 50 kDa) subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This family includes RNA polymerase III subunit RPC8, and archaeal RNA polymerase subunits RpoE and RpoE1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Plants encode subunits for a fourth RNA polymerase (Pol IV) in addition to the well-known DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, and III. (sciencemag.org)
  • By mutation of the two largest subunits (NRPD1a and NRPD2), we show that Pol IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 and Dicer-like 3. (sciencemag.org)
  • We describe here how SDE4 encodes the largest subunit of a putative RNA polymerase that is distinct from eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III (whose subunits in Arabidopsis are designated by the prefix NRPA, NRPB , or NRPC , respectively). (sciencemag.org)
  • RNA polymerase "core" from E. coli consists of five subunits: two alpha (α) subunits of 36 kDa , a beta (β) subunit of 150 kDa, a beta prime subunit (β′) of 155 kDa, and a small omega (ω) subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Eukaryotic and archaeal RNA polymerases have a similar core structure and work in a similar manner, although they have many extra subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-canonical multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA-polymerases (RNAP) form a new group of the main transcription enzymes, which have only distinct homology to the catalytic subunits of canonical RNAPs of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. (usda.gov)
  • Component of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex consisting of 17 subunits. (icr.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase subunit, RPB6/omega / Nucleic acid-binding, OB-fold / DNA-directed RNA polymerase RPB5 subunit, eukaryote/virus / RNA polymerases N / 8 Kd subunits signature. (pdbj.org)
  • RNA polymerases D / 30 to 40 Kd subunits signature. (pdbj.org)
  • RNA polymerases M / 15 Kd subunits signature. (pdbj.org)
  • Such an evolutionary pathway is supported by the fact that RNAP IV is composed of 12 protein subunits that are either similar or identical to RNA polymerase II, and is specific to plant genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP IVa was specified to be RNAP IV while RNAP IVb became known as RNAP V. RNA Polymerase IV is composed of 12 protein subunits that are either similar or identical to the 12 subunits composing RNA Polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only four subunits distinguish RNAP IV structure from RNAP II and RNAP V. RNA Polymerase V differs from RNAP II by six subunits, indicating that both RNAP IV and RNAP V evolved from RNAP II in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest subunit is encoded by NRPD1 (formerly NRPD1a), while the second largest subunit is encoded by NRPD2 and is shared with RNAP V. These subunits contain carboxyl-terminal domains (CTDs) which are necessary for the production of 20-30% of the siRNAs produced by RNA Polymerase IV, yet are not required for DNA methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of all 12 subunits. (wikiversity.org)
  • In combination with several other polymerase subunits, it forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • RPB2 (POLR2B) is the second largest subunit which in combination with at least two other polymerase subunits forms a structure within the polymerase that maintains contact in the active site of the enzyme between the DNA template and the newly synthesized RNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • RPB6 (POLR2F) forms a structure with at least two other subunits that stabilizes the transcribing polymerase on the DNA template. (wikiversity.org)
  • Component of the Pol II(G) complex, which contains the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) core complex subunits and Polr2m and appears to be an abundant form of Pol II. (rcsb.org)
  • It may be involved either in the recruitment and stabilization of the subcomplex within RNA polymerase III, or in stimulating catalytic functions of other subunits during initiation. (absave.com)
  • This gene encodes one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. (genecards.org)
  • Component of the RNA polymerase I (Pol I), RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complexes consisting of at least 13, 12 and 17 subunits, respectively. (genecards.org)
  • Transcription initiation from promoter elements requires a sixth, dissociable subunit called a sigma factor, which reversibly associates with the core RNA polymerase complex to form a holoenzyme [ PMID: 3052291 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. (uniprot.org)
  • Yeast RNA polymerase III transcription factors and effectors. (yeastgenome.org)
  • RNAP locally opens the double-stranded DNA (usually about four turns of the double helix) so that one strand of the exposed nucleotides can be used as a template for the synthesis of RNA , a process called transcription . (wikipedia.org)
  • A transcription factor and its associated transcription mediator complex must be attached to a DNA binding site called a promoter region before RNAP can initiate the DNA unwinding at that position. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP not only initiates RNA transcription, it also guides the nucleotides into position, facilitates attachment and elongation, has intrinsic proofreading and replacement capabilities, and termination recognition capability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Roger D. Kornberg for creating detailed molecular images of RNA polymerase during various stages of the transcription process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential for efficient transcription from both the type 2 VAI and type 3 U6 RNA polymerase III promoters. (nih.gov)
  • Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. (abcam.com)
  • It catalyzes the transcription of DNA to synthesize precursors of mRNA and most snRNA and microRNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The cluster of RNA polymerase II and various transcription factors is known as a basal transcriptional complex (BTC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PIC helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start sites , denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] In the process, the torsional strain on the DNA may aid in DNA melting at the promoter , forming the transcription bubble . (wikipedia.org)
