DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Action of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver. (1/4762)

The effects of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver were investigated. The enzyme was isolated from the nuclear fraction essentially according to the method of Baril et al.; it was characterized as the alpha polymerase on the basis of its response to synthetic templates and its inhibition with N-ethylmaleimide. Although polycytidylic acid had no effect on the DNA polymerase alpha either as a template or as an inhibitor, partially thiolated polycytidylic acid (MPC) was found to be a potent inhibitor, its activity being directly related to its extent of thiolation (percentage of 5-mercaptocytidylate units in the polymer). In comparison, the DNA polymerase beta which was purified from normal rat liver nuclear fraction, was much less sensitive to inhibition by MPC. Analysis of the inhibition of the alpha polymerase by the method of Lineweaver and Burk showed that the inhibitory action of MPC was competitively reversible with the DNA template, but the binding of the 7.2%-thiolated MPC to the enzyme was much stronger than that of the template (Ki/Km less than 0.03). Polyuridylic acid as such showed some inhibitory activity which increased on partial thiolation, but the 8.4%-thiolated polyuridylic acid was less active than the 7.2% MPC. When MPC was annealed with polyinosinic acid, it lost 80% of its inhibitory activity in the double-stranded configuration. However, 1 to 2%-thiolated DNA isolates were significantly more potent inhibitors than were comparable (1.2%-thiolated) MPC and showed competitive reversibility with the unmodified (but "activated") DNA template. These results indicate that the inhibitory activities of partially thiolated polynucleotides depend not only on the percentage of 5-mercapto groups but also on the configuration, base composition, and other specific structural properties.  (+info)

Probing interactions between HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its DNA substrate with backbone-modified nucleotides. (2/4762)

BACKGROUND: To gain a molecular understanding of a biochemical process, the crystal structure of enzymes that catalyze the reactions involved is extremely helpful. Often the question arises whether conformations obtained in this way appropriately reflect the reactivity of enzymes, however. Rates that characterize transitions are therefore compulsory experiments for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Such experiments have been performed for the reverse transcriptase of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 RT). RESULTS: We have developed a methodology to monitor the interplay between HIV-1 RT and its DNA substrate. To probe the protein-DNA interactions, the sugar backbone of one nucleotide was modified by a substituent that influenced the efficiency of the chain elongation in a characteristic way. We found that strand elongation after incorporation of the modified nucleotide follows a discontinuous efficiency for the first four nucleotides. The reaction efficiencies could be correlated with the distance between the sugar substituent and the enzyme. The model was confirmed by kinetic experiments with HIV-1 RT mutants. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments with HIV-1 RT demonstrate that strand-elongation efficiency using a modified nucleotide correlates well with distances between the DNA substrate and the enzyme. The functional group at the modified nucleotides acts as an 'antenna' for steric interactions that changes the optimal transition state. Kinetic experiments in combination with backbone-modified nucleotides can therefore be used to gain structural information about reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases.  (+info)

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (3/4762)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

Double-strand break repair in yeast requires both leading and lagging strand DNA polymerases. (4/4762)

Mitotic double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion at MAT in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed molecularly in mutant strains thermosensitive for essential replication factors. The processivity cofactors PCNA and RFC are essential even to synthesize as little as 30 nucleotides following strand invasion. Both PCNA-associated DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are important for gene conversion, though a temperature-sensitive Pol epsilon mutant is more severe than one in Pol delta. Surprisingly, mutants of lagging strand replication, DNA polymerase alpha (pol1-17), DNA primase (pri2-1), and Rad27p (rad27 delta) also greatly inhibit completion of DSB repair, even in G1-arrested cells. We propose a novel model for DSB-induced gene conversion in which a strand invasion creates a modified replication fork, involving leading and lagging strand synthesis from the donor template. Replication is terminated by capture of the second end of the DSB.  (+info)

Nuclear location of mammalian DNA polymerase activities. (5/4762)

Nuclei were isolated from monolayer cultures of mouse and human cells using a nonaqueous procedure of cell fractionation in which lyophilized cells were homogenized and centrifuged in 100% glycerol. In previous work we have shown that the nuclear pellet and cytoplasmic supernatant fraction contained 10% or less of the nucleic acids characteristic of the other cell fraction. Aqueous extracts made from fresh cultures and from nonaqueous material at each step of the fractionation procedure were assayed fro DNA polymerase activity. Activities were normalized to DNA contents of extracted material. Specific activity was preserved quantitatively through freezing and drying the cells, but was found to be unstable in glycerol suspensions with approximate half-lives and 1 h at 23 degrees and 4 h at 0-4 degrees. Activities were relatively stable at -25 degrees, however, so that by homogenizing only 15 min at 4 degrees and centrifuging at -25 degrees we preserved approximately 85% of the specific activity of fresh cultures in the nonaqueous nuclear fraction. Sedimentation analyses showed that the nuclear fraction contained both DNA polymerase-alpha and-beta in approximately the proportions expected if all polymerase activities were confined to the nucleus in living cells. DNA polymerase-alpha was found to be more unstable in glycerol suspensions than DNA polymerase-beta. Nuclear location of both activities was found in exponential cultures and in 3T3 mouse cultures synchronized in the G1 and S phases of the cell division cycle. We found no evidence for cytoplasmic factors affecting nuclear polymerase activities. We have concluded that the two major DNA polymerases are nuclear although one, DNA polymerase-alpha, frequently is present as a weakly bound nuclear protein.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (6/4762)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (7/4762)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

The topoisomerase-related function gene TRF4 affects cellular sensitivity to the antitumor agent camptothecin. (8/4762)

Camptothecin is an antitumor agent that kills cells by converting DNA topoisomerase I into a DNA-damaging poison. Although camptothecin derivatives are now being used to treat tumors in a variety of clinical protocols, the cellular factors that influence sensitivity to the drug are only beginning to be understood. We report here that two genes required for sister chromatid cohesion, TRF4 and MCD1/SCC1, are also required to repair camptothecin-mediated damage to DNA. The hypersensitivity to camptothecin in the trf4 mutant does not result from elevated expression of DNA topoisomerase I. We show that Trf4 is a nuclear protein whose expression is cell cycle-regulated at a post-transcriptional level. Suppression of camptothecin hypersensitivity in the trf4 mutant by gene overexpression resulted in the isolation of three genes: another member of the TRF4 gene family, TRF5, and two genes that may influence higher order chromosome structure, ZDS1 and ZDS2. We have isolated and sequenced two human TRF4 family members, hTRF4-1 and hTRF4-2. The hTRF4-1 gene maps to chromosome 5p15, a region of frequent copy number alteration in several tumor types. The evolutionary conservation of TRF4 suggests that it may also influence mammalian cell sensitivity to camptothecin.  (+info)

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Recombinant Human DNA polymerase eta protein is a Wheat germ Full length protein 1 to 414 aa range and validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE.
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ exhibits potential for bypass and mutagenesis at UV-induced cyclobutane thymine dimers., Polymerase: Human Pol gamma, Property: Full length or truncated
Enzymes for everyday PCR, faster than Taq DNA Polymerase, and TA Cloning compatible. Top DNA polymerase is a novel thermostable DNA polymerase that is more processive than Taq DNA polymerase. In fact, the extension rate of Top DNA Polymerase is , 3 x that of Taq DNA Polymerase! Top DNA Polymerase can be used for a variety of PCR applications (including TA cloning) and is a robust enzyme for everyday PCR. It contains no proofreading or 5-3 Exonuclease activity ...
DNA polymerase II (also known as DNA Pol II or Pol II) is a prokaryotic DNA-Dependent DNA polymerase encoded by the PolB gene. DNA Polymerase II is an 89.9-kDa protein and is a member of the B family of DNA polymerases. It was originally isolated by Thomas Kornberg in 1970, and characterized over the next few years. The in vivo functionality of Pol II is under debate, yet consensus shows that Pol II is primarily involved as a backup enzyme in prokaryotic DNA replication. The enzyme has 5 → 3 DNA synthesis capability as well as 3 → 5 exonuclease proofreading activity. DNA Pol II interacts with multiple binding partners common with DNA Pol III in order to enhance its fidelity and processivity. DNA Polymerase I was the first DNA-Directed DNA polymerase to be isolated from E. coli. Several studies involving this isolated enzyme indicated that DNA pol I was most likely involved in repair replication and was not the main replicative polymerase. In order to better understand the in vivo role of ...
T7 DNA polymerase is an enzyme used during the DNA replication of the T7 bacteriophage. During this process, the DNA polymerase reads existing DNA strands and creates two new strands that match the existing ones. The T7 DNA polymerase requires a host factor, E. coli thioredoxin, in order to carry out its function. This helps stabilize the binding of the necessary protein to the primer-template to improve processivity by more than 100-fold, which is a feature unique to this enzyme. It is a member of the Family A DNA polymerases, which include E. coli DNA polymerase I and Taq DNA polymerase. This polymerase has various applications in site-directed mutagenesis as well as a high-fidelity enzyme suitable for PCR. It has also served as the precursor to Sequenase, an engineered-enzyme optimized for DNA sequencing. Figure 2. Nucleotidyl transfer by DNA polymerase. T7 DNA polymerase catalyzes the phosphoryl transfer during DNA replication of the T7 phage. As shown in Figure 2, the 3 hydroxyl group of ...
Product Description. Biocredes HiTaq DNA Polymerase is a novel DNA polymerase with strategically engineered mutations resulting in a robust, high-fidelity polymerase. HiTaq DNA polymerase has exceptional 3 to 5 exonuclease activity that endows it with superior accuracy over competitor polymerases. This novel enzyme has intrinsically high processivity and is engineered to have an improved binding affinity for DNA resulting in highly successful PCR.. Biocredes HiTaq 2X PCR MasterMix is a ready-to-use mixture containing all the necessary reagents for highly successful amplification of DNA (high-fidelity DNA Polymerase, deoxynucleotides, reaction buffer and a sophisticated blend of additives in a 2X concentration). The HiTaq 2X PCR MasterMix advanced buffer system not only tolerates A/T- and G/C-rich content, but also many PCR inhibitors commonly found in a typical DNA sample. HiTaq 2X PCR MasterMix is the most robust PCR MasterMix commercially available and will deliver an exceptional product ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replication past a trans-4-hydroxynonenal minor-groove adduct by the sequential action of human DNA polymerases ι and κ. AU - Wolfle, William T.. AU - Johnson, Robert E.. AU - Minko, Irina G.. AU - Lloyd, R. Stephen. AU - Prakash, Satya. AU - Prakash, Louise. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - The X-ray crystal structure of human DNA polymerase ι (Polι) has shown that it differs from all known Pols in its dependence upon Hoogsteen base pairing for synthesizing DNA. Hoogsteen base pairing provides an elegant mechanism for synthesizing DNA opposite minor-groove adducts that present a severe block to synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases. Germane to this problem, a variety of DNA adducts form at the N2 minor-groove position of guanine. Previously, we have shown that proficient and error-free replication through the γ-HOPdG (γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano- 2′-deoxyguanosine) adduct, which is formed from the reaction of acrolein with the N2 of guanine, is mediated by the sequential ...
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The progress of replicative DNA polymerases along the replication fork may be impeded by the presence of lesions in the genome. One way to circumvent such hurdles involves the recruitment of specialized DNA polymerases that perform limited incorporation of nucleotides in the vicinity of the damaged site. This process entails DNA polymerase switch between replicative and specialized DNA polymerases. Five eukaryotic proteins can carry out translesion synthesis (TLS) of damaged DNA in vitro, DNA polymerases ¿, ¿, ¿, and ¿, and REV1. To identify novel proteins that interact with hpol¿, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen. In this paper, we show that hREV1 interacts with hpol¿ as well as with hpol¿ and poorly with hpol¿. Furthermore, cellular localization analysis demonstrates that hREV1 is present, with hpol¿ in replication factories at stalled replication forks and is tightly associated with nuclear structures. This hREV1 nuclear localization occurs independently of the presence of ...
