Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species in the genus N4-like viruses, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC EC
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the longer version of the genome and have no separate cell lysis gene.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Transcription factors that form transcription initiation complexes on DNA, bind to specific DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES and are required to initiate transcription. Although their binding may be localized to distinct sequence and structural motifs within the DNA they are considered non-specific with regard to the specific gene being transcribed.
Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
Genetic loci which direct transcription of ribosomal RNA in bacterial operons. They are designated rrnB, rrnC, rrnD, etc. according to the structural position of the transcription unit in the DNA sequence.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
The discontinuation of transcription at the end of a transcription unit, including the recognition of termination sites and release of the newly synthesized RNA molecule.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (1/6307)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (2/6307)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Efficient synthesis of nucleic acids heavily modified with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups using a mutantT7 RNA polymerase (RNAP). (3/6307)

A T7 RNAP mutant (Y639F) which eliminates discrimination of the chemical character of the NTP ribose 2'-group, facilitates incorporation of non-canonicalsubstrates into nucleic acids. However, transcripts containing a high percentage of non-canonical NMPs are poorly extended due to effects of the 2'-substituents on the transcript:template hybrid conformation. We tested the addition of compounds that stabilize A-type helix geometry to the reaction. High concentrations of polyamines, together with other changes in reaction conditions, greatly increased the synthesis of transcripts heavily substituted with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups. Template structures that facilitate promoter opening increased the efficiency of reactions where non-canonical substrates were incorporated during transcription of +1 to +6.  (+info)

General method of analysis of kinetic equations for multistep reversible mechanisms in the single-exponential regime: application to kinetics of open complex formation between Esigma70 RNA polymerase and lambdaP(R) promoter DNA. (4/6307)

A novel analytical method based on the exact solution of equations of kinetics of unbranched first- and pseudofirst-order mechanisms is developed for application to the process of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaPR promoter (P) open complex formation, which is described by the minimal three-step mechanism with two kinetically significant intermediates (I1, I2), [equation: see text], where the final product is an open complex RPo. The kinetics of reversible and irreversible association (pseudofirst order, [R] >> [P]) to form long-lived complexes (RPo and I2) and the kinetics of dissociation of long-lived complexes both exhibit single exponential behavior. In this situation, the analytical method provides explicit expressions relating observed rate constants to the microscopic rate constants of mechanism steps without use of rapid equilibrium or steady-state approximations, and thereby provides a basis for interpreting the composite rate constants of association (ka), isomerization (ki), and dissociation (kd) obtained from experiment for this or any other sequential mechanism of any number of steps. In subsequent papers, we apply this formalism to analyze kinetic data obtained in the reversible and irreversible binding regimes of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaP(R) promoter (P) open complex formation.  (+info)

The Escherichia coli Ada protein can interact with two distinct determinants in the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase according to promoter architecture: identification of the target of Ada activation at the alkA promoter. (5/6307)

The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) activates transcription from the Escherichia coli ada, aidB, and alkA promoters with different mechanisms. In this study we identify amino acid substitutions in region 4 of the RNA polymerase subunit sigma70 that affect Ada-activated transcription at alkA. Substitution to alanine of residues K593, K597, and R603 in sigma70 region 4 results in decreased Ada-dependent binding of RNA polymerase to the alkA promoter in vitro and impairs alkA transcription both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that these residues define a determinant for meAda-sigma70 interaction. In a previous study (P. Landini, J. A. Bown, M. R. Volkert, and S. J. W. Busby, J. Biol. Chem. 273:13307-13312, 1998), we showed that a set of negatively charged amino acids in sigma70 region 4 is involved in meAda-sigma70 interaction at the ada and aidB promoters. However, the alanine substitutions of positively charged residues K593, K597, and R603 do not affect meAda-dependent transcription at ada and aidB. Unlike the sigma70 amino acids involved in the interaction with meAda at the ada and aidB promoters, K593, K597, and R603 are not conserved in sigmaS, an alternative sigma subunit of RNA polymerase mainly expressed during the stationary phase of growth. While meAda is able to promote transcription by the sigmaS form of RNA polymerase (EsigmaS) at ada and aidB, it fails to do so at alkA. We propose that meAda can activate transcription at different promoters by contacting distinct determinants in sigma70 region 4 in a manner dependent on the location of the Ada binding site.  (+info)

An intrinsic DNA curvature found in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa K-81 affects the promoter activity of rpoD1 encoding a principal sigma factor. (6/6307)

The rpoD1 gene in the unicellular cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa K-81 encodes a principal sigma factor of RNA polymerase and is transcribed under light and dark conditions to produce multiple monocistronic transcripts. In the 5'-upstream region from rpoD1 Promoter 2, which has a sequence of Escherichia coli type, we found a sequence-directed DNA curvature with an AT-rich sequence. Insertions of 2 to 21 base pairs introduced into the curved center changed a gross geometry of the original curved DNA structure. The rpoD1 promoter activities assayed in vivo by using transcriptional lacZ fusions were correlated with the change in the gross geometry in not only a cyanobacterium but also E. coli. In addition, RNA polymerase binding to the rpoD1 promoter region and the efficiency of the mRNA synthesis from the rpoD1 Promoter 2 were also affected in vitro by the change in the geometry. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of the curved DNA is important for the rpoD1 transcription. The deletion of the center region of the curvature resulted in a considerable reduction of the transcription from Promoter 2 in the cyanobacterium. This report demonstrates that a curved DNA plays a significant role in transcription in cyanobacteria, and that this functional curvature is located in the 5'-upstream region from the rpoD gene, which encodes a principal sigma factor in eubacteria.  (+info)

Disruption of substrate binding site in E. coli RNA polymerase by lethal alanine substitutions in carboxy terminal domain of the beta subunit. (7/6307)

Alanine substitution of four amino acids in two evolutionarily conserved motifs, PSRM and RFGEMIE, near the carboxy terminus of the beta subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase results in a dramatic loss of the enzyme's affinity to substrates with no apparent effect on the maximal rate of the enzymatic reaction or on binding to promoters. The magnitude and selectivity of the effect suggest that the mutations disrupt the substrate binding site of the active center.  (+info)

Bone marrow ribonucleic acid polymerase. Effect of testosterone on nucleotide incorporation into nuclear RNA. (8/6307)

The incorporation of 3H-UTP into RNA by isolated rat bone marrow nuclei is stimulated by testosterone. This effect is hormone and tissue specific. Using alpha-amanitine and different ionic strength conditions it was found that testosterone enhances preferentially RNA polymerase I activity. The sedimentation pattern of RNA isolated from bone marrow nuclei shows that the synthesis of RNA species within the 14-30 S range is mainly stimulated by the hormone.  (+info)

Plasmacytoma is a type of plasma cell dyscrasia, which is a group of diseases that affect the production and function of plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In plasmacytoma, the abnormal plasma cells grow and multiply out of control, leading to a tumor.

