Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
The absence of light.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A subcategory of chaperonins found in MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and BACTERIA. Group I chaperonins form into a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is enclosed by a separate lid-like protein component.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Basic functional unit of plants.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family Pteridaceae. Members contain TRITERPENES. Some species in this genus are called maidenhair fern which is also a common name occasionally used for Lygodium (FERNS) and POLYPODIUM.

Structural and kinetic properties of adenylyl sulfate reductase from Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. (1/448)

A cDNA encoding a plant-type APS reductase was isolated from an axenic cell suspension culture of Catharanthus roseus (Genbank/EMBL-databank accession number U63784). The open reading frame of 1392 bp (termed par) encoded for a protein (Mr=51394) consisting of a N-terminal transit peptide, a PAPS reductase-like core and a C-terminal extension with homology to the thioredoxin-like domain of protein disulfide isomerase. The APS reductase precursor was imported into pea chloroplasts in vitro and processed to give a mature protein of approximately 45 kDa. The homologous protein from pea chloroplast stroma was detected using anti:par polyclonal antibodies. To investigate the catalytical function of the different domains deleted par proteins were purified. ParDelta1 lacking the transit sequence liberated sulfite from APS (Km 2.5+/-0.23 microM) in vitro with glutathione (Km 3+/-0.64 mM) as reductant (Vmax 2.6+/-0.14 U mg-1, molecular activity 126 min-1). ParDelta2 lacking the transit sequence and C-terminal domain had to be reconstituted with exogenous thioredoxin as reductant (Km 15. 3+/-1.27 microM, Vmax 0.6+/-0.014 U mg-1). Glutaredoxin, GSH or DTT were ineffective substitutes. ParDelta1 (35.4%) and parDelta2 (21. 8%) both exhibited insulin reductase activity comparable to thioredoxin (100%). Protein disulfide isomerase activity was observed for parDelta1.  (+info)

Strand asymmetry and codon usage bias in the chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis. (2/448)

It is shown that the two strands of the chloroplast genome from Euglena gracilis are asymmetric with regards to nucleotide composition. This asymmetry switches at both the origin of replication and a location that is halfway around the circular genome from the origin. In both halves of the genome the leading strand is G+T-rich, having a bias toward G over C and T over A, and the lagging strand is A+C-rich. This asymmetry is probably the result of a difference in mutation dynamics between the leading and lagging strands. In addition to composition asymmetry, the two strands differ with regards to coding content. In both halves of the genome the vast majority of genes are coded by the leading strand. These two aspects of strand asymmetry are then applied to a statistical test for selection on codon usage. The results indicate that selection on codon usage is limited to genes on the leading strand; no gene on the A+C-rich lagging strand shows evidence for selection, suggesting that highly expressed genes are coded predominantly on the strand of DNA that is the leading strand during replication. On the basis of these observations it is proposed that the coding strand bias is generated by selection to code highly expressed genes on the leading strand to coordinate the direction of replication and transcription, thereby increasing the potential rate of both reactions.  (+info)

The active digestion of uniparental chloroplast DNA in a single zygote of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is revealed by using the optical tweezer. (3/448)

The non-Mendelian inheritance of organelle genes is a phenomenon common to almost all eukaryotes, and in the isogamous alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, chloroplast (cp) genes are transmitted from the mating type positive (mt(+)) parent. In this study, the preferential disappearance of the fluorescent cp nucleoids of the mating type negative (mt(-)) parent was observed in living young zygotes. To study the change in cpDNA molecules during the preferential disappearance, the cpDNA of mt(+) or mt(-) origin was labeled separately with bacterial aadA gene sequences. Then, a single zygote with or without cp nucleoids was isolated under direct observation by using optical tweezers and investigated by nested PCR analysis of the aadA sequences. This demonstrated that cpDNA molecules are digested completely during the preferential disappearance of mt(-) cp nucleoids within 10 min, whereas mt(+) cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA are protected from the digestion. These results indicate that the non-Mendelian transmission pattern of organelle genes is determined immediately after zygote formation.  (+info)

Chloroplast ribonucleoproteins are associated with both mRNAs and intron-containing precursor tRNAs. (4/448)

Tobacco chloroplasts possess five conserved ribonucleoproteins (cpRNPs). To elucidate the function of cpRNPs we analyzed their localization and target nucleic acid molecules in chloroplasts. Immunoprecipitation of the stromal extract and Northern analysis revealed that cpRNPs are associated in vivo with not only various species of chloroplast mRNAs but also intron-containing precursor (pre-) tRNAs. This observation strongly suggests that cpRNPs are involved in RNA processing, including mRNA stability and pre-tRNA splicing.  (+info)

Molecular evolution of a tandemly repeated trnF(GAA) gene in the chloroplast genomes of Microseris (Asteraceae) and the use of structural mutations in phylogenetic analyses. (5/448)

We sequenced the first ca. 900 bp of the 5'-trnL(UAA)-trnV(UAC)/ndhJ region of the chloroplast DNA of different Microseris accessions in order to resolve homoplasious length variation detected in the trnL(UAA)-trnF(GAA) region. We found two to four tandemly repeated trnF genes in the species of Microseris (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) and two in their sister genus Uropappus. Sequences indicated nonhomologous transitions between two, three, and four trnF genes in different Microseris taxa. Independent origins of similar trnF copy numbers were inferred from a chloroplast phylogeny of Microseris. The taxa involved grow on separate continents, supporting parallel origins of similar length variants. The changes in trnF copy numbers were best explained by interchromosomal recombination with unequal crossing over. The 5' copies of the repeats showed the highest sequence conservation, suggesting that these copies are likely to be functional trnF genes, whereas the other ones probably represent pseudogenes. Our results show that length polymorphisms accumulate once a duplicated sequence has become incorporated. Due to parallel gains of similar trnF copy numbers, homoplasious length variation was introduced into the data matrix. The data demonstrate that length polymorphisms cannot be used as indicators for phylogenetic distance unless they can be analyzed at the sequence level.  (+info)

Protease activity of CND41, a chloroplast nucleoid DNA-binding protein, isolated from cultured tobacco cells. (6/448)

CND41 is a 41 kDa DNA-binding protein isolated from chloroplast nucleoids of cultured tobacco cells. The presence of the active domain of aspartic protease in the deduced amino acid sequence of CND41 suggests that it has proteolytic activity. To confirm this, CND41 was highly purified from cultured tobacco cells and its proteolytic activity was characterized with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled hemoglobin as the substrate. The purified CND41 had strong proteolytic activity at an acidic pH (pH 2-4). This activity was inhibited by various chemicals, including the nucleoside triphosphates, NADPH, Fe(3+) and sodium dodecyl sulfate.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum appears to lack a plastid genome. (7/448)

Surprisingly, unlike most Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidium parvum appears to lack a plastid genome. Primers based upon the highly conserved plastid small- or large-subunit rRNA (SSU/LSU rRNA) and the tufA-tRNAPhe genes of other members of the phylum Apicomplexa failed to amplify products from intracellular stages of C. parvum, whereas products were obtained from the plastid-containing apicomplexans Eimeria bovis and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as the plants Allium stellatum and Spinacia oleracea. Dot-blot hybridization of sporozoite genomic DNA (gDNA) supported these PCR results. A T. gondii plastid-specific set of probes containing SSU/LSU rRNA and tufA-tRNA(Phe) genes strongly hybridized to gDNA from a diverse group of plastid-containing organisms including three Apicomplexa, two plants, and Euglena gracilis, but not to those without this organelle including C. parvum, three kinetoplastids, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammals and the eubacterium Escherichia coli. Since the origin of the plastid in other apicomplexans is postulated to be the result of a secondary symbiogenesis of either a red or a green alga, the most parsimonious explanation for its absence in C. parvum is that it has been secondarily lost. If confirmed, this would indicate an alternative evolutionary fate for this organelle in one member of the Apicomplexa. It also suggests that unlike the situation with other diseases caused by members of the Apicomplexa, drug development against cryptosporidiosis targeting a plastid genome or metabolic pathways associated with it may not be useful.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of plant migration and refugia in the Arctic. (8/448)

The arctic flora is thought to have originated during the late Tertiary, approximately 3 million years ago. Plant migration routes during colonization of the Arctic are currently unknown, and uncertainty remains over where arctic plants survived Pleistocene glaciations. A phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA variation in the purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia) indicates that this plant first occurred in the Arctic in western Beringia before it migrated east and west to achieve a circumpolar distribution. The geographical distribution of chloroplast DNA variation in the species supports the hypothesis that, during Pleistocene glaciations, some plant refugia were located in the Arctic as well as at more southern latitudes.  (+info)