This retraction has been requested by the corresponding author Likui Zhang, citing authorship concerns detailed below.. The article (10.1534/g3.117.300097) was submitted and approved for publication without proper acknowledgement of funding, experiment design, data interpretation, and manuscript contributions contributed by Dr. Linda Reha-Krantz of the University of Alberta, Canada and additional research personnel and several students. All work by Dr. Zhang was done under the supervision of Dr. Reha-Krantz in Reha-Krantzs lab, the experiments designed by Reha-Krantz, and the research funded by Reha-Krantzs grants. Dr. Zhang was involved with the research as a Postdoctoral Scholar in Dr. Reha-Krantzs lab and shared in the research with Alina Radziwon and RanRan Zhang who constructed the mutant strains. Dr. Linda Reha-Krantz has declined to be listed as an author due to various concerns, which had been shared with Dr. Zhang. Additionally, the authors listed on the early online version of the ...
def: A heterotetrameric DNA polymerase complex that catalyzes processive DNA synthesis in the absence of PCNA, but is further stimulated in the presence of PCNA. The complex contains a large catalytic subunit and three small subunits, and is best characterized in Saccharomyces, in which the subunits are named Pol2p, Dpb2p, Dpb3p, and Dpb4p. Some evidence suggests that DNA polymerase epsilon is the leading strand polymerase; it is also involved in nucleotide-excision repair and mismatch repair. [PMID:15814431, PMID:9745046 ...
DNA polymerase γ is a family A DNA polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA in eukaryotes. The origins of DNA polymerase γ have remained elusive because it is not present in any known bacterium, though it has been hypothesized that mitochondria may have inherited the enzyme by phage-mediated nonorthologous displacement. Here, we present an analysis of two full-length homologues of this gene which were found in the genomes of two bacteriophages which infect the chlorophyll-d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina. Phylogenetic analyses of these phage DNA polymerase γ proteins show they branch deeply within the DNA polymerase γ clade and therefore share a common origin with their eukaryotic homologues. We also found homologues of these phage polymerases in the environmental Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis (CAMERA) database, which fell in the same clade. An analysis of the CAMERA assemblies containing the ...
Accuris High Fidelity DNA Polymerase, 1000u (2u/p1), PR1000-HF-1000 (1000 Units) For applications requiring highly accurate amplification, choose Accuris High Fidelity DNA Polymerase. Modified for better sensitivity and higher activity for more reproducible performance, this polymerase will amplify a wide range of targets.
Q5® High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase is a high-fidelity (error rate | 100 fold lower than Taq), thermostable DNA polymerase with 3´→ 5´ exonuclease activity, fused to a processivity-enhancing Sso7d domain to support robust DNA amplification.
Translesion polymerase kappa promotes replication fork restart to maintain genome stability during conditions of nucleotide deprivation.
Read Activity of error-prone DNA polymerase iota in different periods of house mouse Mus musculus ontogeny, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Each cell division, the nuclear DNA must be replicated efficiently and with high accuracy to avoid mutations which can have an effect on cell function. There are three replicative DNA polymerases essential for the synthesis of DNA during replication in eukaryotic cells. DNA polymerase α (Pol α) synthesize short primers required for DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) and DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) to carry out the bulk synthesis. The role of Pol δ and Pol ε at the replication fork has been unclear. The aim of this thesis was to examine what role Pol ε has at the replication fork, compare the biochemical properties of Pol δ and Pol ε, and to study the function of the second largest and essential subunit of Pol ε, Dpb2.. To identify where Pol ε replicates DNA in vivo, a strategy was taken where the active site of Pol ε was altered to create a mutator polymerase leaving a unique error-signature. A series of mutant pol ε proteins were purified and analyzed for enzyme activity and fidelity of DNA ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
TLS employs specialized low‐fidelity DNA polymerases to replicate across DNA lesions that cannot be copied by replicative DNA polymerases. Each vertebrate TLS polymerase is thought to bypass a particular class of lesion (Prakash et al, 2005), and lesion bypass often requires the sequential action of two different TLS polymerases. The first polymerase inserts a nucleotide across from the damaged base, often generating a mismatched and/or distorted primer terminus (Fig 1C). This structure is extended by a second TLS polymerase, usually pol ζ, a B‐family polymerase composed of a catalytic subunit, Rev3, and a regulatory subunit, Rev7. Pol ζ is remarkably efficient at extending abnormal primer termini (Johnson et al, 2000; Prakash & Prakash, 2002; Gan et al, 2008). We showed previously that immunodepletion of pol ζ from Xenopus egg extracts inhibits the extension step during ICL repair (Räschle et al, 2008).. Pol ζ interacts physically and genetically with Rev1, a Y‐family DNA polymerase. ...
In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that DRIM is unrelated to the role of Polζ in mutagenic TLS and represents Polζ-dependent error-prone copying of undamaged DNA. First, epistatic analysis of mutation rates in DNA replication and repair mutants indicated that mutagenesis induced by endogenous lesions and DRIM represent separate, nonoverlapping pathways. Second, DRIM remains unchanged when spontaneous oxidative damage is eliminated. Third, the spectrum of mutations occurring during DRIM shows similarities to the error specificity of purified Polζ on undamaged DNA in vitro. This demonstrates that Polζ can be recruited to perform DNA synthesis on undamaged DNA templates. This could potentially involve processive error-prone DNA synthesis by Polζ, extension of mismatches generated by the defective replicative DNA polymerase, or both. The induction of a Polζ-dependent mutagenic response with HU illustrates that DRIM does not require the presence of a defective replicative DNA ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lihua Wang, Min Wu, S Frank Yan, Dinshaw J Patel, Nicholas E Geacintov, Suse Broyde].
The 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxo-G) lesion is the most abundant and mutagenic oxidative DNA damage existing in the genome. Due to its dual coding nature, 8-oxo-G causes most DNA polymerases to misincorporate adenine. Human Y-family DNA polymerase iota (poliota) preferentially incorporates the correct cytosine nucleotide opposite 8-oxo-G. This unique specificity may contribute to poliotas biological role in cellular protection against oxidative stress. However, the structural basis of this preferential cytosine incorporation is currently unknown. Here we present four crystal structures of poliota in complex with DNA containing an 8-oxo-G lesion, paired with correct dCTP or incorrect dATP, dGTP, and dTTP nucleotides. An exceptionally narrow poliota active site restricts the purine bases in a syn conformation, which prevents the dual coding properties of 8-oxo-G by inhibiting syn/anti conformational equilibrium. More importantly, the 8-oxo-G base in a syn conformation is not mutagenic in poliota because ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutator alleles of yeast DNA polymerase ζ. AU - Sakamoto, Ayako N.. AU - Stone, Jana E.. AU - Kissling, Grace E.. AU - McCulloch, Scott D.. AU - Pavlov, Youri I. AU - Kunkel, Thomas A.. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - The yeast REV3 gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta (pol ζ), a B family polymerase that performs mutagenic DNA synthesis in cells. To probe pol ζ mutagenic functions, we generated six mutator alleles of REV3 with amino acid replacements for Leu979, a highly conserved residue inferred to be at the pol ζ active site. Replacing Leu979 with Gly, Val, Asn, Lys, Met or Phe resulted in yeast strains with elevated UV-induced mutant frequencies. While four of these strains had reduced survival following UV irradiation, the rev3-L979F and rev3-L979M strains had normal survival, suggesting retention of pol ζ catalytic activity. UV mutagenesis in the rev3-L979F background was increased when photoproduct bypass by pol η was eliminated by deletion ...
Buy Speedy NZYProof DNA polymerase online at NZYTech. Description: Speedy NZYProof DNA polymerase is a recombinant thermostable DNA polymerase purified from Escherichia coli that combines high fidelity and...
An endogenously-templated DNA polymerase activity from rat thymus and liver has been partially purified and characterized, and the product of the reaction analyzed. The enzyme from both sources was shown to be sensitive to pretreatment with RNases [hence it is referred to as a RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase (RS-DP)]. The molecular weight of the RS-DP complex, estimated from Sepharose 6B gel filtration, is 280,000 daltons. -- The RNA associated with the RS-DP is probably single-stranded (and therefore functions as a template) since the activity remained sensitive to RNase-treatment under conditions in which only single-stranded RNA is digested. The putative RNA template is heteropolymeric in nature, since all four nucleotides were incorporated into the DNA product to a similar extent (also indicating that the enzyme is not simply a terminal transferase). The enzyme is probably not of viral origin, as the activity was not stimulated by non-ionic detergents and also had a buoyant density (1.05 ...
Background Microsporidia, parasitic fungi-related eukaryotes infecting many cell types in an array of pets (including human beings), represent a significant health risk in immunocompromised sufferers. of 29 regular proteins kinase sequences within the Electronic. cuniculi genome, aswell as 3 genes encoding atypical proteins kinases. The microsporidian kinome presents stunning distinctions from those of various other eukaryotes, which Rabbit Polyclonal to DNA Polymerase zeta minimal kinome underscores the need for conserved proteins kinases involved with essential mobile procedures. ~30% of its kinases are expected to regulate cellular cycle development while another ~28% havent any identifiable homologues in model eukaryotes and so are likely to reveal parasitic adaptations. Electronic. cuniculi does not have MAP kinase cascades and virtually all proteins kinases that get excited about stress reactions, ion homeostasis and nutritional signalling within the model fungi S. cerevisiae and S. ...
Viral DNA polymerase in complex with DNA. Computer model showing the active site of a phi29 DNA polymerase molecule (grey ribbons) in complex with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, yellow). Phi29 DNA polymerase is an enzyme from the phi29 bacteriophage virus that catalyses DNA replication. It is increasingly being used in DNA amplification procedures. - Stock Image C010/4979
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
δ-DNA polymerase can only add to an existing chain, it cannot initiate transcription. Initiation is accomplished using a strand of RNA known as RNA primer. This is attached to the parental strand at the initiation point. Two enzymes are involved - primase and α-DNA polymerase. Primase attaches a primer of about 7-8 nucleic acids, and α-DNA polymerase then begins the process of attaching nucleic acids. α-DNA polymerase is not nearly as processive as δ-DNA polymerase, so once the initiation has been made δ-DNA polymerase takes over and simply adds nucleic acids to the exposed 3 hydroxyl group of transcribed chain.. The leading parental strand, that which goes from 3 to 5, can be transcribed continuously from the initiation point until it meets the next bubble along the chain - marked by the existence of a strand of primer. Once the RNA primer has been applied it is just a matter of adding nucleic acids to the exposed 3 hydroxyl group of the transcribed chain. The δ-DNA polymerase does ...
A nucleotide binding rectification Brownian ratchet model for translocation of Y-family DNA polymerases - up-to-the-minute news and headlines. 7thSpace is a online portal covering topics such as Family, Business, Entertainment, Headlines, Recipes and more. A place for the whole family featuring many different sections to chose from.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
AmpliTaq DNA Polymerase is a 94 kDa, thermostable, recombinant DNA polymerase obtained by expression of a modified form of the Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase gene in E. coli. It is the most thoroughly characterized enzyme available for the PCR process and its recombinant nature and purificat
Two DNA polymerases may be required for synthesis of the lagging DNA strand of simian virus 40.: Agents discriminating between DNA polymerase alpha and DNA poly
The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain. This section includes genomic Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) from all assemblies on which this gene is annotated, such as RefSeqs for chromosomes and scaffolds (contigs) from both reference and alternate assemblies. Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of the cDNA for the catalytic subunit of human DNA polymerase δ. AU - Yang, Chun li. AU - Chang, Long sheng. AU - Zhang, Peng. AU - Hao, Huiling. AU - Zhu, Lingyun. AU - Lan Toomey, N.. AU - Lee, Marietta Y.W.t.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant GM31973 to MYWTL and in part by grants from the National Cancer Institute (CA 54323) and the Bremer and Milheim Foundation to LSC. An account of this work was presented at the Cold Spring Harbor Meeting on EukaryorJc DNA Replication in September 1991. We thank Drs A. Sugino, A. Morrison and G. Pignede for copies of their papers in press.. PY - 1992/2/25. Y1 - 1992/2/25. N2 - The cDNA of human DNA polymerase δ was cloned. The cDNA had a length of 3.5 kb and encoded a protein of 1107 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 124 kDa. Northern blot analysis showed that the cDNA hybridized to a mRNA of 3.4 kb. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the ...