  • 15(15):1935-45).Inhibition Analysis: A representative lot inhibited the interaction of RNA Polymerase II, CTD with the transcription complex. (fishersci.com)
  • Involved in transcription by RNA polymerase II. (mcw.edu)
  • The Regulation of rRNA Gene Transcription during Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Pilsl M, Merkl PE, Milkereit P, Griesenbeck J, Tschochner H. Analysis of S. cerevisiae RNA Polymerase I Transcription In Vitro. (harvard.edu)
  • The RNA polymerase II (RNApII) transcription cycle consists of multiple steps involving dozens of protein factors. (usda.gov)
  • Here we describe a useful approach to study the dynamics of initiation and early elongation, comprising an in vitro transcription system in which complexes are assembled on immobilized DNA templates and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry. (usda.gov)
  • Transcription initiation can be reconstituted from highly purified general transcription factors (GTFs), RNA polymerase II (pol II), and promoter DNA. (usda.gov)
  • The biogenesis of RNAs is a multi-layered and highly regulated process that involves a diverse set of players acting in an orchestrated manner throughout the transcription cycle. (usda.gov)
  • RNAP IV belongs to a family of enzymes that catalyze the process of transcription known as RNA Polymerases, which synthesize RNA from DNA templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eukaryotic core RNA polymerase II was first purified using transcription assays. (wikiversity.org)
  • At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. (rcsb.org)
  • Pol II synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs and is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. (rcsb.org)
  • Enzyme involved in the transcription of DNA and the production of mRNA. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • A group of three bases within the DNA molecule which code for a specific amino acid or for the beginning or ending of a transcription sequence. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • RNA polymerase activity dependent on DNA- or RNA-templates additionally evolved in the double-psi-beta-barrel fold, respectively represented by the primary enzymes of cellular transcription and polymerases involved in eukaryotic gene silencing (and their phage relatives) [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Transcription Termination Factor, RNA polymerase I (TTF1) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Among its related pathways are RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation and Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG) . (genecards.org)
  • We propose that in addition to blocking RNA exit, the benzoxazinorifamycin C3′-tail changes the σ region 3.2 loop position, which influences the template DNA at the active site, thereby reducing the efficiency of transcription initiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase enzymes include an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, which work together to perform transcription. (bionity.com)
  • For more details on this topic, see Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction . (bionity.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase is commonly used in research to apply the polymerase chain reaction technique to RNA in a technique called reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (bionity.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3 and DNA damage_Role of Brca1 and Brca2 in DNA repair . (genecards.org)
  • The Mediator complex directs signals from DNA-binding transcription factors to RNA polymerase II (Pol II). (nature.com)
  • In eukaryotes, there are three different forms of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases ( EC:2.7.7.6 ) transcribing different sets of genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A multiplicity of factors contributes to selective RNA polymerase III occupancy of a subset of RNA polymerase III genes in mouse liver. (nih.gov)
  • RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein -coding genes in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This crucial step triggers RNA polymerase II release from promoter-proximal pausing and expression of DNA damage response genes. (usda.gov)
  • These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important RNA genes are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), both of which are involved in the process of translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since the late 1990s, many new RNA genes have been found, and thus RNA genes may play a much more significant role than previously thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovered via phylogenetic studies of land plants, genes of RNAP IV are thought to have resulted from multistep evolution processes that occurred in RNA Polymerase II phylogenies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes occupy a fixed position, called a locus, on a particular DNA molecule. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The analysis of DNA sequences of related taxa deposited in GenBank is also presented delineating the scope and applications of cloning genes of agronomic importance. (defence.pk)
  • Depending on the organism, a RNA polymerase can be a protein complex (multi-subunit RNAP) or only consist of one subunit (single-subunit SNAP, ssSNAP), each representing an independent lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of both RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III complexes. (nih.gov)
  • TFIIH is a large protein complex that contains among others the CDK7 / cyclin H kinase complex and a DNA helicase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Human RNA polymerase II RPB11 aa 1-117. (abcam.com)
  • Next, DICER-Like Protein 3 (DLP3), an enzyme which slices double stranded RNA substrates, cleaves the double stranded precursor into siRNAs that are each 24 nucleotides long. (wikipedia.org)