T01A23 T01A24 T01B19 T01B24 T01C24 T01D14 T01D17 T01G19 T01K11 T01K23 T01L14 T01M08 T02A06 T02A09 T02B04 T02C12 T02C19 T02D13 T02D21 T02G01 T02K03 T02L21 T02M17 T02M19 T02N13 T02N19 T02P07 T03A01 T03A07 T03B06 T03D01 T03D04 T03D14 T03E08 T03E24 T03F15 T03G12 T03I06 T03I10 T03I19 T03K15 T03K24 T03L11 T03M07 T03M08 T03M12 T03N18 T03N20 T03N24 T03P22 T04A20 T04C13 T04E12 T04E18 T04F06 T04F17 T04G01 T04G23 T04G24 T04H24 T04I08 T04J06 T04M09 T04M16 T04N08 T04N11 T04O11 T04O15 T04O20 T04P09 T05A16 T05C18 T05C21 T05D19 T05E07 T05F04 T05F05 T05F08 T05G19 T05G21 T05H08 T05L01 T05L24 T05M02 T05N06 T05N19 T05N24 T05O02 T05O12 T05O19 T05O21 T06D16 T06K02 T06K13 T06K19 T06L04 T06L07 T06L10 T06M20 T06P06 T06P12 T06P22 T07A02 T07A05 T07A22 T07B17 T07B24 T07E20 T07E21 T07F07 T07F19 T07H14 T07H16 T07H21 T07K05 T07L24 T07M06 T07N03 T07N15 T07N17 T07O20 T07P14 T08B02 T08B09 T08B13 T08C01 T08C02 T08C14 T08C16 T08D14 T08E13 T08E15 T08F02 T08F14 T08G01 T08G08 T08H03 T08H05 T08H09 T08I04 T08I05 T08I14 T08J01 T08K01 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular phylogeny of Forsythia (Oleaceae) based on chloroplast DNA variation. AU - Kim, Ki Joong. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Phylogenetic relationships of ten wild species and several cultivars of Forsythia were reconstructed based on the chloroplast (cp) DNA variation. A total of 216 cpDNA variants, 44 of which were potentially phylogenetically informative, was detected using 24 restriction endonucleases. Phylogenetic analysis using Fontanesia and Abeliophyllum as outgroups revealed four well defined species groups in the genus: 1) F. suspensa, 2) F. europaea F. giraldiana, 3) F. ovata - F. japonica - F. viridissima, and 4) F. koreana - F. manshurica - F. saxatilis. The amount of support for each monophyletic group was evaluated by various methods including character number, decay analysis, parsimony bootstrapping, Neighbour-Joining (NJ) bootstrapping, NJ-jackknifing, and the topology-dependent permutation tail probability (T-PTP) test. The data do not support the hybrid ...
Previous studies of Veronica and related genera were weakly supported by molecular and paraphyletic taxa. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of V. nakaiana and the related species V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum. The chloroplast genome length of V. nakaiana, V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum ranged from 150,198 bp to 152,930 bp. A total of 112 genes comprising 79 protein coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes were observed in three chloroplast genomes. The total number of SSRs was 48, 51 and 53 in V. nakaiana, V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum, respectively. Two SSRs (10 bp of AT and 12 bp of AATA) were observed in the same regions (rpoC2 and ndhD) in three chloroplast genomes. A comparison of coding genes and non-coding regions between V. nakaiana and V. persica revealed divergent sites, with the greatest variation occurring petD-rpoA region. The complete chloroplast genome sequence information regarding the three Veroniceae will be helpful for elucidating
Networks of the combined cpDNA sequence (A), nDNA SmHP (B), and nDNA RPB1 (C) haplotypes of studied Cycas species. Each circle represents one haplotype. The siz
THE evolutionary significance of natural hybridization has been debated for decades (Mayr 1942; Anderson 1949; Harrison 1993; Arnold 1997). At one extreme, it has been argued that natural hybridization is an evolutionary dead end due to formation of inviable and/or infertile hybrids (Mayr 1942; Barton and Hewitt 1985, 1989). At the other extreme, it has been suggested that natural hybridization may lead to new evolutionary lineages due to formation of relatively fit hybrids that expand into novel habitats (Anderson 1948; Arnold 1997; Ellstrand and Schierenbeck 2000; Bleeker 2003). A third potential evolutionary outcome is expansion of an intermixed form within the resident progenitors habitat, in which case the degree of mixing between hybridizing forms may range from formation of a hybrid swarm to genetic assimilation of one form by the other (Childs et al. 1996; Rhymer and Simberloff 1996; Perry et al. 2001). Natural hybridization and introgression have been reported in a growing number of ...
In the present study, we have assessed the diversity of mtDNA and cpDNA in addition to the phylogenetic relationships between Prunus genotypes that might be helpful for identifying populations and their relationships [34]. Information on polymorphic DNA in organelle genomes is necessary for evolutionary investigations [23,35]. Though, it is demanding to perform high-throughput analysis on mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA polymorphisms [36,37]. Researchers in the past have used numerous non-coding cpDNA regions to obtain adequate characters for phylogenetic resolution [38-40]. At low taxonomic levels, some non-coding cpDNA regions might show sufficient variation for phylogenetic resolution while others did not [41,42]. The genetic diversity explained by SSR markers in the studied genotypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.85 which is quite acceptable. Our results showed that there is a complete association between Cherry and plum genotypes in both mtSSR and cpSSRs, though there is a low similarity index of ...
1. Arabis alpina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 664. 1753. Arabis alpina var. glabrata A. Blytt. Perennials; (stoloniferous, with vegetative rosettes, loosely cespitose to somewhat pulvi-nate); sparsely to moderately pubescent, trichomes stalked, cruciform, stellate, mixed with simple and forked-stalked ones. Stems usually simple from base, erect to ascending, often branched proximally, (0.6-) 1-2(-2.5) dm. Basal leaves: petiole 0-1 cm; blade spatulate, oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate, (0.4-)1-4(-5) cm × (3-)6-15(-20) mm, margins dentate to denticulate, apex obtuse or acute, surfaces usually pubescent, rarely subglabrate, trichomes stellate with simple rays. Cauline leaves 3-5(-6); blade oblong or ovate, 1-3 cm × 5-15 mm, base subcordate or auriculate, margins usually dentate, rarely subentire, apex acute or obtuse. Racemes simple, (lax). Fruiting pedicels ascending to divaricate, 4-10(-12) mm. Flowers: sepals oblong, 2.5-4(-4.7) × 1-2 mm, lateral pair conspicuously saccate basally; petals white, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic Divergence and Biogeographical Patterns in Amentotaxus argotaenia Species Complex. AU - Ge, Xue Jun. AU - Hung, Kuo Hsiang. AU - Ko, Ya Zhu. AU - Hsu, Tsai Wen. AU - Gong, Xun. AU - Chiang, Tzen-Yuh. AU - Chiang, Yu Chung. PY - 2015/3/4. Y1 - 2015/3/4. N2 - The Amentotaxus argotaenia (Taxaceae) species complex is comprised of four relict and endangered gymnosperms. Amentotaxus argotaenia and A. yunnanensis are scattered throughout South and Central China, and A. formosana, and A. poilanei are restricted to Taiwan and Vietnam. In the present study, we examined genetic divergence and biogeographical patterns in the species complex based on chloroplast DNA atpI-atpH and rpS16-trnK intergenic spacers, the mitochondrial DNA nad1 intron, and microsatellite markers. Genealogical analyses revealed systematic inconsistencies between organellar DNA markers, with paraphyletic species inferred based on cpDNA, versus a monophyletic A. formosana, and clustering of A. poilanei within A. ...
Abstract: The 81 accessions were detected by 15 nuclear SSR and 3 cpDNA markers. A total of 142 observed number of alleles were detected, and the expected homozygosty (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), Neis expected heterozygosity (Nei) of Chengbudong tea were 0.49, 0.62 and 0.62, respectively, suggesting Dong tea had a high genetic diversity. The STRUCTURE software was applied to the nSSR data to infer the genetic structure in the 79 Chengbudong tea accessions. When K=3, the Delta K value was maximized, but the five populations belonged to a mixed population without any clear genetic structure. F test showed that the inbreeding coefficient of Chengbudong tea was positive (FIS=0.177 5). Genetic differentiation coefficient FST was 0.034 5, indicating a low degree of differentiation and high gene flow (Nm=7.01). The aligned chloroplast DNA sequences of rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA were 473 bp, 704 bp, 320 bp in length. The polymorphic site percentages were 0.42%, 0.71% and 1.25%, respectively. A ...
Plant cells contain an internal clock (the circadian clock), which is able to regulate cellular processes so that they occur at the optimal time of day, causing a big increase in plant productivity. As chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis, their function is highly dependent on the daily changes in light environment.. It is thought that chloroplasts were originally free-living organisms that were incorporated into the cells of plants very early in plant evolutionary history. A result of this is that chloroplasts have retained some of the cellular machinery required to produce proteins from their own chloroplast DNA. An essential part of this machinery are sigma factors, and in present-day plants, they are encoded for by the cells nuclear DNA.. The researchers were able to show that the production of sigma factors is controlled by the plants clock. This enables the nuclear DNA to regulate the activity of chloroplast genes, and ensure that the production of proteins essential for ...
Does anyone have information concerning the possibility of Agrobacterium integrating its DNA into the genomes of plant organelles other that the nucleus (chloroplasts or mitochondria?). Thanks for any information you can give me. Brandt G. Cassidy Assistant Scientist Plant Biology The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation e-mail BGCASSIDY at noble.org ...
Word Scramble - English word CHLOROPLASTS: words that start with chloroplasts, words that end with chloroplasts, anagrams of chloroplasts, how to spell chloroplasts!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Cypripedium calceolus parviflorum is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from May to August. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Version 1 of The Plant List has been superseded.. This name is in version 1.1 of The Plant List, record kew-2645309, with some changes.. ...
Jansen, R. K., Raubeson, L. A., Boore, J. L., DePamphilis, C. W., Chumley, T. W., Haberle, R. C., Wyman, S. K., ,strong,Alverson, A. J.,/strong,, Peery, R., Herman, S. J., Fourcade, H. M., Kuehl, J. V., McNeal, J. R., Leebens-Mack, J., and Cui, L. 2005. Methods for obtaining and analyzing whole chloroplast genome sequences. In Molecular Evolution: Producing the Biochemical Data, Part B, pp. 348-384. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 ...
Jansen, R. K., Raubeson, L. A., Boore, J. L., DePamphilis, C. W., Chumley, T. W., Haberle, R. C., Wyman, S. K., Alverson, A. J., Peery, R., Herman, S. J., Fourcade, H. M., Kuehl, J. V., McNeal, J. R., Leebens-Mack, J., and Cui, L. 2005. Methods for obtaining and analyzing whole chloroplast genome sequences. In Molecular Evolution: Producing the Biochemical Data, Part B, pp. 348-384. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 ...
Benvenuto in La Gallery di qTp. Ritratto - L espressione in una foto, un piccolo spazio per raccontare molto. Immagini: Elena, Ritratto nascosto, Il pescatore, Elena, Opera di Pechino, Giorgia, Bravi Ragazzi, sguardi, Backstage, per sempre, twin, caff parigino, She is..., Alessandra 2, Mom !, Alessandra, Autoritratto notturno, Distrazione, Gio...
About Chloroplast Definition Chloroplast is an organelle unique to plant cells that contains chlorophyll, which is what makes plants green and is responsible for enabling photosynthesis to occur, so that plants can convert sunlight into chemical energy. It is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by
Import of chloroplast Omp85 homologs in vitro. (A) Chloroplasts isolated from pea seedlings were incubated with radiolabeled proteins indicated at left in the i
A garden picture of Arabis alpina (Alpine Rock-cress), In between is a deep red Aubrieta which is still keeping its eyes closed....:o(
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Chloroplast - Cellular components are the complex biomolecules and structures of which cells, and thus living organisms, are composed.
The specific name is without the a I.e. cespitosa not caespitosa . It applies to the other photo of C. cespitosa as well. (Sent: [email protected]) ...
TY - THES. T1 - Utilization of complete chloroplast genomes for phylogenetic studies. AU - Ramlee, Shairul Izan Binti. N1 - WU thesis 6484 Includes bibliographic references. - With summary in English. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Chloroplast DNA sequence polymorphisms are a primary source of data in many plant phylogenetic studies. The chloroplast genome is relatively conserved in its evolution making it an ideal molecule to retain phylogenetic signals. The chloroplast genome is also largely, but not completely, free from other evolutionary processes such as gene duplication, concerted evolution, pseudogene formation and genome rearrangements. The conservation of the chloroplast genome sequence allows designing primers targeting regions conserved well beyond species boundaries, and amplification of these targets. The small size together with their high copy number in leaf cells greatly facilitates chloroplast genome sequencing. In this thesis, chloroplast phylogenomics was conducted using complete ...
Oncidium is an important ornamental plant but the study of its functional genomics is difficult. Erycina pusilla is a fast-growing Oncidiinae species. Several characteristics including low chromosome number, small genome size, short growth period, and its ability to complete its life cycle in vitro make E. pusilla a good model candidate and parent for hybridization for orchids. Although genetic information remains limited, systematic molecular analysis of its chloroplast genome might provide useful genetic information. By combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and next-generation sequencing (NGS), the chloroplast (cp) genome of E. pusilla was sequenced accurately, efficiently and economically. The cp genome of E. pusilla shares 89 and 84% similarity with Oncidium Gower Ramsey and Phalanopsis aphrodite, respectively. Comparing these 3 cp genomes, 5 regions have been identified as showing diversity. Using PCR analysis of 19 species belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily, a conserved
Sporobolus helvolus is perennial halophytic grass of family Poaceae. It is important grass for arid ecosystem because of its value as fodder and as controller of desertification. In present study complete chloroplast genome of S. helvolus was sequenced. The size of chloroplast genome is 135410 bp with overall GC content 38.4%. It exhibited regular quadripartite structure with 80719 bp of LSC region, 14699 bp of SSC region and 39992 bp of total IR region. A total of 127 genes were identified, including 89 coding genes, 30 tRNAs, 8 ribosomal RNAs and 1 pseudogene (ycf15). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 14 other members representing major subfamilies of Poaceae and it clearly discriminate S. helvolus from other Sporobolus species.
The chloroplast DNA sequences of Megaleranthis saniculifolia, an endemic and monotypic endangered plant species, were completed in this study (GenBank FJ597983). The genome is 159,924 bp in length. It harbors a pair of IR regions consisting of 26,608 bp each. The lengths of the LSC and SSC regions are 88,326 bp and 18,382 bp, respectively. The structural organizations, gene and intron contents, gene orders, AT contents, codon usages, and transcription units of the Megaleranthis chloroplast genome are similar to those of typical land plant cp DNAs. However, the detailed features of Megaleranthis chloroplast genomes are substantially different from that of Ranunculus, which belongs to the same family, the Ranunculaceae. First, the Megaleranthis cp DNA was 4,797 bp longer than that of Ranunculus due to an expanded IR region into the SSC region and duplicated sequence elements in several spacer regions of the Megaleranthis cp genome. Second, the chloroplast genomes of Megaleranthis and Ranunculus ...
The locations of polymorphic sites between chloroplast genomes of 93-11 and PA64S were documented according to the nucleotide order of the 93-11 chloroplast DNA sequence. The oblique line (/) separates the corresponding variations of codons and amino acids in the involved genes between 93-11 and PA64S. Genes were annotated according to the published chloroplast genome (Hiratsuka, et al., 1989). The gene symbols in this table are as follows: ORF, open reading frame; rsp16, ribosomal protein S16; psbk, PSII K protein; rpoC2, RNA polymerase β′-subunit-2; atpA, ATPase α-subunit; rbcL, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit; rp120, ribosomal protein L20; psbB, PSII 47-kD protein; rp116, ribosomal protein L16; rps3, ribosomal protein S3; and ndhF, NADH dehydrogenase ND5. ...
Chloroplast DNA variation was studied in three evergreen Quercus species (Q. suber L., Q. ilex L. and Q. coccifera L.) from the Western Mediterranean Basin using PCR-RFLP. We studied five primer pair/enzyme combinations, four of them previously used in other European Quercus, obtaining a large number of haplotypes (81) grouped in three main types (suber type, ilex-coccifera I type and ilex-coccife ...
The aim of this study was to elucidate the introduction history of P. mugo in the unique landscape of the Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija by assessing its genetic structure and the genetic diversity. The individuals were sampled in 12 populations within an area of 3 km 9 50 km along the Lithuanian part of Kursiu Nerija. P. mugo was introduced over 200 years ago to prevent sand erosion by establishing a forest cover. Chloroplast DNA polymorphism of 220 individuals of P. mugo together with 18 P. sylvestris and 11 putative P. sylvestris 9 P. mugo hybrids was assessed by the aid of five microsatellite markers. The standard intra-population diversity indexes were calculated. The intra-specific variation between distinct morphotypes as well as the population differentiation within the most spread P. mugo ssp. rotundata morphotype was assessed based on the haplotype frequencies by hierarchical AMOVA, GST/RST test, UPGMA clustering and PCA methods. The genetic diversity of P. mugo in Kursiu ...
The spatial genetic structure of plant populations is determined by a combination of gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection. Gene flow in most plants can result from either seed or pollen dispersal, but detailed investigations of pollen and seed flow among populations that have diverged following local adaptation are lacking. In this study, we compared pollen and seed flow among 10 populations of sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) on the Park Grass Experiment. Overall, estimates of genetic differentiation that were based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and, which therefore resulted primarily from seed flow, were lower (average FST = 0.058) than previously published estimates that were based on nuclear DNA (average FST = 0.095). Unlike nuclear DNA, cpDNA showed no pattern of isolation by adaptation; cpDNA differentiation was, however, inversely correlated with the number of additions (nutrients and lime) that each plot had received. We suggest that natural selection is restricting ...