Yeast DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) is a highly accurate and processive enzyme that participates in nuclear DNA replication of the leading strand template. In addition to a large subunit (Pol2) harboring the polymerase and proofreading exonuclease active sites, Pol ε also has one essential subunit (Dpb2) and two smaller, non-essential subunits (Dpb3 and Dpb4) whose functions are not fully understood. To probe the functions of Dpb3 and Dpb4, here we investigate the consequences of their absence on the biochemical properties of Pol ε in vitro and on genome stability in vivo. The fidelity of DNA synthesis in vitro by purified Pol2/Dpb2, i.e. lacking Dpb3 and Dpb4, is comparable to the four-subunit Pol ε holoenzyme. Nonetheless, deletion of DPB3 and DPB4 elevates spontaneous frameshift and base substitution rates in vivo, to the same extent as the loss of Pol ε proofreading activity in a pol2-4 strain. In contrast to pol2-4, however, the dpb3Δdpb4Δ does not lead to a synergistic increase of ...
GC-rich regions of the DNA are of special interest, as they generally occur within transcribed or control regions of the genome. However, the high GC-content makes these sequences prone to the formation of hairpin structures, which may persist even at th
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
9°N m ™ DNA Polymerase is a thermophilic DNA polymerase that has been genetically engineered to have a decreased 3→ 5 proofreading exonuclease activity (1-5% of the wildtype). 9°N m DNA Polymerase features a half-life of 6
Lamani, Devappa S (2009) Studies on synthesis DNA binding and antioxidant activity of quinolines and their metal complexes. Doctoral thesis, Kuvempu University. ...
O -Methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O -MeG) is a ubiquitous DNA lesion, formed not only by xenobiotic carcinogens but also by the endogenous methylating agent S-adenosylmethionine. It can introduce mutations during DNA replication, with different DNA polymerases displaying different ratios of correct or incorrect incorporation opposite this nucleoside. Of the translesion Y-family human DNA polymerases (hpols), hpol η is most efficient in incorporating equal numbers of correct and incorrect C and T bases. However, the mechanistic basis for this specific yet indiscriminate activity is not known. To explore this question, we report biochemical and structural analysis of the catalytic core of hpol η. Activity assays showed the truncated form displayed similar misincorporation properties as the full-length enzyme, incorporating C and T equally and extending from both. X-ray crystal structures of both dC and dT paired with O -MeG were solved in both insertion and extension modes. The structures revealed ...
The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible ...
Employing a novel strategy, we have virtually screened a large library of compounds to identify novel inhibitors of the reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Fifty-six top scored compounds were tested in vitro, and two of them inhibited efficiently the DNA polymerase activity of RT. The most effective compound, N-{2
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab57070 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,ICC/IF,sELISA…DNA Polymerase Kappa/POLK抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a novel protein, PDIP38, that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase δ and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. AU - Liu, Li. AU - Rodriguez-Belmonte, Esther M.. AU - Mazloum, Nayef. AU - Xie, Bin. AU - Lee, Marietta Y.W.T.. PY - 2003/3/21. Y1 - 2003/3/21. N2 - The yeast two-hybrid screening method was used to identify novel proteins that associate with human DNA polymerase δ (pol δ). Two baits were used in this study. These were the large (p125) and small (p50) subunits of the core pol δ heterodimer. p50 was the only positive isolated with p125 as the bait. Two novel protein partners, named PDIP38 and PDIP46, were identified from the p50 screen. In this study, the interaction of PDIP38 with pol δ was further characterized. PDIP38 encodes a protein of 368 amino acids whose C terminus is conserved with the bacterial APAG protein and with the F box A protein. It was found that PDIP38 also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The ...
replication in the face of DNA damage The replication machinery inside the cell s nucleus is made up of a collection of enzymes including DNA polymerases sliding clamps and clamp loaders Bacteria have five known DNA polymerases higher organisms such as humans have more As the ring shaped beta sliding clamp works its way along the DNA double helix a network of proteins work together to unwind the two strands Polymerases then add in assembly line fashion nucleotide bases the building blocks that make up DNA to convert the now single stranded templates into two new duplex DNA molecules The new research shows that two different DNA polymerases the high fidelity Pol III replicase and the low fidelity Pol IV coordinate their action to cross obstacles encountered in the replication process They attach themselves at the same time to one beta sliding clamp Pol III copies the original DNA and acts as a proofreader to catch any misspellings and cuts any base that is wrong But Pol III is a perfectionist and ...
component of complex A-1, DNA polymerase accessory protein clamp loader, ATP dependent,required to assemble PCNA and polymerase delta on the DNA ...
DNA damage accumulates in cells over time as a result of exposure to exogenous chemicals and physical agents (i.e., benzo[a]pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin, cigarette smoke, asbestos, ultraviolet light, radon), as well as endogenous reactive metabolites including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and NOS). Another source of DNA damage is errors that occur during normal DNA metabolism or aberrant DNA processing reactions, including DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Nucleotide misincorporation generates DNA base-base mismatches during DNA synthesis at variable rates, depending on many factors, including the specific DNA polymerases. In general, the replicative DNA polymerases have relatively high replication fidelity (see McCulloch and Kunkel, this issue), while translesion DNA polymerases, which specifically bypass sites of DNA damage, have lower replication fidelity (see Andersen et al. and Gan et al. in this issue). DNA damage, if unrepaired, has the potential to ...
Looking for online definition of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase in the Medical Dictionary? DNA-dependent DNA polymerase explanation free. What is DNA-dependent DNA polymerase? Meaning of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase medical term. What does DNA-dependent DNA polymerase mean?
The RAD30 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the error-free postreplicational repair of DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet irradiation. Here,RAD30 is shown to encode a DNA polymerase that can replicate efficiently past a thymine-thymine cis-syn cyclobutane dimer, a lesion that normally blocks DNA polymerases. When incubated in vitro with all four nucleotides, Rad30 incorporates two adenines opposite the thymine-thymine dimer. Rad30 is the seventh eukaryotic DNA polymerase to be described and hence is named DNA polymerase η. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Value of combined approach with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase chain reaction in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma. AU - Antinori, Andrea. AU - De Rossi, G.. AU - Ammassari, A.. AU - Cingolani, A.. AU - Murri, R.. AU - Di Giuda, D.. AU - De Luca, A.. AU - Pierconti, F.. AU - Tartaglione, T.. AU - Scerrati, M.. AU - Larocca, L. M.. AU - Ortona, L.. PY - 1999/2. Y1 - 1999/2. N2 - Purpose: To determine the diagnostic capability of thallium-201 (201Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) combined with Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV-DNA) in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Patients and Methods: All human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with focal brain lesions observed between June 1996 and March 1998 underwent lumbar puncture and 201Tl SPECT. Each CSF sample was tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for EBV-DNA. Results: ...
The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen diffuse component (EA-D) and its relationship with EBV DNA polymerase in EBV genome-carrying cells are unclear, EBV-specified DNA polymerase was purified in a sequential manner from Raji cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate and n-butyrate by phosphocellulose, DEAE-cellulose, double-stranded DNA-cellulose, and blue Sepharose column chromatography. Four polypeptides with molecular masses of 110,000, 100,000, 55,000, and 49,000 daltons were found to be associated with EBV-specified DNA polymerase activity. A monoclonal antibody which could neutralize the EBV DNA polymerase activity was prepared and found to recognize 55,000- and 49,000-dalton polypeptides. An EA-D monoclonal antibody, R3 (G. R. Pearson, V. Vorman, B. Chase, T. Sculley, M. Hummel, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 47:183-201, 1983), was also able to recognize these same two polypeptides associated with EBV DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that EBV EA-D polypeptides, as ...
The far-right columns in Tables I and II indicate the number of SNPs with a pass rate lower than 80%, the quality threshold used in these experiments. In Table I, Titanium Taq DNA Polymerase had the highest overall pass rate at 3.5 mM MgCl2, closely followed by the same enzyme at 2.5 mM MgCl2.. Table II shows the results of a second experiment using the same nine-plex reaction shown in Figure 1. In this experiment, Titanium Taq DNA Polymerase in 3.5 mM MgCl2 (the best performer from Table I) was compared to Polymerase 1 in 2.5 mM MgCl2 and two concentrations of Polymerase 2; one concentration was comparable to the other polymerases in 3.5 mM MgCl2 and the other was a high concentration version in 2.5 mM MgCl2.. Based on the results of 500-800 individual reactions, the performance gap in favor of Titanium Taq DNA Polymerase was maintained regardless of MgCl2 and enzyme concentration. Again, Titanium Taq DNA Polymerase demonstrated the highest overall pass rate of 95.8% at 3.5 mM MgCl2 versus ...
Taq DNA Polymerase is a thermostable DNA Polymerase isolated from an E. coli strain that carries the Taq DNA polymerase gene. Taq DNA Polymerase is the most common polymerase used for PCR reactions.
The newly identified yeast DNA polymerase III was compared to DNA polymerases I and II and the mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Inhibition by aphidicolin (I50) of DNA polymerases I, II, and III was 4, 6, and 0.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. The mitochondrial enzyme was insensitive to the drug. N2-(p-n- …
Replication factors A and C (RF-A and RF-C) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) differentially augment the activities of DNA polymerases alpha and delta. The mechanism of stimulation by these replication factors was investigated using a limiting concentration of primed, single-stranded template DNA. RF-A stimulated polymerase alpha activity in a concentration-dependent manner, but also suppressed nonspecific initiation of DNA synthesis by both polymerases alpha and delta. The primer recognition complex, RF-C.PCNA.ATP, stimulated pol delta activity in cooperation with RF-A, but also functioned to prevent abnormal initiation of DNA synthesis by polymerase alpha. Reconstitution of DNA replication with purified factors and a plasmid containing the SV40 origin sequences directly demonstrated DNA polymerase alpha dependent synthesis of lagging strands and DNA polymerase delta/PCNA/RF-C dependent synthesis of leading strands. RF-A and the primer recognition complex both affected the ...
Emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has created an urgent need for new drug targets. DNA polymerase δ is an essential enzyme required for chromosomal DNA replication and repair, and therefore may be a potential target for anti-malarial drug development. However, little is known of the characteristics and function of this P. falciparum enzyme. The coding sequences of DNA polymerase δ catalytic subunit (PfPolδ-cat), DNA polymerase δ small subunit (PfPolδS) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PfPCNA) from chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant P. falciparum strain K1 were amplified, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS. PfPolδ-cat was biochemically characterized. The roles of PfPolδS and PfPCNA in PfPolδ-cat function were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effects of 11 compounds were tested on PfPolδ-cat activity and on in vitro parasite growth using SYBR Green I
DnaUs Taq DNA polymerase is purified from E.coli. expressing a cloned Thurmus aquaticus DNA polymerase gene. This enzyme has an intrinsic 5->3 DNA polymerase and a 5->3 exonuclease activity but lacks a 3->5 exonuclease activity. It is a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of approximately 95 kDa and displays optimal activity at temperature between 70-74oC. The enzyme is provided with 10XPCR buffer and 50 mM MgCl2 solution to perform PCR amplification.