  • STRING is a database of known and predicted protein interactions.The interactions include direct (physical) and indirect (functional) associations. (systemsbiology.net)
  • RNA polymerase II is a specific RNA polymerase that usually is the key part of the catalysis process that produces each RNA from the DNA gene or isoform to ultimately make a protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • Sequence of bases in a DNA molecule which codes for the sequence of amino acids in a protein. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Here it lines up on the surface of a ribosome and directs the synthesis of a protein based on the original DNA code. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • ATU75274 U75274 2738bp DNA PLN 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) gene, complete cds. (bio.net)
  • POLR3K (RNA Polymerase III Subunit K) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The proliferation of cytotoxic T-cells is markedly impaired upon infection with a newly discovered human immunodeficiency virus, designated HIV-V. The defect has been traced to the expression of a viral-encoded enzyme that inactivates a host-cell nuclear protein required for DNA replication. (proprofs.com)
  • The genomic sequencing procedures are applicable to the analysis of genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation at deoxycytidines, and nucleic acid-protein interactions at single nucleotide resolution. (harvard.edu)
  • Thompson, C. M., Koleske, A. J., Chao, D. M. & Young, R. A. A multisubunit complex associated with the RNA polymerase II CTD and TATA-binding protein in yeast. (nature.com)
  • This gene encodes a small essential subunit of RNA polymerase III, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Eukaryotes have multiple types of nuclear RNAP, each responsible for synthesis of a distinct subset of RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotes have various RNAPs in their nuclei , each to synthesis a type of RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA synthesis follows after the attachment of RNA polymerase to a specific site, the promoter, on the template DNA strand. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The RNA synthesis process continues until a termination sequence is reached. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Spt6 Is Essential for rRNA Synthesis by RNA Polymerase I. Mol Cell Biol. (harvard.edu)
  • Regulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis in T cells: requirement for GTP and Ebp1. (harvard.edu)
  • Via its synthesis of siRNA, RNAP IV is involved in regulation of heterochromatin formation in a process known as RNA directed DNA Methylation (RdDM). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerase of reticuloendotheliosis virus: inability to detect endogenous RNA-directed DNA synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells are also known to contain separate mitochondrial and chloroplast RNA polymerases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Distinct evolutionary solutions to the priming problem and multiple independent transitions to DNA-template utilizing enzymes appear to have played a key role in the origin of nucleic acid polymerases in these different folds [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results from comparative genomics have shown that, unlike their cellular counterparts, the universe of selfish elements comprised of viruses, plasmids and certain replicative transposons show an enormous diversity of nucleic acid polymerases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleic acid binding and RNA polymerase III activity . (genecards.org)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerases EC:2.7.7.6 (also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerases) are responsible for the polymerisation of ribonucleotides into a sequence complementary to the template DNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The carboxy-terminal domain of this subunit shares a high degree of sequence similarity to the carboxy-terminal domain of an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • 2019) analyze the role of the length and sequence complexity of the RNA polymerase II unstructured C-terminal domain in animal viability, development, and the dynamics of RNA polymerase II in vivo. (usda.gov)
  • The genetic code is held within the sequence of bases in the DNA double helix. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The mRNA which is built up has the same base sequence as the 3'strand of DNA, with thymine replaced with uracil. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • New DNA Sequences ======================= AC013430 AC013430 88172bp DNA HTG 11-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F3F9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC013454 AC013454 62611bp DNA HTG 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome III clone IGF-F2O10, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 5 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC013482 AC013482 82881bp DNA HTG 13-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone T26F17, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 1 ordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC013483 AC013483 122426bp DNA HTG 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome III clone IGF-F17A17, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 8 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015445 AC015445 104365bp DNA HTG 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F2J10, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015449 AC015449 71187bp DNA HTG 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone T3F24, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 12 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015450 AC015450 111529bp DNA HTG 18-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone IGF-F14G6, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 4 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015986 AC015986 109474bp DNA HTG 18-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone TAMU-T2E12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 5 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015985 AC015985 71180bp DNA HTG 18-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome III clone IGF-F8A24, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 5 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • Updated Sequence Features/Annotations ============= F6N23 AF058919 91849bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana BAC F6N23. (bio.net)