Mapped cpDNA restriction site characters were analyzed cladistically and the resulting phylogenetic hypotheses were used to test monophyly and relationships of the infrageneric classification of Lathyrus (Fabaceae) proposed by Kupicha (1983, Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 41: 209-244). The validity of previously proposed classification systems and questions presented by these classification schemes were explored. Two cpDNA regions, rpoC (rpoC1, its intron, part of rpoC2, and their intergenic spacer) and IR- (psbA, trnH-GUG, part of ndhF, and their intergenic spacers), were analyzed for 42 Lathyrus and two Vicia species. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplified rpoC and IR- products digested with 31 and 27 restriction endonucleases, respectively, resulted in 109 potentially informative characters. The strict consensus tree suggests that several of Kupichas sections may be combined in order to constitute clades. The widespread section Orobus and the South American section ...
CONIFER CHLOROPLAST GENOMES (NEARLY) SEQUENCED ????? To date a number of chloroplast genomes have been sequenced. A few years ago there were plans to sequence the entire chloroplast genome from a conifer. Has anybody got any news about what has been done to date in this regard? Id appreciate any information. peter sibbald at EMBL-Heidelberg.DE ...
Albach, D. C., P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis, and R. G. Olmstead. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of asterids based on sequences of four genes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88:163-212.. Backlund, A. and B. Bremer. 1997. Phylogeny of Asteridae s. str. based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to Dipsacales. Plant Systematics and Evolution 207:225-254.. Bremer, K., A. Backlund, B. Sennblad, U. Swenson, K. Andreasen, M. Hjertson, J. Lundberg, M. Backlund, and B. Bremer. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of 100+ genera and 50+ families of euasterids based on morphological and molecular data with notes on possible higher level morphological synapomorphies. Plant Systematics and Evolution 229:137-169.. Bremer, B., K. Bremer, N. Heidari, P. Erixon, R. G. Olmstead, A. A. Anderberg, M. K llersj , and E. Barkhordarian. 2002. Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels. Molecular Phylogenetics and ...
Toc34 is an integral protein in the outer chloroplast membrane thats anchored into it by its hydrophobic[48] C-terminal tail.[38][46] Most of the protein, however, including its large guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain projects out into the stroma.[46]. Toc34s job is to catch some chloroplast preproteins in the cytosol and hand them off to the rest of the TOC complex.[38] When GTP, an energy molecule similar to ATP attaches to Toc34, the protein becomes much more able to bind to many chloroplast preproteins in the cytosol.[38] The chloroplast preproteins presence causes Toc34 to break GTP into guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate. This loss of GTP makes the Toc34 protein release the chloroplast preprotein, handing it off to the next TOC protein.[38] Toc34 then releases the depleted GDP molecule, probably with the help of an unknown GDP exchange factor. A domain of Toc159 might be the exchange factor that carry out the GDP removal. The Toc34 protein can then take up ...
Friedl, T (1995). Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.). Journal of Phycology. 31 (4): 632-639. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02559.x ...
We have shown that chloroplasts of the green algae, C. reinhardtii, are capable of accumulating fully functional immunotoxin proteins that consist of an antibody-binding domain targeting the B-cell surface antigen CD22 and the PE40 toxin domain of exotoxin A. We produced two different types of immunotoxins, single chain and dimeric, and both accumulated as soluble functional proteins within algal chloroplasts. Producing a eukaryotic toxin in a eukaryotic cell was possible because chloroplasts have a prokaryotic-like translational apparatus that is resistant to the toxin and because proteins produced in the chloroplast stay in the chloroplast. A single PE40 molecule escaping the chloroplast should be able to inhibit protein translation in the algal cytosol, resulting in cell death. The survival of algae producing the immunotoxins demonstrates that chloroplasts sequester chloroplast-produced proteins completely within the chloroplast. In addition to sequestering the toxin, allowing the production ...
The subspecies of Physaria kingii (S. Watson) OKane and Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae) have historically been a difficult group to delimit taxonomically based on morphology, geography, and ecology. The taxa have been moved between genera as well among varieties, subspecies, and full species many times over. This study addressed the systematics relationships of the subspecies of P. kingii using a combination of molecular (both nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences), morphological, geographical, and ecological data. Three non-coding DNA regions were chosen: the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the chloroplast rps intron and the chloroplast ndhC-trnV intergenic spacer. Eighty-seven aligned sequences in total were selected and networks were constructed using SplitsTree for exploratory data analyses to identify any genealogical discordance for each of the regions in addition to a combined chloroplast region. With the prior knowledge of possible hybridization among P. k. subsp
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites constitute a countable portion of genomes. However, the significance of SSRs in organelle genomes has not been completely understood. The availability of organelle genome sequences allows us to understand the organization of SSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In the current study, the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of different taxa of plants were surveyed. The present study only focused on different authors’ investigations and conclusions made based on their results in relation to the different plants. This study helps the researchers to know the different structures of plant genomes, improves the understanding of existing genomes and helps to find newer genomes. Key words: Chloroplast, mitochondria, simple sequence repeats (SSRs), microsatellites, plants.  
Postglacial migration is a major factor responsible for the patterns of genetic variation we see in natural populations. Fossil pollen data indicate that early postglacial colonists such as oak, were able to take both western and eastern migration routes into Britain. Analysis at a finer level is now permitted by the use of modern molecular techniques. A 13-bp duplication in the chloroplast tRNALeul intron occurs in natural populations of East Anglian oaks, but is not found in other parts of Britain or from mainland Europe. The distribution of this marker suggests that the mutation occurred either in southern England, or during migration from the mainland, and became fixed in a source population from which East Anglia was colonized. Planting of non-native trees for roadside boundaries and in the grounds of old houses and estates, explains the absence of the marker from some East Anglian oaks.. ...
Substitutions occurring in noncoding sequences of the plant chloroplast genome violate the independence of sites that is assumed by substitution models in molecular evolution. The probability that a substitution at a site is a transversion, as opposed to a transition, increases significantly with in …
a . This natural process is driven by the continual thermal vibrations of atoms in DNA. Just as marbles in a vibrating container always try to find lower positions, vibrating atoms tend to reorganize into arrangements with lower energies. Thus, DNA tends to form less-energetic compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide.. b . Bryan Sykes, The Past Comes Alive, Nature, Vol. 352, 1 August 1991, pp. 381-382.. u Many scientists still consider this idea [that DNA could last longer than 10,000 years] far fetched, but Poinar points out that not long ago few people believed any ancient DNA could be sequenced. When we started, we were told that we were crazy, he says. Kathryn Hoppe, Brushing the Dust off Ancient DNA, Science News, Vol. 142, 24 October 1992, p. 281.. c . Ewen Callaway, Hominin DNA Baffles Experts, Nature, Vol. 504, 5 December 2013. pp. 16-17.. d . Edward M. Golenberg et al., Chloroplast DNA Sequence from a Miocene Magnolia Species, Nature, Vol. 344, 12 April 1990, pp. ...
Chloroplasts are organelles that take light energy and convert it into chemical energy. A chloroplast has a double membrane, the inner and outer membranes. The inner thylakoid membrane traps the light energy. Inside the inner membrane are stacks of grana, and surrounding the grana is a fluid known as stroma. Chloroplasts, which are contained in chlorophyll, contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which traps light energy and make leaves and stems green. The chemical energy that is captured by the chloroplasts is stored in sugar molecules until they are broke down. ...
Gattingers Agalinis (Agalinis gattingeri) is listed as Endangered on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). It is a slender plant that is typically less than 15 cm tall with an olive-green stem. It flowers for only one day before the pale pink flowers fall off of the plant, making it difficult to otherwise identify. It is an annual plant that must go through an entire life cycle from germination and seedling establishment to seed-set and dispersal all in one season. As a result, this species may be present and abundant in some years, but sparse or undetectable in other years.
Scientists found DNA in two undersea sediment drill cores from the Bering Sea.1 The researchers thought the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) must have come from near-surface light-gathering organisms like diatoms, and not mud-dwelling organisms like bacteria. Discovering cpDNA from dead diatoms near the top of the seafloor presents no challenge, but these researchers found it hundreds of meters down. Long-age believers insist that hundreds of meters of sediment require at least hundreds of thousands of years to deposit. Given that DNA degrades relatively quickly, the team faced the significant challenge of explaining how DNA could persist long enough to get buried beneath that much sediment.. In the journal Geology, the three scientists described the DNA samples that came from various depths. Other researchers gave each an assigned age of over a million years.1 DNA is not supposed to last that long. Not even close.. The trio referenced a 2012 report led by Morten Allentoft, now with the Natural History ...
The Presto™ 96 Well Plant Genomic DNA Extraction Kit is designed for high-throughput purification of total DNA (including genomic DNA, mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA) from various plant species. Homogenized samples are treated with RNase A then centrifuged to remove cell debris and salt precipitates.
Hassler, M. 2018. Anchusa. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World (2019). In: Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi, J., Penev L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 1. circumscribes Anchusa s.s ...
Send resumes to **[email protected] ,[email protected],/[email protected]com ,[email protected],* Position: QTP Tester. Location: Houston, TX. Duration: Long-term. *Need QTP Tester with 5-6 Years Experience, Should have working experience on loadrunner also. * *Thanks,* *Sai* -- You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups REQSRESUMES group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to [email protected] To post to this group, send email to [email protected] Visit this group at https://groups.google.com/group/reqsresumes. For more options, visit https://groups.google.com/d/optout ...
A chloroplast is a structure in plants that is where photosynthesis happens. Chloroplasts are made of membranes, chlorophyll, and...
A chloroplast is a structure in plants that is where photosynthesis happens. Chloroplasts are made of membranes, chlorophyll, and...
Evolution of Chloroplast J Proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Chris Taylor at Catalogue of Organisms has an absolutely stunning review of the origin of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. Its so good I thought it was from Elio Schaechters blog Small Things Considered when it first popped up in my reader - higher praise there is not.
Our group had to perform the experiment twice because of inaccurate data. The first time we ran the experiment, the percent transmittance jumped well past 100% for several cuvettes at the 0 minute mark, which is clearly inaccurate. After having the chloroplast added to the rest of the solution for less than a minute, there shouldnt be that strong of the ratio of intensity of the light that has passed through the sample to the intensity of the light when it entered the sample. This led us to believe that our data was not correct. We believe that the solutions were using up the chloroplast too fast, causing the unreliable data. However, after performing the experiment a second time, we received more accurate data, especially since we deluded the chloroplast with one drop of water per one drop of chloroplast. In cuvette one there was no DPIP added. The data stayed at zero the whole time. Photosynthesis was not able to take place then because there was nothing to act as an electron acceptor, ...
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Ortiz, S., Carbajal, R., Serrano, M., Rodríguez-Oubiña, J. & Iglesias, I. 2013. Phylogeny of the African Mutisieae sl (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequences (cpDNA). Taxon 62(3): 525-536. doi: 10.12705/623.11 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page ...
In 2010, a study of four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers showed that part of Clerodendrum was closer to the New world genera ... Inferred from Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 22 (2): 229-243. doi:10.2307/2419455. JSTOR 2419455. Dorothy A. Steane; ... and other Ajugoid genera inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 32 (1 ... In 2004, a study of DNA sequences showed that the monospecific Australian genus Huxleya was embedded in a clade of Clerodendrum ...
David J. Bogler and Beryl B. Simpson (1995). "A Chloroplast DNA Study of the Agavaceae". Systematic Botany. 20 (2): 191-205. ...
Poaceae: Chloridoideae): Chloroplast DNA and Total Evidence". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 84 (4): 841. doi:10.2307 ...
ISBN 978-0-00-220212-1. Possingham, J.V.; Rose, R.J. (May 18, 1976). "Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis in ... ISBN 978-0-300-08295-1. Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G.C. (January 1993). "DNA Replication in Chloroplasts". Journal of Cell Science ... have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed ... Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a (as well as its plant and green ...
Niu, Ying-Feng; Liu, Jin (2020). "Complete chloroplast genome of Helicia nilagirica Bedd. and its phylogenetic analysis". ... Mitochondrial DNA Part B. 5 (1): 342-3. doi:10.1080/23802359.2019.1703587. PMC 7748602. PMID 33366548. Retrieved 18 January ... A study of the complete chloroplast genome suggest that the plant could be useful as rootstock or gene donor for the nut-crop ...
In Amphidinium, the chloroplast genome is made of minicircles that encode chloroplast proteins. Minicircles are small (~4kb) ... Kay, M.A., He, C.-Y, Chen, Z.-H. (2010). "A robust system for production of minicircle DNA vectors". Nature Biotechnology. 28 ( ... Barbrook, Adrian C.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Howe, Christopher J. (2014). "The Chloroplast Genome of a Symbiodinium sp. Clade ... Typical transgene delivery methods involve plasmids, which contain foreign DNA.) The smaller size of minicircles also extends ...
based on morphological anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data". Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 122 (4): 279-300. doi:10.1111/j.1095- ... 8339.1996.tb02077.x. Zhang; Chi (2019). "The complete chloroplast genome of Peganum harmala". Mitochondrial DNA Part B. 4 (1): ... "Classification and differentiation of the genus Peganum indigenous to China based on chloroplast trnL‐F and psbA‐trnH sequences ...
Chloroplast and nuclear DNA exchanges among Begonia sect. Baryandra species(Begoniaceae) from Palawan Island,Philippines, and ... "Chloroplast and nuclear DNA exchanges among Begonia sect. Baryandra species (Begoniaceae) from Palawan Island, Philippines, and ...
... phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA sequences. Harvard Papers in Botany 6:481-499. Donoghue, M. J., C. D. Bell, & R. ...
Hughes M, Peng CI, Lin CW, Rubite RR, Blanc P, Chung KF (2018-05-02). "Chloroplast and nuclear DNA exchanges among Begonia sect ... Chloroplast and nuclear DNA exchanges among Begonia sect. Baryandra species(Begoniaceae) from Palawan Island,Philippines, and ...
Hughes M, Peng CI, Lin CW, Rubite RR, Blanc P, Chung KF (2018-05-02). "Chloroplast and nuclear DNA exchanges among Begonia sect ...
2001). Chloroplast DNA phylogeny and biogeography of Lepidium (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 88(11), 2051-63. ...
Chloroplast Chloroplast DNA RuBisCO NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone) Neyland, Ray; Lowell E. Urbatsch (1996). "The ndhF ... Its DNA fragment resides in the small single-copy region of the chloroplast genome, and is thought to encode a hydrophobic ... "Highly Variable Chloroplast Markers for Evaluating Plant Phylogeny at Low Taxonomic Levels and for DNA Barcoding". PLoS ONE. 7 ... The chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase F (ndhF) gene is found in all vascular plant divisions and is highly conserved. ...
More recently, a 2004 phylogenetic study, analyzing chloroplast DNA, confirmed a link with M. cervina, placing them in a sub- ... Bunsawat, Jiranan (2002). "Mentha (Lamiaceae) Phylogenetic Analysis Using Chloroplast TRNL-TRNF and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS ... Evidence from Chloroplast DNA Sequences". Systematic Botany. 29 (4): 959-964. doi:10.1600/0363644042450973. ISSN 0363-6445. ...
Chloroplast and ribosomal DNA sequence analysis in 2011 supported monophyly with two clades, one of which includes some North ... These results were supported by extensive chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nrDNA sequencing which departed from prior morphological ... Dracunculus (Asteraceae) based on ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences". Taxon. 60 (3): 691-704. doi:10.1002/tax.603006. ... Based on Chloroplast DNA Restriction Site Variation". Systematic Botany. American Society of Plant Taxonomists. 24 (1): 69-84. ...