Spatial regulation is often encountered as a component of multi-tiered regulatory systems in eukaryotes, where processes are readily segregated by organelle boundaries. Well-characterized examples of spatial regulation are less common in bacteria. Low-fidelity DNA polymerase V (UmuD′2C) is produced in Escherichia coli as part of the bacterial SOS response to DNA damage. Due to the mutagenic potential of this enzyme, pol V activity is controlled by means of an elaborate regulatory system at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to visualize UmuC inside living cells in space and time, we now show that pol V is also subject to a novel form of spatial regulation. After an initial delay (~ 45 min) post UV irradiation, UmuC is synthesized, but is not immediately activated. Instead, it is sequestered at the inner cell membrane. The release of UmuC into the cytosol requires the RecA* nucleoprotein filament-mediated cleavage of UmuD→UmuD′. Classic SOS
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Thermostable DNA polymerases., Polymerase: Human Pol beta, Property: Molecular Weight
Author Summary DNA damage can block replication and lead to mutations, genomic instability, and cancer. In cases when the removal of DNA damage and restoration of the original sequence prior to replication is impossible, cells utilize DNA damage tolerance mechanisms, which help replication to bypass the lesions. A major universal tolerance mechanism is translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), in which specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases elongate the DNA across the lesion. This is a double-edged sword because the price of completing replication is an increased risk of point mutations opposite the lesion. Thus, TLS regulation is critical for preventing an escalation in mutation rates. A key element in TLS regulation is the attachment of a small protein called ubiquitin to the PCNA protein, a sliding DNA clamp that tethers the DNA polymerases to DNA, which functions to recruit the TLS DNA polymerase to the damaged site in DNA. While in yeast this modification of PCNA is crucial for TLS, there is a debate
DNA Polymerase Activity Tests and quality control services. As specialists for DNA polymerases, we offer our services to you: DNA polymerase activity test (sequencing PAGE or real-time primer extensions), DNA polymerase purity (via SDS-page), functionality tests via PCR or PEx. Test of DNAse or RNAse contaminations.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human DNA polymerase delta p50 protein (ab114798). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA helicase E and DNA polymerase ∈ functionally interact for displacement synthesis. AU - Turchi, John. AU - Siegal, Gregg. AU - Bambara, Robert A.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - A functional interaction between DNA helicase E and DNA polymerase ∈ from calf thymus has been detected which results in the extension of an upstream 3′ OH through a downstream primer to the end of a synthetic template. DNA synthesis resulting in full-length extension products was dependent on the addition of DNA helicase E and hydrolysis of ATP, suggesting that displacement of the downstream primer was required. Identical reactions using DNA polymerases α and δ in place of DNA polymerase ∈ showed no full-length products dependent on helicase E, indicating that polymerases α and δ were incapable of functionally interacting with the helicase. The reaction leading to full-length extension products was time dependent and dependent on the concentration of added polymerase ∈ and helicase E. ...
The human RAD30B gene has recently been shown to encode a novel DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase i (poli). The role of poli within the cell is presently unknown, and the only clues to its cellular function come from its biochemical characterization in vitro. The aim of this short review is, therefore, to summarize the known enzymic activities of poli and to speculate as to how these biochemical properties might relate to its in vivo function. ...
The ubiquitin binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain in the C-terminal portion of Polη has been found to interact with ubiquitin. However, the affinity between the Polη UBZ and ubiquitin was shown to be low with a previously reported Kd of 73-81 μM. This low-affinity binding between Polη UBZ and ubiquitin has been
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primer length dependence of binding of DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment to template-primer complexes containing site-specific bulky lesions. AU - Rechkoblit, Olga. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Geacintov, Nicholas E.. PY - 1999/9/7. Y1 - 1999/9/7. N2 - The binding of the benzo[a]pyrene metabolite anti-BPDE (r7,t8-dihydroxy- t9,10-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene) to the N2 group of 2- deoxyguanosine residues (dG*) is known to adversely affect the Michaelis- Menten primer extension kinetics catalyzed by DNA Pol I and other polymerases. In this work, the impact of site-specific, anti-BPDE-modified DNA template strands on the formation of Pol I (Klenow fragment, KF)/template-primer complexes has been investigated. The 23-mer template strand 5-d(AAC G*C-1 T-2 ACC ATC CGA ATT CGC CC), I (dG* = (+)-trans- and (-)-trans-anti-BPDE-N2-dG), was annealed with primer strands 18, 19, or 20 bases long. Complex formation of these template-primer strands with KF- (exonuclease-free) at ...
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Taq DNA Polymerase from Bioline,A Highly Purified, Cost-Effective Taq DNA Polymerase,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
DNA polymerases replicate DNA by catalyzing the template-directed polymerization of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrates onto the 3 end of a growing DNA primer strand. Many DNA polymerases also possess a separate 3-5 exonuclease activity that is used to remove misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA (proofreading). The polymerase (pol) and exonuclease (exo) activities are spatially separated in different enzyme domains, indicating that a mechanism must exist to transfer the growing primer terminus from one site to the other. Here we report a single-molecule F�rster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) system that directly monitors the movement of a DNA substrate between the pol and exo sites of DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (KF). FRET trajectories recorded during the encounter between single polymerase and DNA molecules reveal that DNA can channel between the pol and exo sites in both directions while remaining closely associated with the enzyme (intramolecular ...
Replicative DNA polymerases cannot insert efficiently nucleotides at sites of base lesions. This function is taken over by specialized translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases to allow DNA replication completion in the presence of DNA damage. In eukaryotes, Rad6- and Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitination at lysine 164 promotes recruitment of TLS polymerases, allowing cells to efficiently cope with DNA damage. However, several studies showed that TLS polymerases can be recruited also in the absence of PCNA ubiquitination. We hypothesized that the stability of the interactions between DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) subunits and/or between Pol δ and PCNA at the primer/template junction is a crucial factor to determine the requirement of PCNA ubiquitination. To test this hypothesis, we used a structural mutant of Pol δ in which the interaction between Pol3 and Pol31 is inhibited. We found that in yeast, rad18Δ-associated UV hypersensitivity is suppressed by pol3-ct, a mutant allele of the POL3 gene ...
Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I. Molecule model of the Klenow, or large, fragment from DNA polymerase I complexed with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, red and blue). DNA polymerase synthesises a new DNA strand from a complementary template strand during DNA replication. This fragment retains this activity, and the ability to cleave nucleotides form the strand in the opposite direction to replication, but has lost the ability to cleave nucleotides in the same direction as replication. This allows the enzyme to be used in a number of research applications, including preparing radioactive DNA probes. - Stock Image F006/9397
Human DNA polymerase alpha uses a combination of positive and negative selectivity to polymerize purine dNTPs with high fidelity Journal Article ...
DNA Polymerase Alpha 2 antibody LS-C169911 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human DNA Polymerase Alpha 2 (POLA2) (aa55-104). Validated for WB.
Differences in replication of a DNA template containing an ethyl phosphotriester by T4 DNA polymerase and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
PCNA ubiquitination in response to DNA damage leads to the recruitment of specialized translesion polymerases to the damage locus. This constitutes one of the initial steps in translesion synthesis (TLS)-a critical pathway for cell survival and for maintenance of genome stability. The recent crystal structure of ubiquitinated PCNA (Ub-PCNA) sheds light on the mode of association between the two proteins but also revealed that paradoxically, the ubiquitin surface engaged in PCNA interactions was the same as the surface implicated in translesion polymerase binding. This finding implied a degree of flexibility inherent in the Ub-PCNA complex that would allow it to transition into a conformation competent to bind the TLS polymerase. To address the issue of segmental flexibility, we combined multiscale computational modeling and small angle X-ray scattering. This combined strategy revealed alternative positions for ubiquitin to reside on the surface of the PCNA homotrimer, distinct from the position ...
The PCR Master is a 2x concentrated ready-to-use master mix that contains Taq DNA Polymerase, PCR Grade Deoxynucleotides, and PCR Reaction Buffer with a final concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. This mix is designed for the routine amplification of any kind of DNA up to 3 kb.. The High Fidelity PCR Master is a 2x concentrated ready-to-use master mix that contains the Expand High Fidelity Enzyme blend, PCR Grade Deoxynucleotides, and PCR Reaction Buffer with a final concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. The Expand High Fidelity Enzyme blend is a blend of Taq DNA Polymerase and a thermostable DNA polymerase with proofreading activity. This powerful enzyme blend is designed to amplify any kind of DNA up to 5 kb (see Figure 1) with higher yield and three times higher fidelity than Taq DNA Polymerase alone.. ...
Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin and Mark Ragan.
The distribution of DNA polymerase activities at the eukaryotic DNA replication fork was established, but recent genetic studies in this issue of Molecular Cell raise questions about which polymerases are copying the leading and lagging strand templates (Johnson et al, 2015).. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reassessment of the in vivo functions of DNA polymerase I and RNase H in bacterial cell growth. AU - Fukushima, Sanae. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Kato, Hiroaki. AU - Ogasawara, Naotake. AU - Yoshikawa, Hirofumi. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - A major factor in removing RNA primers during the processing of Okazaki fragments is DNA polymerase I (Pol I). Pol I is thought to remove the RNA primers and to fill the resulting gaps simultaneously. RNase H, encoded by rnh genes, is another factor in removing the RNA primers, and there is disagreement with respect to the essentiality of both the polA and rnh genes. In a previous study, we looked for the synthetic lethality of paralogs in Bacillus subtilis and detected several essential doublet paralogs, including the polA ypcP pair. YpcP consists of only the 5′-3′ exonuclease domain. In the current study, we first confirmed that the polA genes of both Escherichia coli and B. subtilis could be completely deleted. We found that ...
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2-Chloro-2-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (cladribine), a purine nucleotide analog and potent antileukemic agent, was enzymatically incorporated into 98-base oligomers in place of dATP to investigate the molecular consequences of 2-chloroadenine (CIAde) in DNA. We have used the resultant oligomers as templates for purified DNA polymerases, to compare the rate and extent of in vitro DNA synthesis; the sites of polymerase pausing, if any; and the effects of increasing deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations on synthetic reactions. Compared with control template, CIAde-containing DNA strikingly reduced the overall amount and rate of chain elongation by human polymerase beta and Klenow fragment. Distinct pause sites, which were polymerase dependent, occurred primarily one or two bases before or just after nucleotide incorporation opposite template CIAde. Human polymerase alpha and phage T4 DNA polymerase likewise exhibited reduced synthesis on CIAde-substituted templates. Bypassing of ...
The majority of the PCR products generated using Hot Start |em|Taq |/em|DNA Polymerase contain dA overhangs at the 3´–end; therefore the PCR products can be ligated to dT/dU-overhang vectors.
Alpers syndrome, also known as mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-4A, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of psychomotor retardation, intractable epilepsy, and liver failure.… Alpers Syndrome (Alpers-Huttenlocher Syndrome): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Taq DNA polymerase catalyzes 5-3 synthesis of DNA. The enzyme has been proved not having the 3-5 exonuclease activity. The enzyme has proven to have high amplification yield, be stable at high temparetaure. (D0010) - Products - Abnova
301167776 - EP 0624641 B1 2000-12-13 - Thermostable nucleic acid polymerase - [origin: EP0624641A2] The invention relates to purified thermostable DNA polymerases from Pyrodictium species, such as Pyrodictium occultum or Pyrodictium abyssi, which polymerases catalyze the combination of nucleoside triphosphates to form a nucleic acid strand complementary to a nucleic acid template strand. The preferred polymerases are characterized by their ability to function efficiently in a polymerase chain reaction, wherein said reaction includes repeated exposure to a denaturation temperature of about 100 DEG C. Most preferably the polymerases display 5 - 3 exonuclease activity, i.e. are proofreading enzymes. The invention also provides DNAs encoding the DNA polymerase activity of the said Pyrodictium species, which DNAs can be used to construct recombinant vectors and transformed host cells for production of polypeptides having said activity. The invention also relates to the preparation of said thermostable DNA
DNA polymerase: The selection of DNA polymerase is critical to the success of assay. Isolated from thermophilic bacterium, the enzymes resist breaking down at higher temperatures and therefore useful in copying DNA using a polymerase chain reaction. The role of Taq polymerase is to move along the strand of DNA and use it as a pattern for assembling a new strand, complementary to the template. For as many as 75 cycles, Taq polymerase is useful in PCR to multiply DNA exponentially. Thermo stability of DNA polymerase is comprehensively examined before the selection. Hot start specific antibodies are used to block DNA polymerase from synthesizing nonspecific product resulting from mispriming. The antibody ensures DNA polymerase is not active during reaction setup and during denaturation.. Reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into complementary DNA. Usually, the starting material is RNA. The constituent reverse transcriptase is as important as DNA polymerase as it provides high yields of full-length ...