There are several subtypes of plasmacytoma, including:

* solitary plasmacytoma: A single tumor that occurs in one location.
* multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the bones and is characterized by an overgrowth of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow.
* extramedullary plasmacytoma: A tumor that occurs outside of the bone marrow, such as in soft tissue or organs.

Plasmacytoma is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to destroy the abnormal cells. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tumor.

Plasmacytoma is a relatively rare cancer, but it can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for patients with symptoms of plasmacytoma to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

1. Influenza (flu): Caused by the influenza virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
2. HIV/AIDS: Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is an RNA virus that attacks the body's immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
3. Hepatitis B: Caused by the hepatitis B virus, which is an RNA virus that infects the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cancer.
4. Measles: Caused by the measles virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, and a rash.
5. Rabies: Caused by the rabies virus, which is an RNA virus that attacks the central nervous system and can cause brain damage and death.
6. Ebola: Caused by the Ebola virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the blood vessels and can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding.
7. SARS-CoV-2: Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause COVID-19.

RNA virus infections are often difficult to treat and can be highly contagious, so it's important to take precautions to prevent transmission and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are two main types of systemic scleroderma: diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (DCSS) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LCSS). DCSS is characterized by skin thickening and scar formation over the trunk, arms, and legs, while LCSS is characterized by skin tightening and patches of scaly skin on the hands and face.

The symptoms of systemic scleroderma can include:

* Skin hardening and tightening
* Fatigue
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Muscle weakness
* Swallowing difficulties
* Heartburn and acid reflux
* Shortness of breath
* Raynaud's phenomenon (pale or blue-colored fingers and toes in response to cold temperatures or stress)

The exact cause of systemic scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options for systemic scleroderma include medications to manage symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swallowing difficulties, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications to improve quality of life.

In summary, systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems in the body, causing skin hardening and thickening, fatigue, joint pain, and other symptoms. While there is no cure for systemic scleroderma, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

There are several types of genomic instability, including:

1. Chromosomal instability (CIN): This refers to changes in the number or structure of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (having an abnormal number of chromosomes) or translocations (the movement of genetic material between chromosomes).
2. Point mutations: These are changes in a single base pair in the DNA sequence.
3. Insertions and deletions: These are changes in the number of base pairs in the DNA sequence, resulting in the insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs.
4. Genomic rearrangements: These are changes in the structure of the genome, such as chromosomal breaks and reunions, or the movement of genetic material between chromosomes.

Genomic instability can arise from a variety of sources, including environmental factors, errors during DNA replication and repair, and genetic mutations. It is often associated with cancer, as cancer cells have high levels of genomic instability, which can lead to the development of resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Research into genomic instability has led to a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying cancer and other diseases, and has also spurred the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies.

In summary, genomic instability is a key feature of cancer cells and is associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging. It can arise from a variety of sources and is the subject of ongoing research in the field of molecular biology.