Generic limits in Rhamnus L. s.l. (Rhamnaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence phylogenies. Archived 2011-08 ...
Evidence from Chloroplast DNA Sequences". Systematic Botany. 29 (4): 959-64. doi:10.1600/0363644042450973. JSTOR 25064024. ...
Evidence from Chloroplast DNA Sequences". Systematic Botany. 29 (4): 959-964. doi:10.1600/0363644042450973. JSTOR 25064024. ...
Asteraceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence data". Taxon 58(3):871-882. Vicki A. Funk and Raymund Chan. 2008 ... It was based on molecular phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. In this study, all of Roessler's ...
He continued work on the phylogeny of Clarkia, using restriction site mapping of chloroplast DNA and then in 1996 Ford and ... Systma, K. J.; Gottlieb, L. D. (1986). "Chloroplast DNA evidence for the origin of the genus Heterogaura from a species of ... Subsequent studies confirmed a sister species relationship using chloroplast DNA as well as nucleotide sequences of the gene ... It wasn't until 1986 that he applied a newer molecular technique: chloroplast DNA variation using Restriction fragment length ...
1991 - Edgard T. Wherry Award of the Botanical Society of America for the article Phylogenetic implications of chloroplast DNA ... "Phylogenetic Implications of Chloroplast DNA Variation in the Cyatheaceae. I.". Systematic Botany. 19 (1): 60-72. doi:10.2307/ ... "Structural rearrangements of the chloroplast genome provide an important phylogenetic link in ferns". Proceedings of the ... Phylogenetic distribution in vascular plants and DNA sequence from Polystichum acrostichoides (Pteridophyta) and Synechococcus ...
March 1998). "Chloroplast DNA characters, phylogeny, and classification of Lathyrus (Fabaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 85 ...
Bunsawat, Jiranan (2002). "Mentha (Lamiaceae) Phylogenetic Analysis Using Chloroplast TRNL-TRNF and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS ... Evidence from Chloroplast DNA Sequences". Systematic Botany. 29 (4): 959-964. doi:10.1600/0363644042450973. ISSN 0363-6445. ...
Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (seed and DNA stocks) Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (seed and DNA stocks) A. ... A. thaliana was used extensively in the study of the genetic basis of phototropism, chloroplast alignment, and stomal aperture ... The breakthrough year for A. thaliana as a model plant was 1986, in which T-DNA-mediated transformation and the first cloned A ... "T-DNA Express: Arabidopsis Gene Mapping Tool". signal.salk.edu. "Eurasian Arabidopsis Stock Centre (uNASC)". arabidopsis.info. ...
2003). "Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data". Telopea. 10 (1): 235-246. doi:10.7751/telopea20035618 ... Hadiah JT, Conn BJ, Quinn CJ (2008). "Infra-familial phylogeny of Urticaceae, using chloroplast sequence data". Australian ... inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA regions". Taxon. 64 (1): 65-78. doi:10.12705/641.20.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
"The complete chloroplast DNA sequences of the charophycean green algae Staurastrum and Zygnema reveal that the chloroplast ... "Chloroplast gene organization deduced from complete sequence of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha chloroplast DNA". Nature. 322 ( ... Robbens S, Derelle E, Ferraz C, Wuyts J, Moreau H, Van de Peer Y (April 2007). "The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA ... Sugiura C, Kobayashi Y, Aoki S, Sugita C, Sugita M (September 2003). "Complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the moss ...
Rochaix, JD; Malnoe, P (1978). "Anatomy of the chloroplast ribosomal DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Cell. 15 (2): 661-670. ... I-CreI is a form of selfish DNA. Because I-CreI has evolved to cut such a long sequence of DNA, unlike restriction ... I-CreI has evolved to cut a 22-nucleotide sequence of DNA that occurs in alleles of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene that lack the I- ... In order to use I-CreI as a tool in this fashion, it is necessary to make it recognize and cleave sequences of DNA different ...
Evidence from Chloroplast DNA Sequences". Systematic Botany. 29 (4): 959-964. doi:10.1600/0363644042450973. ISSN 0363-6445. ...
It was based on 2 regions of chloroplast DNA. These were the rbcL gene and the intergenic spacer between the transfer RNA genes ... Only a sampling of more species and more DNA from each will determine whether these groups are monophyletic or not. ... Stellera, for example, is nested within Wikstroemia, at least (see the phylogenetic tree below). A recent comparison of DNA ... nuclear ribosomal DNA) were used. All of the clades that were strongly supported in the previous study were recovered with even ...
Plant of Taiwan". Wu, Chia-Chen; Ho, Cheng-Kuen; Chang, Shu-Hwa (July 2016). "The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum ... kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae)". Mitochondrial DNA Part A. 27 (4): 2681-2682. doi:10.3109/19401736.2015.1043541. ISSN 2470-1408. ...
This method was also used in Meselson and Stahl's famous experiment in which they proved that DNA replication is semi- ... The supernatant (suspension containing remaining organelles) is spun at a higher speed - chloroplasts settle out ... They used density gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after ...
... a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by the chloroplast DNA that tightly packs each chloroplast DNA ring into a ... Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum. Segments with labels on the inside reside on ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons.[10] Introns are common in chloroplast DNA molecules, ... Chloroplast DNA has long been thought to have a circular structure, but some evidence suggests that chloroplast DNA more ...
DNA Plant Technology (DNAP), Agritope and Monsanto developed tomatoes that delayed ripening by preventing the production of ... Genetic material can also be inserted into a tomato cell's chloroplast and chromoplast plastomes using biolistics. Tomatoes ...
DNA samples of Cyanobacteria?Edit. Would Wikipedia ever collect DNA samples of simple organisms like the Cyanobacteria? - ... Anything with a chloroplast is photosynthetic. Maybe that will do for now. [email protected] 06:05, 7 April 2007 (UTC). ... They are also considerad the ancestors of chloroplasts in plants and algae.. Narayanese 16:47, 30 November 2007 (UTC). Sadly, I ... "This organization closely resembles that of chloroplasts, which are believed to be derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. In ...
... not recognized by host spliceosomes because they are too small and therefore cannot be cut and later incorporated into host DNA ... Diagram of a four membraned chloroplast containing a nucleomorph.. Nucleomorphs are small, vestigial eukaryotic nuclei found ...
Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at ...
Early DNA-analysis showed that the Capparaceae-as defined at that moment-were paraphyletic, and it was suggested to assign the ... Hall, J.C.; Sytsma, K.J.; Iltis, H.H. (2002). "Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data". ... Current insights in the relationships of the Brassicaceae, based on a 2012 DNA-analysis, are summarized in the following tree.[ ...
Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Of Nuclear And Chloroplast Data Sets And A Revised Classification. - International Journal of ... Clade and a Clarification of the Phylogenetic Position of Bienertia and Alexandra Using Multiple DNA Sequence Datasets. - ...
... a comparison of chloroplast restriction site and DNA sequence data". American Journal of Botany. 86: 1014-1026. doi:10.2307/ ...
It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made transparent so the RNA and DNA can be ... Eukaryotic chloroplasts have an RNAP very similar to bacterial RNAP ("plastid-encoded polymerase"). Eukaryotic chloroplasts ... With the help of some other molecules, it makes messenger RNA from a strand of a DNA. This is its main function, but it does ... Herr A.J. et al (2005). "RNA polymerase IV directs silencing of endogenous DNA". Science 308 (5718): 118-20. doi:10.1126/ ...
... ramosum as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Retrieved 14 October 2015.. in Zeder et al (2006, Chapter 10. ... based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast rps16 sequences, focusing on the inclusion of species ... "Phylogeny and new intrageneric classification of Allium (Alliaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences" (PDF). Aliso ...
It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made transparent so the RNA and DNA can be ... Eukaryotic chloroplasts have an RNAP very similar to bacterial RNAP ("plastid-encoded polymerase"). Eukaryotic chloroplasts ... With the help of some other molecules, it makes messenger RNA from a strand of a DNA. This is its main function, but it does ... X-ray crystallography of DNA and RNA polymerases show that, other than having a Mg2+ ion at the catalytic site, they are ...
Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts (Aphanocapsa, Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Synechococcus, Gleoebacter, Prochloron). *Spirochaetes and ... The complete DNA sequence is known for many bacterial strains.. Shape[change , change source]. Bacteria vary widely in size and ... They do have DNA, and their biochemistry is basically the same as other living things. They are amongst the simplest and the ... Bacteria do not have sexes, but they do transmit DNA by several kinds of horizontal gene transfer. This is how they share ...
These estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts.[12] A DNA study published in Nature in 2018 concludes ... A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the ... Briggs, Helen (8 Feb 2018), "DNA Story of when life first gave us lemons," BBC, https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment- ...
... inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA: insights into evolutionary history and conservation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 ( ...
Evolutionary significance of the loss of the chloroplast--DNA inverted repeat in the Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae. ... Monophyly of aneuploid Astragalus: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. American J. Bot. ... A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of ...
Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts (Aphanocapsa, Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Synechococcus, Gleoebacter, Prochloron). *Spirochaetes and ... They do have DNA, and their biochemistry is basically the same as other living things. They are amongst the simplest and the ... Bacteria do not have sexes, but they do transmit DNA by several kinds of horizontal gene transfer. This is how they share ... All modern ideas start with the sequence analysis of DNA and RNA. In 1987, Carl Woese, the forerunner of the molecular ...
In wild-type S. cerevisiae, DNA damage rates increased 3-fold with age, but more than 5-fold in mutants deleted for either the ... Note that Cu-Zn SODs provide less protection than Fe SODs when localized in the chloroplast.[18][19][20] ... Superoxide is known to denature enzymes, oxidize lipids, and fragment DNA.[19] SODs catalyze the production of O2 and H2O2 from ... Iron or manganese - used by prokaryotes and protists, and in mitochondria and chloroplasts *Iron - Many bacteria contain a form ...
Main articles: RNA and DNA. The major difference between RNA and DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2'-position of ... This forces an RNA double helix to change from a B-DNA structure to one more closely resembling A-DNA. ... DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ... The overall structure of RNA and DNA are immensely similar-one strand of DNA and one of RNA can bind to form a double helical ...
... s with recombinant DNA are introduced into the media containing animal cells and are fused by polyethylene glycol ( ... Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of a mechanosensitive channel expressed in the chloroplasts of ... Bacterial spheroplasts, with suitable recombinant DNA inserted into it, can be used to transfect animal cells. ... PEG). With this methodology, nearly 100% of the animal cells may take up the foreign DNA.[11] Upon conducting experiments ...
Homologs of the recA gene, including rad51, play a key role in homologous recombinational repair of DNA during meiosis. A rad51 ... The potent chloroplasts in the dark-green shoulders of the U phenotype are beneficial here, but have the disadvantage of ... The u genetic mutation encodes a factor that produces defective chloroplasts with lower density in developing fruit, resulting ... "Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?". Journal of Experimental Botany ...
... based on three chloroplast DNA regions: patterns in the evolution of floral symmetry and extrafloral nectaries". American ...
Aðalsteinn Sigurgeirsson & Alfred E. Szmidt (1993). "Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications of chloroplast DNA variation ... DNA analyses have shown that traditional classifications based on the morphology of needle and cone are artificial.[6][7] A ... "Picea glauca chloroplast, complete genome". 3 December 2015.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help). ... The nuclear,[50] mitochondrial[51][52] and chloroplast[53] genomes of British Columbia interior spruce have been sequenced. The ...
However, the problem with this theory is that it is still not known how each organism's DNA could be incorporated into one ... Although such symbiosis is theorized to have occurred (e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts in animal and plant cells- ... Modern phylogenetics uses sophisticated techniques such as alloenzymes, satellite DNA and other molecular markers to describe ... separately replicating their DNA during mitosis of the host species. For instance, the two or three symbiotic organisms forming ...
... be co-located for redox regulation according to the CoRR hypothesis for the function of DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts. ...
... as well as manipulating DNA in processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. Some enzymes act on other ... chloroplasts, plasma membrane, etc. With the use of fluorescently tagged versions of these markers or of antibodies to known ... Proteins make up half the dry weight of an Escherichia coli cell, whereas other macromolecules such as DNA and RNA make up only ... Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; hence, there is some redundancy in the ...
Shaw, J.; Small, R.L. (2005). "Chloroplast DNA phylogeny and phylogeography of the North American Plums (Prunus subgenus Prunus ...
S. Indrioko; O. Gailing; R. Finkeldey (2006). "Molecular phylogeny of Dipterocarpaceae in Indonesia based on chloroplast DNA". ... "Phylogeny of the tropical tree family Dipterocarpaceae based on nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast RBCL gene". American ...
David J. Bogler and Beryl B. Simpson (1995). "A Chloroplast DNA Study of the Agavaceae". Systematic Botany. 20 (2): 191-205. ...
... a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by the chloroplast DNA that tightly packs each chloroplast DNA ring into a ... Chloroplast DNA has long been thought to have a circular structure, but some evidence suggests that chloroplast DNA more ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons. Introns are common in chloroplast DNA molecules, while ... image Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum. Segments with labels on the inside reside ...
integration into chloroplast DNA. Brandt Cassidy bgcassidy at noble.org Thu Feb 1 17:29:20 EST 1996 *Previous message: (none) ... Does anyone have information concerning the possibility of Agrobacterium integrating its DNA into the genomes of plant ... organelles other that the nucleus (chloroplasts or mitochondria?). Thanks for any information you can give me. Brandt G. ...
... Felix Bast,1 Pooja Rani,1 and ... N. Fujii, N. Tomaru, K. Okuyama, T. Koike, T. Mikami, and K. Ueda, "Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Fagus crenata (Fagaceae) ... D. Grivet and R. J. Petit, "Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of the hornbeam in Europe: evidence for a bottleneck at the outset ... Six microliters of diluted DNA solution (containing 10 ng of genomic DNA) was added to each 25 μL reaction mix containing 2.5 μ ...
Identification of the A genome of finger millet using chloroplast DNA. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Chloroplast (ct) DNA sequence analysis using restriction fragment pattern was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships ... Identification of the "A" genome of finger millet using chloroplast DNA.. K W Hilu ... Identification of the "A" genome of finger millet using chloroplast DNA.. K W Hilu ...
Chloroplast DNA variation of northern red oak. *Finding a (pine) needle in a haystack: chloroplast genome sequence divergence ... Length polymorphism scanning is an efficient approach for revealing chloroplast DNA variation. Genome. 49: 134-142. Keywords. ... Phylogeographic and population genetic screens of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) provide insights into seedbased gene flow in ... Length polymorphism scanning is an efficient approach for revealing chloroplast DNA variation. ...
Sequence analysis indicates that chloroplast genomes contain about 30 genes in addition to those listed here. Some of these ...
... of a portion of a fully dispersed chloroplast molecule showing typical DNA conformations. Platinum shadowed on carbon-mica ... Chloroplasts are the structures containing the green pigment chlorophyll and are largely found in most cells of green plants ... Keywords: biochemical, biochemistry, botany, chlorophyll, chloroplast, chloroplasts, deoxyribonucleic acid, dna, genetic, ... of a portion of a fully dispersed chloroplast molecule showing typical DNA conformations. Platinum shadowed on carbon-mica ...
The observed induction upon UV-stress as well as the endonuclease activity suggests plausible role of this protein in DNA ... UVI31+ in C. reinhardtii exhibits DNA endonuclease activity and is induced upon UV stress. Further, UVI31+ that normally ... localizes to the cell wall and pyrenoid regions gets redistributed into punctate foci within the whole chloroplast, away from ... Chloroplasts Is the Subject Area "Chloroplasts" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... Bharti Sarin,1 ... S. Panda, J. P. Martín, and I. Aguinagalde, "Chloroplast and nuclear DNA studies in a few members of the Brassica oleracea L. ... K. Yamane, N. Lü, and O. Ohnishi, "Chloroplast DNA variations of cultivated radish and its wild relatives," Plant Science, vol ... Evaluation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in wild relatives of crop brassicas is important for characterization of ...