Speak to Research Analyst: http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/speaktoanalyst.asp?id=164131709. The product segments included in this report are enzymes, kits and reagents. The enzymes segment is divided into ligases, phosphatases, polymerases, proteases and proteinases, restriction endonucleases, reverse transcriptase, and other enzymes. The ligases segment encompasses T4 DNA ligase, thermostable DNA ligase, and other ligases. The polymerase sub-segments are high-fidelity DNA polymerase, T4 DNA polymerase, Taq DNA polymerase, and other polymerases. The restriction endonucleases enzyme segments are sub-segmented into BamHI, EcoRI, PstI, and other restriction endonucleases. The kits and reagents segment is divided into cloning and mutagenesis, nucleic acid analysis, PCR, sequencing and other kits and reagents.. The geographic segments included in this report are Asia, Europe, North America, and the Rest of the World (RoW). Asia is divided into the regional segments of China, India, Japan, and Rest ...
A mutant of the high fidelity family-B DNA polymerase from the archaeon Thermococcus gorgonarius (Tgo-Pol), able to replicate past DNA lesions, is described. Gain of function requires replacement of the three amino acid loop region in the fingers domain of Tgo-Pol with a longer version, found naturally in eukaryotic Pol zeta (a family-B translesion synthesis polymerase). Inactivation of the 3-5 proofreading exonuclease activity is also necessary. The resulting Tgo-Pol Z1 variant is proficient at initiating replication from base mismatches and can read through damaged bases, such as abasic sites and thymine photo-dimers. Tgo-Pol Z1 is also proficient at extending from primers that terminate opposite aberrant bases. The fidelity of Tgo-Pol Z1 is reduced, with amarked tendency tomake changes at G:C base pairs. Together, these results suggest that the loop region of the fingers domain may play a critical role in determining whether a family-B enzyme falls into the accurate genome-replicating ...
During set up and the first ramp of thermal cycling, the enzyme is not active and misprimed primers are not extended. Once the PCR reaction reaches the optimal activation temperature, the chemical moiety is cleaved releasing the active TEMPase Hot Start DNA Polymerase, resulting in higher specificity, sensitivity and yield compared to standard Ampliqon Taq DNA polymerase.. Glycerol is normally a major part of the storage buffer of enzymes and acts as a cryoprotectant. Glycerol disrupts the water structure and makes the buffer more cell like, hence stabilising the polymerase. Glycerol is a highly viscous liquid and is therefore difficult and time-consuming to pipet accurately, especially in smaller volumes. As a consequence, pipetting glycerol in fast, robot-aided automation processes is almost an unsolvable challenge. Furthermore, the presence of glycerol in the enzyme buffer makes freeze drying impossible.. GLYCEROL FREE FOR AUTOMATION AND FREEZE DRYING. ...
Open in another window Shape?1. Speculative style of Pol function in replication checkpoint. Upon replication fork stalling with replicative DNA polymerases inhibitors (hydroxyurea, aphidicolin) or UV-blocking lesions, ssDNA can be generated with the action from the helicase (CMG complicated). Replicative DNA polymerases and aswell as TLS polymerase Pol donate to synthesis and/or stabilization of little replication intermediates. These buildings are bound with the checkpoint clamp 9-1-1 complicated. DNA Pol may connect to the 9-1-1 complicated on chromatin, hence facilitating local development of the energetic ATR complicated including ATRIP and ToPBP1. Pol can also be implicated in replication fork restart by repriming (issue mark). Weve also observed that Pol downregulation in mammalian leads to deposition of DNA harm, thus uncovering a function for Pol during DNA replication in unperturbed cells and additional extending the function of the DNA polymerase outdoors TLS.4 Interestingly, in the ...
Open in another window Shape?1. Speculative style of Pol function in replication checkpoint. Upon replication fork stalling with replicative DNA polymerases inhibitors (hydroxyurea, aphidicolin) or UV-blocking lesions, ssDNA can be generated with the action from the helicase (CMG complicated). Replicative DNA polymerases and aswell as TLS polymerase Pol donate to synthesis and/or stabilization of little replication intermediates. These buildings are bound with the checkpoint clamp 9-1-1 complicated. DNA Pol may connect to the 9-1-1 complicated on chromatin, hence facilitating local development of the energetic ATR complicated including ATRIP and ToPBP1. Pol can also be implicated in replication fork restart by repriming (issue mark). Weve also observed that Pol downregulation in mammalian leads to deposition of DNA harm, thus uncovering a function for Pol during DNA replication in unperturbed cells and additional extending the function of the DNA polymerase outdoors TLS.4 Interestingly, in the ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I/A γ. θ. ν. T7. Taq. II/B α. δ. ε. ζ. Pfu. III/C. IV/X β. λ. μ. TDT. ... Template-directed. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. ssRNAP POLRMT. Primase 1. 2. PrimPol. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I. II. III. IV. V. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse transcriptase ... RNA polymerase/DNA-directed RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. Primase. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PNPase. ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I/A γ. θ. ν. T7. Taq. II/B α. δ. ε. ζ. Pfu. III/C. IV/X β. λ. μ. TDT. ... Template-directed. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. ssRNAP POLRMT. Primase 1. 2. PrimPol. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ... I. The purification and properties of ribonucleic acid polymerase" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 237: 2611-9. ... terminal oligonucleotide polymerase activity.[2] That is, it dismantles the RNA chain starting at the 3' end and working toward ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I. II. III. IV. V. POLRMT. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse ... RNA polymerase/DNA-directed RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. Primase. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PNPase. ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I. II. III. IV. V. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse transcriptase ... RNA polymerase/DNA-directed RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. Primase. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PNPase. ...
DNA-directed)". Xie B, Mazloum N, Liu L, et al. (2002). "Reconstitution and characterization of the human DNA polymerase delta ... DNA polymerase delta subunit 4, also known as DNA polymerase delta subunit p12, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Wood RD, Shivji MK (1997). "Which DNA polymerases are used for DNA-repair in eukaryotes?". Carcinogenesis. 18 (4): 605-10. doi: ... Liu G, Warbrick E (2006). "The p66 and p12 subunits of DNA polymerase delta are modified by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like ...
POLR3K: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10. *PRR35: encoding protein Proline rich 35 ... Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in ...
POLR3F: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC6. *PRIC285:. *PRNP: prion protein (p27-30) (Creutzfeldt- ... 2001). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-871. doi:10.1038/414865a. ... Chromosome 20 spans around 63 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 2 and 2.5 percent of the ... of the euchromatic DNA.[5] Since then, due to sequencing improvements and fixes, the length of chromosome 20 has been updated ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLRMT polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed)". Hillen, HS; Morozov, YI; Sarfallah, A; Temiakov, D; Cramer ... Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O00411 (Human DNA-directed RNA polymerase, ...
"Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (4839): 487-91. Bibcode: ...
Polymerase (DNA-directed), epsilon 4, accessory subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLE4 gene. POLE4 is a ... "Entrez Gene: Polymerase (DNA-directed), epsilon 4, accessory subunit". Post SM, Tomkinson AE, Lee EY (2003). "The human ... and interacts with DNA polymerase epsilon". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (19): 5568-75. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg765. PMC 206465. PMID ... "Identification and cloning of two histone fold motif-containing subunits of HeLa DNA polymerase epsilon". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ( ...
"Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (4839): 487-91. Bibcode: ... DNA polymerase ("Taq pol")[edit]. Further information: Taq polymerase. DNA polymerase was first isolated from T. aquaticus in ... RNA polymerase[edit]. The first polymerase enzyme isolated from T. aquaticus in 1974 was a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase,[8] ... DNA polymerase was that it could be isolated in a purer form (free of other enzyme contaminants) than could the DNA polymerase ...
"Entrez Gene: POLE3 polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 3 (p17 subunit)". Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996 ... localizes to DNA replication sites, and interacts with DNA polymerase epsilon". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (19): 5568-75. doi: ... DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLE3 gene. POLE3 is a histone-fold protein that ... "Identification and cloning of two histone fold motif-containing subunits of HeLa DNA polymerase epsilon". J Biol Chem. 275 (30 ...
"Entrez Gene: POLDIP2 polymerase (DNA-directed), delta interacting protein 2". Wong A, Zhang S, Mordue D, Wu JM, Zhang Z, ... Xie B, Li H, Wang Q, Xie S, Rahmeh A, Dai W, Lee MY (June 2005). "Further characterization of human DNA polymerase delta ... Xie B, Li H, Wang Q, Xie S, Rahmeh A, Dai W, Lee MY (June 2005). "Further characterization of human DNA polymerase delta ... This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the DNA polymerase delta p50 subunit. The encoded protein also interacts with ...
"Entrez Gene: POLDIP3 polymerase (DNA-directed), delta interacting protein 3". Richardson, Celeste J; Bröenstrup Mark; Fingar ... This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the DNA polymerase delta p50 subunit. This protein is a specific target of S6 ... 2006). "Human enhancer of rudimentary is a molecular partner of PDIP46/SKAR, a protein interacting with DNA polymerase delta ... that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J Biol Chem. 278 (12): ...
"Entrez Gene: POLE2 polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 2 (p59 subunit)". Wada M, Miyazawa H, Wang RS, Mizuno T, Sato A, Asashima ... mouse DNA polymerase epsilon are homologous to the second largest subunit of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase ... localizes to DNA replication sites, and interacts with DNA polymerase ε". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (19): 5568-75. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLE2 gene. POLE2 has been shown to interact ...
"Primer directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (238): 487-491. doi:10.1126/ ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Lynch, M.; Crease, T.J. (1990). "The Analysis of Population Survey Data of DNA sequence ... and Cyprus analyzing mitochondrial DNA segments and finding differences in enzymatic restrictions, resulting in Apis mellifera ...
Some large viruses have their own DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Transfers of "infectious" nuclei have been documented in many ... In 2006, researchers suggested that the transition from RNA to DNA genomes first occurred in the viral world. A DNA-based virus ... a DNA chromosome encapsulated within a lipid membrane). In theory, a large DNA virus could take control of a bacterial or ... Viral eukaryogenesis is the hypothesis that the cell nucleus of eukaryotic life forms evolved from a large DNA virus in a form ...
Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR3G gene. Model ... "Entrez Gene: Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)". Retrieved 2014-04-01. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... Chiu, Y. H.; MacMillan, J. B.; Chen, Z. J. (2009). "RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits". ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3D gene. This gene complements a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3D polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D, 44kDa". Jang KL, Collins MK, Latchman DS (1992). "The ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... Jackson AJ, Ittmann M, Pugh BF (1995). "The BN51 protein is a polymerase (Pol)-specific subunit of RNA Pol III which reveals a ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3E gene. POLR3E has been shown ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3E polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide E (80kD)". Hu, Ping; Wu Si; Sun Yuling; Yuan Chih-Chi; ... 2002). "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III ... "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III Subunits" ( ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2B gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2B polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; ... This subunit, in combination with at least two other polymerase subunits, forms a structure within the polymerase that ... Wu-Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor RB (1995). "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans- ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2C gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2C polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, 33kDa". De Angelis R, Iezzi S, Bruno T, Corbi N, Di ... Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, Kedinger C, Vigneron M (Jul 1997). "Interactions between the human RNA polymerase II ... Pati UK, Weissman SM (1990). "The amino acid sequence of the human RNA polymerase II 33-kDa subunit hRPB 33 is highly conserved ...
"Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (4839): 487-91. Bibcode: ... Thermostable enzymes such as Taq polymerase and Pfu DNA polymerase are used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) where ... This resistance to high temperature allows for DNA polymerase to elongate DNA with a desired sequence of interest with the ... A number of site-directed and random mutagenesis techniques, in addition to directed evolution, have been used to increase the ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2E gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2E polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E, 25kDa". Bertolotti, A; Melot T; Acker J; Vigneron M; ... This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases and is present in two-fold molar excess over the other ... and RNA polymerase subunit 5, which contributes to the association between TFIIF and RNA polymerase II". J. Biol. Chem. United ...
"Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (4839): 487-491. Bibcode: ... without using DNA polymerases. But this method is limited to polymerization scale and yield. After that, polymerase chain ... DNA, based on A-T, C-G base pairs, are formed in well-aligned sequences. Through precise sequences of DNA, 20 amino acids are ... In nature, DNA, RNA, proteins and other macromolecules can also be recognized as sequence-controlled polymers for their well- ...
"Entrez Gene: POLD2 polymerase (DNA directed), delta 2, regulatory subunit 50kDa". Lu, Xiaoqing; Tan Cheng-Keat; Zhou Jin-Qiu; ... 2002). "Direct interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with the small subunit of DNA polymerase delta". J. Biol. Chem ... DNA polymerase delta subunit 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLD2 gene. It is a component of the DNA ... "Direct interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with the small subunit of DNA polymerase delta". J. Biol. Chem. United ...
January 1988). "Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (4839): 487-91 ... Thermostable proteins are often more useful than their non-thermostable counterparts, e.g., DNA polymerase in the polymerase ... For pure or highly enriched proteins, direct SDS-PAGE detection is possible facilitating Commassie-fluorescence based direct ... Moreau MJ, Schaeffer PM (December 2013). "Dissecting the salt dependence of the Tus-Ter protein-DNA complexes by high- ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, also known as RPB1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2A polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Krum SA ... forms the DNA-binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. POLR2A has been ... This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ...
"Entrez Gene: POLE polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon". Palles C, Cazier JB, Howarth KM, Domingo E, Jones AM, Broderick P, Kemp ... Popanda O, Thielmann HW (1992). "The function of DNA polymerases in DNA repair synthesis of ultraviolet-irradiated human ... Fuss J, Linn S (2002). "Human DNA polymerase epsilon colocalizes with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and DNA replication ... localizes to DNA replication sites, and interacts with DNA polymerase epsilon". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 31 (19): 5568-75. ...
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003899 DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, subunit N/Rpb10 (IPR000268). Short name: RNAP_N/Rpb10 ... In eukaryotes, there are three different forms of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (EC:2.7.7.6) transcribing different sets of ... Evolution of Complex RNA Polymerases: The Complete Archaeal RNA Polymerase Structure.. PLoS Biol. 7 e102 2009 ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases EC:2.7.7.6 (also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerases) are responsible for the polymerisation of ... GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003899 DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase ... there are three different forms of DNA-directed RNA polymerases transcribing different sets of genes. Most RNA polymerases are ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, subunit E/RPC8 (IPR004519). Short name: RNAP_E/RPC8 ...
Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunitUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... DNA-directed RNA polymeraseUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Belongs to the poxviridae DNA-directed RNA polymerase 22 kDa subunit family.UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according ...
RNA polymerase III type 2 promoter sequence-specific DNA binding. *polymerase III regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... Complex: DNA-directed RNA polymerase III complex Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These ... 2013) Yeast RNA polymerase III transcription factors and effectors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1829(3-4):283-95 PMID: 23063749 *SGD ... DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase activity. * ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase III promoter. ...
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/chemical synthesis. *DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics*. *DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/metabolism ... Direct observation of translocation in individual DNA polymerase complexes.. Dahl JM1, Mai AH, Cherf GM, Jetha NN, Garalde DR, ... Complexes of phi29 DNA polymerase and DNA fluctuate on the millisecond time scale between two ionic current amplitude states ... D, DNA substrates used to determine the distance of the DNA template movement in the nanopore lumen during phi29 DNAP-DNA ...
Promotes RNA polymerase assembly. Latches the N- and C-terminal regions of the beta subunit thereby facilitating its ...
zf-DNA_Pol; DNA Polymerase alpha zinc finger. pfam12254. Location:11 → 76. DNA_pol_alpha_N; DNA polymerase alpha subunit p180 N ... DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... DNA_polB_alpha_exo; inactive DEDDy 3-5 exonuclease domain of eukaryotic DNA polymerase alpha, a family-B DNA polymerase. ... POLBc_alpha; DNA polymerase type-B alpha subfamily catalytic domain. Three DNA-dependent DNA polymerases type B (alpha, delta, ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ...
View mouse Polr3f Chr2:144527745-144541779 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
J:277879 Gorvin CM, et al., An N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU)-Induced Tyr265Stop Mutation of the DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit ... aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are important for the activity of the processivity factor of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase. ... IPR027030 DNA polymerase subunit gamma-2, mitochondrial. IPR027031 Glycyl-tRNA synthetase/DNA polymerase subunit gamma-2 ...
Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. By RK Saiki, DH Gelfand, S Stoffel, SJ ... Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. By RK Saiki, DH Gelfand, S Stoffel, SJ ... Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... A thermostable DNA polymerase was used in an in vitro DNA amplification procedure, the polymerase chain reaction. The enzyme, ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit G-like, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC7-like, MGC3200, RNA polymerase III ...
Synonyms: B150, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 140 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2, RNA polymerase ... RNA polymerase II subunit RPB10 is essential for yeast cell viability. Woychik, N.A., Young, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed ... RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) encoding the second largest protein subunit in Phaeosphaeria nodorum and P. avenaria. Malkus, A ... RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9 is required for accurate start site selection. Hull, M.W., McKune, K., Woychik, N.A. Genes Dev. ...
However, polymerases that can accept unnatural nucleoside triphosphates are desired for many applications in biotechnology. The ... However, polymerases that can accept unnatural nucleoside triphosphates are desired for many applications in biotechnology. The ... DNA polymerases have evolved for billions of years to accept natural nucleoside triphosphate substrates with high fidelity and ... DNA polymerases have evolved for billions of years to accept natural nucleoside triphosphate substrates with high fidelity and ...
DNA directed RNA polymerase II 14.4 kda polypeptide , DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit F , DNA-directed RNA polymerases I ... Target Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) * Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) ... anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide E, 25kDa Antibodies * anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide D ... anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide C, 33kDa Antibodies * anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide B ...
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze ... the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also ... possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7. ... Polymerases, DNA; DNA Polymerase N3; DNA Dependent DNA Polymerases; DNA Directed DNA Polymerase; DNA Polymerase, DNA-Directed; ...
... it - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Recombinant DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha rpoA DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha rpoA Suppplier: ... Methylibium petroleiphilum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit. Methylibium petroleiphilum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit ... Halobacterium salinarum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit A rpoA2 Suppplier: MBS Recombinant. Price: 2 340.51 USD ...
Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther ELISA, Western Blot, ... Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lifespan ... Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther Sub-Family: not assigned- ... Chicken Anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L Antibody, Unconjugated from CHEMICON. 9. Chicken Anti-Rab GDP ...
We have developed a facile procedure for rapid PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis of double-stranded DNA. Increasing the ... Site-directed mutagenesis of double-stranded DNA by the polymerase chain reaction Gene. 1994 Dec 30;151(1-2):119-23. doi: ... for methylated and hemimethylated DNA and is used to digest parental DNA and select for mutation-containing amplified DNA. DNA ... ends of the PCR product by Taq DNA polymerase. The recircularized vector DNA incorporating the desired mutations is transformed ...
... polymerase (DNA directed), beta explanation free. What is polymerase (DNA directed), beta? Meaning of polymerase (DNA directed ... Looking for online definition of polymerase (DNA directed), beta in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from polymerase (DNA directed), beta) POLB. A gene on chromosome 8p11.2 that encodes DNA polymerase beta, which ... Polymerase (DNA directed), beta , definition of polymerase (DNA directed), beta by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
OMIM: POLYMERASE (DNA-DIRECTED), DELTA 3, ACCESSORY SUBUNIT; POLD3*Gene Ontology: Pold3 *Mouse Phenome DB: Pold3 *UCSC: Chr.7: ... polymerase (DNA-directed), delta 3, accessory subunit. Synonyms: 2410142G14Rik, C85233, GC12, P66, P68. Gene nomenclature, ...
... tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens Using an Automated DNA Amplification Assay and a Single Tube Nested Polymerase Chain ... Article Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens Using an Automated DNA Amplification Assay and ... "Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens Using an Automated DNA Amplification Assay and a Single ... "Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens Using an Automated DNA Amplification Assay and a Single ...
... the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. The carboxy-terminal domain of ... this subunit shares a high degree of sequence similarity to the carboxy-terminal domain of an RNA polymerase II elongation ... This gene encodes a small essential subunit of RNA polymerase III, ... DNA directed RNA polymerase III subunit K; DNA directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10; DNA directed RNA polymerases III 12.5 ...
DNA sequencing with Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase and direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85 ... Lundeberg J., Pettersson B., Uhlén M. (2000) Direct DNA Sequencing of Polymerase Chain Reaction Products Using Magnetic Beads. ... Pettersson, B., Johansson, K.-E., and Uhlén, M. (1994) Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from Mycoplasmas by direct solid-phase DNA ... Hultman, T., Ståhl, S., Hornes, E., and Uhlén, M. (1989) Direct solid phase sequencing of genomic and plasmid DNA using ...
DNA directed), epsilon (POLE) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens polymerase ( ... dna directed), epsilon (pole) as transfection-ready dna. Myc- ... TrueORF Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon (POLE) as transfection-ready DNA ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon (POLE) as transfection-ready DNA ...
The method is compatible with automated DNA sequencing procedures. ... Method for isolating primer extension products from template-directed dna polymerase reactions Download PDF Info. Publication ... PCT/US1991/000027 1990-01-26 1991-01-10 Method for isolating primer extension products from template-directed dna polymerase ... These procedures both use the template-directed extension of an oligonucleotide primer by a DNA polymerase followed by the ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... HCA RNA Cell Line for DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5. ... RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation From Type 1 Promoter 28 RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation From Type 2 ... Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. Acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA ...
... polr2i rna polymerase ii 14 5 subunit rna polymerase ii subunit b9 rpb14 5 dna di ... dna directed rna polymerase ii subunit i dna directed rna polymerase ii subunit rpb9 ... A190,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I largest subunit,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit A,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase I largest subunit,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit A,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit ...
We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. The Stoffel ... of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the ... Phage particles displaying SF polymerases, which are able to extend the attached oligonucleotide primer by incorporating ... substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. ...
DNA primase and DNA polymerase able to initiate de novo DNA synthesis using dNTPs. Shows a high capacity to tolerate DNA damage ... PolDIP2 interacts with human PrimPol and enhances its DNA polymerase activities.. 26710848. 2016. Insight into the Human DNA ... as well as DNA polymerase activity. The encoded protein facilitates DNA damage tolerance by mediating uninterrupted fork ... This gene encodes a DNA primase-polymerase that belongs to a superfamily of archaeao-eukaryotic primases. Members of this ...