Herr, A. J.; Jensen, M. B.; Dalmay, T.; Baulcombe, D. C. (2005-04-01). "RNA polymerase IV directs silencing of endogenous DNA ... of the siRNAs produced by RNA Polymerase IV, yet are not required for DNA methylation. There is evidence that RNA Polymerase IV ... "Polymerase-IV occupancy at RNA-directed DNA methylation sites requires SHH1". Nature. 498 (7454): 385-389. Bibcode:2013Natur. ... This process is referred to as RNA-directed DNA Methylation (RdDM) or Pol IV-mediated silencing as the introduction of these ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2D gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2D polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide D". Jeang KT (1998). "Tat, Tat-associated kinase, and ... fourth-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and DNA-directed RNA polymerase, whereas its two ... RNA-polymerase]-subunit kinase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + [DNA-directed RNA ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase] phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include CTD kinase, and STK9. Lee JM, Greenleaf AL ( ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase]]]. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring a phosphate ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3D gene. This gene complements a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3D polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D, 44kDa". Jang KL, Collins MK, Latchman DS (1992). "The ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... Jackson AJ, Ittmann M, Pugh BF (1995). "The BN51 protein is a polymerase (Pol)-specific subunit of RNA Pol III which reveals a ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3E gene. POLR3E has been shown ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3E polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide E (80kD)". Hu, Ping; Wu Si; Sun Yuling; Yuan Chih-Chi; ... 2002). "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III ... "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III Subunits" ( ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2C gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2C polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, 33kDa". De Angelis R, Iezzi S, Bruno T, Corbi N, Di ... third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
... is a symbol of RNA polymerase mitochondrial It is a DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in ... "Entrez Gene: POLRMT polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed)". Hillen, HS; Morozov, YI; Sarfallah, A; Temiakov, D; Cramer ... Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O00411 (Human DNA-directed RNA polymerase, ...
ATP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase II] <=> ADP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase II] phosphate : catalyzed by CDK9 EC ... 2007). "DNA-Directed RNA polymerase". DNA-directed RNA polymerase in: Springer Handbook of Enzymes. Springer Handbook of ... together with RNA polymerase II, bind to and read the single-stranded DNA gene template. The cluster of RNA polymerase II and ... Unlike DNA replication, mRNA transcription can involve multiple RNA polymerases on a single DNA template and multiple rounds of ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2K gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2K polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 7.0kDa". Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, ... This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. POLR2K has been shown to interact with POLR2C. GRCh38: ... encodes one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ...
Some large viruses have their own DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Transfers of "infectious" nuclei have been documented in many ... In 2006, researchers suggested that the transition from RNA to DNA genomes first occurred in the viral world. A DNA-based virus ... Forterre, Patrick (March 2006). "Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: a ... In the original paper it was also an RNA cell at the origin of eukaryotes, but eventually more complex, featuring RNA ...
Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR3G gene. Model ... "Entrez Gene: Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)". Retrieved 2014-04-01. Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger ... Chiu, Y. H.; MacMillan, J. B.; Chen, Z. J. (2009). "RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits". ...
... of the DNA directed RNA polymerase III. This subunit includes the catalytic site of RNA polymerase III. Mutations in this gene ... "POLR2B RNA polymerase II subunit B [Homo sapiens (human)]". Gene - National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). U.S. ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2B gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2B polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; ... second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2E gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2E polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E, 25kDa". Bertolotti, A; Melot T; Acker J; Vigneron M; ... This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases and is present in two-fold molar excess over the other ... and RNA polymerase subunit 5, which contributes to the association between TFIIF and RNA polymerase II". J. Biol. Chem. United ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, also known as RPB1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2A polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa". Krum SA, Miranda GA, Lin C, Lane TF (December ... This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ... forms the DNA-binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. POLR2A has been ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2I gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2I polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide I, 14.5kDa". Jeang KT (1998). "Tat, Tat-associated kinase, ... forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. The product of this ... subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit, in ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2L gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2L polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L, 7.6kDa". Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, ... Like its counterpart in yeast, this subunit may be shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. POLR2L has been shown ... encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3F gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3F polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide F, 39 kDa". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... "Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against subunits of human RNA polymerases I, II, and III". ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11-a is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2J gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2J polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J, 13.3kDa". Fanciulli M, Bruno T, Di Padova M, De Angelis R ... interacts in vitro with a novel variant of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, subunit 11". Genomics. 79 (6): 809-17. doi:10.1006/ ... subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene ...
... one of the essential subunits of RNA polymerase II that is shared by the other two eukaryotic DNA-directed RNA polymerases, I ... DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2H gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2H polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide H". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; Kedinger C; ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3K gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3K polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 12.3 kDa". Jang KL, Collins MK, Latchman DS (1992). "The ... 2002). "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III ... Chedin S, Riva M, Schultz P, Sentenac A, Carles C (Jan 1999). "The RNA cleavage activity of RNA polymerase III is mediated by ...
DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J, has been shown to encode a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase ... DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene, also known as POLR2J2, is a human gene. This gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2J2 DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene". Shpakovskii DG, Shematorova EK, Shpakovskii GV ... interacts in vitro with a novel variant of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, subunit 11". Genomics. 79 (6): 809-817. doi:10.1006/ ...
"A Single Subunit from Avian Myeloblastosis Virus with Both RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase and Ribonuclease H Activity". ... Chedd, Graham (1971). "RNA to DNA: a revolution in reverse". New Scientist. Retrieved July 17, 2016 - via Google Books. " ... He coupled this basic research to the effort to detect RNA tumor viruses in human cancer. Tremendous effort was directed to the ... Green, Maurice; Fujinaga, K (1966). "The mechanism of viral carcinogenesis by DNA mammalian viruses: viral-specific RNA in ...
"Separation of Ribonuclease H and RNA Directed DNA Polymerase (Reverse Transcriptase) of Murine Type-C RNA Tumor Viruses". ... Wu, A.M.; Ghosh, S.; Echols, H. (June 1972). "Repression by the cI protein of phage λ: Interaction with RNA polymerase". ... mechanism whereby the cI protein of phage λ represses expression of viral genes through interactions with host RNA polymerase. ... Wu, A. M.; Gallo, R. C. (1974). "Life cycle of RNA oncogenic viruses". Hamatologie Und Bluttransfusion. 14: 148-156. ISSN 0440- ...
The Bordetella phages of this genus contains an RNA-directed DNA polymerase which plays a role in tropism. The genomes are ... DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ZNRD1 gene. This gene encodes a ... protein with similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rpa12p subunit of RNA polymerase I. Alternate splicing of this gene ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Entrez Gene: POLR1A polymerase (RNA) I polypeptide A, 194kDa". Zhu L, Perlaky L, Henning D, Valdez BC (1998). "Cloning and ... Chen HK, Pai CY, Huang JY, Yeh NH (2000). "Human Nopp140, which interacts with RNA polymerase I: implications for rRNA gene ... 2001). "hRRN3 is essential in the SL1-mediated recruitment of RNA Polymerase I to rRNA gene promoters". EMBO J. 20 (6): 1373-82 ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2G gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2G polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide G". Bertolotti, A; Melot T; Acker J; Vigneron M; Delattre O ... seventh largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
"RPO132 - DNA-directed RNA polymerase 132 kDa polypeptide - Ectromelia virus (strain Moscow) (ECTV) - RPO132 gene & protein". ... Since GVA is a disease that affects the RNA of the plant, new RNA is added to the sample and it combines with the infected RNA ... A reading frame begins with a start codon (codon that begins the translation to RNA from the DNA strand) and ends with a stop ... This is the protein that helps the DNA or RNA connect with amino acids. Even further research of the genomes of GVA traced ...
Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9NP87 (Human DNA-directed DNA/RNA polymerase mu) ... "Entrez Gene: POLM polymerase (DNA directed), mu". Daley JM, Laan RL, Suresh A, Wilson TE (August 2005). "DNA joint dependence ... DNA polymerase mu is a polymerase enzyme found in eukaryotes. In humans, this protein is encoded by the POLM gene. Pol μ is a ... a specialized DNA polymerase that adds random nucleotides to DNA ends during V(D)J recombination, the process by which B-cell ...
These genes include DNA polymerase, primase (including two subunits), MCM, CDC6/ORC1, RPA, RPC, and PCNA. In 2004, the origins ... Direct. 5: 53. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-5-53. PMC 2933680. PMID 20731852. Bernstein, H; Bernstein, C (2010). "Evolutionary Origin ... All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 132". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2015-08 ... This was the first time that more than a single origin of DNA replication had been shown to be used in a prokaryotic cell. The ...
"The transcription elongation factor CA150 interacts with RNA polymerase II and the pre-mRNA splicing factor SF1". Mol. Cell. ... It directs dephosphorylation of cyclin B-bound CDC2 (CDK1) and triggers entry into mitosis. It is also thought to suppress p53- ... Amini S, Khalili K, Sawaya BE (2004). "Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on cell cycle regulators". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 249-60. doi: ... 1997). "Conservation of the Chk1 checkpoint pathway in mammals: linkage of DNA damage to Cdk regulation through Cdc25". Science ...
RNA polymerase must attach to DNA near a gene for transcription to occur. Promoter DNA sequences provide an enzyme binding site ... to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. A promoter is induced in response to changes in abundance or conformation ... 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs RNA polymerase II: transcribes genes encoding messenger RNA and certain small nuclear RNAs and ... For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. ...
"Influence of major-groove chemical modifications of DNA on transcription by bacterial RNA polymerases". Nucleic Acids Res. 44 ( ... and Direct C-H Arylation Reactions". J. Med. Chem. 54 (15): 5498-5507. doi:10.1021/jm2005173. PMID 21711054. Nauš P, Caletková ... The methodology is widely used for enzymatic synthesis of DNA or RNA-bearing fluorescent, redox, or reactive labels, as well as ... Better Substrates for DNA Polymerases than dATP in Competitive Incorporations". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53 (29): 7552-7555. doi: ...
This non-protein coding oligonucleotide is itself coded by longer nuclear DNA sequence usually transcribed by RNA polymerase II ... This, in addition to SINEs' direct role in regulatory networks (as discussed in SINEs as long non-coding RNAs) is crucial to ... For example, the 5' of the Alu sine is derived from 7SL RNA, a sequence transcribed by RNA Polymerase III which codes for the ... Short-interspersed nuclear elements are transcribed by RNA polymerase III which is known to transcribe ribosomal RNA and tRNA, ...
"The glucocorticoid receptor inhibits NFkappaB by interfering with serine-2 phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxy- ... A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, ... June 1998). "Recruitment of octamer transcription factors to DNA by glucocorticoid receptor". Molecular and Cellular Biology. ... Makino Y, Yoshikawa N, Okamoto K, Hirota K, Yodoi J, Makino I, Tanaka H (January 1999). "Direct association with thioredoxin ...
This is a potent enzyme inhibitor, in this case preventing the RNA polymerase II enzyme from transcribing DNA. The algal toxin ... Adam GC, Cravatt BF, Sorensen EJ (January 2001). "Profiling the specific reactivity of the proteome with non-directed activity- ... Reardon JE (November 1989). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 and human DNA polymerase interactions with 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'- ... Satz AL, Kuai L, Peng X (May 2021). "Selections and screenings of DNA-encoded chemical libraries against enzyme and cellular ...
UDP-glucose 4-epimerase and DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha. The identified CSIs provide reliable and important means ... The proteins containing these CSIs are: contaexcinuclease ABC subunit UvrC, DNA polymerase III subunit alpha, ribonuclease III ... UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase DNA polymerase III subunit epsilon, ...