  • Partial nucleotide sequence and organisation of extrachromosomal plastid-like DNA in Plasmodium berghei. (nih.gov)
  • Direct PCR amplification and sequence analysis of extrachromosomal Plasmodium DNA from dried blood spots. (nih.gov)
  • Hybridization with a short 32P-labeled single-stranded probe produces the image of a DNA sequence "ladder" extending from the 3' or 5' end of one restriction site in the genome. (harvard.edu)
  • The commercial availability of reverse transcriptase greatly improved knowledge in the area of molecular biology as, along with other enzymes, it allowed scientists to clone, sequence and characterise DNA. (bionity.com)
  • AT1b small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. (atcc.org)
  • RNA polymerase I: located in the nucleoli, synthesises precursors of most ribosomal RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase II: occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises mRNA precursors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase III: also occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises the precursors of 5S ribosomal RNA, the tRNAs, and a variety of other small nuclear and cytosolic RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase II synthesizes precursors of mRNAs and most snRNA and microRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common component of RNA polymerases I and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. (abcam.com)
  • Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • Largest and catalytic core component of RNA polymerase I which synthesizes ribosomal RNA precursors. (uniprot.org)
  • The relative locations of the catalytic site and a specific promoter recognition residue allow the orientation of the polymerase on the template to be defined. (nih.gov)
  • The construction of the polymerase complex takes place on the gene promoter . (wikipedia.org)
  • TFIIA interacts with the TBP subunit of TFIID and aids in the binding of TBP to TATA-box containing promoter DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TFIID-TFIIA-TFIIB (DAB)-promoter complex subsequently recruits RNA polymerase II and TFIIF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical studies have suggested that stimuli predominantly affect the rates of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment and polymerase release from promoter-proximal pausing. (usda.gov)
  • Utilizes a DNA template that contains an RNA polymerase III specific promoter to direct initiation and catalyses DNA-template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time. (yeastgenome.org)
  • SCJ1PROM Z49780 573bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae promoter DNA (573 bp). (bio.net)
  • A transgenic construct containing a tyrosinase gene under the control of an RNA polymerase II 1 promoter, was introduced into FVB/N fertilized mouse eggs and founder animals obtained. (jax.org)
  • Evolution of Complex RNA Polymerases: The Complete Archaeal RNA Polymerase Structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Belongs to the archaeal rpoM/eukaryotic RPA12/RPB9/RPC11 RNA polymerase family. (abcam.com)
  • Belongs to the archaeal rpoL/eukaryotic RPB11/RPC19 RNA polymerase subunit family. (abcam.com)
  • RNA polymerase I synthesizes a pre- rRNA 45 S (35S in yeast ), which matures and will form the major RNA sections of the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • RNA polymerase I synthesizes a pre- rRNA which will form the major RNA sections of the ribosome . (wikipedia.org)
  • POLR3G is a specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. (absave.com)
  • These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [5] Many of them are involved in the formation of a preinitiation complex , which, together with RNA polymerase II , bind to and read the single-stranded DNA gene template. (wikipedia.org)
  • it contains a zinc ribbon motif that can bind single-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although RNA is a single stranded molecule it is found in three very different forms which enable it to carry out three very different functions. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • In biochemistry , a reverse transcriptase , also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase , is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into single-stranded DNA . (bionity.com)
  • In general, homologous recombination begins with 5′ to 3′ end resection at the break to expose single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) ( Symington 2016 ). (genetics.org)
  • A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Which of the following enzymes participates in bacterial DNA replication and is directly inhibited by this antibiotic? (proprofs.com)
  • A portion (approximately 45%) of the molecule displays extensive structural homology to the polymerase domain of Klenow fragment and more limited homology to the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (nih.gov)
  • Reverse-transcribing DNA viruses, such as the hepadnaviruses , transcribe their genomes into an RNA intermediate and then, using reverse transcriptase, back into DNA. (bionity.com)
  • Self-replicating stretches of eukaryotic genomes known as retrotransposons utilise reverse transcriptase to move from one position in the genome to another via a RNA intermediate. (bionity.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase has a high error rate when transcribing RNA into DNA since, unlike DNA polymerases , it has no proofreading ability. (bionity.com)
  • The classical PCR technique can only be applied to DNA strands, but with the help of reverse transcriptase, RNA can be transcribed into DNA, thus making PCR analysis of RNA molecules possible. (bionity.com)