  • The Stoffel fragment (SF) of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The encoded protein facilitates DNA damage tolerance by mediating uninterrupted fork progression after UV irradiation and reinitiating DNA synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • The RNA polymerase II (RNApII) transcription cycle consists of multiple steps involving dozens of protein factors. (usda.gov)
  • Here we report the unexpected finding that protein F12, which is conserved among the chordopoxviruses and is implicated in the morphogenesis of enveloped intracellular virions, is a derived DNA polymerase, possibly of bacteriophage origin, in which the polymerase domain and probably the exonuclease domain have been inactivated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here that poxvirus protein F12 that has been implicated in intracellular enveloped virus (IEV) morphogenesis, and in particular IEV movement along microtubules [ 11 - 13 ], is a derived DNA polymerase in which both the polymerase and the exonuclease activities apparently were abrogated as a result of mutational replacement of catalytic amino acid residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • STRING is a database of known and predicted protein interactions.The interactions include direct (physical) and indirect (functional) associations. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Sequence of bases in a DNA molecule which codes for the sequence of amino acids in a protein. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Here it lines up on the surface of a ribosome and directs the synthesis of a protein based on the original DNA code. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Polymerase (DNA directed) nu is a protein in humans that is encoded by the POLN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerase eta (Pol η), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLH gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerase eta, a key protein in translesion synthesis in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A conformational conversion at individual base-pair steps in protein and drug-bound DNA crystal complexes. (nih.gov)
  • ATU75274 U75274 2738bp DNA PLN 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) gene, complete cds. (bio.net)
  • POLDIP3 encodes a protein that interacts with the DNA polymerase delta p50 subunit. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Smyk, Szuminska, Uniewicz, Graves, Kozlowski: Human enhancer of rudimentary is a molecular partner of PDIP46/SKAR, a protein interacting with DNA polymerase delta and S6K1 and regulating cell growth. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This study showed that PDIP46 aka SKAR, a protein possessing one RNA recognition motif (RRM) and being a protein partner of both the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). (antibodies-online.com)
  • These mutations appear to alter the structure and function of the POLR1D protein, which reduces the amount of functional RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • POLL (DNA Polymerase Lambda) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The proliferation of cytotoxic T-cells is markedly impaired upon infection with a newly discovered human immunodeficiency virus, designated HIV-V. The defect has been traced to the expression of a viral-encoded enzyme that inactivates a host-cell nuclear protein required for DNA replication. (proprofs.com)
  • Halobacterial S9 operon contains two genes encoding proteins homologous to subunits shared by eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Eukaryotic cells are also known to contain separate mitochondrial and chloroplast RNA polymerases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Eukaryotic RNA polymerases, whose molecular masses vary in size from 500 to 700 kDa, contain two non-identical large (>100 kDa) subunits and an array of up to 12 different small (less than 50 kDa) subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This gene encodes a DNA primase-polymerase that belongs to a superfamily of archaeao-eukaryotic primases. (nih.gov)
  • DNA polymerase delta (Pol delta) plays a central role in eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication, repair and recombination. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However DNA is a very large molecule and it cannot get out of the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • DNA polymerase eta is a eukaryotic DNA polymerase involved in the DNA repair by translesion synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently we showed that archaeo-eukaryotic type primases (and prim-pol proteins with both primase and DNA polymerase activity) also contain a derived version of this fold, which is further related to DNA-binding domains of certain viral replication initiation proteins and the catalytic domain of rolling circle replicator tyrosine recombinases [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA polymerase activity dependent on DNA- or RNA-templates additionally evolved in the double-psi-beta-barrel fold, respectively represented by the primary enzymes of cellular transcription and polymerases involved in eukaryotic gene silencing (and their phage relatives) [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA synthesis follows after the attachment of RNA polymerase to a specific site, the promoter, on the template DNA strand. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There is also a correlation between DNA sequences that bias complexes toward the pre-translocation state and the rate of exonucleolysis in bulk phase, suggesting that during DNA synthesis the pathway for transfer of the primer strand from the polymerase to exonuclease active site initiates in the pre-translocation state. (nih.gov)
  • DNA polymerases are enzymes that catalyze the template-directed synthesis of DNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA primase and DNA polymerase able to initiate de novo DNA synthesis using dNTPs. (nih.gov)
  • Involved in translesion synthesis via its primase activity by mediating uninterrupted fork progression after programmed or damage-induced fork arrest and by reinitiating DNA synthesis after dNTP depletion. (nih.gov)
  • Required for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) synthesis, suggesting it may be involved in DNA tolerance during the replication of mitochondrial DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Members of this family have primase activity, catalyzing the synthesis of short RNA primers that serve as starting points for DNA synthesis, as well as DNA polymerase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Implicate PrimPol in promoting restart of DNA synthesis downstream of, but closely coupled to, G4 replication impediments. (nih.gov)
  • PrimPol could also operate as a translesion synthesis partner during DNA-directed RNA synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • DNA polymerase of reticuloendotheliosis virus: inability to detect endogenous RNA-directed DNA synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Polymerase eta is particularly important for allowing accurate translesion synthesis of DNA damage resulting from ultraviolet radiation or UV. (wikipedia.org)
  • During DNA replication of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome, the oxidative DNA damage 8-oxoguanine triggers a switch to translesion synthesis by DNA polymerase eta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plays an important role in translesion synthesis, where the normal high-fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. (abcam.com)
  • Automated chemical processes, such as DNA sequencing and nucleic acid and peptide synthesis, have transformed the fields of genetics and biotechnology. (pnas.org)
  • These enzymes are involved in the production (synthesis) of ribonucleic acid (RNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • RNA polymerase III also plays a role in the synthesis of several other forms of RNA, including transfer RNA (tRNA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Among its related pathways are Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair . (genecards.org)
  • Most RNA polymerases are multimeric enzymes and are composed of a variable number of subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The core RNA polymerase complex consists of five subunits (two alpha, one beta, one beta-prime and one omega) and is sufficient for transcription elongation and termination but is unable to initiate transcription. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This family includes RNA polymerase III subunit RPC8, and archaeal RNA polymerase subunits RpoE and RpoE1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Non-canonical multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA-polymerases (RNAP) form a new group of the main transcription enzymes, which have only distinct homology to the catalytic subunits of canonical RNAPs of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. (usda.gov)
  • Component of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex consisting of 17 subunits. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Component of the Pol II(G) complex, which contains the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) core complex subunits and Polr2m and appears to be an abundant form of Pol II. (rcsb.org)
  • It may be involved either in the recruitment and stabilization of the subcomplex within RNA polymerase III, or in stimulating catalytic functions of other subunits during initiation. (absave.com)
  • 19 Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) Antibodies from 6 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A section of DNA containing the codons for the amino acids which make a polypeptide chain is called a gene. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • A gene on chromosome 8p11.2 that encodes DNA polymerase beta, which performs base excision repair required for DNA maintenance, replication, recombination and drug resistance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This gene encodes a small essential subunit of RNA polymerase III, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This gene encodes a member of the Y family of specialized DNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a DNA polymerase. (genecards.org)
  • POLR3K has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The authors propose a mechanism whereby single-stranded DNA binding proteins greatly restrict the contribution of PrimPol to DNA replication at stalled forks, thus reducing the mutagenic potential of PrimPol during genome replication. (nih.gov)
  • Recognition and biochemical processing of DNA requires that proteins and other ligands are able to distinguish their DNA binding sites from other parts of the molecule. (nih.gov)
  • The collective data provide new structural details on the conformational pathway connecting A and B-form DNA and illustrate how both proteins and drugs take advantage of the intrinsic conformational mechanics of the double helix. (nih.gov)
  • Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Networks representing this contextual information also suggest that different families of DNA polymerases, primases, helicases and associated replication proteins frequently displace each other in different genomes or mobile elements, thereby reinforcing their functional equivalence (Fig. 1A ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerases EC:2.7.7.6 (also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerases) are responsible for the polymerisation of ribonucleotides into a sequence complementary to the template DNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The structure of an abasic residue is shown below the DNA sequence. (nih.gov)
  • In many cases, an analysis of past evolution of these polymerases (as inferred by examining multiple sequence alignments) can help explain some of the mutations delivered by directed evolution. (frontiersin.org)
  • The DpnI (target sequence 5'-Gm6ATC) is specific for methylated and hemimethylated DNA and is used to digest parental DNA and select for mutation-containing amplified DNA. (nih.gov)
  • The carboxy-terminal domain of this subunit shares a high degree of sequence similarity to the carboxy-terminal domain of an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Pettersson, B., Johansson, K.-E., and Uhlén, M. (1994) Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from Mycoplasmas by direct solid-phase DNA sequencing. (springer.com)
  • 2019) analyze the role of the length and sequence complexity of the RNA polymerase II unstructured C-terminal domain in animal viability, development, and the dynamics of RNA polymerase II in vivo. (usda.gov)
  • A group of three bases within the DNA molecule which code for a specific amino acid or for the beginning or ending of a transcription sequence. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The genetic code is held within the sequence of bases in the DNA double helix. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The mRNA which is built up has the same base sequence as the 3'strand of DNA, with thymine replaced with uracil. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • In addition to the direct recognition elements embedded in the linear sequence of bases (i.e. hydrogen bonding sites), these molecular agents seemingly sense and/or induce an "indirect" conformational response in the DNA base-pairs that facilitates close intermolecular fitting. (nih.gov)
  • New DNA Sequences ======================= AC013430 AC013430 88172bp DNA HTG 11-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F3F9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC013454 AC013454 62611bp DNA HTG 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome III clone IGF-F2O10, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 5 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC013482 AC013482 82881bp DNA HTG 13-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone T26F17, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 1 ordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC013483 AC013483 122426bp DNA HTG 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome III clone IGF-F17A17, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 8 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015445 AC015445 104365bp DNA HTG 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F2J10, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015449 AC015449 71187bp DNA HTG 16-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone T3F24, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 12 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015450 AC015450 111529bp DNA HTG 18-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone IGF-F14G6, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 4 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015986 AC015986 109474bp DNA HTG 18-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone TAMU-T2E12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 5 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC015985 AC015985 71180bp DNA HTG 18-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome III clone IGF-F8A24, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 5 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • Updated Sequence Features/Annotations ============= F6N23 AF058919 91849bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana BAC F6N23. (bio.net)
  • Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Partial nucleotide sequence and organisation of extrachromosomal plastid-like DNA in Plasmodium berghei. (nih.gov)
  • Direct PCR amplification and sequence analysis of extrachromosomal Plasmodium DNA from dried blood spots. (nih.gov)
  • residues from five sequence motifs of the Y-family cluster around an active site cleft that can accommodate DNA and nucleotide substrates with relaxed geometric constraints, with consequently higher rates of misincorporation and low processivity. (abcam.com)
  • The sequence analysis and results obtained using various DNA polymerases appear to support the slipped strand displacement model as a potential explanation for how these stutter products are generated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To investigate further the relationship between mating system and genetic variation, levels of DNA sequence polymorphism were compared among three closely related species in the genus Caenorhabditis: two self-fertilizing species, Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae , and one cross-fertilizing species, C. remanei . (genetics.org)
  • The commercial availability of reverse transcriptase greatly improved knowledge in the area of molecular biology as, along with other enzymes, it allowed scientists to clone, sequence and characterise DNA. (bionity.com)
  • In eukaryotes, there are three different forms of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases ( EC:2.7.7.6 ) transcribing different sets of genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This crucial step triggers RNA polymerase II release from promoter-proximal pausing and expression of DNA damage response genes. (usda.gov)