This protein is capable of generating the RNA primers required by DNA polymerase gamma to initiate replication of mitochondrial ... Data has identified VDAC as an interacting partner of BNIP3 and provide direct evidence to support that EndoG is a mediator of ... The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the conserved DNA/RNA non-specific ββα-Me-finger nuclease family and possesses a ... DNA and Cell Biology. 16 (9): 1111-22. doi:10.1089/dna.1997.16.1111. PMID 9324313. Li LY, Luo X, Wang X (Jul 2001). " ...
Circulating free DNA Exogenous DNA Extracellular RNA RNAs present in environmental samples Thomsen, Philip Francis; Sigsgaard, ... sediment or air from which DNA is extracted, and then amplified using general or universal primers in polymerase chain reaction ... In this context, direct comparisons of eDNA concentrations with biomass and stock assessment metrics, such as catch per unit ... Relic DNA dynamics Extracellular DNA, sometimes called relic DNA, is DNA from dead microbes. Naked extracellular DNA (eDNA), ...
RNA - RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA polymerase - rod outer segment - rough ER sarcoplasmic reticulum - ... DNA - DNA fragmentation - DNA replication - DNA sequence - DNA topology - DNA transposable element - DNA virus - DNA-binding ... cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - cyclic nucleotide - cyclic peptide - cyclin - cyclin A - ... Isotopic tracer junk DNA kainic acid receptor - kallidin - kappa opioid receptor - kappa-chain immunoglobulin - karyoplasm - ...
Additional proteins including RNA polymerase are then recruited to the NR/DNA complex that transcribe DNA into messenger RNA. ... The most common mechanism of nuclear receptor action involves direct binding of the nuclear receptor to a DNA hormone response ... The nuclear receptor/DNA complex then recruits other proteins that transcribe DNA downstream from the HRE into messenger RNA ... C) DNA-binding domain (DBD): Highly conserved domain containing two zinc fingers that binds to specific sequences of DNA called ...
The L segment, 6.8-12 kb in length, encodes the L protein which functions primarily as the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... Of these, only DNA vaccines have entered into clinical trials. Ribavirin may be a drug for HPS and HFRS, but its effectiveness ... The viruses have been demonstrated to remain active for 2-3 days at normal room temperature, while ultraviolet rays in direct ... The virally encoded RNA polymerase is also found in the interior. By mass, the virion is greater than 50% protein, 20-30% lipid ...
"Entrez Gene: POLE polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon". Palles C, Cazier JB, Howarth KM, Domingo E, Jones AM, Broderick P, Kemp ... "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4): ... Popanda O, Thielmann HW (1992). "The function of DNA polymerases in DNA repair synthesis of ultraviolet-irradiated human ... Fuss J, Linn S (2002). "Human DNA polymerase epsilon colocalizes with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and DNA replication ...
RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ... and a poliovirus clone was the first infectious DNA clone made of an RNA virus in animals. Along with rhinovirus, poliovirus ... "Sequence requirements for viral RNA replication and VPg uridylylation directed by the internal cis-acting replication element ( ... the RNA polymerase). Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements, and they are required for both negative- and ...
In DNA replication, RNA primers must be inserted along the lagging strand so that DNA polymerase is able to synthesize the ... the linear DNA flanked by homologous regions specific to the cleaved location as a template to rebuild using homology directed ... One side of the ring is large enough to admit double stranded DNA, but the other end can only accommodate single stranded DNA, ... Beta binds to the resulting single stranded 3' end and incorporates it into the target DNA to form the recombinant DNA. Phage λ ...
... encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10 PRMT7: encoding protein Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 ... Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in ... encoding protein SNAI3 antisense RNA 1 SNORD71: encoding protein Small nucleolar RNA, C/D box 71 SPSB3: encoding protein SplA/ ... encoding protein Putative RNA-binding protein Luc7-like 1 LYPLA3: encoding enzyme Group XV phospholipase A2 MC1R: melanocortin ...
... such as RNA polymerase, effectively repressing gene expression. In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is coiled into protein-DNA complexes ... Flusberg BA, Webster DR, Lee JH, Travers KJ, Olivares EC, Clark TA, Korlach J, Turner SW (June 2010). "Direct detection of DNA ... The DNA hybridization technique used in DNA assays, in which radioactive probes were used to map and identify DNA sequences, ... A single DNA polymerase enzyme is bound to the bottom of a ZMW with a single molecule of DNA as a template. Each of the four ...
... proteins and other transcription factors to compact the DNA which inhibits RNA polymerase from binding and transcribing the DNA ... Directing cell differentiation and reprogramming cell fate have traditionally been achieved via a mixture of transcription ... compacting the DNA would downregulate gene expression by inhibiting RNA polymerase from binding. Regulatory domains promoting ... to upregulate a gene is for the ATF to recruit proteins that loosen the DNA wrapping around histones allowing RNA polymerase to ...
RNA polymerase II is recruited to DNA through the TFIIB B core and B ribbon. RNA polymerase II unwinds DNA, aided by the TFIIB ... "A nonconserved surface of the TFIIB zinc ribbon domain plays a direct role in RNA polymerase II recruitment". Molecular and ... Upon binding RNA polymerase II, the B reader and B linker cause slight repositioning of the protrusion domain of RNA polymerase ... RNA polymerase II forms the first phosphodiester bond. RNA polymerase II produces short abortive transcripts due to clashes ...
"Identification of a novel partner of RNA polymerase II subunit 11, Che-1, which interacts with and affects the growth ... Matoba R, Okubo K, Hori N, Fukushima A, Matsubara K (1994). "The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA ... It is also associated with BRCA1 and is thought to modulate the functions of BRCA1 in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, ... Wu-Baer F, Baer R (November 2001). "Effect of DNA damage on a BRCA1 complex". Nature. 414 (6859): 36. doi:10.1038/35102118. ...
September 2002). "Identification of p100 as a coactivator for STAT6 that bridges STAT6 with RNA polymerase II". The EMBO ... STAT6 shares structural similarity with the other STAT proteins and is composed of the N-terminal domain, DNA binding domain, ... Shen CH, Stavnezer J (June 1998). "Interaction of stat6 and NF-kappaB: direct association and synergistic activation of ... Shen CH, Stavnezer J (June 1998). "Interaction of stat6 and NF-kappaB: direct association and synergistic activation of ...
Webb CJ, Zakian VA (August 2016). "Telomerase RNA is more than a DNA template". RNA Biology. 13 (8): 683-9. doi:10.1080/ ... hTR is directly transcribed from a dedicated promoter site located at genomic locus 3q26.2 by RNA polymerase II. Mature hTR is ... Processing of immature 3'-tailed hTR to mature 451nt hTR can be accomplished by direct 3'-5' exoribonucleolytic degradation or ... The vertebrate telomerase RNAs have a 3' H/ACA snoRNA-like domain. TERC is a Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) ranging in length ...
... also appears to inhibit RNA polymerase I, which helps allow complete chromosome disjunction by eliminating ribosomal RNA ... "Vertebrate cells genetically deficient for Cdc14A or Cdc14B retain DNA damage checkpoint proficiency but are impaired in DNA ... Gray, CH; Good, VM; Tonks, NK; Barford, D (2003). "The structure of the cell cycle protein Cdc14 reveals a proline-directed ... "Cdc14 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase I during anaphase". Nature. 458 (7235): 219-22. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..219C. doi ...