  • In keeping with the convention of naming RNA polymerases, we henceforth refer to this enzyme as RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) and the largest subunit encoded at SDE4 as NRPD1a. (sciencemag.org)
  • also known as EC: 2.7.7.6, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III largest subunit, is encoded by the POLR2A (also known as POLR2) gene (Gene ID: 5430) in human. (fishersci.com)
  • RPB1 is the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA polymerase II subunit B4 (RPB4) encoded by the POLR2D gene [7] is the fourth largest subunit and may have a stress protective role. (wikiversity.org)
  • Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. (rcsb.org)
  • Functional divergence of eukaryotic RNA polymerases: unique properties of RNA polymerase I suit its cellular role. (harvard.edu)
  • catalytic RNA ( ribozyme ) - functions as an enzymatically active RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structure of T7 RNA polymerase reveals a molecule organized around a cleft that can accommodate a double-stranded DNA template. (nih.gov)
  • It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • An area with three bases on a tRNA molecule which binds to the corresponding three bases on the messenger RNA attached to a ribosome. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • However DNA is a very large molecule and it cannot get out of the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the molecule which transcribes the DNA code and carries it out of the nucleus through the pores in the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm of the cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • With the help of some other molecules, it makes messenger RNA from a strand of a DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we have determined the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase complexes with two benzoxazinorifamycins. (elsevier.com)
  • RNA polymerase ( ribonucleic acid polymerase ), abbreviated RNAP or RNApol , officially DNA-directed RNA polymerase , is an enzyme that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. (rush.edu)
  • RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA -directed heterochromatin formation in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase IV (or RNAP IV) is an enzyme that synthesizes small interfering RNA (siRNA) in plants, which silence gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now believed that a substantial proportion of the single nucleotide substitutions causing human genetic disease are due to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. (proprofs.com)
  • Thus, the Northern analysis of wild-type and nrpd1a-1 flowers showed that increased accumulation of GFP mRNA (4.5-fold) and PVX-GFP RNA in nrpd1a-1 corresponded to a sixfold reduction of 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) GFP siRNAs ( Fig. 1B ) relative to wild type. (sciencemag.org)
  • A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. (rcsb.org)
  • No. 05-952-I, is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 and has been tested for use in Dot Blot, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Immunoprecipitation, Inhibition assay, and Western Blotting. (fishersci.com)
  • Over 150 unique RNA modifications are now known including several nonstandard nucleotides present in the body of messenger RNAs. (usda.gov)
  • Acts as a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase when associated with small delta antigen of Hepatitis delta virus, acting both as a replicate and transcriptase for the viral RNA circular genome. (mybiosource.com)
  • A double-stranded RNA genome isolated from a virus in the stool of a child with gastroenteritis was found to contain 15 % uracil. (proprofs.com)
  • A denaturing gel separates by size mixtures of unlabeled DNA fragments from complete restriction and partial chemical cleavages of the entire genome. (harvard.edu)
  • Reverse-transcribing RNA viruses , such as retroviruses , use the enzyme to reverse-transcribe their RNA genomes into DNA, which is then integrated into the host genome and replicated along with it. (bionity.com)
  • Crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus core RNA polymerase at 3.3 A resolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Casaz P, Buck M. Region I modifies DNA-binding domain conformation of sigma 54 within the holoenzyme. (umassmed.edu)
  • An electron-micrograph of DNA strands decorated by hundreds of RNAP molecules too small to be resolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each RNAP is transcribing an RNA strand , which can be seen branching off from the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase II (also called RNAP II and Pol II ) is an enzyme found in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later experiments have shown that what was once thought to be two forms of RNAP IV are actually two structurally and functionally distinct polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that RNA Polymerase IV (RNAP IV) is responsible for producing heterochromatin, as dysfunction of either RNAP IV catalytic subunit (NRPD1 and NRPD2) disrupts the formation of heterochromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first step of heterochromatin formation, RNAP IV couples with an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase known as RDR2 to make a double stranded precursor to siRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • AT1b DNA-directed RNA polymerase III (rpoB) gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • In most prokaryotes , a single RNA polymerase species transcribes all types of RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DNA sequences have been deposited in GenBank and analyzed using TAIR ( TAIR - Home Page ) for similar sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana and other related plant species. (defence.pk)
  • X-ray crystallography of DNA and RNA polymerases show that, other than having a Mg 2+ ion at the catalytic site, they are virtually unrelated to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • One line led to the modern DNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases. (wikipedia.org)