  • Genes occupy a fixed position, called a locus, on a particular DNA molecule. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Detection of polychlorinated biphenyl degradation genes in polluted sediment by direct DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction , Erb, R.W.;I. Wagner-Dovler , Appl. (kisti.re.kr)
  • Detection of polychlorinated biphenyl degradation genes in polluted sediments by direct DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to DNA Polymerase Kappa. (novusbio.com)
  • Yeast RNA polymerase III transcription factors and effectors. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Chromosomal translocations in yeast induced by low levels of DNA polymerase a model for chromosome fragile sites. (nih.gov)
  • Isolation of the gene encoding yeast DNA polymerase I. Johnson LM, et al . (nih.gov)
  • Yao Y, Yamamoto K, Nishi Y, Nogi Y, Muramatsu M. Mouse RNA polymerase I 16-kDa subunit able to associate with 40-kDa subunit is a homolog of yeast AC19 subunit of RNA polymerases I and III. (medlineplus.gov)
  • During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. (curehunter.com)
  • It is a family A DNA polymerase, considered to be the least effective of the polymerase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, most crystallographic examples of complete B-to-A deformations occur in complexes of DNA with enzymes that perform cutting or sealing operations at the (O3'-P) phosphodiester linkage. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Distinct evolutionary solutions to the priming problem and multiple independent transitions to DNA-template utilizing enzymes appear to have played a key role in the origin of nucleic acid polymerases in these different folds [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The POLR1D gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of two related enzymes called RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Which of the following enzymes participates in bacterial DNA replication and is directly inhibited by this antibiotic? (proprofs.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase enzymes include an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, which work together to perform transcription. (bionity.com)
  • B , hairpin DNA substrate (DNA1) featuring a 14-base pair duplex region and a single-stranded template region of 35 nucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • This review focuses on experiments that, by directed evolution, have created variants of DNA polymerases that are better able to accept unnatural nucleotides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polymerases are also used to incorporate modified nucleotides, including those that tag, report, or signal the presence of product DNA molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • Major advances in "next generation" sequencing, which requires the use of modified nucleotides and DNA polymerases, are considered in a separate review in this series ( Chen, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The second oligonucleotide not only directs ligation, but also serves as a template for insertion or substitution of nucleotides by T4 polymerase. (utmb.edu)
  • when thymine dimers are present, this polymerase inserts the complementary nucleotides in the newly synthesized DNA, thereby bypassing the lesion and suppressing the mutagenic effect of UV-induced DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal zinc finger of the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta is responsible for direct interaction with the B-subunit. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We prepared polyclonal antibodies to YSATLRY from human sera to immunoprecipitate the native antigen, which was identified as the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, KOD FX DNA polymerase could be useful in serological studies to simultaneously detect antibodies and DNA in eluents for antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
  • AP000731 AP000731 47827bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, BAC clone:F16J14. (bio.net)
  • AP000734 AP000734 2569bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, TAC clone:K13C10. (bio.net)
  • AP000735 AP000735 79186bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, TAC clone:K13E13. (bio.net)
  • AP000737 AP000737 2808bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 5, lambda clone:LA522. (bio.net)
  • AP000738 AP000738 2581bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, P1 clone:MED16. (bio.net)
  • Single-copy genomic sequences were amplified by a factor of more than 10 million with very high specificity, and DNA segments up to 2000 base pairs were readily amplified. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genomic_DNA. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Mutant mice may be useful in studies related to DNA recombination and repair, translesion polymerases, genomic instability, and the mechanisms for generating immune diversity (e.g. somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin gene class switching). (jax.org)
  • PCR performance was evaluated by a nested PCR technique for detecting Plasmodium falciparum genomic DNA in the presence of the blood components. (bvsalud.org)
  • The technique uses recombinant M13 single-stranded DNA and two complementary DNA oligonucleotides to target and control the extent of deletions catalyzed by T4 DNA polymerase. (utmb.edu)
  • Recombinant Human DNA Polymerase K. (novusbio.com)
  • DNA Polymerase Kappa Recombinant P. (novusbio.com)
  • The kits contain MP Biomedicals Taq DNA Polymerase (isolated from Thermus aquaticus ), a thermo-stable recombinant polymerase, with a 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but no 3'- 5' exonuclease activity. (fishersci.com)
  • A thermostable DNA polymerase was used in an in vitro DNA amplification procedure, the polymerase chain reaction. (sciencemag.org)
  • Yam, W., Yuen, K. and Seto, W. (1998) Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens Using an Automated DNA Amplification Assay and a Single Tube Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). (degruyter.com)
  • SUMMARY The use of a "direct PCR " DNA polymerase enables PCR amplification without any prior DNA purification from blood samples due to the enzyme's resistance to inhibitors present in blood components. (bvsalud.org)
  • oligonucleotides are used as primers in both DNA sequencing and DNA amplification. (opencroquet.org)
  • DNA polymerase I is required for premeiotic DNA replication and sporulation but not for X-ray repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
  • ur results support a model whereby parental (H3-H4)2 complexes displaced from nucleosomes by DNA unwinding at replication forks are transferred by the CMG-Ctf4-Polalph acomplex to lagging-strand DNA for nucleosome assembly at the original location. (nih.gov)
  • PrimPol tolerates DNA lesions, involving template and primer dislocations that can be operating during both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • Although PrimPol's primase activity is required to restore wild-type replication fork rates in irradiated PrimPol-/- cells, the polymerase activity is sufficient to maintain regular replisome progression in unperturbed cells. (nih.gov)
  • Accumulates at replication forks after DNA damage. (abcam.com)
  • It is now believed that a substantial proportion of the single nucleotide substitutions causing human genetic disease are due to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. (proprofs.com)
  • Which proofreading activity is critical in determining the accuracy of nuclear DNA replication and thus the base substitution mutation rate in human chromosomes? (proprofs.com)
  • this RNA is used as a template for DNA replication [1] . (bionity.com)
  • DNA isolated from almost all common Escherichia coli strains is Dam methylated and therefore susceptible to DpnI digestion. (nih.gov)
  • At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. (rcsb.org)
  • FUNCTION: 3'-5' exonuclease acting on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and CC RNA (ssRNA) substrates. (genome.jp)
  • In biochemistry , a reverse transcriptase , also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase , is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into single-stranded DNA . (bionity.com)
  • We have developed a facile procedure for rapid PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis of double-stranded DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription initiation from promoter elements requires a sixth, dissociable subunit called a sigma factor, which reversibly associates with the core RNA polymerase complex to form a holoenzyme [ PMID: 3052291 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Title: Structural mechanism of ATP-independent transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe a useful approach to study the dynamics of initiation and early elongation, comprising an in vitro transcription system in which complexes are assembled on immobilized DNA templates and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry. (usda.gov)
  • Transcription initiation can be reconstituted from highly purified general transcription factors (GTFs), RNA polymerase II (pol II), and promoter DNA. (usda.gov)
  • EMDB-3375: Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening. (pdbj.org)
  • These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, DNA polymerase nu plays an active role in homology repair during cellular responses to crosslinks, fulfilling its role in a complex with helicase. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. (curehunter.com)
  • RNA polymerase I: located in the nucleoli, synthesises precursors of most ribosomal RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase III: also occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises the precursors of 5S ribosomal RNA, the tRNAs, and a variety of other small nuclear and cytosolic RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- Kappa-B through the RIG-I pathway (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. (rcsb.org)
  • Pol II synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs and is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. (rcsb.org)
  • POLR3G is a specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. (absave.com)
  • Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • The equilibrium between the two states is influenced by active site-proximal DNA sequences. (nih.gov)
  • DNA polymerases have been classified into evolutionary families based on an analysis of their amino acid sequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA and Amino acid sequences are also provided on this block. (systemsbiology.net)
  • The recircularized vector DNA incorporating the desired mutations is transformed into E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • Some polymerases from the family X can perform polymerase activity without template ( Berdis, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To examine the immunological relatedness of this enzyme with other retroviral DNA polymerases, remaining Sm-MTV DNA polymerase activity was measured after treatment of this enzyme with various antisera prepared against each of the reverse transcriptases of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), simian sarcoma virus-simian sarcoma associated virus (SSV/SSAV), and Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RLV). (curehunter.com)
  • POLR3K has several biochemical functions, for example, DNA binding, DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, contributes_to RNA polymerase III activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA Polymerase Activity Assay Using Near-infrared Fluorescent Labeled DNA Visualized by Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This stimulatory effect was used as an additional probe in detecting RNA directed DNA polymerase activity in Greene hamster melanoma in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Human placental extracts contain a specific inhibitor of mammalian retroviral RNA-directed DNA polymerase (deoxynucleosidetriphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.7) activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The inhibitor can be removed from these particles by salt extraction, which leads to the recovery of the polymerase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the inhibitor does not irreversibly inactivate the particle-associated RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include lyase activity and DNA polymerase activity . (genecards.org)
  • BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES: CC Kinetic parameters: CC Note=kcat is 25 min(-1) for ATPase activity in the absence of DNA. (genome.jp)
  • Biochemical studies have suggested that stimuli predominantly affect the rates of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment and polymerase release from promoter-proximal pausing. (usda.gov)
  • Currently, many DNA polymerases are used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other procedures that involve the copying of nucleic acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lundeberg J., Pettersson B., Uhlén M. (2000) Direct DNA Sequencing of Polymerase Chain Reaction Products Using Magnetic Beads. (springer.com)
  • SIMILARITY: Belongs to the RNA polymerase beta' chain family. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • For more details on this topic, see Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction . (bionity.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase is commonly used in research to apply the polymerase chain reaction technique to RNA in a technique called reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (bionity.com)
  • Accordingly, the demand for new polymerase variants, especially those with specialized attributes, shows no sign of diminishing, despite the large number of polymerases already available. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review focuses primarily on polymerase variants that accept nucleic acids having additional nucleotide "letters" that form additional nucleobase pairs. (frontiersin.org)
  • To overcome the drawbacks associated with indirect detection, we aimed to generate novel DNA polymerase variants for direct m6 A sequencing. (univ-lorraine.fr)
  • RNA polymerase II: occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises mRNA precursors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The most studied polymerases belong to Family A (found in prokaryotes, eukaryotes and bacteriophages) and family B (found in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, archaea, and viruses). (frontiersin.org)
  • Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • POLR3G plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. (absave.com)
  • They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results from comparative genomics have shown that, unlike their cellular counterparts, the universe of selfish elements comprised of viruses, plasmids and certain replicative transposons show an enormous diversity of nucleic acid polymerases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reverse-transcribing RNA viruses , such as retroviruses , use the enzyme to reverse-transcribe their RNA genomes into DNA, which is then integrated into the host genome and replicated along with it. (bionity.com)
  • Reverse-transcribing DNA viruses, such as the hepadnaviruses , transcribe their genomes into an RNA intermediate and then, using reverse transcriptase, back into DNA. (bionity.com)
  • Regarding as restriction enzyme digestion, all PCRs failed to amplify 16S rRNA gene fragments in the DNA extracts. (kisti.re.kr)
  • Simple, rapid method for direct isolation of nucleic acids from aquatic environments , Somerville, C.C.;I.T. Knight;W.L. Straube;R.R. Colwell , Appl. (kisti.re.kr)
  • Significantly, the base-pair steps which exhibit pure A-DNA conformations in the crystal complexes follow the scale of A-forming tendencies exhibited by synthetic oligonucleotides in solution and the known polymorphism of synthetic DNA fibers. (nih.gov)
  • Oligonucleotides also serve as probes in various DNA and RNA detection and analysis. (opencroquet.org)
  • The core RNA polymerase complex forms a "crab claw"-like structure with an internal channel running along the full length [ PMID: 10499798 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Largest and catalytic core component of RNA polymerase I which synthesizes ribosomal RNA precursors. (uniprot.org)
  • abstract = "As part of a biochemical search for a virus in melanomas preliminary kinetic studies with RNA directed DNA polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus showed that thymidine labeled triphosphate (TTP) stimulates the enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • A simple and efficient mutagenesis procedure is described which uses both the 3′→5′ exonuclease and 5′→3′ polymerase activities of T4 DNA polymerase. (utmb.edu)
  • Data suggest that, during genetic transcription, Prim-Pol-alpha-cat binds the DNA/RNA junction at 5prime-terminus of RNA primer (or initiating NTP, nucleoside-triphosphate). (nih.gov)
  • Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. (uniprot.org)
  • DNA polymerases have evolved for billions of years to accept natural nucleoside triphosphate substrates with high fidelity and to exclude closely related structures, such as the analogous ribonucleoside triphosphates. (frontiersin.org)