They require RNA polymerase II, a host cell enzyme normally associated with synthesis of messenger RNA from DNA, which instead ... Hammond RW (April 1992). "Analysis of the virulence modulating region of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) by site-directed ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA world constitutes another powerful argument supporting the RNA ... Circular RNA, unlike linear RNA, forms a covalently closed continuous loop, in which the 3' and 5' ends present in linear RNA ...
"Induction of direct repeat recombination by psoralen-DNA adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: defects in DNA repair increase ... One inaccurate process for repairing psoralen crosslinks appears to employ a DNA polymerase to fill in the gap formed in the ... Research on psoralen has historically focused on interactions with DNA and RNA (in particular, ICL formation). Psoralen, ... and therefore have been used extensively for the analysis of interactions and structures for both DNA and RNA. Dean, F. M. ( ...
On-Bead Ligand Binding assays are isolation methods for basic proteins, DNA/RNA or other biomolecules located in undefined ... Mullis KB, Faloona FA (1987). "Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction". Methods in ... As a direct result of these monumental findings, researchers have continued the advancement of ligand binding assays in many ... Direct analyzation methods based on enzymatic/fluorescent detection (e.g. HRP, fluorescent dye) can be used for on-bead ...
Monoubiquitinated PCNA recruits polymerases that can carry out DNA synthesis with damaged DNA; but this is very error-prone, ... The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) protein is a primary immune system sensor for viral and other invasive RNA in human ... Direct evidence for ubiquitylation at the N-terminal residue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (40): 41414-21. doi: ... Hofmann K (April 2009). "Ubiquitin-binding domains and their role in the DNA damage response". DNA Repair. 8 (4): 544-56. doi: ...
sepedonicus DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega (rpoZ) ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega; DNA-directed RNA ... Order Clavibacter michiganensis subsp sepedonicus DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega rpoZ -E coli 01023070510 at Gentaur ... polymerase subunit omega; DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega; RNA polymerase omega subunit; Transcriptase subunit omega ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega(rpoZ) is a recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. The protein can be with or ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. AE ...
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / genetics* * DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / metabolism * Escherichia coli / enzymology* ... as a series of overlapping potentially competing RNA polymerase-binding sites. As far as we know, this is the highest ...
Family i.8.1.1: RNA polymerase [58182] (2 proteins). *. Protein DNA-directed RNA polymerase alpha(2), beta, beta-prime and ... PDB Compounds: (B:) DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1hqmb_:. Sequence; same for both ... d1hqmb_ i.8.1.1 (B:) DNA-directed RNA polymerase alpha(2), beta, beta-prime and omega subunits {Thermus aquaticus [TaxId: 271 ... PDB Description: crystal structure of thermus aquaticus core rna polymerase-includes complete structure with side-chains ( ...
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase [‎1]‎. Rodent Control [‎2]‎. Rodent Diseases [‎4]‎. Romania [‎9]‎. ...
Categories: RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, insert domain / DNA-directed RNA polymerase, RpoA/D/Rpb3-type / DNA-directed RNA polymerase, ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta / DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha / DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit ... DNA: non-template DNA*DNA: template DNA*RNA: RNA. *Protein or peptide: DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha. Polymerase* ... DNA: non-template DNA*DNA: template DNA*RNA: RNA. *Protein or peptide: DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha. Polymerase* ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II complex. 4328083. BRITE hierarchy. BRITE hierarchy. SSDB. Ortholog. Paralog. Gene cluster. GFIT ... RNA polymerase II system. RNA polymerase II. Pol II specific subunits. 4328083. DNA repair and recombination proteins [BR: ... RNA polymerase II system. RNA polymerase II. Pol II specific subunits. 4330570. DNA repair and recombination proteins [BR: ... 03020 RNA polymerase. 4328083. 09124 Replication and repair. 03420 Nucleotide excision repair. 4328083. 09180 Brite Hierarchies ...
polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J. Gm43604. 5. 136120966 to 136121670 704. -. antisense lncRNA gene. predicted ...
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase [D08.811.913.696.445.308.300.750]. *HIV Reverse Transcriptase [D08.811.913.696.445.308.300.750.187] ... RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase [D12.776.964.970.600.850.375.750]. *HIV Reverse Transcriptase [D12.776.964.970.600.850.375.750.187] ... DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase [D08.811.913.696.445.308.300]. * ... RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase [D12.776.964.775.375.750]. *HIV ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity. 0.0740938021136293. bayes_pls_golite062009. RNA polymerase activity. 0.0740938021136293. ... Winged helix DNA-binding domain View. Download. 0.331. 0.688. 3-5-exoribonuclease activity. a.60.6. DNA polymerase beta, N- ... RNA polymerase subunit RPB10 View. Download. 0.364. 0.688. 3-5-exoribonuclease activity. a.4.6. C-terminal effector domain of ... DNA polymerase III clamp loader subunits, C-terminal domain View. Download. 0.471. 0.688. 3-5-exoribonuclease activity. a. ...
Reverse transcriptases (RTs) are RNA-directed DNA polymerases that were first identified as part of the retroviral life cycle ( ... 1988) DNA sequencing with Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. ... M-MLV RT is a single-polypeptide, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The enzyme also has DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity at ... Pfu DNA Polymerase. Pfu DNA polymerase has one of the lowest error rates of all known thermophilic DNA polymerases used for ...
Using BLAST analysis we revealed that human DNA-directed RNA polymerase II can be decreased in AD since this enzyme contains ... In Salmonella typhimurium, the IAcrA usage to de-repress the trp operon results in a decline in RNA polymerase electron ... Human RNA polymerase subunits contain tripeptides decreased in AD or MCI.. Acknowledgments. This work was supported by Art ... electron microscopy directly demonstrates the decrease in RNA polymerase induced by TrpRS inhibitor. Therefore, TrpRS ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases Synonymes. ARN polymérases ARN polymérases ADN-dépendantes ARN polymérases dirigées par lADN ... DNA-directed RNA polymerases - Concept préféré Concept UI. M0019148. Terme préféré. ... RNA polimerasas RNA polimerasas dependientes de DNA RNA polimerasas dirigidas por DNA transcriptasas ... Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can ...