  • To examine the immunological relatedness of this enzyme with other retroviral DNA polymerases, remaining Sm-MTV DNA polymerase activity was measured after treatment of this enzyme with various antisera prepared against each of the reverse transcriptases of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), simian sarcoma virus-simian sarcoma associated virus (SSV/SSAV), and Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RLV). (curehunter.com)
  • During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. (curehunter.com)
  • Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The existence of this distinct silencing polymerase may explain the paradoxical involvement of an RNA silencing pathway in maintenance of transcriptional silencing. (sciencemag.org)
  • POLR2G encodes RPB7 that may play a role in regulating polymerase function. (wikiversity.org)
  • [5] TFIIE helps to open and close the Pol II 's Jaw -like structure, which enables movement down the DNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFIIH has three functions: It binds specifically to the template strand to ensure that the correct strand of DNA is transcribed and melts or unwinds the DNA ( ATP -dependent) to separate the two strands using its helicase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is involved in the breakdown of the hydrogen bonds between the two strands of DNA in the formation of mRNA, and the build up of the mRNA strand from 5-3 end. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The 5' strand of DNA acts as the template strand and is transcribed to give a single strand of mRNA. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The 3' strand of the DNA is the coding strand, known as the sense strand. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The build up of the mRNA strand from the 5' to the 3' end is also catalysed by RNA polymerase. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • A comparison of the structures and sequences of these polymerases identifies structural elements that may be responsible for discriminating between ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide substrates, and RNA and DNA templates. (nih.gov)
  • We prepared polyclonal antibodies to YSATLRY from human sera to immunoprecipitate the native antigen, which was identified as the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It contains a carboxy terminal domain (CTD) composed of heptapeptide repeats that are essential for polymerase activity. (wikiversity.org)
  • POLR3K has several biochemical functions, for example, DNA binding, DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, contributes_to RNA polymerase III activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA Polymerase Activity Assay Using Near-infrared Fluorescent Labeled DNA Visualized by Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Predicted to contribute to DNA-directed 5'-3' RNA polymerase activity. (mcw.edu)
  • They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. (curehunter.com)
  • This stimulatory effect was used as an additional probe in detecting RNA directed DNA polymerase activity in Greene hamster melanoma in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Human placental extracts contain a specific inhibitor of mammalian retroviral RNA-directed DNA polymerase (deoxynucleosidetriphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.7) activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The inhibitor can be removed from these particles by salt extraction, which leads to the recovery of the polymerase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the inhibitor does not irreversibly inactivate the particle-associated RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Among many semisynthetic rifamycins, benzoxazinorifamycins have great potential for TB treatment due to their superior affinity for wild-type and rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerases and their reduced hepatic Cyp450 induction activity. (elsevier.com)
  • This study supports expansion of structure-activity relationships of benzoxazinorifamycins inhibition of RNA polymerase toward uncovering superior analogues with development potential. (elsevier.com)
  • Which proofreading activity is critical in determining the accuracy of nuclear DNA replication and thus the base substitution mutation rate in human chromosomes? (proprofs.com)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase activity and RNA polymerase I activity . (genecards.org)
  • abstract = "As part of a biochemical search for a virus in melanomas preliminary kinetic studies with RNA directed DNA polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus showed that thymidine labeled triphosphate (TTP) stimulates the enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • This preparation of high molecular weight DNA is appropriate for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)* process and other molecular biology applications. (atcc.org)
  • Gentaur Molecular Products can provide you with a wide variety of RNA-related products. (clonagen.com)
  • AP000731 AP000731 47827bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, BAC clone:F16J14. (bio.net)
  • AP000734 AP000734 2569bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, TAC clone:K13C10. (bio.net)
  • AP000735 AP000735 79186bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, TAC clone:K13E13. (bio.net)
  • AP000737 AP000737 2808bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 5, lambda clone:LA522. (bio.net)
  • AP000738 AP000738 2581bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, P1 clone:MED16. (bio.net)
  • YSCF4121 D44598 18837bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI phage 4121. (bio.net)
  • YSCF9965 D44597 36230bp DNA PLN 28-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9965. (bio.net)
  • HEXOKINASE A. YSCF9993 D44603 35881bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9993. (bio.net)
  • In archaebacteria, there is generally a single form of RNA polymerase which also consists of an oligomeric assemblage of 10 to 13 polypeptides. (ebi.ac.uk)