Primer pairs amplify coding (exon) and non-coding regions (intron and intergenic spacer). They span the different chloroplast ... Chloroplast DNA sequences are of great interest for population genetics and phylogenetic studies. However, only a small set of ... Chloroplast DNA Is the Subject Area "Chloroplast DNA" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Chloroplasts Is the Subject Area "Chloroplasts" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... and for an unknown number of chloroplast-specific proteins. The rRNA genes are located within three tandemly repeated DNA ... Maize chloroplast 16S rDNA shows strong sequence homology with E. coli 16S rRNA13. Sequence analysis of a total spacer in E. ... 9). Total chloroplast tRNA hybridizes to fragments of rDNA9 and it was suggested that the 16S-23S spacer region contains tRNA ... We have therefore analysed E. gracilis strain Z 16S-23S spacer DNA at the nucleotide level, hoping this would allow ...
... Published version can be found at American ... Asmussen, C. B., & Liston, A. (1998). Chloroplast DNA characters, phylogeny, and classification of Lathyrus (Fabceae) [ ... Chloroplast DNA characters, phylogeny, and classification of Lathyrus (Fabaceae) Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir. ...
Ribosomal and chloroplast DNA restriction site mutations and the radiation ofRobinsonia (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) on the Juan ... Hasebe, M. andIwastuki, K. 1990.Adiantum capillus veneris chloroplast DNA clone bank: as useful heterologous probes in the ... Phylogenetic relationships inCrossostylis inferred from restriction site variation of chloroplast DNA. J. Plant Res.108: 87-92. ... Molecular phylogeny ofNothofagus (Nothofagaceae) based on theatpB-rbcL intergenic spacer of the chloroplast DNA. ...
... and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were examined in 41 populations representing five of the seven recognized species of the genus ... Angiosperms Asteraceae Robinsonia Adaptive radiation chloroplast DNA ribosomal DNA This is a preview of subscription content, ... Ribosomal and chloroplast DNA restriction site mutations and the radiation ofRobinsonia (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) on the Juan ... Palmer, J. D., 1986: Isolation and structural analysis of chloroplast DNA. - Methods Enzymol.118: 167-186.Google Scholar ...
Daniela Guicking, Brigitte Fiala, Frank R. Blattner, Ferry Slik, Maryati Mohamed, Kurt Weising, Comparative chloroplast DNA ... Spatial and temporal distribution of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in a tropical tree species. Authors. *. H. Caron,. ... S. Cavers, C. Navarro, A. J. Lowe, Chloroplast DNA phylogeography reveals colonization history of a Neotropical tree, Cedrela ... The level and the spatial organization of chloroplast DNA polymorphism were investigated in Dicorynia guianensis Hamshoff ( ...
chloroplast DNA;. IR,. inverted repeat;. LSC,. large single-copy;. SSC,. small single-copy. ... Complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences have been determined for five land plants (Marchantia polymorpha, ref. 1; Pinus ... The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: Insights into the architecture of ancestral ... The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: Insights into the architecture of ancestral ...
Paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA and maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in loblolly pine. * * NEALE D. B. ... Identification of Chloroplast DNA Haplotypes of Abies firma and A. homolepis Using a Polymerase Chain Reaction with Species- ... Paternal Inheritance of Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA in Interspecific Hybrids of Chamaecyparis spp. ...
Chloroplast DNA Polymorphisms, and Morphological Traits of Upland x Lowland Switchgrass Reciprocal Hybrids. by Crop Science; ... Chloroplast DNA and nuclear DNA content variations among cultivars of switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L. Crop Sci. 36: 1049-1052 ... DNA+Polymorphisms%2c+and+Morphological...-a078825771. *APA style: Meiotic Stability, Chloroplast DNA Polymorphisms, and ... Meiotic Stability, Chloroplast DNA Polymorphisms, and Morphological Traits of Upland x Lowland Switchgrass Reciprocal Hybrids. ...
The pale mutation, cosegregating with the hygromycin resistance marker of the T-DNA, was mapped to the position of the ch-42 ( ... T-DNA)-mediated insertional mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. ... was identified by transferred-DNA (T-DNA)-mediated insertional ... Isolation of a gene encoding a novel chloroplast protein by T-DNA tagging in Arabidopsis thaliana EMBO J. 1990 May;9(5):1337-46 ... DNA sequence comparison of the cs mutant and its wild-type allele revealed that the T-DNA insertion occurred 11 bp upstream of ...
Chloroplast-DNA Phylogenetics and Biogeography in a Reticulating Group: Study in Poa (Poaceae). Image. ... Chloroplast-DNA Phylogenetics and Biogeography in a Reticulating Group: Study in Poa (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany, 77( ... Chloroplast-DNA Phylogenetics and Biogeography in a Reticulating Group: Study in Poa (Poaceae). 1990. Retrieved from the ... Chloroplast-DNA Phylogenetics and Biogeography in a Reticulating Group: Study in Poa (Poaceae). Retrieved from the Digital ...
To analyze the phylogenetic relationship of lake cress, we investigated chloroplast DNA sequences from 17 plant species. The ... Molecular Phylogeny Determined Using Chloroplast DNA Inferred a New Phylogenetic Relationship of Rorippa aquatica (Eaton) EJ ... T. Nishizawa and Y. Watano, "Primer Pairs Suitable for PCR-SSCP Analysis of Chloroplast DNA in Angiosperms," Journal of ... To analyze the phylogenetic relationship of lake cress, we investigated chloroplast DNA sequences from 17 plant species. The ...
In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima) in Fagaceae were ... In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima) in Fagaceae were ... A low variation rate of the chloroplast genome, and complex speciation patterns involving incomplete lineage sorting, ... Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. However, ...
... chloroplast DNA trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer region, and partial chloroplast DNA ndhF coding region and ... Monophyly and Phylogeny of Schoenoplectus and Schoenoplectiella (Cyperaceae): Evidence from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA ... Monophyly and Phylogeny of Schoenoplectus and Schoenoplectiella (Cyperaceae): Evidence from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA ... Phylogenetic relationships were estimated using DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, ...
Decoupled mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA population structure reveals Holocene collapse and population isolation in a ... Range-wide variation was investigated using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) and paternally inherited chloroplast ( ... cpDNA) DNA markers. Among the 16 mtDNA regions analysed, only two mitotypes were detected, while the study of six cpDNA ...
... evidence from DNA sequences of single-copy nuclear and chloroplast genes description. ...
chloroplast DNA primers accD matK ndhC ndhD ndhF ndhG ndhl ndhJ ndhK petB petD rbcL rpoB rpoC trnT trnL 23S genetics/plant ... Primers for the amplification and sequencing of DNA fragments from chloroplast genes and non-coding regions are provided to ...
... for investigating the nucleotide binding proteome of mustard chloroplasts purified from cotyledons. We describe the technical ... for investigating the nucleotide binding proteome of mustard chloroplasts purified from cotyledons. We describe the technical ... cotyledons are a tissue that is particularly active in plastid gene expression in order to develop functional chloroplasts from ... cotyledons are a tissue that is particularly active in plastid gene expression in order to develop functional chloroplasts from ...
Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variability and phylogeny were studied via analysis of restriction site mutations and DNA sequencing in ... Chloroplast DNA variability and phylogeny in the California closed cone pines Public Deposited ... Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 20 populations in the complex were digested with 20 restriction enzymes and probed with ... 313 restriction sites were surveyed, accounting for 1.5% of the chloroplast genome. Twenty-four variable restriction site ...
"Study of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in the sunflower (Helianthus L.), Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Study of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in the sunflower (Helianthus L.). Study of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in the sunflower ... Study of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in the sunflower (Helianthus L.). Markin, N.; Usatov, A.; Logacheva, M.; Azarin, K.; ... Polymorphism of chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci in Russian potato cultivars. Martirosyan, E. V.; Ryzhova, N. N.; Kochieva, ...
In this review, the controversy regarding the preservation or degradation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) as chloroplasts develop ... The loss of DNA from chloroplasts as leaves mature: fact or artefact?. Submitted by Arnold J. Bendich on Mon, Oct 11, 2010. ... The loss of DNA from chloroplasts as leaves mature: fact or artefact?. ... These authors proposed that the observation of Arabidopsis chloroplasts with undetectable levels of DNA was an artefact, ...
  • Chloroplasts have their own DNA, often abbreviated as cpDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) replication has not been conclusively determined, but two main models have been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogeographic and population genetic screens of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) provide insights into seedbased gene flow in angiosperms, yet studies are frequently hampered by the low mutation rate of this genome. (usda.gov)
  • We show that screening universal chloroplast amplicons for length polymorphism provides an accurate and efficient method for identifying cpDNA variation. (usda.gov)
  • Evaluation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in wild relatives of crop brassicas is important for characterization of cytoplasm and also for population genetics/phylogeographic analyses. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variations can reveal genetic relatedness within and between wild and cultivated species [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Restriction site mutations in the chloroplast (cpDNA) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were examined in 41 populations representing five of the seven recognized species of the genus Robinsonia , which is endemic to the Juan Fernandez Islands. (springer.com)
  • We have determined the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence (200,799 bp) of Nephroselmis olivacea , a member of the class (Prasinophyceae) thought to include descendants of the earliest-diverging green algae. (pnas.org)
  • Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species ( Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima ) in Fagaceae were compared to explore universal cpDNA markers for the Chinese oak species in Quercus subgenus Quercus , a diverse species group without sufficient molecular differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Range-wide variation was investigated using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) and paternally inherited chloroplast (cpDNA) DNA markers. (gc.ca)
  • Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variability and phylogeny were studied via analysis of restriction site mutations and DNA sequencing in a complex of three closely related species of pines: Pinus radiata D. Don, P. attenuata Lemm. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 20 populations in the complex were digested with 20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir that comprise 85% of the chloroplast genome. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In this review, the controversy regarding the preservation or degradation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) as chloroplasts develop their photosynthetic capacity and leaves reach maturity is addressed. (washington.edu)
  • If the amount of cpDNA remains constant, then Arabidopsis is atypical and would not serve as a good model for chloroplast development. (washington.edu)
  • Thus, it is concluded that the controversy can be resolved, Arabidopsis can serve as a representative model, and cpDNA degradation is a common event in chloroplast development. (washington.edu)
  • C. reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga with two flagella (F), one cell nucleus (N), and a cup-shaped chloroplast (CP) surrounded by fibrous mitochondria (MT). The cpDNA and mtDNA are complexed with proteins to form nucleoids. (plantcell.org)
  • This hypothesis was supported by restriction-site analysis of chloroplast-DNA (cpDNA) variation which indicated that there had been at least three independent origins of tetraploids. (usu.edu)
  • We addressed the origins of two tetraploids (2n = 164), P. californicum and P. scopulinum, using allozymic data for 12 loci and restriction fragment analyses of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). (usu.edu)
  • Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was examined in 48 northern red oaks at 14 sites representing contrasting glacial histories and age structures within the state of Indiana in the United States. (usda.gov)
  • Fourteen cpSSR primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the Citrus chloroplast genome (cpDNA) and recoded with the prefix SPCC (SSR Primers for Citrus Chloroplast). (citrusgenomedb.org)
  • Here, we performed a molecular study at the population level to characterize genetic differentiation and decipher the phylogeographic history for Dipteronia species based on newly sequenced chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) date retrieved from our previous studies. (mdpi.com)
  • Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and isozyme data were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the 21 taxa comprising Helianthus sect Helianthus. (mendeley.com)
  • Each minicircle contains one to three genes, but blank plasmids, with no coding DNA, have also been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis indicates that chloroplast genomes contain about 30 genes in addition to those listed here. (nih.gov)
  • The rRNA genes are located within three tandemly repeated DNA regions of approximately 5.6 kilobase pairs each 6-8 and the arrangement of the structural genes within each repeat follows the prokaryotic pattern, being 5′-16S-23S-5S-3′ (ref. 9). (nature.com)
  • We have therefore analysed E. gracilis strain Z 16S-23S spacer DNA at the nucleotide level, hoping this would allow identification of tRNA genes together with the processing sites of the respective primary transcripts. (nature.com)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of 45 protein-coding genes common to all cpDNAs sequenced thus far, except those of Chlorella and Guillardia , indicates that the primary chloroplasts of glaucocystophytes evolved before the divergence of the red and green algae and that the secondary chloroplasts of heterokonts were derived from a red alga ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Transcript analysis during dark-light transition, in vitro protein transport assay, and the absence of DNA sequence homology between cs and known genes indicates that the light regulated expression of the cs gene results in the synthesis of a novel chloroplast protein. (nih.gov)
  • Primers for the amplification and sequencing of DNA fragments from chloroplast genes and non-coding regions are provided to facilitate molecular phylogenetic studies aimed at building a tree-of-life for the Asteraceae. (utexas.edu)
  • Using five trees to represent each major genetic group in the complex, 667 bp of the intergenic region between the chloroplast genes rbcL and atpB were amplified via the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We used DNA sequence data from three chloroplast genes to examine phylogenetic relationships among sections within the genus Agalinis Raf. (umd.edu)
  • Reflecting their origin, chloroplasts still resemble bacteria: they carry their own DNA and possess some of their original bacterial genes. (saps.org.uk)
  • Researchers have found, however, that most 'chloroplast' genes are no longer inside chloroplasts - during evolution, thousands of genes moved from chloroplast DNA to DNA in the cell nucleus. (saps.org.uk)
  • Chloroplast DNA contains genes that are involved with aspects of photosynthesis and other chloroplast activities. (britannica.com)
  • This region is more variable than other chloroplast loci that have been sequenced for members of Acanthaceae (rbcL and ndhF), is more prone to length mutations, and is less homoplasious than these genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Both cDNA and genomic clones for the nuclear genes encoding chloroplast (cp) (gapA and gapB) and cytosolic (gapC) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Arabidopsis thaliana have been isolated and characterized. (nih.gov)