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases 45% * adenovirus associated RNA 36% * eIF-2 Kinase 28% ... Dive into the research topics of Removal of double-stranded contaminants from RNA transcripts: Synthesis of adenovirus VA RNA1 ... Removal of double-stranded contaminants from RNA transcripts: Synthesis of adenovirus VA RNA1 from a T7 vector. ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases, either observed in structures, such as that of the T. thermophilus RNAP [ref 71], or indicated by ... RNA polymerase II transcription: structure and mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Jan1829(1):2-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagrm. ... First, the polymerase backtracks to extrude the misincorporated nucleotide. Then, in a reaction assisted by TFIIS, the ... 4 may be accounted for by the fidelity of RNA synthesis. The remaining two orders of magnitude are gained by proofreading, in a ...
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase 9% * Paranasal Sinuses 9% * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay 5% ...
... and RNA polymerase as a function of the allosteric regulatory molecules galactose and cAMP is proposed in order to develop a ... The cI-repressor binds to three adjacent sites on the DNA. The proposed studies will focus on determining the mechanism of the ... In contrast, gal-repressor binds to two specific-sites separated by many turns of the DNA-helix. Studies are proposed to ... Studies are also proposed to determined whether DNA-topology affects cooperative binding of both the gal- and cI-repressors. ...
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase Medicine & Life Sciences 85% * Masks Medicine & Life Sciences 76% ... DNA and RNA polymerases share a core architecture composed of three structurally conserved motifs: A, B, and C. Although the ... N2 - DNA and RNA polymerases share a core architecture composed of three structurally conserved motifs: A, B, and C. Although ... AB - DNA and RNA polymerases share a core architecture composed of three structurally conserved motifs: A, B, and C. Although ...
... are two economically important invasive species that cause considerable damages to agriculture crops through direct feeding and ... RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity and RNA-dependent DNA replication (e.g., difference in transposon component of the genomes ... In vivo dietary RNA interference in B. tabaci. Dietary RNAi was carried out in a feeding chamber consisting of a glass tube (20 ... Total RNAs were extracted from 30 to 40 B. tabaci adults (mixed sexes, female: male = 1: 1) per strain using a TRIzol reagent ...
Bacterial RNA 100% * Holoenzymes 88% * DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases 75% * DNA 37% ... Quantitative parameters of bacterial RNA polymerase open-complex formation, stabilization and disruption on a consensus ...
RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity. Vocabulary: biological process Term. Definition. GO:0006278. RNA-dependent DNA ... Single cell RNA-seq of pluripotent neoblasts and its early progenies. We isolated X1 neoblasts cells enriched in high piwi-1 ... For further information about sample preparation and analysis for the single animal RNA-Seq experiment, please refer to the ... followed by isolation and single-cell RNA-seq of 1,200 individual cells derived from X1 (Piwi-1 high) and X2 (Piwi-1 low) cell ...
DNA 100% * DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases 39% * Genomic Instability 39% * Eukaryotic Cells 38% ... Performance of a novel Next Generation Sequencing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) platform for the evaluation of samples from ...
RNA directed DNA polymerase inhibitor; tenofovir; adult; antiretroviral therapy; antiviral resistance; Article; Cambodia; CD4 ...
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases 14% * Eukaryota 13% * Gene Expression 8% * Gene Regulatory Networks 14% ...
RecName: Full=DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7; Short=RNA polymerase II subunit B7 gb,AAA34005.1, RNA polymerase II ... RNA binding GO:0003723 Molecular Function 0.0. - Sma3. DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity GO:0003899 Molecular Function 0.0. ... sp=DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7; Glycine max (Soybean) (Glycine hispida). - - 0.0. 69% ... Ribosomal protein S1, RNA-binding domain IPR003029 - 0.0. - Sma3. RNA polymerase Rpb7, N-terminal IPR005576 - 0.0. - ...
F5/R8 for subunits 1 of DNA-directed RNA polymerase â ¡ (RPB1) (ODonnell et al. 2010) and MS3F/MS3R for mitochondrial small ... 1998), 5F2/7cR for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase â ¡(RPB2) (ODonnell et al., 2007), H3-1a/H3-1b for Histone H3 ... The median EBV-DNA level in plasma was 1.68 × 103 copies/ml (range, 0.44 to 21.1 × 103copies/ml). All the patients had good ... The patient with stage IV received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after the EBV-DNA level was elevated ...
  • The goal of the proposed biophysical studies is to understand the physical mechanisms by which cooperative DNA-binding proteins regulate the transcription of genes. (elsevier.com)
  • This method is unique in that it allows resolution of both the intrinsic and cooperative Gibbs free energies for proteins which bind to multiple, specific-sites on DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • Ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins, which is essential for the normal functioning and survival of cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cells depend on their DNA for coding information to make various classes of proteins that include enzymes, certain hormones, transport proteins, and structural proteins that support life. (cdc.gov)
  • Specialized cell structures called ribosomes are the cellular organelles that actually synthesize the proteins (RNA transcription). (cdc.gov)
  • RNA, lipids, and proteins. (who.int)
  • The MTD test uses transcription-mediated amplification to detect M. tuberculosis-complex ribosomal RNA (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Both enzymes help synthesize a form of RNA known as ribosomal RNA (rRNA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • RNA synthesis is central to life, and RNA polymerase (RNAP) depends on accessory factors for recovery from stalled states and adaptation to environmental changes. (nih.gov)
  • p.6 left column paragraph above bottom paragraph:'The error rate in transcription with the wild type trigger loop is on the order of 10^- 6, of which about 10^- 4 may be accounted for by the fidelity of RNA synthesis. (harvard.edu)
  • These enzymes are involved in the production (synthesis) of ribonucleic acid (RNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • RNA polymerase III also plays a role in the synthesis of several other forms of RNA, including transfer RNA (tRNA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega(rpoZ) is a recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. (scetibio.com)
  • Thermodynamic characterization of the binding and cooperative interactions among gal-repressor, catabolite activator protein (CAP), and RNA polymerase as a function of the allosteric regulatory molecules galactose and cAMP is proposed in order to develop a comprehensive physical- chemical description of the regulation of the goal operon. (elsevier.com)
  • These mutations appear to alter the structure and function of the POLR1D protein, which reduces the amount of functional RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other methods for amplifying DNA and RNA, may facilitate rapid detection of microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
  • We show that HelD prevents non-specific interactions between RNAP and DNA and dissociates stalled transcription elongation complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Liu X, Bushnell DA, Kornberg RD. RNA polymerase II transcription: structure and mechanism. (harvard.edu)
  • The POLR1D gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of two related enzymes called RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. (bvsalud.org)
  • First, the polymerase backtracks to extrude the misincorporated nucleotide. (harvard.edu)