  • This regulatory system supports a proposal for the selection pressure behind the evolutionary stasis of chloroplast genes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chloroplast genes retain prokaryotic genetic organization, and are transcribed from bacterial-type gene promoters by a eubacterial multisubunit RNA polymerase known as the plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP) [ 10 - 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As its name indicates, all subunits of the PEP, except its sigma factor subunit, are products of chloroplast genes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The sigma factor subunit of the PEP recognizes the bacterial-type gene promoters of chloroplast genes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Some chloroplasts also contain a second, phage-type single-subunit RNA polymerase known as the nuclear encoded polymerase (NEP), which transcribes DNA from distinct promoter elements found in some chloroplast genes [ 10 , 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation in plant chloroplasts was thought to occur only during their early development, when there is a global increase in transcription of chloroplast genes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This view, however, has to be abandoned in the light of a series of experiments showing robust transcriptional regulation of genes in mature plant chloroplasts [ 19 - 21 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The first such experiment was a demonstration that chloroplast genes respond to increasing light intensity by increasing their rate of transcription [ 19 , 22 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Increased global transcription of chloroplast genes in high light enables chloroplasts to keep up with an increased demand for components of the photosynthetic machinery as the rate of photosynthesis increases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Recent studies have identified several genes involved in blue light-induced chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • They equipped the nuclei of the two wild species N. benthamiana and N. glauca with genes that encoded a resistance to an antibiotic as well as the yellow fluorescent protein The cultivated tobacco, on the other hand, had chloroplasts that carried genes coding for a resistance to another antibiotic and a green fluorescent protein. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In this paper, we investigated 82 protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of G. biloba and identified 255 editing sites, which is the highest number of RNA editing events reported in a gymnosperm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In higher plants, RNA editing mainly occurs in the protein-encoding genes of mitochondria and chloroplasts and it mostly converts C to U, although hornwort and fern have abundant U to C editing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chloroplast genome of Gracilaria firma maps as a circular molecule of 187,001 bp and contains 252 genes, which are distributed on both strands and consist of 35 RNA genes (3 rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, tmRNA and a ribonuclease P RNA component) and 217 protein-coding genes, including the unidentified open reading frames. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chloroplast genome of G. firma is by far the largest reported for Gracilariaceae, featuring a unique intergenic region of about 7000 bp with discontinuous vestiges of red algal plasmid DNA sequences interspersed between the nblA and cpeB genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The group of 112 unique genes features 73 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, four rRNA genes and five conserved chloroplast open reading frames (ORFs). (peerj.com)
  • Notably, photosynthesis is crucially dependent on the coordinated expression of the chloroplast genome and genes that now reside in the cell nucleus. (eurekalert.org)
  • He had previously observed that chloroplast development was delayed and plant growth retarded when two genes that code for specific ion-transport proteins were deleted. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our experiments show that, in the absence of these ion transporters, certain RNA binding proteins that are encoded by nuclear genes are unable to bind to their target RNAs in the stroma of the chloroplasts," he explains. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chloroplast genes are often organized into operons and gene clusters, which are transcribed into precursor transcripts that undergo complex processing events including splicing and intercistronic cleavages (reviewed in references 35 and 49 ). (asm.org)
  • The ability to introduce altered genes into the chloroplast of the green alga C. reinhardtii presented the opportunity to test the in vitro results in an in vivo context. (asm.org)
  • Nucleus-encoded photosynthesis genes were co-expressed with their chloroplast-encoded counterparts potentially contributing to the higher photosynthetic performance in sporophytes compared to gametophytes where these co-expression networks were less pronounced. (uea.ac.uk)
  • It also contains ribosomes , although most of its proteins are encoded by genes contained in the host cell nucleus, with the protein products transported to the chloroplast. (bionity.com)
  • As the photosynthetic factory of the plant cell, the chloroplast contains its own complement of genes distinct from the comparably sized mitochondrial genome in the energy center of the cell or the much larger genome in the cell nucleus. (berkeley.edu)
  • The biologists will compare chloroplast genomes, as well as mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes, along with morphological characteristics to determine plant relationships among the more ancient plant groups such as the mosses, algae and ferns. (berkeley.edu)
  • But with organelles, either mitochondria or chloroplasts, we can pull out this bit of DNA that is physically separate from the nuclear genome and get this collection of homologous genes. (berkeley.edu)
  • This explains why they have their own 37 genes of DNA. (everything2.com)
  • The first complete chloroplast genome sequences were published in 1986, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) by Sugiura and colleagues and Marchantia polymorpha (liverwort) by Ozeki et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total chloroplast tRNA hybridizes to fragments of rDNA 9 and it was suggested that the 16S-23S spacer region contains tRNA coding sequences as is observed in Escherichia coli 10,11 and in spinach chloroplast 12 rDNA. (nature.com)
  • To analyze the phylogenetic relationship of lake cress, we investigated chloroplast DNA sequences from 17 plant species. (scirp.org)
  • Phylogenetic relationships were estimated using DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, chloroplast DNA trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer region, and partial chloroplast DNA ndhF coding region and parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses. (nysed.gov)
  • Phylogenetic relationships among Acanthaceae: evidence from noncoding trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, the availability of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Sect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study presented detailed sequences and structural variations of chloroplast genomes of Sect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intrageneric phylogeny of Capsella (Brassicaceae) and the origin of the tetraploid C. bursa-pastoris based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of these intron sequences alone, or in conjunction with plastid rpoC1 intron sequences for a subset of the taxa, using maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods, reveal a pattern of relationships within Apioideae consistent with previously published chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS based phylogenies. (illinois.edu)
  • Downie, SR , Katz-Downie, DS & Watson, MF 2000, ' A phylogeny of the flowering plant family apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA rpl16 and rpoC1 intron sequences: Towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily apioideae ', American journal of botany , vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 273-292. (illinois.edu)
  • The chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacer regions were sequenced and the sequences were used to design primers to amplify the microsatellites present within each region. (scirp.org)
  • We reconstructed a phylogeny of the family Apiaceae based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) DNA sequences available in GenBank and searched for microsatellite markers developed for taxa closely related to Falcaria vulgaris. (scirp.org)
  • When RNA molecules containing the IR sequences were incubated in spinach chloroplast protein extracts, they were correctly processed at their 3′ ends and the products were stable for several hours. (asm.org)
  • In 2004, a study of DNA sequences showed that the monospecific Australian genus Huxleya was embedded in a clade of Clerodendrum species that had formerly been placed in Volkameria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant DNA barcoding using chloroplast genome sequences" by Catherine J. Nock, Daniel LE Waters et al. (edu.au)
  • Assembly of chloroplast genome sequences from massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of total DNA circumvents PCR-based issues such as amplification and primer universality. (edu.au)
  • We present chloroplast genome sequences recovered from MPS of total DNA for a wide range of species including wild rice relatives, eucalypts and sugarcane. (edu.au)
  • The analysis of chloroplast genome sequences is rapidly becoming a simple, accurate and cost effective option for DNA barcoding and plant identification. (edu.au)
  • Boore said, however, that comparing DNA sequences directly may not be the best method, because the same mutation could show up more than once, throwing into doubt any conclusions about plants being from the same lineage. (berkeley.edu)
  • centre and right: FISH signals for repeat sequences on diagrammatic pachytene chromosomes: TGR1 purple, TGR4 blue, telomere repeat red, Cot 100 DNA (including most repeats) green. (nih.gov)
  • We assessed phylogenetic relationships among 29 Linum accessions representing 16 species, including cultivated flax and its progenitor pale flax, based on four non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA sequences. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of six species of Platanus were conducted to estimate species relationships and analyze biogeographic history. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • An analysis of DNA sequences indicate Geogenanthus is closely related to the genus Plowmanianthus followed by Cochliostema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic studies in the Commelinaceae subfamily Commelinoideae inferred from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts, contain their own DNA and reproduce autonomously. (reference.com)
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts also have double membranes. (blogspot.com)
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from ancient gram negative bacteria that entered into a symbiotic relationship with primitive eukaryotic cells. (blogspot.com)
  • The fact that mitochondria and chloroplasts descend from bacteria has been accepted for almost forty years. (blogspot.com)
  • In spite of all this evidence, there's still a persistent mythology about the origin of the double membrane in mitochondria and chloroplasts. (blogspot.com)
  • In 1960, at the International Congress of Cell Biology, I reported these observations, which strongly supported the old idea of endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts. (isciii.es)
  • Moreover, while editing rates in the two organelles are usually correlated, we observe uncoupled evolution of editing frequencies in fern mitochondria and chloroplasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the leaky mterf6-1 mutant, a defect in photosynthesis is associated with reduced levels of photosystem subunits, although corresponding messenger RNA levels are unaffected, whereas translational capacity and maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs ( rRNA s) are perturbed in mterf6-1 mutants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Comparative sequencing of the intron in chloroplast ribosomal protein gene rpl16 was carried out in order to examine evolutionary relationships among 119 species (99 genera) of subfamily Apioideae and 28 species from Apiaceae subfamilies Saniculoideae and Hydrocotyloideae, and putatively allied families Araliaceae and Pittosporaceae. (illinois.edu)
  • Separate phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, the 3 region of the second intron of LEAFY , and the chloroplast region trnT - trnL intergenic spacer provided various levels of resolution, and the combined data yielded a fully resolved set of relationships within subg. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, for carrying out such genetic and conservation studies, the first step is to assess chloroplast genome of wild brassicas for intergeneric/interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Sequence analysis of a total spacer in E. gracilis should demonstrate whether such similarities are also preserved in the chloroplast rDNA spacer region, or if this region has suffered a higher genetic drift rate. (nature.com)
  • Originally derived from a cyanobacterium-like ancestor ( Raven and Allen, 2003 ), chloroplasts have retained a reduced genome that predominantly encodes proteins involved in photosynthesis and organellar gene expression ( OGE ), while much of its genetic heritage now resides in the nucleus (for review, see Leister and Kleine, 2011 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In 2009, Ralph Bock and Sandra Stegemann discovered that genetic information stored in the green chloroplasts can be transferred to another plant by means of horizontal gene transfer. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The new chloroplasts had kept their entire genetic information and fully ousted the old ones. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Previous studies on morphological ( H aller 1986 ), isozyme ( L edig and C onkle 1983 ), and chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) ( W aters and S chaal 1991 ) variation in P. torreyana have shown that there is very little genetic variation present in the species. (genetics.org)
  • Evolutionary biologists think that RNA preceded DNA as genetic material. (reference.com)
  • Over millions of years, DNA supplanted RNA as a repository of genetic information. (reference.com)
  • DNA is a stable, double helix that functions in long-term storage of genetic material, while RNA is a reactive, single helix that transfers information. (reference.com)
  • The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers are commonly used for the genetic analysis of invasive plant populations particularly to predict the invasiveness of the introduced species, identify the source populations and help to design effective control programs for invasive species [6]. (scirp.org)
  • Chloroplast genomes: diversity, evolution, and applications in genetic engineering. (springer.com)
  • As a consequence, the processing and maturation of these RNAs (which are necessary for the transfer of genetic information from the chloroplast genome into stromal proteins) is inhibited. (eurekalert.org)
  • The dark spot in each of these cells contains genetic material called DNA. (thehappyscientist.com)
  • His studies of the structure of genetic material led him to be the first modern scientist to document the similarity, if not identity, between the nucleoids of cyanobacteria (then called "primitive plants", "Cyanophyceae", "cyanophytes" or "blue-green algae") and those of the chloroplasts of algae (e.g. (isciii.es)
  • Like mitochondria , chloroplasts contain their own genetic material (DNA) and they are believed to have evolved in a similar fashion. (everything2.com)
  • The chloroplasts of glaucocystophytes, red algae, and green algae are thought to be direct products of this primary endosymbiotic event, and secondary endosymbioses involving the capture of photosynthetic algae have been postulated for the origin of heterokont, cryptophyte, and euglenophyte chloroplasts ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Chloroplasts, like mitochondria , contain their own DNA , which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor-a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] On the thylakoid membranes are photosynthetic pigments , including chlorophyll a . [14] Phycobilins are also common cyanobacterial pigments, usually organized into hemispherical phycobilisomes attached to the outside of the thylakoid membranes (phycobilins are not shared with all chloroplasts though). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts evolved from photosynthetic bacteria living inside the primitive ancestors of plant cells. (saps.org.uk)
  • Chloroplasts are also found in photosynthetic tissues that do not appear green, such as the brown blades of giant kelp or the red leaves of certain plants. (britannica.com)
  • Photosynthetic electron transport regulates chloroplast gene transcription through the action of a bacterial-type sensor kinase known as chloroplast sensor kinase (CSK). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although chloroplast genomes are miniscule by eukaryotic standards, they encode some of the core proteins of the photosynthetic machinery [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chloroplasts are organelles whose main function is the photosynthetic fixation of carbon. (peerj.com)
  • Plant chloroplasts evolved from photosynthetic cyanobacteria, which were engulfed by a non-photosynthetic cell in the course of evolution. (eurekalert.org)
  • Deletion of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast atpB 3′ IR in strain Δ26 results in reduced accumulation of atpB transcripts and the chloroplast ATPase β-subunit, leading to weakly photosynthetic growth. (asm.org)
  • When the 3′ IR of the chloroplast atpB gene was deleted in strain Δ26, atpB mRNA became heterogeneous and unstable, and the resulting decrease in protein accumulation limited photosynthetic growth ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Many researchers think they evolved millions of years ago when the first eukaryote s developed from single-celled organisms that engulfed but did not digest a single-celled photosynthetic organism (the precursor to the chloroplast was probably something like a cyanobacterium ). (everything2.com)
  • Chloroplast (ct) DNA sequence analysis using restriction fragment pattern was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships between E. coracana subsp. (genetics.org)
  • Maize chloroplast 16S rDNA shows strong sequence homology with E. coli 16S rRNA 13 . (nature.com)
  • These sequence data support the view that all chloroplasts were derived from a single primary endosymbiotic event involving the capture of a cyanobacterium ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • DNA sequence comparison of the cs mutant and its wild-type allele revealed that the T-DNA insertion occurred 11 bp upstream of the stop codon. (nih.gov)
  • We used sequence data from the intron and spacer of the trnL-trnF chloroplast region to study phylogenetic relationships among Acanthaceae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bacterial one-hybrid screening, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal a specific interaction between mTERF6 and an RNA sequence in the chloroplast isoleucine transfer RNA gene ( trnI.2 ) located in the rRNA operon. (plantphysiol.org)
  • What is more serious is that the wild plants are hard to find, but little is known about the sequence diversity and structure divergence of their chloroplast genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequence comparisons between proteins of this family revealed that plant members possess extended N termini, which share features with chloroplast transit peptides. (plantcell.org)
  • We used chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) to examine whether there is any variation present in the chloroplast genome of Pinus torreyana (Parry ex Carrière) that may previously not have been detected using RFLPs. (genetics.org)
  • The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of Pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br. (springer.com)
  • A general characteristic of the 3′ untranslated regions of chloroplast mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. (asm.org)
  • For chloroplast genomes, the program selects the chloroplast reads from a whole genome sequencing pool, maps the reads to a reference sequence from a closely related species, and then performs read correction and de novo assembly using Sprai. (pacb.com)
  • Chloroplast DNA sequence data have played a critical role in the development of plant DNA barcodes. (edu.au)
  • Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology are providing opportunities for whole genome sequence comparisons. (edu.au)
  • Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of Citrus and closely related genera. (citrusgenomedb.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of indel distribution among the 19 genomes demonstrates contrasting evolutionary dynamics in different clades, with a parallel genome downsizing in two genome groups and a biased accumulation of insertions in the clade containing the cultivated cottons leading to large (for Gossypium ) chloroplast genomes. (iastate.edu)
  • The CSK-SIG1 system represents a novel, rewired chloroplast-signalling pathway created by evolutionary tinkering. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These results demonstrated high conservation in chloroplast and mitochondrial genome among Prunus species during the evolutionary process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • insights into evolutionary changes in fern chloroplast genomes. (springer.com)
  • As a result of this evolutionary event, chloroplasts possess two envelope membranes, and have retained functional remnants of their original cyanobacterial genomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing in fern chloroplasts and mitochondria follow disinct evolutionary pathways that are surprisingly different from what has previously been found in flowering plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Marmorata , and conducted the whole chloroplast genome comparison. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 18 ], which is based on RFLP of the whole chloroplast genome, Italy and south-eastern France appeared to have been colonised by one major haplotype. (paperity.org)
  • Access to the whole chloroplast genome will provide many more informative sites and has the potential to improve plant identification within and among even closely related species. (edu.au)
  • In primitive red algae, the chloroplast DNA nucleoids are clustered in the center of a chloroplast, while in green plants and green algae, the nucleoids are dispersed throughout the stroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we have now shown that the ion balance in the stroma plays a role in the exchange of regulatory information between chloroplasts and the nucleus," says Kunz. (eurekalert.org)
  • The material within the chloroplast is called the stroma, corresponding to the cytosol of the original bacterium, and contains one or more molecules of small circular DNA. (bionity.com)
  • Inside, a chloroplast is filled with a fluid called stroma. (prezi.com)
  • Inside a chloroplast, one finds a colorless gel called the stroma . (everything2.com)
  • The stroma contains starch particles, ribosome s, the organelle's DNA strands, and enzyme s. (everything2.com)
  • mostly those of land plants and green algae-glaucophytes, red algae, and other algae groups are extremely underrepresented, potentially introducing some bias in views of "typical" chloroplast DNA structure and content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chloroplasts have their entire chloroplast genome combined into a single large ring, though those of dinophyte algae are a notable exception-their genome is broken up into about forty small plasmids, each 2,000-10,000 base pairs long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar inverted repeats exist in the genomes of cyanobacteria and the other two chloroplast lineages (glaucophyta and rhodophyceæ), suggesting that they predate the chloroplast, though some chloroplast DNAs like those of peas and a few red algae have since lost the inverted repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though chloroplast DNA is not associated with true histones, in red algae, a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by the chloroplast DNA that tightly packs each chloroplast DNA ring into a nucleoid has been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of chloroplasts per cell varies from one, in unicellular algae, up to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Chloroplasts are only found in plants , algae , [11] and the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplast , structure within the cells of plants and green algae that is the site of photosynthesis , the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy , resulting in the production of oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds . (britannica.com)
  • A chloroplast is an organelle within the cells of plants and certain algae that is the site of photosynthesis , which is the process by which energy from the Sun is converted into chemical energy for growth. (britannica.com)
  • Chloroplasts are present in the cells of all green tissues of plants and algae . (britannica.com)
  • In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in cytoplasmic organelles known as chloroplasts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Phototropins also regulate blue light-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses and probably in green algae ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Florideophyceae which accommodates more than 6700 species of red algae [ 3 ] has only chloroplast genomes of 15 species published to date. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endosymbiotic theory holds that chloroplasts and mitochondria came about through the evolution of blue-green algae and bacteria through endocytosis. (reference.com)
  • in addition, minuscule (but essential) amounts of hereditary information occur in some cytoplasmic organelles (specifically, in chloroplasts for plants and algae, and in mitochondria for all eukaryotic groups). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although methylation of nuclear DNA has been studied extensively, little is known about the state and role of DNA methylation in chloroplast genomes, especially in marine algae. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis . (bionity.com)
  • In some algae (such as the heterokonts and other protists such as Euglenozoa and Cercozoa ), chloroplasts seem to have evolved through a secondary event of endosymbiosis, in which a eukaryotic cell engulfed a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with three or four membrane layers. (bionity.com)
  • Electron microscopic analysis showed a striking resemblance between chloroplast structure and cell organization of blue-green algae. (isciii.es)
  • Chloroplasts are a type of plastid found in algae and plants. (everything2.com)
  • Algae generally have only one or two chloroplasts per cell, but higher plant s can have more than a hundred per cell. (everything2.com)
  • Chloroplasts of the unicellular flagellate eukaryote Euglena gracilis contain several copies of a circular 135-140-kilobase pair DNA 1 which codes for chloroplast-specific stable RNAs (16S, 23S (refs 2, 3), 5S rRNAs 4 and tRNAs 5 ) and for an unknown number of chloroplast-specific proteins. (nature.com)
  • Odintsova, M. 2004-10-10 00:00:00 A comparative analysis of proteins from chloroplast nucleoids was performed in two higher-plant species (Pisum sativumL. (deepdyve.com)
  • Six DNA-binding proteins (12-18 kD) were detected in nucleoids fromCh. (deepdyve.com)
  • reinhardtiichloroplasts after in vivocovalent cross-linking between chloroplast DNA and proteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • as the maturation of chloroplast RNAs and their translation into proteins require a plethora of nucleus-encoded proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • More recently, we identified two proteins, Kinesin-like Protein for Actin-Based Chloroplast Movement 1 (KAC1) and KAC2, that are essential for chloroplast photorelocation movement and attachment to the plasma membrane ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Other proteins involved in chloroplast photorelocation movements have also been identified, including J-domain protein required for chloroplast accumulation response 1 (JAC1), which is involved in the accumulation response and dark positioning ( 11 ), plastid movement impaired 1 (PMI1) ( 12 ), and a long coiled-coil protein, plastid movement impaired 2 (PMI2) ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Leelavathi, S. & Reddy, V. S. Chloroplast expression of His-tagged GUS-fusions: a general strategy to overproduce and purify foreign proteins using transplastomic plants as bioreactors. (nature.com)
  • Upon disruption of the nucleoids with high concentrations of NaCl, a subset of these proteins and the majority of chloroplast DNA were recovered in the supernatant after centrifugation. (usm.edu)
  • They both have their own DNA that is separated from the nucleus DNA, and both also produce proteins and enzymes in order to function. (reference.com)
  • During interphase, the nuclear DNA is organized in a dispersed network of chromatin , which is a complex consisting of nucleic acid and basic proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Henning Kunz (LMU Biocenter), his group, and their collaborators have now demonstrated that proteins involved in ion transport in the inner chloroplast membrane participate in the regulation of gene expression in the organelle, therefore playing an important role in the control of photosynthesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • It also contains the organelle's DNA genome, and the ribosomes that synthesize the proteins which it encodes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Approximately 20% of the proteins found in the spinach chloroplast are encoded by the chloroplast genome and translated on chloroplast ribosomes. (pdx.edu)
  • They have the own DNA and ribosomes, and produce their own proteins-the Chloroplast knows what needs to be done, and does it! (prezi.com)
  • Since then, hundreds of chloroplast DNAs from various species have been sequenced, but they are[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. (hindawi.com)
  • As maternal inheritance of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes has been observed in Brassica species [ 3 ], evaluation of chloroplast genome diversity in wild brassicas can demonstrate the maternal lineage of related species [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A low variation rate of the chloroplast genome, and complex speciation patterns involving incomplete lineage sorting, interspecific hybridization and introgression, possibly have negative impacts on the species assignment and phylogeny of oak species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tihobaeva, V. 2015-08-21 00:00:00 The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • A strong candidate for a species-specific DNA marker was found. (vdu.lt)
  • Here, we selected the rare species of the genus Paris Section Marmorata H. Li to explore the chloroplast genome analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA sequencing was performed on up to 12 chloroplast DNA regions [giving a total of 4288 base pairs (bp) in length] from the allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica (48 accessions) and its two parental species, A. thaliana (25 accessions) and A. arenosa (seven accessions). (semanticscholar.org)
  • A unique recent origin of the allotetraploid species Arabidopsis suecica: Evidence from nuclear DNA markers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sexually incompatible species can exchange chloroplast genomes at graft sites. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Plant scientists were confounded by the fact that the DNA extracted from the plants' green chloroplasts sometimes showed the greatest similarities when related species grew in the same area. (scitechdaily.com)
  • They tried to explain this phenomenon, for which they coined the term "chloroplast capture" with the assumption that every once in a while those normally sexually incompatible species crossed and produced offspring with a new combination of nuclear and chloroplast genomes. (scitechdaily.com)
  • We found a completely identical version of the chloroplast genome from N. tabacum in the two other species. (scitechdaily.com)
  • When mitochondria, another cell organelle with an individual genome, are transferred across species barriers, the result is often a mixture of the donor and recipient DNA. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings are valuable to study the organelle DNA diversity in different species and genotypes of Prunus to provide in depth insight in to the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic relationships of ten wild species and several cultivars of Forsythia were reconstructed based on the chloroplast (cp) DNA variation. (elsevier.com)
  • Cross-species transferability of microsatellite markers and identification of chloroplast microsatellites using universal chloroplast markers for sequencing chloroplast region are options that can avoid high cost and long time needed for marker development [10,11]. (scirp.org)
  • Complete chloroplast (cp) genomes are useful for phylogenetic studies and species identification. (peerj.com)
  • In 2010, a study of four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers showed that part of Clerodendrum was closer to the New world genera than to other Clerodendrum, and that one species of Clerodendrum was nested within the clade of New World genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the mitochondrial locus CO1 is well accepted as an efficient DNA barcode for animals, no single locus has been identified that can discriminate between all plant species. (edu.au)
  • Ma, T (2016) The whole chloroplast genomes of two Eutrema species (Brassicaceae). (sussex.ac.uk)
  • In plants, photosynthesis takes place in intracellular 'factories' called chloroplasts. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chloroplasts are found in many parts of plants, but are mainly found in the mesophyll tissue of leaves, where photosynthesis takes place. (prezi.com)
  • A recessive pale mutation, designated as cs, was identified by transferred-DNA (T-DNA)-mediated insertional mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (nih.gov)
  • These authors proposed that the observation of Arabidopsis chloroplasts with undetectable levels of DNA was an artefact, although the most recent data support the original findings. (washington.edu)
  • Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mTERF6 is localized in chloroplasts and mitochondria, and its knockout perturbs plastid development and results in seedling lethality. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In chloroplasts of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , as many as six sigma factors are found [ 13 - 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we report that two Arabidopsis mutants, we ak chloroplast movement under b lue light 1 ( web1 ) and web2 , are defective in both the avoidance and the accumulation responses. (pnas.org)
  • Does anyone have information concerning the possibility of Agrobacterium integrating it's DNA into the genomes of plant organelles other that the nucleus (chloroplasts or mitochondria? (bio.net)
  • Plant chloroplasts are semiautonomous cell organelles of endosymbiotic origin that emerged from a cyanobacteria-like ancestor ( Lopez-Juez and Pyke, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chloroplasts are one of many types of organelles in the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • endosymbiotic theory posits that chloroplasts and mitochondria (energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells ) are descended from such organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Unlike most other organelles , chloroplasts and mitochondria have small circular chromosomes known as extranuclear DNA. (britannica.com)
  • Which of the following organelles contains no DNA? (bartleby.com)
  • The past decade has witnessed an explosion of our knowledge on the structure, coding capacity and evolution of the genomes of the two DNA-containing cell organelles in plants: chloroplasts (plastids) and mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells tend to be very small, have few or no cytoplasmic organelles, and have the cellular DNA arranged in a "nucleoid region" that is not separated from the remainder of the cell by any membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • SC.6.L.14.4 Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles. (thehappyscientist.com)
  • Chloroplasts are members of a class of organelles known as plastids . (bionity.com)
  • Chloroplasts are lens shaped organelles. (prezi.com)
  • Chloroplasts are semi-autonomous organelles, which grow and reproduce within the cell. (prezi.com)
  • While those other organelles might be good for the cell, Chloroplast is best because he takes care of the whole world, and without him, life couldn't exist. (prezi.com)
  • H. Nakayama, K. Fukushima, T. Fukuda, J. Yokoyama and S. Kimura, "Molecular Phylogeny Determined Using Chloroplast DNA Inferred a New Phylogenetic Relationship of Rorippa aquatica (Eaton) EJ Palmer & Steyermark (Brassicaceae)-Lake Cress," American Journal of Plant Sciences , Vol. 5 No. 1, 2014, pp. 48-54. (scirp.org)
  • To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome in this group, we performed a comparative analysis of 19 Gossypium chloroplast genomes, six reported here for the first time. (iastate.edu)
  • While studying DNA from plants' green chloroplasts, researchers at Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdamare discovered that a transfer of chloroplasts genomes can occur in contact zones between plants. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Now, scientists around Ralph Bock from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam discovered that a transfer of entire chloroplasts, or at least their genomes, can occur in contact zones between plants. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Kim, KJ 1999, ' Molecular phylogeny of Forsythia (Oleaceae) based on chloroplast DNA variation ', Plant Systematics and Evolution , vol. 218, no. 1-2, pp. 113-123. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to characterize the molecular markers, DNA samples were collected from eight populations in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota. (scirp.org)
  • With one exception (the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora ), all chloroplasts can probably be traced back to a single endosymbiotic event , when a cyanobacterium was engulfed by the eukaryote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts originated from free-living cyanobacteria, which established an endosymbiotic relationship with a eukaryotic host cell around 1.2 billion years ago [ 1 , 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • [2] In that they derive from an endosymbiotic event, chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria but chloroplasts are found only in plants and protista . (bionity.com)