  • DNA is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups, with the sugar attached to 1 of 4 possible nucleotide bases (adenosine, cytosine, guanine, thymidine). (cdc.gov)
  • Several other NAA tests are under commercial development, including the Roche AmplicorTM test (4), a PCR-based test that amplifies mycobacterial DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • The sam- target mycobacterial DNA or RNA directly ples were collected from patients with clin- from clinical samples [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT We evaluated the COBAS AMPLICOR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in 866 respiratory and non-respiratory samples. (who.int)
  • Radiation can disrupt the structure of the DNA (and other macromolecules), thereby disrupting normal cell and organ functions. (cdc.gov)
  • polymerase involved, and this in- macromolecules including DNA, 2012) . (who.int)
  • RNA polymerases read the codes from specific areas of the DNA and transcribe the information into a mRNA copy of the DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • This tumor type is associated with the biallelic loss of exons that transcribe a messenger RNA of 4,772 kb. (bvsalud.org)
  • The total chromosomal content of a cell involves approximately 105 genes in a specialized macromolecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (cdc.gov)
  • DNA and RNA polymerases share a core architecture composed of three structurally conserved motifs: A, B, and C. Although the amino acid sequences of these motifs are highly conserved between closely related organisms, variation across broader evolutionary distances suggests that only a few residues in each motif are indispensable for polymerase function. (nebraska.edu)
  • HCV infection was confirmed by anti-HCV and HCV RNA in 1 of 7 HCWs with OBI. (who.int)
  • P.6 left column 3rd paragraph:'The trigger loop is a conserved feature of all multisubunit, DNA-directed RNA polymerases, either observed in structures, such as that of the T. thermophilus RNAP [ref 71], or indicated by sequence analysis, as for E. coli and archaeal (M. jannaschii) RNAPs [refs 72,73]. (harvard.edu)
  • 1. Is electrophilic or can be metabolical y activated to electrophiles does not alter the linear sequence of nucleotides (or bases) in the DNA, 2. (who.int)
  • lope, bovine herpes virus glycoprotein, and Hence, DNA vaccine vectors have been de- hepatitis B surface antigen (2,4-8). (who.int)
  • We tested 132 HCWs for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) by ELISA. (who.int)
  • This problem is ag- HCWs were recruited on the basis of Seven serum samples that were positive gravated by low hepatitis B vaccination accepting study enrolment without coverage, which was only 14% among for HBV DNA by nested PCR under- any random selection. (who.int)
  • METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the City of Maputo from 19 to 28 October 2020 through direct observation of mask use of all individuals present in markets, supermarkets and bus terminals. (cdc.gov)
  • RNA polymerase, beta subunit, conserved site / RNA polymerase Rpb2, domain 7 / RNA polymerase Rpb2, domain 3 / RNA polymerase Rpb2, OB-fold / RNA polymerase Rpb2, domain 7 / RNA polymerase Rpb2, domain 3 / RNA polymerases beta chain signature. (pdbj.org)
  • All samples sis , the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is were unique, each sample represented 1 the most widely used, best studied and patient, and duplicate samples were exclud- most widely published amplification tech- ed from this study. (who.int)
  • In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (bvsalud.org)
  • DNA vaccines in humans and the very limited information that is available from early clinical studies. (who.int)
  • The combi- onstrated in mice, induced by particle bom- nation of the essential elements yields a eu- bardment with gold beads coated with DNA karyotic expression vector that is capable of encoding human growth hormone and hu- driving the production of the antigen of in- man a-1 antitrypsin (3). (who.int)
  • DNA vaccines were used to immunize ani- expression. (who.int)
  • The proposed studies will focus on determining the mechanism of the cooperative interactions among the three binding sites and determining if the contacts between the repressor and DNA affect the cooperative interactions. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies are proposed to determine if gal-repressor binds cooperatively to DNA and if so, to determine the mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • Other issues to be considered include determining how the geometric relationship of the repressor binding affects interaction between sites, and if local changes in DNA structure play a role in mediating cooperativity. (elsevier.com)
  • An NAA test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test or MTD {Gen-Probe{Registered}, San Diego, California}) * was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use on processed clinical specimens (1), and others are under development. (cdc.gov)
  • Direct and indirect ionization of DNA is ultimately responsible for the DNA alterations that adversely affect the structural and genetic integrity of the system. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. Induces epigenetic alterations usual y arises as the cell attempts to repair the DNA damage. (who.int)
  • Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MED/Q and MEAM1/B, are two economically important invasive species that cause considerable damages to agriculture crops through direct feeding and indirect vectoring of plant pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of direct and indirect radiation interaction pathways can produce damage to the DNA of irradiated cells. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA damage occurs by indirect action (mediated through radiolytic products in water) or direct ionization. (cdc.gov)
  • Symposium "The Third Revolution summarizes the types of DNA vaccine vectors in common use, the on Vaccines: DNA Vaccines", immune responses and protective responses that have been obtained in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, animal models, the safety considerations pertinent to the evaluation of November 3-7, 1997. (who.int)
  • In contrast, gal-repressor binds to two specific-sites separated by many turns of the DNA-helix. (elsevier.com)
  • Direct macromolecule damage by radiation involves partial or complete energy transfer to one or more electrons on the molecule. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, carcinogens nogenic are polycyclic aromatic hy- to induce DNA damage, it can be may act not only by producing DNA drocarbons and benzene, which by cal ed a genotoxicant or a genotox- damage directly but also by altering themselves are relatively inert chem- in, and if it is shown that the agent the processes that control normal ical y. (who.int)
  • ry and non-respiratory samples received at Direct microscopy, culture on Lowen- our TB laboratory. (who.int)
  • Further development of the footprint titration method is proposed in order to directly measure repressor binding to supercoiled DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • Nous avons examiné 132 agents de santé à la recherche d'ADN du virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) au moyen de l'amplification en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) nichée et de l'anticorps du virus de l'hépatite C (anti-VHC) par la méthode ELISA. (who.int)
  • Influenza is a single-stranded, helically shaped, RNA virus of the orthomyxovirus family. (cdc.gov)
  • ture of the mistake, the flanking se- in a process termed metabolic acti- quence, the presence of DNA dam- vation ( Mil er, 1970 ). (who.int)
  • Examples of direct-acting elec- all have an impact on the outcome trophilic carcinogens are formalde- The term "genotoxic" refers to an of this proces s (Arana and Kunkel, hyde, sulfur mustard, and ethylene agent that induces DNA damage, 2010) . (who.int)