  • Plant cotyledons are a tissue that is particularly active in plastid gene expression in order to develop functional chloroplasts from pro-plastids, the plastid precursor stage in plant embryos. (frontiersin.org)
  • A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid , characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll . (wikipedia.org)
  • A chloroplast is a type of plastid (a saclike organelle with a double membrane) that contains chlorophyll to absorb light energy. (britannica.com)
  • Chloroplasts are a type of plastid-a round, oval, or disk-shaped body that is involved in the synthesis and storage of foodstuffs. (britannica.com)
  • In vitro, recombinant mTERF6 bound to its plastid DNA target site can terminate transcription. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Hence, tight coordination of nuclear and plastid gene expression is required to ensure the development and maintenance of chloroplasts and their functionality. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Chloroplasts were lysed with alkaline sodium dodecyl sulfate, contaminating macromolecules precipitated with acidified potassium acetate and plastid DNA was purified by phenol:chloroform extraction and ethanol:ammonium acetate precipitation. (pdx.edu)
  • A nucleus-encoded DNA methyltransferase of the DNMT2 family is assumed to be responsible for the methylation of the chloroplast genome because it is predicted to possess a plastid transit peptide. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Length polymorphism scanning is an efficient approach for revealing chloroplast DNA variation. (usda.gov)
  • The level and the spatial organization of chloroplast DNA polymorphism were investigated in Dicorynia guianensis Hamshoff (Caesalpiniaceae) at different spatial and temporal scales. (wiley.com)
  • Chloroplast DNA polymorphism of 220 individuals of P. mugo together with 18 P. sylvestris and 11 putative P. sylvestris 9 P. mugo hybrids was assessed by the aid of five microsatellite markers. (vdu.lt)
  • The results revealed that mononucleotide repeats as well as insertions and deletions of small segments of DNA were associated with SPCC1 polymorphism, whereas polymorphism generated by SPCC11 was essentially due to the variation in length of the mononucleotide repeats. (citrusgenomedb.org)
  • Both chloroplasts and cyanobacteria have a double membrane, DNA , ribosomes , and thylakoids . (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting reduction in the numbers of functional ribosomes severely impairs chloroplast protein synthesis in these mutants," Kunz explains. (eurekalert.org)
  • The remainder are encoded on chromosomes in the nucleus, translated on cytoplasmic ribosomes and transported into the chloroplast. (pdx.edu)
  • They have their own 70S ribosomes and some of their own DNA. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The middle of the mitochondrion, called the matrix , contains small amounts of mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes . (everything2.com)
  • Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts are the structures containing the green pigment chlorophyll and are largely found in most cells of green plants that are exposed to light. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The first definitive description of a chloroplast ( Chlorophyllkörnen , "grain of chlorophyll") was given by Hugo von Mohl in 1837 as discrete bodies within the green plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the chlorophyll in the chloroplast is contained in the membranes of the thylakoid vesicles. (britannica.com)
  • Chloroplasts are green because they contain the pigment chlorophyll , which is vital for photosynthesis . (britannica.com)
  • Chloroplasts are distinguished from other types of plastids by their green colour, which results from the presence of two pigments, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b . (britannica.com)
  • Other pigments, such as carotenoids , are also present in chloroplasts and serve as accessory pigments, trapping solar energy and passing it to chlorophyll. (britannica.com)
  • No. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which is used in photosynthesis. (thehappyscientist.com)
  • Sometimes, chloroplasts can lose their chlorophyll and they then become chromoplast s. (everything2.com)
  • Chloroplasts are minute flattened granules, usually occurring in great numbers in the cytoplasm near the cell wall, and consist of a colorless ground substance saturated with chlorophyll pigments. (everything2.com)
  • Within each cell, Pi is transported between intracellular compartments, including chloroplasts/plastids and mitochondria, where it is assimilated via photooxidative and oxidative phosphorylation. (plantcell.org)
  • Palmer, J. D. , 1986: Isolation and structural analysis of chloroplast DNA. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of chloroplast rbcL mRNA revealed that transcripts extending beyond the mature 3′ end were not polysome associated. (asm.org)
  • A 13-bp duplication in the chloroplast tRNALeul intron occurs in natural populations of East Anglian oaks, but is not found in other parts of Britain or from mainland Europe. (edu.au)
  • [9] This origin of chloroplasts was first suggested by the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski in 1905 [10] after Andreas Schimper observed in 1883 that chloroplasts closely resemble cyanobacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are considered the ancestors of chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the chloroplast and cyanobacterium depicted are idealized versions (the chloroplast is that of a higher plant )-a lot of diversity exists among chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that both chloroplasts and mitochondria are descended from free-living cyanobacteria , which could explain why they possess DNA that is distinct from the rest of the cell. (britannica.com)
  • As evidence of their bacterial origin, chloroplasts contain functional genomes, which are nevertheless greatly reduced in coding capacity when compared with the genomes of free-living cyanobacteria [ 3 - 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This was first suggested by Mereschkowsky in 1905 [1] after an observation by Schimper in 1883 that chloroplasts closely resemble cyanobacteria. (bionity.com)
  • Chloroplasts have their own genome, which is considerably reduced compared to that of free-living cyanobacteria, but the parts that are still present show clear similarities with the cyanobacterial genome. (bionity.com)
  • Detection methods for intraspecific variation can be either direct (DNA sequencing) or indirect (PCR-RFLP), although no single method incorporates the best features of both approaches. (usda.gov)
  • Chloroplast DNA and Allozymic Variation in Diploid and Autotetraploid " by Paul G. Wolf, D. E. Soltis et al. (usu.edu)
  • 1990. Chloroplast DNA and allozymic variation in diploid and autotetraploid Heuchera grossulariifolia (Saxifragaceae) American Journal of Botay 77: 232-244. (usu.edu)
  • Chloroplast DNA Structural Variation, Phylogeny, and Age of Divergence" by Jonathan F. Wendel, Zhiwen Chen et al. (iastate.edu)
  • This lack of biological variation in the chloroplast genome of P. torreyana allowed us to estimate the mutation rates at cpSSR loci as between 3.2 × 10 -5 and 7.9 × 10 -5 . (genetics.org)
  • 18 ] recently analysed the variation of chloroplast DNA in Quercus ilex over its whole distribution range. (paperity.org)
  • Chloroplast DNA characters, phylogeny, and classification of Lathyrus (Fabceae) [Electronic version]. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This estimate is lower than published mutation rates at nuclear SSR loci but higher than substitution rates elsewhere in the chloroplast genome. (genetics.org)
  • W eber and W ong 1993 ) but to date there have been no figures published for mutation rates at simple repeat loci in the chloroplast genome-indeed, to date no SSR mutation rates for any plant genomes have been published. (genetics.org)
  • There has been considerable debate about the selection of the most suitable chloroplast loci, and the two-locus (matK and rbcL) plant barcode proposed in 2009 remains problematic for some plant groups. (edu.au)
  • The nucleus of the cell contains DNA. (thehappyscientist.com)
  • The nucleus' job is to keep track of the DNA, and organize everything we do here in the cell. (prezi.com)
  • Mitochondria have their own DNA,and just like the nucleus, they can mis-read it and cause diseases, like Leigh Syndrome, which can cause weakness and paralysis of the muscles and eyes, or even death. (prezi.com)
  • DNA storage takes up about 10% of the cell of both prokaryotes (nucleoid area) and eukaryotes (nucleus). (rationalwiki.org)
  • fautly Mitochondria DNA can deprive the nucleus of energy and lead to cancer and other diseases. (everything2.com)
  • [14] Though not forming a nucleus, the DNA is condensed in a nucleoid . (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction site mapping of chloroplast DNA. (springer.com)
  • Twelve different haplotypes were identified using restriction analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified fragments of the chloroplast genome. (wiley.com)
  • 313 restriction sites were surveyed, accounting for 1.5% of the chloroplast genome. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, its chloroplast (cp) DNA phylogeography was studied in Mesoamerica with samples from 29 populations in six countries. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • The chloroplast DNA was digested with restriction enzyme PstI and the fragments were cloned into the plasmid vector pUC9. (pdx.edu)
  • The photosystems are the functional units of photosynthesis where the initial light-driven electron transfer reactions take place [ 8 , 9 ], and their major protein subunits are always chloroplast-encoded [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chloroplast Unusual Positioning 1 (CHUP1), an actin- and profilin-binding protein, localizes to the chloroplast outer membrane ( 6 - 8 ) and functions in chloroplast photorelocation movement and attachment to the plasma membrane ( 2 , 6 , 7 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The 68 kDa DNA compacting nucleoid protein from soybean chloroplasts i" by Gordon C. Cannon, LN Ward et al. (usm.edu)
  • After purification of the 68 kDa protein to homogeneity, this protein was able to compact purified chloroplast DNA into a nucleoid-like structure in a protein concentration-dependent fashion. (usm.edu)
  • Addition of the 68 kDa protein to an in vitro chloroplast DNA replication system resulted in complete inhibition of nucleotide incorporation at concentrations above 300 ng of 68 kDa protein per mu g of template DNA. (usm.edu)
  • Localization of a PHT2;1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein indicates that it is present in the chloroplast envelope. (plantcell.org)
  • His long experience with comparative chromosomal cytology developed his acute awareness of the difference between the thin (2.5 nm diameter) all-DNA fibrils comprising the nucleoids of bacteria and the much thicker (10-30 nm diameter) protein-studded DNA that makes up the chromatin of animals, plants and nearly all other eukaryotes [2]. (isciii.es)
  • Only about 15 green plant chloroplast genomes have been sequenced, and even fewer mitochondrial genomes - about 10 - so our project will be a big step forward. (berkeley.edu)
  • Inverted repeat contraction of this section was inferred via comparing the chloroplast genomes with the one of P. verticillata . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative analyses of chloroplast genomes indicate that the typical quadripartite architecture and gene-partitioning pattern of land plant cpDNAs are ancient features that may have been derived from the genome of the cyanobacterial progenitor of chloroplasts. (pnas.org)
  • Plant boundaries of the T-DNA insert rescued from the pale mutant were used as probes for the isolation of genomic and full-length cDNA clones of the wild-type cs gene. (nih.gov)
  • Chloroplasts are highly dynamic-they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts circulate within plant cells. (britannica.com)
  • Researchers believe these findings will help scientists further understand of evolution and breeding of new plant varieties since the new chloroplast genome can be handed down to the next generation plants. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The new chloroplast genome can even be handed down to the next generation and, thereby, give a plant new traits. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The G. biloba chloroplast genome possesses the highest number of RNA editing events reported so far in a seed plant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A modified protocol for rapid DNA isolation from plant tissues using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (springer.com)
  • A study led by LMU plant biologist Hans-Henning Kunz uncovers a new role for ion transporters: they participate in gene regulation in chloroplasts. (eurekalert.org)
  • Berkeley - As biologists try to tease out the finer details of the green plant family tree, one key may lie in the cellular organelle - the chloroplast - that makes green plants green. (berkeley.edu)
  • The chloroplast genome can be more informative in some ways than the complete nuclear genome, and easier to analyze than plant mitochondrial DNA," said Brent Mishler, professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Jepson and University Herbaria. (berkeley.edu)
  • Both chloroplasts and mitochondria originated more than a billion years ago, when bacteria colonized early single-celled organisms, establishing a symbiotic relationship that has allowed plant cells to get energy from sunlight and both plant and animal cells to produce energy efficiently. (berkeley.edu)
  • however, plant DNA is exposed to the harmful effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) in the process. (elsevier.com)
  • To date, the CPD repair processes in plant chloroplasts and mitochondria remain poorly understood. (elsevier.com)
  • RNA editing by C-to-U conversions is nearly omnipresent in land plant chloroplasts and mitochondria, where it mainly serves to reconstitute conserved codon identities in the organelle mRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physical and gene map of the green alga Nephroselmis chloroplast genome, showing the typical structural arrangement found in land plants. (tolweb.org)
  • For example, 5′ ends are often formed by endonucleolytic processing of primary transcripts, and this may be the exclusive mode of 5′ end formation in chloroplasts in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (reviewed in reference 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Even though chloroplasts contain an elaborate transcriptional machinery capable of regulatory control, the principal mode of gene regulation in chloroplasts has long been considered to be post-transcriptional [ 17 , 18 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The spinach chloroplast genome is comprised of a covalently closed. (pdx.edu)
  • Spinach chloroplast DNA was isolated from crude 2 chloroplast preparations by a new method. (pdx.edu)
  • EMDB-1417: Cryo-EM study of the Spinach chloroplast ribosome reveals the str. (pdbj.org)
  • The evidence for this theory shows that it is highly possible that chloroplasts and mitochondria were primitive bacterial cells at one time. (reference.com)
  • It's no surprise that mitochondria and chloroplast have a double membrane because their ancestral bacterial cells also had double membranes. (blogspot.com)
  • The uniparental inheritance of chloroplast ( cp ) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA (cytoplasmic inheritance) was also impaired. (plantcell.org)
  • Simultaneous irradiation with red light enhanced the blue light-induced chloroplast accumulation movement, possibly by increasing cytoplasmic motility ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • 18 ] we analysed in more detail the chloroplast DNA diversity in Italy and particularly in Sicily. (paperity.org)
  • Cheng Y, Vicente Md, Meng H, Guo W, Tao N, Deng X. A set of primers for analyzing chloroplast DNA diversity in Citrus and related genera. (citrusgenomedb.org)
  • PCR was carried out in a total volume of 10 ml containing 1× PCR buffer (10 m m Tris-HCl, 1.5 m m MgCl 2 , 50 m m KCl, pH 8.3), 200 m m dNTPs, 10 pmol 32 P end-labeled forward primer, 10 pmol reverse primer, 0.1 units Taq polymerase (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis), and 50 ng genomic DNA. (genetics.org)
  • Since the vast majority of chloroplast mRNAs acquire their 3′ termini by processing yet are not polyadenylated, we asked whether 3′ end maturation plays a role in chloroplast translation. (asm.org)
  • Photosynthesis actually occurs in a highly specialized 'thylakoid' membrane system in the chloroplast. (eurekalert.org)
  • The chloroplast is contained by an envelope that consists of an inner and an outer phospholipid membrane. (bionity.com)
  • A chloroplast has two membranes, separated by a thin inter-membrane space. (prezi.com)
  • Paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA and maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in loblolly pine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Paternal Inheritance of Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA in Interspecific Hybrids of Chamaecyparis spp. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Scientists have attempted to observe chloroplast replication via electron microscopy since the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • colourized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a portion of a fully dispersed chloroplast molecule showing typical DNA conformations. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Interference of electron transport inhibitors with desaturation of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol in intact chloroplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of electron transport inhibitors on chloroplast lipid-linked desaturation were therefore investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Uzilday, B., R. Ozgur, A. H. Sekmen, E. Yildiztugay and I. Turkan (2015) Changes in the alternative electron sinks and antioxidant defence in chloroplasts of the extreme halophyte Eutrema parvulum (Thellungiella parvula) under salinity. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed interaction of CSK with sigma factor 1 (SIG1) of chloroplast RNA polymerase. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It's simply not true that the double membranes of bacteria and chloroplasts were the result of endocytosis. (blogspot.com)
  • In green plants, chloroplasts are surrounded by two lipid-bilayer membranes . (bionity.com)
  • [12] Like chloroplasts, they have thylakoids within. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, phylogenetic analysis of DNA data showed that Clerodendrum, as then understood, was polyphyletic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter is suggested from the 189 bases which have been sequenced from the 2.4-kilobase pair rDNA spacer from maize chloroplasts 14 . (nature.com)